Measure the air quality with an integrated sensor in your car
APPS ON WHEELS Final report for the design research project: DPD41-Apps on Wheels Coach: Jackues Terken
Student: Tijmen van Gurp, s081936 Block: M1.2Date: June 18th 2013 Faculty of Industrial design, Eindhoven University of Technology
INT RODUCT ION A while ago I was on the bike towards the university, I had haste because I was already too late, with the speed I had I followed a buss quite closely for a while and I smelled the diesel fuels as I was biking right behind the exhaust pipe. I had to think about the module I had a week ago were we discussed the possibility of a car as measurement instrument that could sense what the air quality is. As I was bicycling the idea that this data is still â€œunknown made me wonder if I could realize such a device that would tell me what the air quality means for my health. In this report you can read about how we measure the air, and how I propose a new system of measurement that makes the data more accessible for people like me and you.
A CKNOWLEDG EM ENT S I would like to express my deepest appreciation to all those who provided me the possibility to complete this report. A special gratitude I give to my coach, Jacques Terken, who supported me through this research project and helped me making my decision by sharing his knowledge and expertise and help reflecti ng my own decisions. Furthermore I would like the thank Jean-Paul Close for his devotion and guidance during the process of this project and showing me the importance of my work. A special thanks goes to Tiziana Marciello who helped me during most of my process as a discussion partner and a constant reflection moment. And not to forget all my family friends and peer students who helped me getting new ideas, spreading the questionnaire, and giving feedback on my work when needed.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PM10 AND PM2.5: MEASUREMENT METHODS
ITE RATI O N 0
MODULE EXPLORING BUSINESS LANDSCAPES
ITE RATI O N 1
WHY MOBILE MEASUREMENT?
ITER ATION 2
CO CONSTRUCTING STORIES
WHAT IS AIR QUALITY?
WHAT IS CO CONSTRUCTING STORIES?
UNDERSTANDING AIR POLLUTANTS
ITER ATION 3
FIRST THOUGHTS ABOUT AIR QUALITY
HOW IS THIS POSSIBLE?
CONCLUSIE EXPERT MEETINGS
Bibliogra fie 46
AP ENDIX A
AP ENDIX B
WHAT DOES AIR QUALITY MEAN FOR YOUR HEALTH?
A IQ U W
e live in a world where everything is avail-
ture, I saw very few translations of what this data could
able everywhere. Radical transparency (Le-
mean, and how it should be brought to a broader public.
berecht, 2008) is in my opinion becoming
My goal of this research was to find the right way of
more and more important. Air quality is now something
displaying air quality data to the user so that it becomes
the government supplies through various measurement
understandable in different levels what the air means for
points that are static and donâ€™t give sufficient informa-
tion about the air quality, to really know what it means for our personal health. I propose a system that enables you to measure the air quality where ever you are. You are able to see your own hyper local data combined with the data of many others and the government as a reference. This system ex-
On the next pages you can see the
ist out of a sensor in your car and maybe in the future
final result, but to realy experience
even in your mobile phone, that measures the ultrafine
the inteded interactions I would
particles (UFP) in the air so that you can see what the
like to ask you to watch the folow-
air means for you and for others through an intelligent
application wherever you are.
Through the various literature I saw that there is definitely a future for mobile measurement, as it gives insights in your own health life, but through all this litera-
The application starts with the
When you have selected the city,
An important function is the op-
place you are at that moment. You
or persone you will a more de-
tion to look what the weather in-
see the an abstract representa-
tailed graph. With the options to
fluences are on the air quality. The
tion of the place . You have than
look further in the past or future.
app gives the possibility to open
the option to scroll through the
Tapping the graph willl give a pop-
an extra layer over the graph. No-
different places, open de menu
up with more detailed information
table relations will be put on the
or ask for more information of tha
of the day and measured value.
screen as an extra layer.
Here the options are proviced to look for the weather Influences, a map view, history of a place and sharing. In this way there are in total 3 layers of information, abstract, overview, and in depth.
You will always have the op-
One of these functions is to
tion to open the menu with all
see your last driven routs. you
should be visaly available on
the functions in one overview.
get an overview of the last
the map. You will have the
routes with an indication of
option to zoom in and see in
the amount of pollution. You
detailed what you have mea-
will have the option to open
these routes and explore in depth what your mesurements are.
In this screen it might also be possible to see routes of other people to compare your measurements, or see the combined result. Certain hotspots can be discoverd, and action can be taken acordingly.
What exactly does it mean for
Only a scale might not be enough at
Once you know more about the health
your health? The
a certain point. The app should pro-
effects you might wonder what we
provide an indication of what the
vide in depth information about what
can do about it. I propose an open
scales mean for your health. Also
we know about air pollution and the
platform where people can suggest
here there is the possibility to get
health risks. This should be has infor-
ideas about how to help for a cleaner
some extra information.
mative as possible.
Extra information about why
For the people who like to
The app also has options to
certain actions are good will
have an overview the map of
save measured data or share
the netherlands will be pro-
it to friends and family.
Module: Exploring business Landscapes Client: Toyota
OVER VIEW P R OCESS This semester there were 8 full-time weeks to work on the future of the car. In the future, cars become much more than a simple extension of our legs. Cars become personal cocoons that provide us with comfortable living
How do we measure now?
Litarature Research Existing systems
Situation Air quality World, Eu NL, NL
space, give us protection and shelter, they become adaptable to our needs and will do far more than only drive us around. The first 2 weeks were spend on defining the scope and research direction of this project. The basis was already made in the module that I had in the beginning of this semester.
Movie: Summary Research Concept
In the first iteration I focused on learning as much as possible about air
quality. What is the current situation in the world, how do we measure it now? Next to this I did an exploration if it would be possible to measure mobile. During this research I noticed that there is a lot going on in the world around this topic. I decided, for myself and to show to others, to
Co-Constructing Stories Expert meeting Derya Özçelik
summarize the results of what I had found in a short movie about air quality.
