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Measure the air quality with an integrated sensor in your car

APPS ON WHEELS Final report for the design research project: DPD41-Apps on Wheels Coach: Jackues Terken

Student: Tijmen van Gurp, s081936 Block: M1.2Date: June 18th 2013 Faculty of Industrial design, Eindhoven University of Technology


INT RODUCT ION A while ago I was on the bike towards the university, I had haste because I was already too late, with the speed I had I followed a buss quite closely for a while and I smelled the diesel fuels as I was biking right behind the exhaust pipe. I had to think about the module I had a week ago were we discussed the possibility of a car as measurement instrument that could sense what the air quality is. As I was bicycling the idea that this data is still “unknown made me wonder if I could realize such a device that would tell me what the air quality means for my health. In this report you can read about how we measure the air, and how I propose a new system of measurement that makes the data more accessible for people like me and you.

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A CKNOWLEDG EM ENT S I would like to express my deepest appreciation to all those who provided me the possibility to complete this report. A special gratitude I give to my coach, Jacques Terken, who supported me through this research project and helped me making my decision by sharing his knowledge and expertise and help reflecti ng my own decisions. Furthermore I would like the thank Jean-Paul Close for his devotion and guidance during the process of this project and showing me the importance of my work. A special thanks goes to Tiziana Marciello who helped me during most of my process as a discussion partner and a constant reflection moment. And not to forget all my family friends and peer students who helped me getting new ideas, spreading the questionnaire, and giving feedback on my work when needed.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

2

INTRODUCTION 22

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 3

PM10 AND PM2.5: MEASUREMENT METHODS

23

AIQU 6

24

OVERVIEW PROCESS

CONCLUSION 27

ITE RATI O N 0

MODULE EXPLORING BUSINESS LANDSCAPES

ITE RATI O N 1

11

2 12

3

WHY MOBILE MEASUREMENT?

REFLECTION POINT

ITER ATION 2

31

32

INTRODUCTION 32

INTRODUCTION 13

CO CONSTRUCTING STORIES

32

WHAT IS AIR QUALITY?

13

WHAT IS CO CONSTRUCTING STORIES?

32

UNDERSTANDING AIR POLLUTANTS

14

MY SETUP

32

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

15

ITER ATION 3

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

16

INTRODUCTION 36

FIRST THOUGHTS ABOUT AIR QUALITY

18

QUESTIONNAIRE

36

36

INTRODUCTION 18

RESULTS 37

SITUATION WORLD

18

EXPERT MEETINGS

HOW IS THIS POSSIBLE?

19

CONCLUSION 39

SITUATION NL

20

CONCLUSIE EXPERT MEETINGS

CALCULATION MODELS

20

Bibliogra fie 46

22

AP ENDIX A

49

AP ENDIX B

50

4

WHAT DOES AIR QUALITY MEAN FOR YOUR HEALTH?

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A IQ U W

e live in a world where everything is avail-

ture, I saw very few translations of what this data could

able everywhere. Radical transparency (Le-

mean, and how it should be brought to a broader public.

berecht, 2008) is in my opinion becoming

My goal of this research was to find the right way of

more and more important. Air quality is now something

displaying air quality data to the user so that it becomes

the government supplies through various measurement

understandable in different levels what the air means for

points that are static and don’t give sufficient informa-

your health.

tion about the air quality, to really know what it means for our personal health. I propose a system that enables you to measure the air quality where ever you are. You are able to see your own hyper local data combined with the data of many others and the government as a reference. This system ex-

On the next pages you can see the

ist out of a sensor in your car and maybe in the future

final result, but to realy experience

even in your mobile phone, that measures the ultrafine

the inteded interactions I would

particles (UFP) in the air so that you can see what the

like to ask you to watch the folow-

air means for you and for others through an intelligent

ing

application wherever you are.

com/watch?v=h3td6gPeEMM

Through the various literature I saw that there is definitely a future for mobile measurement, as it gives insights in your own health life, but through all this litera-

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video:

http://www.youtube.


The application starts with the

When you have selected the city,

An important function is the op-

place you are at that moment. You

or persone you will a more de-

tion to look what the weather in-

see the an abstract representa-

tailed graph. With the options to

fluences are on the air quality. The

tion of the place . You have than

look further in the past or future.

app gives the possibility to open

the option to scroll through the

Tapping the graph willl give a pop-

an extra layer over the graph. No-

different places, open de menu

up with more detailed information

table relations will be put on the

or ask for more information of tha

of the day and measured value.

screen as an extra layer.

particular place

Here the options are proviced to look for the weather Influences, a map view, history of a place and sharing. In this way there are in total 3 layers of information, abstract, overview, and in depth.

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You will always have the op-

One of these functions is to

your

tion to open the menu with all

see your last driven routs. you

should be visaly available on

the functions in one overview.

get an overview of the last

the map. You will have the

routes with an indication of

option to zoom in and see in

the amount of pollution. You

detailed what you have mea-

will have the option to open

sured.

these routes and explore in depth what your mesurements are.

own

measurements

In this screen it might also be possible to see routes of other people to compare your measurements, or see the combined result. Certain hotspots can be discoverd, and action can be taken acordingly.

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What exactly does it mean for

Only a scale might not be enough at

Once you know more about the health

your health? The

app should

a certain point. The app should pro-

effects you might wonder what we

provide an indication of what the

vide in depth information about what

can do about it. I propose an open

scales mean for your health. Also

we know about air pollution and the

platform where people can suggest

here there is the possibility to get

health risks. This should be has infor-

ideas about how to help for a cleaner

some extra information.

mative as possible.

tomorrow.

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Extra information about why

For the people who like to

The app also has options to

certain actions are good will

have an overview the map of

save measured data or share

be provided.

the netherlands will be pro-

it to friends and family.

vided.

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Iteration 1

Module: Exploring business Landscapes Client: Toyota

OVER VIEW P R OCESS This semester there were 8 full-time weeks to work on the future of the car. In the future, cars become much more than a simple extension of our legs. Cars become personal cocoons that provide us with comfortable living

How do we measure now?

Litarature Research Existing systems

Situation Air quality World, Eu NL, NL

space, give us protection and shelter, they become adaptable to our needs and will do far more than only drive us around. The first 2 weeks were spend on defining the scope and research direction of this project. The basis was already made in the module that I had in the beginning of this semester.

