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Legal open data and documents: from legislative text to Linked Data Prof. Monica Palmirani – CIRSFID monica.palmirani@unibo.it

6 November 2013, Tilburg University, TILT C.I.R.S.F.I.D Alma Mater Studiorum UniversitĂ  di Bologna Research Centre of History of Law, Philosophy and Sociology of Law, Computer Science and Law


Goal and Outline 

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Which relation between Open Legal Document and Legal Open Data? Is the “document” a old concept? Legal Open Data is enough for legal reasoning? Open Legal document – legal document modelling in Akoma Ntoso Open data and open government data Linked Opend Data – LOD LegalRuleML for legal reasoning Conclusions


LEGAL KNOWLEDGE MODELLING  

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Interdisciplinary group 10 people from legal, technical and economical background ICT Legal Sources Modelling  modelling legal resources with legal XML and Semantic Web standards  legal information systems using XML technologies & NLP  e-Legislation, e-Parliament and e-Participation for modelling document management flow  legal ontologies and reasoning  legal rules modelling of law and judgment for legal reasoning with non-monotonic and nondeductive logic. e-Government and e-Justice e-Content; high-resolution images of rare law books from the 10th, 12th, and 13th centuries


Legal XML and Semantic Web 

Africa   

Latin America  

Guidelines for Legislative Drafting for Pan-African Parliament AKOMA NTOSO Parliament XML standard – United Nations Kenya and South Africa

Senate of Uruguay for modelling bill lifecycle in XML IABD Interamerican Bank for Development: Legal XML for all the Latin American Parliaments

USA 

LegalXML – OASIS  

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eCourt filing standard for courts Transformational Government Framework

Stanford University – Open Gov Initiative

CH Federal Chancellery of Switzerland for managing the publication of the official collection in XML Official Gazzette of Italy – XML and Semantic web annotation Senate of Italy, Chamber of Deputies, Supreme Court of Cassation


Use of XML in the Parliament ď€ ď€

Form the World e-Parliament Report 2012 43% declared to use XML in Parliament for bill and 35% declared to have the intention to use it in future


XML for other Parliamentary Docs


Why use XML in Parliament 

The focus still on the web publication rather than on the legislative process, interoperability, cooperation, transparency Open issues:   

Legal validity Preservation Legal Knowledge


Legal XML standards in the world 1997  1999  2001  2002

2003  2003  2004  2006 

2008  2008  2009 

EnAct - Tasmania, Australia, New Zealand e Canada 2013 FORMEX data model - EUR-LEX NormeinRete – Italy MetaLex and SDU BWB - Netherland LexDania – Denmark eLaw - Austria CHLexML - Swiss AKOMA NTOSO - United Nations for PanAfrican Parliaments Crown XML Schema for Legislation - United Kingdom Chile XML House of Representatives 2009


Akoma Ntoso design characteristics Document oriented – not data oriented

Self-contained Descriptive Independent Separation of levels – persistence Prescriptive content, metadata, presentation

Ontology-oriented

Workflow-oriented – to describe the steps of the legislative process


Akoma Ntoso principles

Accursio Accursio Magna Glossa Glossa Magna XI XI Corpus iuris iuris Corpus civilis civilis CODEX CODEX the best best the markup markup Original text

annotation


Current scenario Each body has a different XML standard

Data are locked Interoperability


Open Legal Document for transparent and effective legislative process


Open data: new paradigm


New Paradigm - 2009 

Raw Data, Unlocked, Shared

Does make sense to have legal raw data?


Obama’s Open Gov Initiative 2009

“an unprecedented unprecedented level level of of openness openness in in government” government” “an “the public public trust trust and and establish establish aa system system of of transparency, transparency, “the public participation, participation, and and collaboration.” collaboration.” public


Open Governement data is a New Paradigm      

New approach for the democracy and transparency New culture on data in the public administration New market in private sector Technology issues – Semantic Web and Rules Legal issues Economic ecosystem


New paradigm for the open legal data


Extreme use of open government data Critical quesitons: set – from US -Validity- Integrity -Reproduction -Preservation

2 1

3

4

From the dataset to the document


Characteristics of Open Data 

Open format:  CSV, JSON, XML, HTML, RDF Open licence:  reuse, redistribution, derivation of new works, for commercial purposes, just eventually the by  Creative commons Index-able: using the most important research engines e.g. google Personal data free and also quasi-identifiers: de-identification, de-anonymization Open dataset metadata (e.g. DCAT of the W3C or Dublin Core DCMI) Updated: the dataset should be updated periodically: right to oblivion, defamation, right to replicate Quality: the dataset must include correct and complete data


Linked Open Data quality: 5 stars


Legal Knowledge Shared Web of Document Legal Document

Semantic Web

Web of things

Web of data


Linked Data Network - today


From the metadata to the text SPARQL

SEMANTIC WEB

WEB1.0

RDF

HTML/XML Internet of Things


RDF concepts http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-primer/ 

It is a data model: a way for model relationship between data Data can model using triples <subject, predicate, object>   