Research Sensor VITO: Aireas: ECN: NXP: MicroPem: ISPEX: Air quality Egg: Labocitoyen: Researcher Philips:
Jan Theunissen Jean-Paul Close René Otjes Alicia Sanchez Crespo Charles Rodes, Juana Maria Frans Snik Hans Crijns Gabriel Dulac-Arnold Annemarije Andriga
In the second iteration I used parts of the movie to connect to others in co-constructing story sessions, interviews, and expert meetings. I also explored if it would be possible to measure mobile myself, I decided that it was better to invest my knowledge in developing the final concept further, as it is still quite difficult to set up a good mobile measurement device. In the final iteration I took the results of the Co-constructing stories ses-
sions and build a questionnaire around the new found insights so that I could make my final design decisions based upon what functions people found most important. Of course I also used my own intuition to make the final interaction in graphical user interface design. More iterations are
needed to see if people understand it and if it fits their needs.
I T ERATION 0 MODULE EXPLORING BUSINESS LANDSCAPES
The basis for this project, Apps on wheels, was found in the module Exploring business landscapes with the client Toyota. The basis for the concept was found in this module. We saw the car as an organism in an ecosystem that provides information about its surrounding. I believe in a future were all cars are interlinked and connected to each other, helping us to get from A to B, live healthy and helps us to connect to other people. As air quality becomes more and more evident to be an important factor in our health and the car is one of the factors that causes pollution, I believe the car should measure its surroundings and adapt to it. The car becomes a tool that helps us understand the air quality better so that we can react and act upon it efficiently.
I T ERATION 1 IN TR O D U C T I O N
n the first iteration I focused on learning as much as possible about air quality. What is the current situation in the world, how do we measure it now? Next
to this, I explored if it would be possible to measure mobile. During this research I noticed that there is a lot going on in the world around this topic. I decided for myself, and to show to others, to summarize the results of what I had found in a short movie about air quality.
Keywords: what is air quality, how can we measure it, is
other in certain terms, but in terms of health effect the
mobile measurement something that is needed?
fine particles (PM2.5) are the most discernible.
WHAT IS A IR QUA LITY? According to BC Air quality (What is Air Quality?, sd), the term “air quality” means: the state of the air around us. Most places nowadays measure multiple particles in the air, these are sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), (particulate matter), Ozone and CO. They are all related to each
The US EPA-mandated PM2.5 pollution index shows us the following scale (Milward, 2011). The values you see are in micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m³). The Worlds health organization sees a yearly average of PM2.5 under the 25µg/m³ as a healthy level. (WHO, 2011)
U N D ERS TAND I N G A I R P O L L UTA NT S Fine particle matter is one of the pollutants in the air, these have sources that are both natural and humanbased. Fine dust is also caused by salt, sand and vari-
cated that there is a statistically significant relationship
was higher with PM2.5 than with PM10 (Schwartz J,
between atmospheric particle matter and admissions to
1996). These fine particles are believed to pose the
hospitals for respiratory tract infections and mortalities
greatest health risks, because of their small size (ap-
(Lipfert F.W., 1995).
proximately 1/30th the average width of a human hair). These particles can go deep into the lungs and even the
ous other substances, but nowadays humans contrib-
There are 2 different sizes of particles that are measured
ute substantially more to the air pollution problem by
PM10, and PM2.5. The coarser particles (between 2,5
burning fossil fuels in automobiles, homes, industries,
and 10 micrometer) mainly exist out of particles that have
and agriculture (Yelda Aydin T端rk, 2011). These particles
their origin in mechanical processes and windblown soil
effect human health negatively, people that suffer these
dust. The finer particles (<2,5 micrometer) mainly exist
effects mainly live in big cities (K. H. Kilburn, 1992). Epi-
out of particles that have their origin from burning fu-
demiological and toxicological research that focused
els in combustion engines (E. Buijsman, januari 2013). A
on the role of the ultrafine particles (PM2.5) have indi-
study has indicated that the association with mortality
blood stream (Kaiser, 2005).
The ultrafine particles are floating around in the air and are greatly influenced by the weather. The wind sometimes puts a layer of Sahara sand on cars in northern Europe, transporting it for more than 2000 kilometers. The same thing happens with fine particles and ultrafine particles. On a bit smaller scale, the geographical location of a city also influences the amount of air pollution. The air can be trapped if the city is surrounded by mountains or because of an effect that is called an urban heat island.
Urban heat Island 14
On an even smaller scale, a busy road with buildings at both sides or an open road with grassland will have completely different values. Also the amount of traffic on a certain place and the amount of accelerating has a lot of influence on the measured values. On high pressure weather systems, when the air is inactive for multiple days the amount of particles in the air can build up(Marcelina Arkouli, 2010). A heavy rain can also clean the air and wash everything away (Giri D., 2008). Monthly mean PAH concentrations on PM2.5 and ambient temperature in 2005 and 2006/2007.
WH EN D I D WE STA RT M E A S URING ? Air pollution is something that we really started taking into account when we started burning coals to heat our houses in big cities. In 1952 London had to camp with a lot of smog due to cold weather and windless period
A sketch of a normal weather pattern (left), and an abnormal weather pattern demonstrating inversion (Encyclo-
(Stegeman John J., 2002). This initiated the clean air act
pedia of World Geography).
of 1956 (1956: Thick fog causes death on roads, sd). It was until the 1970â€™s that we started to monitor the air quality more sub sequential.
R ESEAR CH QUESTIONS These Research goals
hese Research goals were formulated for the
have an opinion about if it is good or bad, based upon
would exist with data about the air quality: how should
midterm presentation together with the gained
what they have experienced or seen in the news. One
this be visualized?
knowledge of my literature research. Shortly
research paper also indicated that higher educated
afterwards I reflected upon these research opportuni-
people are more aware of the state of air quality than
ties, and picked one out.
low educated people (SIGIT SUDARMADI, 2001). As
Does real-time, local data about air pollution make people more aware towards their environment? This question was my main research question in the beginning, but it was too vague to continue. Questions
the question stays interesting I will try to intertwine this through my research, but it will not be my main focus. Another objective is to find out if people are willing to change their behavior if they have more awareness about air quality.