Movie: Summary Research Concept

In the first iteration I focused on learning as much as possible about air

Iteration 2

quality. What is the current situation in the world, how do we measure it now? Next to this I did an exploration if it would be possible to measure mobile. During this research I noticed that there is a lot going on in the world around this topic. I decided, for myself and to show to others, to

Co-Constructing Stories Expert meeting Derya Özçelik

Questionaire

summarize the results of what I had found in a short movie about air quality.

Research Sensor VITO: Aireas: ECN: NXP: MicroPem: ISPEX: Air quality Egg: Labocitoyen: Researcher Philips:

Expert meetings

Jan Theunissen Jean-Paul Close René Otjes Alicia Sanchez Crespo Charles Rodes, Juana Maria Frans Snik Hans Crijns Gabriel Dulac-Arnold Annemarije Andriga

In the second iteration I used parts of the movie to connect to others in co-constructing story sessions, interviews, and expert meetings. I also explored if it would be possible to measure mobile myself, I decided that it was better to invest my knowledge in developing the final concept further, as it is still quite difficult to set up a good mobile measurement device. In the final iteration I took the results of the Co-constructing stories ses-

Iteration 3

sions and build a questionnaire around the new found insights so that I could make my final design decisions based upon what functions people found most important. Of course I also used my own intuition to make the final interaction in graphical user interface design. More iterations are

GUI Developement

needed to see if people understand it and if it fits their needs.

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I T ERATION 0 MODULE EXPLORING BUSINESS LANDSCAPES

The basis for this project, Apps on wheels, was found in the module Exploring business landscapes with the client Toyota. The basis for the concept was found in this module. We saw the car as an organism in an ecosystem that provides information about its surrounding. I believe in a future were all cars are interlinked and connected to each other, helping us to get from A to B, live healthy and helps us to connect to other people. As air quality becomes more and more evident to be an important factor in our health and the car is one of the factors that causes pollution, I believe the car should measure its surroundings and adapt to it. The car becomes a tool that helps us understand the air quality better so that we can react and act upon it efficiently.

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I T ERATION 1 IN TR O D U C T I O N

I

n the first iteration I focused on learning as much as possible about air quality. What is the current situation in the world, how do we measure it now? Next

to this, I explored if it would be possible to measure mobile. During this research I noticed that there is a lot going on in the world around this topic. I decided for myself, and to show to others, to summarize the results of what I had found in a short movie about air quality.

Keywords: what is air quality, how can we measure it, is

other in certain terms, but in terms of health effect the

mobile measurement something that is needed?

fine particles (PM2.5) are the most discernible.

WHAT IS A IR QUA LITY? According to BC Air quality (What is Air Quality?, sd), the term “air quality” means: the state of the air around us. Most places nowadays measure multiple particles in the air, these are sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), (particulate matter), Ozone and CO. They are all related to each

The US EPA-mandated PM2.5 pollution index shows us the following scale (Milward, 2011). The values you see are in micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m³). The Worlds health organization sees a yearly average of PM2.5 under the 25µg/m³ as a healthy level. (WHO, 2011)

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U N D ERS TAND I N G A I R P O L L UTA NT S Fine particle matter is one of the pollutants in the air, these have sources that are both natural and humanbased. Fine dust is also caused by salt, sand and vari-

cated that there is a statistically significant relationship

was higher with PM2.5 than with PM10 (Schwartz J,

between atmospheric particle matter and admissions to

1996). These fine particles are believed to pose the

hospitals for respiratory tract infections and mortalities

greatest health risks, because of their small size (ap-

(Lipfert F.W., 1995).

proximately 1/30th the average width of a human hair). These particles can go deep into the lungs and even the

ous other substances, but nowadays humans contrib-

There are 2 different sizes of particles that are measured

ute substantially more to the air pollution problem by

PM10, and PM2.5. The coarser particles (between 2,5

burning fossil fuels in automobiles, homes, industries,

and 10 micrometer) mainly exist out of particles that have

and agriculture (Yelda Aydin T端rk, 2011). These particles

their origin in mechanical processes and windblown soil

effect human health negatively, people that suffer these

dust. The finer particles (<2,5 micrometer) mainly exist

effects mainly live in big cities (K. H. Kilburn, 1992). Epi-

out of particles that have their origin from burning fu-

WEATHER

demiological and toxicological research that focused

els in combustion engines (E. Buijsman, januari 2013). A

FLUENCES

on the role of the ultrafine particles (PM2.5) have indi-

study has indicated that the association with mortality

blood stream (Kaiser, 2005).

AND

GEOGR APHICAL

IN -

The ultrafine particles are floating around in the air and are greatly influenced by the weather. The wind sometimes puts a layer of Sahara sand on cars in northern Europe, transporting it for more than 2000 kilometers. The same thing happens with fine particles and ultrafine particles. On a bit smaller scale, the geographical location of a city also influences the amount of air pollution. The air can be trapped if the city is surrounded by mountains or because of an effect that is called an urban heat island.

Urban heat Island 14


On an even smaller scale, a busy road with buildings at both sides or an open road with grassland will have completely different values. Also the amount of traffic on a certain place and the amount of accelerating has a lot of influence on the measured values. On high pressure weather systems, when the air is inactive for multiple days the amount of particles in the air can build up(Marcelina Arkouli, 2010). A heavy rain can also clean the air and wash everything away (Giri D., 2008). Monthly mean PAH concentrations on PM2.5 and ambient temperature in 2005 and 2006/2007.

WH EN D I D WE STA RT M E A S URING ? Air pollution is something that we really started taking into account when we started burning coals to heat our houses in big cities. In 1952 London had to camp with a lot of smog due to cold weather and windless period

A sketch of a normal weather pattern (left), and an abnormal weather pattern demonstrating inversion (Encyclo-

(Stegeman John J., 2002). This initiated the clean air act

pedia of World Geography).

of 1956 (1956: Thick fog causes death on roads, sd). It was until the 1970â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s that we started to monitor the air quality more sub sequential.

R ESEAR CH QUESTIONS These Research goals

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RESEARCH QUESTIONS

T

hese Research goals were formulated for the

have an opinion about if it is good or bad, based upon

would exist with data about the air quality: how should

midterm presentation together with the gained

what they have experienced or seen in the news. One

this be visualized?

knowledge of my literature research. Shortly

research paper also indicated that higher educated

afterwards I reflected upon these research opportuni-

people are more aware of the state of air quality than

ties, and picked one out.

low educated people (SIGIT SUDARMADI, 2001). As

Does real-time, local data about air pollution make people more aware towards their environment? This question was my main research question in the beginning, but it was too vague to continue. Questions

the question stays interesting I will try to intertwine this through my research, but it will not be my main focus. Another objective is to find out if people are willing to change their behavior if they have more awareness about air quality.