Bob lives in Bologna Bob knows Alice John knows Bob

we can deduct:  John knows Alice  Alice lives in Bologna


Legal Open Data

http://www.legislation.gov.uk/developer/formats


Parliament Open Data

http://www.ictparliament.org/open-data-and-open-standards-in-parliaments


New data approach Data=Value&Vocabulary&Metadata&Se mantic Akoma Ntoso XML

RAW DATA - from Document Art. 13 - bla bla VOCABULARY SEMANTIC RULES

<article> privacy definition

Akoma Ntoso XML-Schema ontology

penality in case of violation LegalRuleML

data+value+vocabulary for for the the reuse reuse data+value+vocabulary


Legal Document, Legal Rules, Legal Open Data Legal document in XML

Legal Ontology

Annotation Crowd-sourcing Citizen participation Market applications Civic media

Linked Open Data

Logic Rules ENGINE proof


Example US Code Title 17, Chap. 1, Section 101 URL-USC_sec_17_00000101-----000.html USC_sec_17_00000101-----000.html URL101.Definitions Definitions §§101.

<SECTION> 101.Definitions Definitions <SECTNO> §§101.

Exceptas asotherwise otherwise Except providedin inthis thistitle, title,as as provided usedin inthis thistitle, title,the the used followingterms termsand andtheir their following variantforms formsmean meanthe the variant following: following: An“anonymous “anonymouswork” work”isisaa An workon onthe thecopies copiesor or work phonorecordsof ofwhich whichno no phonorecords naturalperson personisis natural identifiedas asauthor. author. identified

</SECTNO>

<p> Except

asotherwise otherwise Except as providedin inthis thistitle, title,as as provided Metadata usedin inthis thistitle, title,the the used qualification: following terms andtheir their following terms and definition variantforms formsmean meanthe the variant following: </p> following: An“anonymous “anonymouswork” work”isisaa <p> An workon onthe thecopies copiesor or work phonorecordsof ofwhich whichno no phonorecords naturalperson personisis natural identifiedas asauthor. author. </p> identified

Rule: IF X has not an author THEN it is a anonymous work

Class </SECTION> of the legal concept of anonymous work


LegalRulML 2013 Digital Millennium Copyright Act Digital Millennium Copyright Act NEW VERSION

Metadata of Context <lrml:Rulekey="rule1"> key="rule1"> <lrml:Rule <lrml:if>...</lrml:if> ...</lrml:if> <lrml:if> …. …. <lrml:then>...</lrml:then> </lrml:then> <lrml:then>... </lrml:Rule>... </lrml:Rule>...

Rules as interpretation of the text

Metadata of Context Metadata of Context Metadata of Context

<lrml:Rulekey="rule2-v1"> key="rule2-v1"> <lrml:Rule <lrml:if>...</lrml:if> ...</lrml:if> <lrml:if> …. …. <lrml:then>...</lrml:then> </lrml:then> <lrml:then>... </lrml:Rule>... </lrml:Rule>...

Metadata of Context T2 <lrml:Rulekey="rule2-v2"> key="rule2-v2"> <lrml:Rule <lrml:if>...</lrml:if> ...</lrml:if> <lrml:if> …. …. <lrml:then>...</lrml:then> </lrml:then> <lrml:then>... </lrml:Rule>... </lrml:Rule>...


Conclusions  

Legal Open Documents ≠ Legal Open Data Legal Open Documents are important for fostering cooperation, coordination, monitoring of the legislative and democratic process (liquid democracy) Legal Open Data is a fundamental instrument for enriching Legal Open Documents and for permitting deliberative participation without affecting the legal validity of the original digital sources (crowd-sourcing, annotation, etc.) Legal XML standards are the necessary base for permitting a rapid circulation of the vocabulary, meaning, context regarding the legal document and data Legal Open MetaData standard is necessary for sharing semantic concepts

Linked open data is not enough for legal reasoning

LegalRuleML models legal rules for legal reasoning


References Legal Open Data and Documents  legislative.gov.uk  Senate of Italy Open Data  Chamber of Deputies of Italy Open Data  Senate of Brazil Open Data  Switzerland Federal Assembly Open Data  US Code Legal Open Data and Documents Cooperative Projects  AT4AM for all  Open Parliamento 

LegalLeaks

M5S party in Regione Lazio  http://edemocracia.camara.gov.br/  http://www.europarl.europa.eu/aboutparliament/en/00533cec74/Petitions.html  http://ec.europa.eu/yourvoice/  http://civic.mit.edu/ Legal XML Standards  US Challenges on Akoma Ntoso  Akoma Ntoso and LegalDocML TC-OASIS  LegalRuleML TC -OASIS 


Questions? Thanks for your attention. monica.palmirani@unibo.it


Palmirani em last jd nov 2013 open data