The more needed information was: how would such an information providing system would work, in terms of presentation of air quality information? In my personal opinion I believe that most sources that provide information about air quality are not substantial enough. The information is too limited, or presented in such a way that a broader public doesn’t know
came up like, what is awareness and how do you mea-
My hypothesis is that people that are more aware
what to do with it. Information should be into context,
sure it? Initially my plan was to see if the video I made
about bad air quality, become more motivated to do
multilayered and interlinked to generate new insights
could change people’s behavior or awareness on the
something about it. But they will see it as a too vague
about what the air quality actually means.
topic air quality. This was too much into the direction
problem and something the government should solve
of social psychology and understanding awareness in-
for them. I believe the small steps that they can take
stead of gaining knowledge that had a designedly pur-
to make a change should be magnified so that the
pose. I don’t want to be the person that is going to tell
positive results we become clearer. For example, the
everyone the air is bad, I want people to get curious to
amount of PM2.5 that I will not emit if I take the train for
learn more about the air quality if they change behavior
a yearlong instead of the car.
for the better that is their own decision, as a designer I can support that, but not force it.
A design question what than arises is: how should the data about air quality be visualized
One objective is to find out what the current
and communicated, in such a way that it is inter-
knowledge is about air quality.
esting for everybody?
This question arose out of a personal interest. My hy-
In the end this is the question that I decided to work
pothesis is that most people in the Netherlands have
out further. Therefore I needed to know what the gen-
no clue about what the air quality is. They probably will
eral connection towards air quality is and if a system
FIRST THOUGHTS ABOUT AIR QUALITY IN TR O D U C T I O N After I had gained a better understanding about what air quality is, I wanted to know more about the situation in the world, the EU and the Netherlands. I looked at what the world health organization had to say about it, the political games around it and, not unimportant, how bad is the air quality actually?
S ITUATI O N W O R L D
ir pollution, particularly in cities, is certainly not a new problem. Back in the middle Ages the use of coal in cities such as London was begin-
ning to escalate. The problems of poor urban air quality, even as early as the end of the 16thcentury are well documented. (History of Air Pollution, sd) Sins 2000 the amount of deaths caused by air pollution has increased with 300%. For the first time in history air pollution is on the top 10 list of killers! Meaning that there are more people dying because of bad air than
from traffic accidents. (Latest finding listing air pollution
When it is realized that the health of 1.6 billion people
as one of top 10 killers in the world shocking, says CSE,
may be at risk from poor urban air quality, it becomes
2012)According to the medical journal Lancet (H. Wang,
clear that the issue ranks alongside such international
2012) in 2010 there were 3.200.000 million people who
problems as acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion
died prematurely, 65 % of these dead’s were in growing
and even global warming (Elsom, 1996).
economies in Asia. 1.2 million Deaths in China which is nearly 40% of the total amount. 712.000 deaths in south Asia (including India), Europe and Russia: 400.000.
opment, based in Paris, warned that “urban air pollution is set to become the top environmental cause of mor-
Outdoor air pollution is ranked fourth in the mortality
tality worldwide by 2050, ahead of dirty water and lack
and health burden in East Asia where it contributed to
of sanitation.” It estimated that up to 3.6 million people
1.2 million deaths in 2010 and sixth in South Asia where
could end up dying prematurely from air pollution each
it contributed to 712,000 deaths in 2010 (H. Wang, 2012).
year, mostly in China and India (Development, 2012).
(WONG, 2013) 18
The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Devel-
H O W I S TH I S P O SSI B L E ?
SIT UAT ION EU
Looking at where the air quality is the worst, now it is
Since the early 1970s, the EU has been working to im-
Compared to Asian countries the air quality in the EU is
clear that mainly in Asia we currently have situations
prove air quality by controlling emissions of harmful
already very good, but we should not forget that in year-
that in Europe are already long gone. Due to the eco-
substances into the atmosphere, improving fuel qual-
ly averages over multiple measurement stations, can be
nomic growth in many nations in Asia there is big in-
ity and by integrating environmental protection require-
lower than on street level measurements in big cities.
crease of motorized vehicles and coal burning power
ments into the transport and energy sectors.
plants. Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10 (Fenger, 1999). The byproduct are the smoggy smelly skies above cities like Bejing, New Dehli and Jakarta (Walsh, 2012). Regulations for coal burning and diesel filters need to
In 2008 the directive was written on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe, herein is stated that for the year 2020 the 3 year average of PM2,5 should be below 18 Îźg/m3, and for the 3 year average in 2015, this should be 20 Îźg/m3 (Official Journal of the European Union, 2008).
be applied to be able to reduce this growing problem, as the growth has not yet become to an end and even more people will get a car.
S ITUATI O N N L
fter having seen the comparison between the
Although new cars will have these norms, there are still
world and the EU, I was already quite satisfied
a lot of old diesel cars imported out of Germany where
about the air quality and I wanted to know: how
cleaner cars also mean reduction on the toll roads (Maut
do we measure in the Netherlands? What is the trend of the air quality over multiple years? How are we in comparison to the rest of EU? For how much are we, ourselves, responsible for the air quality and what about our neighbor countries?
of tol in Europa, 2012), (ANP, 2012). Overruns of the European norms still exist next to busy roads an in big cities. On places where measuring is not possible, calculation models are used. These models are not as accurate as the measurement stations. This
In the Netherlands the most important sources for hu-
can give a distorted picture of the reality (GROEN, 2013)
man created fine dust are: traffic (40%), industry (23%)
(Wat is fijnstof?, sd).
and agriculture (20%). At least 45% of the fine dust in
I started looking at the data from RIVM and saw that
On most places it is unknown what the air quality is, but
we are only measuring pm10 levels and not yet pm2.5
the air quality is estimated by calculation models. There
although this is already quite long known as the most
have been a lot of discussions about the models and
important factor to measure (De meetdata van fijn stof
for most it is not clear how the estimates of quality are
Since we started measuring we have also increased the
(PM10) vanaf 1992 tot en met 2012 , 2013). I decided to
made. Calculation models not always take into account
norms in the emission standards for patrol cars, power
combine all the data from all the 63 measurement sta-
that there can be a flat or school next to a busy road,
plants and other industries.
tions and I plotted this data with a moving average and
there are just too many variables. If 80 kilometers or 100
a linear trend line to see what the Air quality is doing
kilometers per hour is needed to improve the air quality
over the last 10 years. This information has to be seen
stays uncertain, because the direct effect of these mea-
with a birdâ€™s eye view, than it means that in general the
sures is not visible (Redactie, 2013).
the Netherlands is inflicted by humans and only a third of this has its origin in the Netherlands itself, the rest is from abroad (E. Buijsman, januari 2013).
air is getting better. But what about all the places where we are not yet measuring?