The more needed information was: how would such an information providing system would work, in terms of presentation of air quality information? In my personal opinion I believe that most sources that provide information about air quality are not substantial enough. The information is too limited, or presented in such a way that a broader public doesn’t know

came up like, what is awareness and how do you mea-

My hypothesis is that people that are more aware

what to do with it. Information should be into context,

sure it? Initially my plan was to see if the video I made

about bad air quality, become more motivated to do

multilayered and interlinked to generate new insights

could change people’s behavior or awareness on the

something about it. But they will see it as a too vague

about what the air quality actually means.

topic air quality. This was too much into the direction

problem and something the government should solve

of social psychology and understanding awareness in-

for them. I believe the small steps that they can take

stead of gaining knowledge that had a designedly pur-

to make a change should be magnified so that the

pose. I don’t want to be the person that is going to tell

positive results we become clearer. For example, the

everyone the air is bad, I want people to get curious to

amount of PM2.5 that I will not emit if I take the train for

learn more about the air quality if they change behavior

a yearlong instead of the car.

for the better that is their own decision, as a designer I can support that, but not force it.

A design question what than arises is: how should the data about air quality be visualized

One objective is to find out what the current

and communicated, in such a way that it is inter-

knowledge is about air quality.

esting for everybody?

This question arose out of a personal interest. My hy-

In the end this is the question that I decided to work

pothesis is that most people in the Netherlands have

out further. Therefore I needed to know what the gen-

no clue about what the air quality is. They probably will

eral connection towards air quality is and if a system

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FIRST THOUGHTS ABOUT AIR QUALITY IN TR O D U C T I O N After I had gained a better understanding about what air quality is, I wanted to know more about the situation in the world, the EU and the Netherlands. I looked at what the world health organization had to say about it, the political games around it and, not unimportant, how bad is the air quality actually?

S ITUATI O N W O R L D

A

ir pollution, particularly in cities, is certainly not a new problem. Back in the middle Ages the use of coal in cities such as London was begin-

ning to escalate. The problems of poor urban air quality, even as early as the end of the 16thcentury are well documented. (History of Air Pollution, sd) Sins 2000 the amount of deaths caused by air pollution has increased with 300%. For the first time in history air pollution is on the top 10 list of killers! Meaning that there are more people dying because of bad air than

from traffic accidents. (Latest finding listing air pollution

When it is realized that the health of 1.6 billion people

as one of top 10 killers in the world shocking, says CSE,

may be at risk from poor urban air quality, it becomes

2012)According to the medical journal Lancet (H. Wang,

clear that the issue ranks alongside such international

2012) in 2010 there were 3.200.000 million people who

problems as acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion

died prematurely, 65 % of these dead’s were in growing

and even global warming (Elsom, 1996).

economies in Asia. 1.2 million Deaths in China which is nearly 40% of the total amount. 712.000 deaths in south Asia (including India), Europe and Russia: 400.000.

opment, based in Paris, warned that “urban air pollution is set to become the top environmental cause of mor-

Outdoor air pollution is ranked fourth in the mortality

tality worldwide by 2050, ahead of dirty water and lack

and health burden in East Asia where it contributed to

of sanitation.” It estimated that up to 3.6 million people

1.2 million deaths in 2010 and sixth in South Asia where

could end up dying prematurely from air pollution each

it contributed to 712,000 deaths in 2010 (H. Wang, 2012).

year, mostly in China and India (Development, 2012).

(WONG, 2013) 18

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Devel-


H O W I S TH I S P O SSI B L E ?

SIT UAT ION EU

Looking at where the air quality is the worst, now it is

Since the early 1970s, the EU has been working to im-

Compared to Asian countries the air quality in the EU is

clear that mainly in Asia we currently have situations

prove air quality by controlling emissions of harmful

already very good, but we should not forget that in year-

that in Europe are already long gone. Due to the eco-

substances into the atmosphere, improving fuel qual-

ly averages over multiple measurement stations, can be

nomic growth in many nations in Asia there is big in-

ity and by integrating environmental protection require-

lower than on street level measurements in big cities.

crease of motorized vehicles and coal burning power

ments into the transport and energy sectors.

plants. Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10 (Fenger, 1999). The byproduct are the smoggy smelly skies above cities like Bejing, New Dehli and Jakarta (Walsh, 2012). Regulations for coal burning and diesel filters need to

In 2008 the directive was written on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe, herein is stated that for the year 2020 the 3 year average of PM2,5 should be below 18 Îźg/m3, and for the 3 year average in 2015, this should be 20 Îźg/m3 (Official Journal of the European Union, 2008).

be applied to be able to reduce this growing problem, as the growth has not yet become to an end and even more people will get a car.

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S ITUATI O N N L

A

CALCULATION MODELS

fter having seen the comparison between the

Although new cars will have these norms, there are still

world and the EU, I was already quite satisfied

a lot of old diesel cars imported out of Germany where

about the air quality and I wanted to know: how

cleaner cars also mean reduction on the toll roads (Maut

do we measure in the Netherlands? What is the trend of the air quality over multiple years? How are we in comparison to the rest of EU? For how much are we, ourselves, responsible for the air quality and what about our neighbor countries?

of tol in Europa, 2012), (ANP, 2012). Overruns of the European norms still exist next to busy roads an in big cities. On places where measuring is not possible, calculation models are used. These models are not as accurate as the measurement stations. This

In the Netherlands the most important sources for hu-

can give a distorted picture of the reality (GROEN, 2013)

man created fine dust are: traffic (40%), industry (23%)

(Wat is fijnstof?, sd).

and agriculture (20%). At least 45% of the fine dust in

I started looking at the data from RIVM and saw that

On most places it is unknown what the air quality is, but

we are only measuring pm10 levels and not yet pm2.5

the air quality is estimated by calculation models. There

although this is already quite long known as the most

have been a lot of discussions about the models and

important factor to measure (De meetdata van fijn stof

for most it is not clear how the estimates of quality are

Since we started measuring we have also increased the

(PM10) vanaf 1992 tot en met 2012 , 2013). I decided to

made. Calculation models not always take into account

norms in the emission standards for patrol cars, power

combine all the data from all the 63 measurement sta-

that there can be a flat or school next to a busy road,

plants and other industries.

tions and I plotted this data with a moving average and

there are just too many variables. If 80 kilometers or 100

a linear trend line to see what the Air quality is doing

kilometers per hour is needed to improve the air quality

over the last 10 years. This information has to be seen

stays uncertain, because the direct effect of these mea-

with a birdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s eye view, than it means that in general the

sures is not visible (Redactie, 2013).

the Netherlands is inflicted by humans and only a third of this has its origin in the Netherlands itself, the rest is from abroad (E. Buijsman, januari 2013).

air is getting better. But what about all the places where we are not yet measuring?