Runnin g a v e r a g e wi t h d ata f ro m 6 2 meas urement s tations of P M10 in the Ne the rla nds ove r 1992 - 2012
W H AT D O E S A I R Q U A L I T Y M E A N F O R Y O U R H E A LT H ? INT RO D U C T I O N
ow you know the ins and outs of how and why we measure you might wonder what precisely the health effects are. Although there is little known what precisely the health effects
are, epidemiological research has indicated that there is a direct link between the amount of particles in the air and hospital emissions. The particles with the greater than PM2.5 and smaller than PM10 can reach the upper part of the human airways and lungs. The smaller particles penetrate more deeply into the lung and may reach the alveolar region. These fine particles only contribute slightly to the PM10 mass, but may be important from a health point of view. Although it has not yet been said what type of particles have a toxic effect and on what levels this toxicity exist, many studies in the 1990 have documented that an increase in particulate-matter is associated with an increased daily mortality and hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular disease (Thomas Kuhlbusch, 2004). PM is mainly discussed here, because it is a pollutant that effects people more than any other. Particulate Matter exists out of sulfates, nitrates, ammonia, sodium chloride, carbon, mineral dust and water. The problem of these particles are the biggest in developing countries, but even in the EU the average life expectancy is 8,6 months lower due to exposure to PM2.5 produced by human activities (WHO, 2011).
M EA SUREM ENT
METH O D S The precise measurement methods for measuring fine particles are still quite complex. They are based on the increasing mass of a filter and optical monitors, which can gauge the size of individual particles from signals scattered from a light beam and integrate this into a total volume of particles (NPL, 2010).
WHY MOBILE MEASUREMENT?
n the earlier sections of this report you could read
A study of Energy research Centre (ECN) has proven
about why we measure the air quality. Nowadays
that a moving measurement system to be a useful tool
governments only measure on fixed places and take
to measure the spatial variability of particle concentra-
sometimes a temporarily measurement. Mobile data collection allows for air pollutant concentrations to be obtained with a higher spatial distribution and density than is possible with stationary or passive monitors. Cut stationary monitors are inadequate in distribution to quantify the change of air quality on city street level (Matthew D. Adams, 2012). Although we know on a larger scale that air quality has health effects, with moving sensor a whole new level of social science would open. For example tracking asthma patients to see if they suffer more when the air quality is bad (CNN, 2010).
tions. It allows investigation in location specific characteristics that cannot be performed with multiple stationary monitoring sites. Their measurements show that the number of the concentration inside a city changes on a scale of hundred meters, these fluctuations correlate with the local traffic intensity and driving conditions. Their studies also indicated that 100 meters downwind from a busy road are exposed to 40% more particles than people living in urban background areas (E.P. Weijersa, 2004). 24
Particle number concentrations along the way from the urban agglomeration of Amsterdam to the marine area near Petten (averages over 500 m; CPC-measurements). A study done in Mol, Belgium indicated that the amount particles that you breathe in on the bicycle is significantly higher (more than 4 times higher), than the amount of air breathed in by a passenger in a car (Luc Int Pa-
nis, 2010). A similar study in the same city indicates the same results as ECN and shows that the air quality is significantly worse when motorized vehicles accelerate Sensor module CitiSenses
after for example a traffic light (P. Berghmansa, 2009). The same thing was noticed with the device named Citi-
The devices they used were around the 1000US$ to pro-
Sense, which was able to measure local concentrations
duce (Piero Zappi, 2012), (Celal Ziftci, 2012), (Demchak,
of ozone, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide. In a
test 30 people carried this device with them which allowed them to explore their neighborhoods and recognize bad places and moments on the day. One of the effects that it had was that people who had to wait long for the bus, or normally would take the bicycle, now took the car, because this was clearly better for their health.
lot steeper (Wat is fijnstof?, sd).
One way to measure is the method of Citisense, but they are not yet measuring the fine particles in the air. They correlate to each other, but not significant enough to know what the health effects are of the fine particles. Therefore an optical dust sensor needs to be integrated as well. This sensor will make the price of the sensor a 25
A study carried out by the National Institute for Health research in the UK (NHS) seven members of the public were given personal pollution monitors that measured black carbon. The cumulative exposure of the black carbon was compared between these members. In these measurements there are clear characteristics visible in the time spend outside (Brannon, 2012).
CONCLUSION Air quality is mainly measured by the a higher resolution map. Only in this way amount of pm2.5 in the air. The higher we can learn what the air quality means for the concentration the worse it is for your health. A healthy level of this substance should be below 25Âľg/mÂł according to the world health organization. In many places these values are not yet met and even in places where in yearly averages the value might reach this level there will always be moments and places that have higher values.
our health. A wide variety of these sensors are already available, further research is needed to see which combination of sensors gives the most reliable results. The translation of this data into a multipurpose application that is understandable for everyone is now the challenge to develop further.
A system of multiple sensors connected to moving vehicles is needed to generate
FIRST ITERATION IDEATION: CONCEPTS Although the basis for the final concept was already there through the form changing aspects of the car. Possibly shortly want to discuss some future visions/concepts on
this car could also filter the air responsively by moving its
the future of cars.
scales up and thereby also redirecting the airflow through
This car designed by Anne Fisher of Pforzheim University was one of the ideas I had in terms of the future car showing what the air quality is. The public that would see this car would be able to see when the air is clean or dirty
filters. Other ideas that I had were more app based, which I developed into a scenario movie. Next to a scenario I also summarized my research in a movie so that for the future I had something visual to get into contact with experts.