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Runnin g a v e r a g e wi t h d ata f ro m 6 2 meas urement s tations of P M10 in the Ne the rla nds ove r 1992 - 2012

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W H AT D O E S A I R Q U A L I T Y M E A N F O R Y O U R H E A LT H ? INT RO D U C T I O N

N

ow you know the ins and outs of how and why we measure you might wonder what precisely the health effects are. Although there is little known what precisely the health effects

are, epidemiological research has indicated that there is a direct link between the amount of particles in the air and hospital emissions. The particles with the greater than PM2.5 and smaller than PM10 can reach the upper part of the human airways and lungs. The smaller particles penetrate more deeply into the lung and may reach the alveolar region. These fine particles only contribute slightly to the PM10 mass, but may be important from a health point of view. Although it has not yet been said what type of particles have a toxic effect and on what levels this toxicity exist, many studies in the 1990 have documented that an increase in particulate-matter is associated with an increased daily mortality and hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular disease (Thomas Kuhlbusch, 2004). PM is mainly discussed here, because it is a pollutant that effects people more than any other. Particulate Matter exists out of sulfates, nitrates, ammonia, sodium chloride, carbon, mineral dust and water. The problem of these particles are the biggest in developing countries, but even in the EU the average life expectancy is 8,6 months lower due to exposure to PM2.5 produced by human activities (WHO, 2011).

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P M10

AND

PM2.5:

M EA SUREM ENT

METH O D S The precise measurement methods for measuring fine particles are still quite complex. They are based on the increasing mass of a filter and optical monitors, which can gauge the size of individual particles from signals scattered from a light beam and integrate this into a total volume of particles (NPL, 2010).

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WHY MOBILE MEASUREMENT?

I

n the earlier sections of this report you could read

A study of Energy research Centre (ECN) has proven

about why we measure the air quality. Nowadays

that a moving measurement system to be a useful tool

governments only measure on fixed places and take

to measure the spatial variability of particle concentra-

sometimes a temporarily measurement. Mobile data collection allows for air pollutant concentrations to be obtained with a higher spatial distribution and density than is possible with stationary or passive monitors. Cut stationary monitors are inadequate in distribution to quantify the change of air quality on city street level (Matthew D. Adams, 2012). Although we know on a larger scale that air quality has health effects, with moving sensor a whole new level of social science would open. For example tracking asthma patients to see if they suffer more when the air quality is bad (CNN, 2010).

tions. It allows investigation in location specific characteristics that cannot be performed with multiple stationary monitoring sites. Their measurements show that the number of the concentration inside a city changes on a scale of hundred meters, these fluctuations correlate with the local traffic intensity and driving conditions. Their studies also indicated that 100 meters downwind from a busy road are exposed to 40% more particles than people living in urban background areas (E.P. Weijersa, 2004). 24


Particle number concentrations along the way from the urban agglomeration of Amsterdam to the marine area near Petten (averages over 500 m; CPC-measurements). A study done in Mol, Belgium indicated that the amount particles that you breathe in on the bicycle is significantly higher (more than 4 times higher), than the amount of air breathed in by a passenger in a car (Luc Int Pa-

nis, 2010). A similar study in the same city indicates the same results as ECN and shows that the air quality is significantly worse when motorized vehicles accelerate Sensor module CitiSenses

after for example a traffic light (P. Berghmansa, 2009). The same thing was noticed with the device named Citi-

The devices they used were around the 1000US$ to pro-

Sense, which was able to measure local concentrations

duce (Piero Zappi, 2012), (Celal Ziftci, 2012), (Demchak,

of ozone, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide. In a

2010).

test 30 people carried this device with them which allowed them to explore their neighborhoods and recognize bad places and moments on the day. One of the effects that it had was that people who had to wait long for the bus, or normally would take the bicycle, now took the car, because this was clearly better for their health.

lot steeper (Wat is fijnstof?, sd).

One way to measure is the method of Citisense, but they are not yet measuring the fine particles in the air. They correlate to each other, but not significant enough to know what the health effects are of the fine particles. Therefore an optical dust sensor needs to be integrated as well. This sensor will make the price of the sensor a 25


A study carried out by the National Institute for Health research in the UK (NHS) seven members of the public were given personal pollution monitors that measured black carbon. The cumulative exposure of the black carbon was compared between these members. In these measurements there are clear characteristics visible in the time spend outside (Brannon, 2012).

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CONCLUSION Air quality is mainly measured by the a higher resolution map. Only in this way amount of pm2.5 in the air. The higher we can learn what the air quality means for the concentration the worse it is for your health. A healthy level of this substance should be below 25Âľg/mÂł according to the world health organization. In many places these values are not yet met and even in places where in yearly averages the value might reach this level there will always be moments and places that have higher values.

our health. A wide variety of these sensors are already available, further research is needed to see which combination of sensors gives the most reliable results. The translation of this data into a multipurpose application that is understandable for everyone is now the challenge to develop further.

A system of multiple sensors connected to moving vehicles is needed to generate

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FIRST ITERATION IDEATION: CONCEPTS Although the basis for the final concept was already there through the form changing aspects of the car. Possibly shortly want to discuss some future visions/concepts on

this car could also filter the air responsively by moving its

the future of cars.

scales up and thereby also redirecting the airflow through

This car designed by Anne Fisher of Pforzheim University was one of the ideas I had in terms of the future car showing what the air quality is. The public that would see this car would be able to see when the air is clean or dirty

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filters. Other ideas that I had were more app based, which I developed into a scenario movie. Next to a scenario I also summarized my research in a movie so that for the future I had something visual to get into contact with experts.