One of the ideas was to make a visualization inside the
After you have driven a route you could see your own
car, on the dashboard, steering wheel or display that
measurements on the map, and zoom in on the data.
would subtly indicate what the weather is outside.
This data is than visualized with some extra info of the
Other information channels should be linked to the app
place, giving you insights in the past days or weeks of
so that particular bad or good situations can be ex-
that specific place. So that you can see how your mea-
plained in terms of causes of the air quality. For exam-
surements relate to the measurements of others.
ple, when there are a lot of diesel trucks in the rush hour, this might have effect on the air quality for that place. Also the weather influences the air quality greatly and should be connected to the app.
R EFLECTION P OINT While discussing my ideas with
menting some sensors in cars, but
others, I received questions about I believe it can greatly influence why measure with a car? Is it not our awareness of our surrounding promoting something green while
and let us make conscious deci-
you are actually polluting the
sions for our future.
world? Why not in your smartphone or on the bike if you are actually outside?
I also received some feedback that I actually was not so much further in terms of concept in relation to
When telling people that the air is bad, the app should
I see the car as a logical carrier the results of the module. I decided
also give clear information about possibilities to reduce
for the sensor, as it has everything
the amount of pollution.
already on board power the sen- now and needed to start exploring
that I had enough information for
sor, collect and process the data possibilities in terms of concept and also share the data. The extra and realization. costs for the sensor could be paid by the car manufacturer as it only will be a fraction of the total assembly costs and could give new meaning to the car. I donâ€™t think we will solve the air pollution problem by just imple-
I TERATION 2 IN TR O D U C T I O N After this literature research I was a bit stuck in how to
MY SETUP The session was started with a short introduction into
continue. The question was what to do with this new
Co constructing stories is a participatory design tech-
my research. With a warm welcome and a word of grati-
gained knowledge. I did not had to prove anymore that
nique for early, formative concept evaluations to elicit
tude they were asked if they had thought about the air
mobile measurement is indeed needed to complement
in-depth user feedback and suggestions, revealing at-
for the past six months and if this was the case about
the static measurement stations. And that mobile mea-
titudes and motivations of users (Derya Ozcelik Busk-
what. If not, the subjects were asked if they recognized
surements can give you more insights into your own
ermolen, 2012). The process exists out of 2 phases: in
some situations or stories from the news. I asked for
environment. At this stage I noticed that the research
the first face the user gets introduced into the context
situations if they had experienced the air as particularly
questions I had stated in the beginning of this semester
in the sensitizing phase, the stage is set for a dialogue
good as well as bad. After 15 minutes I proposed them
were too vague and I had to redefine my goals and di-
about the users past experiences. Then an envisioned
the situation that you could see wherever you are what
rection. In this section of the report you can read about
future is presented with new possibilities, perspectives
the air quality would be and how this would look like in
this in particular.
and insights are shared.
terms of interface/ system. I let this completely open,
C O C O N S TR U C T I N G ST O R I E S
To get more ideas from users about how such an appli-
but if it was unclear I stepped in to give some suggestions. For full detail setup look in appendix A.
cation should look like I decided to use the method coconstructive stories. I had thought about other methods like a diary study or concept mapping sessions, but my ideas and questions were still too vague to be able to set something up.
CONCLUSION: The Co-constructing story sessions were very helpful to shed new light on the ideas I had. New directions came up like comparing different places, different layers of information (abstract to more concrete), weather influences and the possibility to follow someone else.
“ “ “ “ “ “ “ My f a t he r always closes th e win d ows of th e car in a t unnel, th is is som eth in g m y car sh ou ld d o a ut o ma t ic ally if th e air su rrou n d in g me is b ad .”
“I n i ti a l l y I wo u l d l i ke to s e e th e d a ta vi s u a l i ze d i n a n a b s tra ct wa y wi th co l o rs o n a m a p . I ca n d e ci d e m ys e l f h o w m y ro u te wi l l b e . ”
‘ ’ I no t ic e t ha t I a lways take th e same rou te to my w o rk , I so me t ime s th in k if an oth er rou te wou ld be be t t e r. ’’
“I wo u l d l i ke to h a ve a vi s u a l i za ti o n l i ke a d e a d b i rd i f th e a i r i s b a d , s o m e th i n g th a t vi s u a l i ze s wh a t yo u r l i fe e xp e cta n cy i s , a n d wh a t i t m e a n s fo r yo u r h e a l th . ”
“ I w o uld like to b e ab le to see th e air q u ality in
c o nt e xt with som eth in g like g oog le g lass or an indic a t ion on a lam p p ost.”
“T h e m o s t i n te re s ti n g a s p e ct I th i n k wi l l b e th a t yo u co u l d m e a s u re to g e th e r, I wo u l d l i ke to kn o w wh o a n d wh e re o th e r p e o p l e a re m e a s u ri n g . ”
“ ““ “ “ “ “ “
“I wo u l d l i ke to b e a b l e to s e e a co m p a ri s o n
“ Mo st o f t he t ime yo u will h ave th e sam e rou te,
b e twe e n p l a ce s wh e re I h a ve b i n e i n m y o wn
so f ro m t his ro ut e I w ou ld like to kn ow wh at th e
co u n tr y. F o r e xa m p l e R o tte rd a m vs . E i n d h o ve n . ”
a ir qua lit y is. ”
“I n otice th a t th e a i r i s b a d wh e n I co m e b a ck from a p la ce wh e re th e a i r wa s re a l l y cl e a n l i ke in th e mou n ta i n s . ”
“ A c o mpa riso n be t ween d ifferen t cities is m ayb e so me t hing t ha t I w ou ld like with in th e ap p , th an
“F o r m e a m a p l i ke a we a th e r m a p wi l l b e e n o u g h ,
yo u ge t a bit o f c om p etition , b u t th at it sh ou ld
I kn o w wh e re e ve r yb o d y l i ve s , I ca n s e e h o w i t
be c le a r w ha t t he factors are th at h ave an in flu -
i s th e re . I f p o s s i b l e I wo u l d l i ke to s e e th e a i r
e nc e . ”
q u a l i ty wi th g o o g l e s tre e t vi e w. ”
“ I w o u ld like to b e ab le to com p are my d ata with
t he data of m y fath er in Ch in a. Ju st p u rely for my o wn awaren ess, I d on ’t n eed an y scien tific
“M y n a vi g a ti o n s h o u l d g i ve s u g g e s ti o n wh e re to
gibbe rish .”
d ri ve , i t wi l l g i ve a n a l e rt i f i t i s p o s s i b l e to a vo i d a d i rty s p o t. ”
“Peop le wh o live in a clean g reen vi l l a g e n o w h ave a way to say som eth in g g ood a b o u t th e i r p lace.”
“ “ “
“ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ I w o uld lik e t o k no w how I can con trib u te to a be t t e r e nviro nme nt , f o r examp le ch an g e th e way ho w I drive . ”
I d o n ’ t re a l l y n o ti ce th a t i f th e a i r i s b a d , s o m eti m e s s h o rtl y wh e n I s m e l l s o m e th i n g b u t m o s t o f th e ti m e th i s i s g o n e i m m e d i a te l y.
“ I no t ic e w he n t he a ir is b ad wh en th ere is a
“T h e o n l y m o m e n t th a t I ca n i m a g i n e th a t I re a l l y
2ta c t mo pe d in f ro nt o f me, I can smell th e fu els
wa n t to kn o w m o re a b o u t i t i s wh e n I wo u l d b u y
e ve n if it is 4 0 0 me t e rs in fron t of me.”
a new house.”
“ It sho uld sho w t he c o nn ection b etween th e win d
‘ ’ W h e n I h a ve b e e n i n H a a rl e m I n o ti ce th e a i r
spe e ds a nd w ind dire c t ion s an d th e air q u ality.”
h e re i n Oo s te rb e e k i s m u ch cl e a n e r. ’’
“In forests it is alway s cl e a n e r ri g h t? Tre e s fi l te r th e air? An yway, I w o u l d l i ke to kn o w i f th i s i s tru e or n ot. “
IT E RATION 3 INT RO D U C T I O N This iteration I focused on validating the possibilities of
After that there was asked to imagine an application
the air quality app that I wanted to develop. I did this
and think about how this should look like. Directly after
through a questionnaire that was spread under 27 peo-
this, there was an open question with the question if an
ple. Not the highest number to say something signifi-
image of an existing application corresponded to their
cantly, but enough to help me in my design process and
give new insights and directions for further validation and exploration. This iteration had as result the design for the app AIQU and recommendations for future development of a mobile air quality device.
QUE S TI O N NA I R E The questionnaire had as goal for me to find out what functions are important to integrate into the app. First I have asked some general questions about their Age, location of residence and highest finished education. After this, I asked them questions about how important clean air is for them and what they thought about the air quality in the Netherlands.
After this, there were questions about functionality of the application and there was the possibility to indicate how important this function was. To see the questionnaire go to: https://docs.google.com/forms/ d/1GeTssmPCLD1SkUZqd62AY2s_lg5vqFaKf6dwHqQGmHs/viewform
R ESU LTS In the limited time available, the number of people asked is quite limited. The results must be seen as a source
th in g ch an g es an d wh at th at ch a n g e re a l l y m e a n s . I n a
of inspiration and guidance for future studies. The fo-
sim p le an d clear way. Com m u n i ca te i t s o th a t th e i n fo r-
cus for me was to get guidance and inspiration in how
mation really can m ean som e th i n g fo r e ve r yo n e .
course, my own intuition and design rationale. Here are the most notable results of 27 people. If you want to see all the results look at appendix B Quotes from the open question: I w ou l d a l so l i k e to be a ble t o f ill in ro ut es from A to B in the ap p o v e r a ma p w it h c o lo rs. I w o uld like to h ave th e opt i on t o i n d i c a t e " impo rt a nt " pla c e s so I can see h ow th e
To learn more about it is possible to measure mobile I had several meetings, mails, phone calls with experts
to make the app. How the app is designed, is a direct translation of the findings of the questionnaire with, of
EX P ERT MEETINGS
on the subject air quality measuring. Here you will find a list of people, and their expertise.
I wou ld like th e p ossib ility t o ca l cu l a te yo u r o wn â€œfo o tp rin tâ€? on air p ollu tion in g en e ra l . F o r e xa m p l e o n th e amou n ts on flig h ts p er year, u s i n g o f wo o d s to ve , m a te ri a l con su mp tion etc. See ap p en d ix B for all th e res u l ts , o r co n ta ct m e p e rs o n-
Name: Alicia Sanchez Crespo Company: Tu/e Faculty Electrical Engineering Worked on: How to measure air quality with chip of NXP, stopped this because commercial sensors had become better, they claimed to be able to identification individual particles.
aly for th e E xcel file: tijm en va n g u rp @g m a i l . co m Explained me: The sensor I worked on is an optical dust sensor. The operation principle of these sensors is that they have a light source, infrared LED, and a photo
dev el o p m e n t i s i n t ha t pla c e . P la c e s suc h as h om e, work, s c hoo l c h i l d r e n .
detector. In absence of particles, the light doesn't reach the photo detector.
I wou l d l i k e t o b e a ble t o c lic k o n so me t hin g to g et extra i nf or m a t i o n . I i m a g i n e d d i f f e re nt le ve ls w hic h de mo n strate h ow m y GP S lo c a t i o n i s po llut e d a nd t he re by ho w b ad th e p olluti on i s i n c o m p a r iso n w it h he a lt hy st a ndard s. I t hi nk i t i s i m p o rt a nt t ha t yo u c o mmunic ate wh en som e-
“ What did 27 People think about the proposed ideas? ”
22 Agrees upon the fact that their measured data will be open source.
Would like to be in advance if the air quality would get bad.
27 Want to be able to “follow” the air quality data of other people
Want to be able to see history data of a place, as far back as possible.