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One of the ideas was to make a visualization inside the

After you have driven a route you could see your own

car, on the dashboard, steering wheel or display that

measurements on the map, and zoom in on the data.

would subtly indicate what the weather is outside.

This data is than visualized with some extra info of the

Other information channels should be linked to the app

place, giving you insights in the past days or weeks of

so that particular bad or good situations can be ex-

that specific place. So that you can see how your mea-

plained in terms of causes of the air quality. For exam-

surements relate to the measurements of others.

ple, when there are a lot of diesel trucks in the rush hour, this might have effect on the air quality for that place. Also the weather influences the air quality greatly and should be connected to the app.

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R EFLECTION P OINT While discussing my ideas with

menting some sensors in cars, but

others, I received questions about I believe it can greatly influence why measure with a car? Is it not our awareness of our surrounding promoting something green while

and let us make conscious deci-

you are actually polluting the

sions for our future.

world? Why not in your smartphone or on the bike if you are actually outside?

I also received some feedback that I actually was not so much further in terms of concept in relation to

When telling people that the air is bad, the app should

I see the car as a logical carrier the results of the module. I decided

also give clear information about possibilities to reduce

for the sensor, as it has everything

the amount of pollution.

already on board power the sen- now and needed to start exploring

that I had enough information for

sor, collect and process the data possibilities in terms of concept and also share the data. The extra and realization. costs for the sensor could be paid by the car manufacturer as it only will be a fraction of the total assembly costs and could give new meaning to the car. I donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t think we will solve the air pollution problem by just imple-

31


I TERATION 2 IN TR O D U C T I O N After this literature research I was a bit stuck in how to

WHAT

IS

CO

CONSTR UCTING

STO-

RIES?

MY SETUP The session was started with a short introduction into

continue. The question was what to do with this new

Co constructing stories is a participatory design tech-

my research. With a warm welcome and a word of grati-

gained knowledge. I did not had to prove anymore that

nique for early, formative concept evaluations to elicit

tude they were asked if they had thought about the air

mobile measurement is indeed needed to complement

in-depth user feedback and suggestions, revealing at-

for the past six months and if this was the case about

the static measurement stations. And that mobile mea-

titudes and motivations of users (Derya Ozcelik Busk-

what. If not, the subjects were asked if they recognized

surements can give you more insights into your own

ermolen, 2012). The process exists out of 2 phases: in

some situations or stories from the news. I asked for

environment. At this stage I noticed that the research

the first face the user gets introduced into the context

situations if they had experienced the air as particularly

questions I had stated in the beginning of this semester

in the sensitizing phase, the stage is set for a dialogue

good as well as bad. After 15 minutes I proposed them

were too vague and I had to redefine my goals and di-

about the users past experiences. Then an envisioned

the situation that you could see wherever you are what

rection. In this section of the report you can read about

future is presented with new possibilities, perspectives

the air quality would be and how this would look like in

this in particular.

and insights are shared.

terms of interface/ system. I let this completely open,

C O C O N S TR U C T I N G ST O R I E S

To get more ideas from users about how such an appli-

but if it was unclear I stepped in to give some suggestions. For full detail setup look in appendix A.

cation should look like I decided to use the method coconstructive stories. I had thought about other methods like a diary study or concept mapping sessions, but my ideas and questions were still too vague to be able to set something up.

CONCLUSION: The Co-constructing story sessions were very helpful to shed new light on the ideas I had. New directions came up like comparing different places, different layers of information (abstract to more concrete), weather influences and the possibility to follow someone else.

32


“ “ “ “ “ “ “ My f a t he r always closes th e win d ows of th e car in a t unnel, th is is som eth in g m y car sh ou ld d o a ut o ma t ic ally if th e air su rrou n d in g me is b ad .”

“I n i ti a l l y I wo u l d l i ke to s e e th e d a ta vi s u a l i ze d i n a n a b s tra ct wa y wi th co l o rs o n a m a p . I ca n d e ci d e m ys e l f h o w m y ro u te wi l l b e . ”

‘ ’ I no t ic e t ha t I a lways take th e same rou te to my w o rk , I so me t ime s th in k if an oth er rou te wou ld be be t t e r. ’’

“I wo u l d l i ke to h a ve a vi s u a l i za ti o n l i ke a d e a d b i rd i f th e a i r i s b a d , s o m e th i n g th a t vi s u a l i ze s wh a t yo u r l i fe e xp e cta n cy i s , a n d wh a t i t m e a n s fo r yo u r h e a l th . ”

“ I w o uld like to b e ab le to see th e air q u ality in

c o nt e xt with som eth in g like g oog le g lass or an indic a t ion on a lam p p ost.”

“T h e m o s t i n te re s ti n g a s p e ct I th i n k wi l l b e th a t yo u co u l d m e a s u re to g e th e r, I wo u l d l i ke to kn o w wh o a n d wh e re o th e r p e o p l e a re m e a s u ri n g . ”

33


“ ““ “ “ “ “ “

“I wo u l d l i ke to b e a b l e to s e e a co m p a ri s o n

“ Mo st o f t he t ime yo u will h ave th e sam e rou te,

b e twe e n p l a ce s wh e re I h a ve b i n e i n m y o wn

so f ro m t his ro ut e I w ou ld like to kn ow wh at th e

co u n tr y. F o r e xa m p l e R o tte rd a m vs . E i n d h o ve n . ”

a ir qua lit y is. ”

“I n otice th a t th e a i r i s b a d wh e n I co m e b a ck from a p la ce wh e re th e a i r wa s re a l l y cl e a n l i ke in th e mou n ta i n s . ”

“ A c o mpa riso n be t ween d ifferen t cities is m ayb e so me t hing t ha t I w ou ld like with in th e ap p , th an

“F o r m e a m a p l i ke a we a th e r m a p wi l l b e e n o u g h ,

yo u ge t a bit o f c om p etition , b u t th at it sh ou ld

I kn o w wh e re e ve r yb o d y l i ve s , I ca n s e e h o w i t

be c le a r w ha t t he factors are th at h ave an in flu -

i s th e re . I f p o s s i b l e I wo u l d l i ke to s e e th e a i r

e nc e . ”

q u a l i ty wi th g o o g l e s tre e t vi e w. ”

“ I w o u ld like to b e ab le to com p are my d ata with

t he data of m y fath er in Ch in a. Ju st p u rely for my o wn awaren ess, I d on ’t n eed an y scien tific

“M y n a vi g a ti o n s h o u l d g i ve s u g g e s ti o n wh e re to

gibbe rish .”

d ri ve , i t wi l l g i ve a n a l e rt i f i t i s p o s s i b l e to a vo i d a d i rty s p o t. ”

“Peop le wh o live in a clean g reen vi l l a g e n o w h ave a way to say som eth in g g ood a b o u t th e i r p lace.”