21 Want to be able to see the connection between the weather and the air quality
26 Wants to know how the different levels of air quality has health.
24 Want to get tips about how to contribute to a cleaner air outside.
C O N C L U SI O N Although there were not that many users who filled in the questionnaire,
data when they want to. The system should have a certain intelligence,
I received some valuable new insights. Most functions I presented were
and give warnings when the air quality is getting worse.
accepted as valuable or important. Most importantly is that I found out people like the information presented in such a way that they can make sense of it themselves, without any extra information. The information should be presented in multiple layers, first an abstract vizualsation and after that the more complex data. Functions for sharing are important but
The app should also cover some extra functionality besides providing information about your measured air quality, the overall air quality, and the air quality in driven routes. The app should also cover the health risks, and information about what you could do about it.
most just want the data to be open, so that people are able to follow your
Name: Gabriel Dulac-Arnold
Name: Jan Theunis
Name: Hester Volten
Function: Project Manager
Company: RIVM - National Institute of Public Health
Current Job: PhD student at LIP6, part of UniversitĂŠ
Company: Environmental Risk and Health
Pierre et Marie Curie
Worked on: The Aeroflex: a bike for mobile air qual-
Worked on Gasser: an raspberry pi powered device
Explained me: Sensor technologies are still in de-
that could measure the air quality mobile. http://
velopment, donâ€™t expect too much of it. If you want
to sense gas like NO2 you need to measure nano-
and the Environment, Department: Environment and Safety Division, Centre for Environmental Monitoring Currently working on: ISPEX initiative, a method to measure the fine dust with a special device on the Iphone.
voltages which is extremely hard to do. These sen-
Explained me: how air is measured in the Nether-
sors are sensitive for temperature, humidity and
lands, and what the future of RIVM needs to be.
Explained me: The sensors are from alphasense and
most of the time also for other gasses. If you want
More and more they have to compete with people
provide two voltages, in the range of 220-400mV
to measure really precise you will need to pay a lot.
who measure themselves, which is of course a good
iirc. You need to be able to get a resolution of about
The cheap versions are all different and need to be
thing but their measured values are not always cor-
4-5mV to be able to get concentration resolutions in
rect. Before something is brought to the public via
Has experience with: Alphasense B4 serie sensors
the 10ppb range, which is the minimum necessary
RIVM it is first checked several times. Their sen-
to be able to do anything 'useful'.
sors are in the highest precision and controlled and monitored in Bilthoven. For a future initiative like I have a cooperation is needed to check the validity of the measurements, and to combine and analyze all the data.
Name: Jean-Paul close
Name: Annemarije Andriga
Company: AiREAS, STIR academy
Company: PHD Researcher Philips
Working on: Sensor network of 35 sensor units in
Worked on: new way of measuring nitrogen diox-
Eindhoven, to get a higher resolution map of the
fine dust in Eindhoven.
Explained me: that even though she had success
Explained me: In Eindhoven you can achieve every-
with her sensor Philips did not want to spend more
thing if you know the right people. He is working
money on it because it only worked with NO2, and
together with ECN, Philips, Gemeente Eindhoven,
NOX. Her sensor could possibly change the way
Philips, NXP, ISPEX etc. He know most of the big
how we measure the air, because she used a semi-
guys around and he addresses them on their re-
conductor instead of an optical, or heating mech-
sponsibility. With his vision on sustainocracy he
anism. This means that the sensor can be really
wants to create a better and healthier tomorrow. He
small, possibly even in your mobile phone. But this
was and is an inspiration for me who lets me think
was in lab conditions where humidity, temperature,
about the things I am doing and can do in the future.
and airflow was controlled. Future development is still needed make this kind of sensors possible.
Integration sensor Branding and integration Connecting Actors Develop interactions Data analyses App development Sending and storing data Sensor Technology
Integrate in their existing tests
Sensor Technology CONCLUSIE EXPERT M EE TINGS For the perfect sensor there is still a long road to go but in the region Eindhoven there is a lot possible. For example NXP is currently testing with 150 taxies which send all their data from the board computers towards a data center where it is analyzed. In this way they can give feedback on driving behavior, monitor accidents and much more. Censor technology from AiREAS and ECN could be combined with the NXP taxies to create the first tests. RIVM should analyze the data and check the validity of it.
Development Sensor Humidity Measure: NOx NO2 O3 PM2,5
Test with multiple cars Compare with existing data Development application Promotion
Mass production Deployment car Manufacturer Data analysis
FINAL RESULT / FUTURE Even though most people will not
people who want to have such
erly the image from the app and
see mobile air measurement as
a device in their car would prob-
the car should be green and posi-
a necessity or something where
ably people who are already in
tive and something you want to
they want to spend extra money
this branch or would have person-
have because you can feel good
on most people find clean air im-
al interest in air quality, because
about your contribution.
portant. When the information be-
they live near a highway or have a
comes more local and personal
health condition that needs extra
it will have more value. The first
attention. If it is worked out prop-
CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS There have been already many projects where people have shown
possible. Data should be visualized in such a way that it makes
that mobile measurement is something that makes sense to do.
sense for everybody. Only than we can expect an average citizen
The sensor technology to measure mobile is not yet far enough
to understand what the air quality means for their lives.
developed to be good enough. Sensors now are inaccurate and too expensive for the commercial market for the average. The government could start to equip buses and taxies with measuring equipment to provide citizens, to create a better picture of the air quality. This data should be brought as transparent and open as
In the sensor technology especially the placement, and controlling the conditions of the sensor will something that needs to be developed and tested. Once the data has proven to be valuable the applications around it should be build.