34

“ “ “


“ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ I w o uld lik e t o k no w how I can con trib u te to a be t t e r e nviro nme nt , f o r examp le ch an g e th e way ho w I drive . ”

I d o n ’ t re a l l y n o ti ce th a t i f th e a i r i s b a d , s o m eti m e s s h o rtl y wh e n I s m e l l s o m e th i n g b u t m o s t o f th e ti m e th i s i s g o n e i m m e d i a te l y.

“ I no t ic e w he n t he a ir is b ad wh en th ere is a

“T h e o n l y m o m e n t th a t I ca n i m a g i n e th a t I re a l l y

2ta c t mo pe d in f ro nt o f me, I can smell th e fu els

wa n t to kn o w m o re a b o u t i t i s wh e n I wo u l d b u y

e ve n if it is 4 0 0 me t e rs in fron t of me.”

a new house.”

“ It sho uld sho w t he c o nn ection b etween th e win d

‘ ’ W h e n I h a ve b e e n i n H a a rl e m I n o ti ce th e a i r

spe e ds a nd w ind dire c t ion s an d th e air q u ality.”

h e re i n Oo s te rb e e k i s m u ch cl e a n e r. ’’

“In forests it is alway s cl e a n e r ri g h t? Tre e s fi l te r th e air? An yway, I w o u l d l i ke to kn o w i f th i s i s tru e or n ot. “

35


IT E RATION 3 INT RO D U C T I O N This iteration I focused on validating the possibilities of

After that there was asked to imagine an application

the air quality app that I wanted to develop. I did this

and think about how this should look like. Directly after

through a questionnaire that was spread under 27 peo-

this, there was an open question with the question if an

ple. Not the highest number to say something signifi-

image of an existing application corresponded to their

cantly, but enough to help me in my design process and

imagination.

give new insights and directions for further validation and exploration. This iteration had as result the design for the app AIQU and recommendations for future development of a mobile air quality device.

QUE S TI O N NA I R E The questionnaire had as goal for me to find out what functions are important to integrate into the app. First I have asked some general questions about their Age, location of residence and highest finished education. After this, I asked them questions about how important clean air is for them and what they thought about the air quality in the Netherlands.

36

After this, there were questions about functionality of the application and there was the possibility to indicate how important this function was. To see the questionnaire go to: https://docs.google.com/forms/ d/1GeTssmPCLD1SkUZqd62AY2s_lg5vqFaKf6dwHqQGmHs/viewform


R ESU LTS In the limited time available, the number of people asked is quite limited. The results must be seen as a source

th in g ch an g es an d wh at th at ch a n g e re a l l y m e a n s . I n a

of inspiration and guidance for future studies. The fo-

sim p le an d clear way. Com m u n i ca te i t s o th a t th e i n fo r-

cus for me was to get guidance and inspiration in how

mation really can m ean som e th i n g fo r e ve r yo n e .

course, my own intuition and design rationale. Here are the most notable results of 27 people. If you want to see all the results look at appendix B Quotes from the open question: I w ou l d a l so l i k e to be a ble t o f ill in ro ut es from A to B in the ap p o v e r a ma p w it h c o lo rs. I w o uld like to h ave th e opt i on t o i n d i c a t e " impo rt a nt " pla c e s so I can see h ow th e

To learn more about it is possible to measure mobile I had several meetings, mails, phone calls with experts

to make the app. How the app is designed, is a direct translation of the findings of the questionnaire with, of

EX P ERT MEETINGS

on the subject air quality measuring. Here you will find a list of people, and their expertise.

I wou ld like th e p ossib ility t o ca l cu l a te yo u r o wn â&#x20AC;&#x153;fo o tp rin tâ&#x20AC;? on air p ollu tion in g en e ra l . F o r e xa m p l e o n th e amou n ts on flig h ts p er year, u s i n g o f wo o d s to ve , m a te ri a l con su mp tion etc. See ap p en d ix B for all th e res u l ts , o r co n ta ct m e p e rs o n-

Name: Alicia Sanchez Crespo Company: Tu/e Faculty Electrical Engineering Worked on: How to measure air quality with chip of NXP, stopped this because commercial sensors had become better, they claimed to be able to identification individual particles.

aly for th e E xcel file: tijm en va n g u rp @g m a i l . co m Explained me: The sensor I worked on is an optical dust sensor. The operation principle of these sensors is that they have a light source, infrared LED, and a photo

dev el o p m e n t i s i n t ha t pla c e . P la c e s suc h as h om e, work, s c hoo l c h i l d r e n .

detector. In absence of particles, the light doesn't reach the photo detector.

I wou l d l i k e t o b e a ble t o c lic k o n so me t hin g to g et extra i nf or m a t i o n . I i m a g i n e d d i f f e re nt le ve ls w hic h de mo n strate h ow m y GP S lo c a t i o n i s po llut e d a nd t he re by ho w b ad th e p olluti on i s i n c o m p a r iso n w it h he a lt hy st a ndard s. I t hi nk i t i s i m p o rt a nt t ha t yo u c o mmunic ate wh en som e-

37


“ What did 27 People think about the proposed ideas? ”

22 Agrees upon the fact that their measured data will be open source.

12

38

Would like to be in advance if the air quality would get bad.

27 Want to be able to “follow” the air quality data of other people

Want to be able to see history data of a place, as far back as possible.

21 Want to be able to see the connection between the weather and the air quality

22

26 Wants to know how the different levels of air quality has health.

24 Want to get tips about how to contribute to a cleaner air outside.


C O N C L U SI O N Although there were not that many users who filled in the questionnaire,

data when they want to. The system should have a certain intelligence,

I received some valuable new insights. Most functions I presented were

and give warnings when the air quality is getting worse.

accepted as valuable or important. Most importantly is that I found out people like the information presented in such a way that they can make sense of it themselves, without any extra information. The information should be presented in multiple layers, first an abstract vizualsation and after that the more complex data. Functions for sharing are important but

The app should also cover some extra functionality besides providing information about your measured air quality, the overall air quality, and the air quality in driven routes. The app should also cover the health risks, and information about what you could do about it.

most just want the data to be open, so that people are able to follow your

39


Name: Gabriel Dulac-Arnold

Name: Jan Theunis

Name: Hester Volten

Company: Labocitoyen

Function: Project Manager

Company: RIVM - National Institute of Public Health

Current Job: PhD student at LIP6, part of UniversitĂŠ

Company: Environmental Risk and Health

Pierre et Marie Curie

Worked on: The Aeroflex: a bike for mobile air qual-

Website: http://gabe.squirrelsoup.net/

ity measurements

Worked on Gasser: an raspberry pi powered device

Explained me: Sensor technologies are still in de-

that could measure the air quality mobile. http://

velopment, donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t expect too much of it. If you want

wiki.labocitoyen.fr/index.php?n=Hardware.Gasser

to sense gas like NO2 you need to measure nano-

and the Environment, Department: Environment and Safety Division, Centre for Environmental Monitoring Currently working on: ISPEX initiative, a method to measure the fine dust with a special device on the Iphone.

voltages which is extremely hard to do. These sen-

Explained me: how air is measured in the Nether-

sors are sensitive for temperature, humidity and

lands, and what the future of RIVM needs to be.

Explained me: The sensors are from alphasense and

most of the time also for other gasses. If you want

More and more they have to compete with people

provide two voltages, in the range of 220-400mV

to measure really precise you will need to pay a lot.

who measure themselves, which is of course a good

iirc. You need to be able to get a resolution of about

The cheap versions are all different and need to be

thing but their measured values are not always cor-

4-5mV to be able to get concentration resolutions in

calibrated individually.

rect. Before something is brought to the public via

Has experience with: Alphasense B4 serie sensors

the 10ppb range, which is the minimum necessary

RIVM it is first checked several times. Their sen-

to be able to do anything 'useful'.

sors are in the highest precision and controlled and monitored in Bilthoven. For a future initiative like I have a cooperation is needed to check the validity of the measurements, and to combine and analyze all the data.

40


Name: Jean-Paul close

Name: Annemarije Andriga

Company: AiREAS, STIR academy

Company: PHD Researcher Philips

Working on: Sensor network of 35 sensor units in

Worked on: new way of measuring nitrogen diox-

Eindhoven, to get a higher resolution map of the

ides

fine dust in Eindhoven.

Explained me: that even though she had success

Explained me: In Eindhoven you can achieve every-

with her sensor Philips did not want to spend more

thing if you know the right people. He is working

money on it because it only worked with NO2, and

together with ECN, Philips, Gemeente Eindhoven,

NOX. Her sensor could possibly change the way

Philips, NXP, ISPEX etc. He know most of the big

how we measure the air, because she used a semi-

guys around and he addresses them on their re-

conductor instead of an optical, or heating mech-

sponsibility. With his vision on sustainocracy he

anism. This means that the sensor can be really

wants to create a better and healthier tomorrow. He

small, possibly even in your mobile phone. But this

was and is an inspiration for me who lets me think

was in lab conditions where humidity, temperature,

about the things I am doing and can do in the future.

and airflow was controlled. Future development is still needed make this kind of sensors possible.

41


Integration sensor Branding and integration Connecting Actors Develop interactions Data analyses App development Sending and storing data Sensor Technology

Integrate in their existing tests

Sensor Technology CONCLUSIE EXPERT M EE TINGS For the perfect sensor there is still a long road to go but in the region Eindhoven there is a lot possible. For example NXP is currently testing with 150 taxies which send all their data from the board computers towards a data center where it is analyzed. In this way they can give feedback on driving behavior, monitor accidents and much more. Censor technology from AiREAS and ECN could be combined with the NXP taxies to create the first tests. RIVM should analyze the data and check the validity of it.

42


Development Sensor Humidity Measure: NOx NO2 O3 PM2,5

Test with multiple cars Compare with existing data Development application Promotion

Mass production Deployment car Manufacturer Data analysis

FINAL RESULT / FUTURE Even though most people will not

people who want to have such

erly the image from the app and

see mobile air measurement as

a device in their car would prob-

the car should be green and posi-

a necessity or something where

ably people who are already in

tive and something you want to

they want to spend extra money

this branch or would have person-

have because you can feel good

on most people find clean air im-

al interest in air quality, because

about your contribution.

portant. When the information be-

they live near a highway or have a

comes more local and personal

health condition that needs extra

it will have more value. The first

attention. If it is worked out prop-

43


CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS There have been already many projects where people have shown

possible. Data should be visualized in such a way that it makes

that mobile measurement is something that makes sense to do.

sense for everybody. Only than we can expect an average citizen

The sensor technology to measure mobile is not yet far enough

to understand what the air quality means for their lives.

developed to be good enough. Sensors now are inaccurate and too expensive for the commercial market for the average. The government could start to equip buses and taxies with measuring equipment to provide citizens, to create a better picture of the air quality. This data should be brought as transparent and open as

44

In the sensor technology especially the placement, and controlling the conditions of the sensor will something that needs to be developed and tested. Once the data has proven to be valuable the applications around it should be build.


45


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48


A P E N DIX A INTRODUCTION: I am doing my research about outdoor air quality. In this

What is your opinion on how the news about air quality

What if you could see the amount of air pollution wher-

is brought?

ever you are? How would this look like in your imagination?

session I would like to explore with you your past expe-

Can you explain the situation where the air was not that

riences in this topic, and together with you explore the

good: home, holiday, traveling ( situations: concrete ex-

Same situation: afterwards go into depth in different

possibilities for a concept. There are no good or bad

amples: what were they doing, time etc) how they real-

situations?

answers, I just would like to know your thoughts about

ize it was not that good, what they did, if they cared or

this subject to give me new ideas.

not etc. )

SENSITIZATION:

Feedback: Prepare small stories: about home, travel,

Past experiences: fictional story: introduce context: non directive questions: provoke relevant past experiences: in the current context of use My first question is: Have you thought about the air quality the past 6 months? • •

What did you experience? After the experience did you continue thinking

work. Scenario: he read in the news…, is wondering about how it is in his neighborhood. Bring up different

If you have this device? How would this device be useful for you? What kind of data would you like to see?

A lot of pictures of situations: to let them ring a bell.

What value would you give to this data?