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A P E N DIX A INTRODUCTION: I am doing my research about outdoor air quality. In this
What is your opinion on how the news about air quality
What if you could see the amount of air pollution wher-
ever you are? How would this look like in your imagination?
session I would like to explore with you your past expe-
Can you explain the situation where the air was not that
riences in this topic, and together with you explore the
good: home, holiday, traveling ( situations: concrete ex-
Same situation: afterwards go into depth in different
possibilities for a concept. There are no good or bad
amples: what were they doing, time etc) how they real-
answers, I just would like to know your thoughts about
ize it was not that good, what they did, if they cared or
this subject to give me new ideas.
not etc. )
Feedback: Prepare small stories: about home, travel,
Past experiences: fictional story: introduce context: non directive questions: provoke relevant past experiences: in the current context of use My first question is: Have you thought about the air quality the past 6 months? • •
What did you experience? After the experience did you continue thinking
work. Scenario: he read in the news…, is wondering about how it is in his neighborhood. Bring up different
If you have this device? How would this device be useful for you? What kind of data would you like to see?
A lot of pictures of situations: to let them ring a bell.
What value would you give to this data?
Are there more people you know who would find this
Envision future: fictional story: introducing the concept: ask what they like and don’t like What if you would be this person? What would you do? Sketch the situation
Do you recognize this situation?
Think out loud Advice: John got a present: explain the device: what it
What other moments did you think about the air?
What did you think about in this situation?
Would this device give you something extra in these
does etc. ( what does he measure, how does it look like,
data interesting? What would you like to see? And how and where would you like to see this data? Are there specific places that come into your mind where you would like to know the air quality? When would you use such a system? For who do you think this data would be important?
what does it communicate? ) (Relate to the things they said in the previous face. 49
A P E N DIX B WITH THE PLANNING OF A LONG TRIP BY CAR, I WOULD LIKE MY NAVIGATION TO
NOT SO IMPORTANT
AVOID POLLUTED CITIES IF IT IS NOT TOO FAR OUT OF THE DIRECTION
WOULD YOU LIKE TO KNOW THE HEALTH RISKS OF ANY SCALE WITH RESPECT TO AIR QUALITY
WOULD YOU LIKE TO SEE LIVE DATA FROM OTHER PEOPLE?
GIVE A NOTIFICATION WHERE CLEAN SPOTS ARE
HOW IMPORTANT IS CLEAN AIR FOR YOU?
WOULD YOU LIKE TO SEE HOW THE AIR QUALITY WAS IN THE PAST?
AVOID POLLUTED CITIES IF IT IS NOT TOO FAR OUT OF THE DIRECTION
GIVE A NOTIFICATION WHERE CLEAN SPOTS ARE
WITH THE PLANNING OF A LONG TRIP BY CAR, I WOULD LIKE MY NAVIGATION TO
I TRAVEL ON AVERAGE ........ PER DAY
+- 15 KM
NOT SO IMPORTANT 0
I NOTICE THAT THE AIR IS BAD
+- 10 KM
+- 5 KM
+- 3 KM
I DON'T NOTICE THIS
WHEN I SMELL SOMTHING
WHEN I AM IN A TRAFFIC JAM BY CAR
WHEN I TAKE PART IN TRAFFIC BY BIKE
WHEN I ARRIVE IN AN AREA WHERE THE AIR IS CLEANER THAN WHERE I CAME FROM, (MOUNTAIN AIR, SEA AIR, ETC)
I NOTICE THAT THE AIR IS BAD
I AGREE COMPLETLY
WHEN MY EYES TEAR
I PREFER TO SEE A MORE ABSTRACT VISUALIZATION OF AIR QUALITY DATA IN FIRST INSTANCE BEFORE I SEE MORE DETAILED INFORMATION
I WOULD LIKE TO SEE WHAT THE CONNECTION IS BETWEEN THE WEATHER AND AIR QUALITY
WOULD YOU LIKE TO SHARE THE SELF MEASURED DATA TO OTHERS? 3
NO, THIS IS MY DATA NOT FOR 0 OTHERS. YES THIS DATA SHOULD BE OPEN, I WOULD LIKE TO BE ABLE TO SHARE THIS EXPLICITLY TO OTHERS
YES THIS DATA SHOULD OPEN AND AVAILABLE TO EVERYONE
UNTIL HOW FAR BACK WOULD YOU LIKE TO BE ABLE TO SEE?
I WOULD LIKE THAT THE APPLICATION SHOWS WHAT THINGS I CAN DO TO CONTRIBUTE TO CLEANER AIR
I WOULD LIKE TO SEE THE DATA IN NUMBERS I MEADIATLY
AS FAR BACK AS POSSIBLE
SHOULD HELP ME TO DRIVE CLEANER WHEN THE AIR BAD SHOULD SHOW TO OTHER PEOPLE HOW GOOD/BAD THE AIR IS ON THE OUTSIDE OF THE CAR
WOULD YOU WANT TO BE ABLE TO SET AN ALERT AS THE PREDICTED AIR QUALITY FOR THE NEXT DAY IS VERY BAD?
WHEN THERE WOULD BE A SENSOR FOR MEASURING THE AIR QUALITY IN MY CAR, THIS SENSOR MODULE SHOULD HELP ME TO AVOID DIRTY PLACES
SHOULD GIVE ME A WARNING WHEN THE VALUE COME ABOVE A CERTAIN THRESHOLD THAT I HAVE SET MYSELF.
SHOULD AUTOMATICALLY CLOSE THE WINDOWS AND AIR INTAKE
IMPORTANCE: CONNECTION WEATHER AND AIR QUALITY
IMPORTANCE: INFORMATION HEALTH RISKS
NOT IMPORTANT 0
NOT SO IMPORTANT
NOT IMPORTANT 0
7 9 7
NOT SO IMPORTANT 0
IMPORTANCE: TIPS TO CONTRIBUTE TO A CLEANER AIR
IMPORTANCE:NOTIFICATION BY BAD AIR QUAKITY
NOT SO IMPORTANT
NOT SO IMPORTANT
3 1 0
IMPORTANCE: ABSTRACT REPRESENTATATION OF DATA
IMPORTANCE: OPTION TO SHARE THE DATA
NOT SO IMPORTANT
NOT SO IMPORTANT
NOT IMPORTANT 0
NOT IMPORTANT 0
IMPORTANCE: BEING ABLE TO FOLLOW DATA FROM SOMEONE ELSE 2
NOT SO IMPORTANT