ELABORATION:

Are there more people you know who would find this

Envision future: fictional story: introducing the concept: ask what they like and don’t like What if you would be this person? What would you do? Sketch the situation

Do you recognize this situation?

Think out loud Advice: John got a present: explain the device: what it

What other moments did you think about the air?

situations?

situation.

about this?

What did you think about in this situation?

Would this device give you something extra in these

does etc. ( what does he measure, how does it look like,

data interesting? What would you like to see? And how and where would you like to see this data? Are there specific places that come into your mind where you would like to know the air quality? When would you use such a system? For who do you think this data would be important?

what does it communicate? ) (Relate to the things they said in the previous face. 49


A P E N DIX B WITH THE PLANNING OF A LONG TRIP BY CAR, I WOULD LIKE MY NAVIGATION TO

1

OTHERWISE

5

OTHERWISE

6

NO

4

NOT SO IMPORTANT

AVOID POLLUTED CITIES IF IT IS NOT TOO FAR OUT OF THE DIRECTION

WOULD YOU LIKE TO KNOW THE HEALTH RISKS OF ANY SCALE WITH RESPECT TO AIR QUALITY

WOULD YOU LIKE TO SEE LIVE DATA FROM OTHER PEOPLE?

22

YES

14

10

MAYBE

0

GIVE A NOTIFICATION WHERE CLEAN SPOTS ARE

0

5

1

NO

18 10

15

0

HOW IMPORTANT IS CLEAN AIR FOR YOU?

2

4

6

8

12

10

15

WOULD YOU LIKE TO SEE HOW THE AIR QUALITY WAS IN THE PAST?

AVOID POLLUTED CITIES IF IT IS NOT TOO FAR OUT OF THE DIRECTION

1

NO

25

5

14

GIVE A NOTIFICATION WHERE CLEAN SPOTS ARE

14

20

14 OTHERWISE

10

VERY IMPORTANT

10

WITH THE PLANNING OF A LONG TRIP BY CAR, I WOULD LIKE MY NAVIGATION TO

12

YES

20

5

18 0

5

10

15

20

I TRAVEL ON AVERAGE ........ PER DAY

4

2

+- 50KM

0 27

YES

5

+- 15 KM

NOT SO IMPORTANT 0

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

I NOTICE THAT THE AIR IS BAD

+- 10 KM

8

+- 5 KM

8 1

+- 3 KM

5

I DON'T NOTICE THIS

0

5

WHEN I SMELL SOMTHING

18

WHEN I AM IN A TRAFFIC JAM BY CAR

5

WHEN I TAKE PART IN TRAFFIC BY BIKE

WHEN I ARRIVE IN AN AREA WHERE THE AIR IS CLEANER THAN WHERE I CAME FROM, (MOUNTAIN AIR, SEA AIR, ETC)

50

2

4

5

6

7

8

8

10

12

14

10 12

2

1 3

15

I NOTICE THAT THE AIR IS BAD

2

DISAGREE

0

3

I AGREE COMPLETLY

13

WHEN MY EYES TEAR

1

I PREFER TO SEE A MORE ABSTRACT VISUALIZATION OF AIR QUALITY DATA IN FIRST INSTANCE BEFORE I SEE MORE DETAILED INFORMATION

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

0

2

4

6

9


I WOULD LIKE TO SEE WHAT THE CONNECTION IS BETWEEN THE WEATHER AND AIR QUALITY

WOULD YOU LIKE TO SHARE THE SELF MEASURED DATA TO OTHERS? 3

OTHERWISE

1

OTHERWISE

NO, THIS IS MY DATA NOT FOR 0 OTHERS. YES THIS DATA SHOULD BE OPEN, I WOULD LIKE TO BE ABLE TO SHARE THIS EXPLICITLY TO OTHERS

2

NO

YES THIS DATA SHOULD OPEN AND AVAILABLE TO EVERYONE

25

YES

0

5

10

15

20

UNTIL HOW FAR BACK WOULD YOU LIKE TO BE ABLE TO SEE?

25

5

20 YEARS

0

10

12

14

16

18

20

2

5

NO

2

1 MONTH

8

5

1

3 YEARS

6

6

4

5 YEARS

4

OTHERWISE

7

1

40 YEARS

2

I WOULD LIKE THAT THE APPLICATION SHOWS WHAT THINGS I CAN DO TO CONTRIBUTE TO CLEANER AIR

7

AGREE

5

50 YEARS

18 0

30

I WOULD LIKE TO SEE THE DATA IN NUMBERS I MEADIATLY

9

AS FAR BACK AS POSSIBLE

7

1

3

DISAGREE

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

13 17

SHOULD HELP ME TO DRIVE CLEANER WHEN THE AIR BAD SHOULD SHOW TO OTHER PEOPLE HOW GOOD/BAD THE AIR IS ON THE OUTSIDE OF THE CAR

7

8

0

5

10

15

20

WOULD YOU WANT TO BE ABLE TO SET AN ALERT AS THE PREDICTED AIR QUALITY FOR THE NEXT DAY IS VERY BAD?

WHEN THERE WOULD BE A SENSOR FOR MEASURING THE AIR QUALITY IN MY CAR, THIS SENSOR MODULE SHOULD HELP ME TO AVOID DIRTY PLACES

21

YES

2

OTHERWISE

5

SHOULD GIVE ME A WARNING WHEN THE VALUE COME ABOVE A CERTAIN THRESHOLD THAT I HAVE SET MYSELF.

4

NO

13

SHOULD AUTOMATICALLY CLOSE THE WINDOWS AND AIR INTAKE

16

22

YES

2

OTHERWISE

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

0

5

10

15

20

25

51


IMPORTANCE: CONNECTION WEATHER AND AIR QUALITY

IMPORTANCE: INFORMATION HEALTH RISKS

NOT IMPORTANT 0

1 0

2

4

6

8

10

12

NOT SO IMPORTANT

NOT IMPORTANT 0

NOT IMPORTANT

52

4

8

6

8

10

12

14

16

7 9 7

NEUTRAL

NOT SO IMPORTANT 0

2

6

IMPORTANT

6

NEUTRAL

4

VERY IMPORTANT

10

IMPORTANT

2

IMPORTANCE: TIPS TO CONTRIBUTE TO A CLEANER AIR

11

VERY IMPORTANT

0

14

IMPORTANCE:NOTIFICATION BY BAD AIR QUAKITY

0

1

NOT SO IMPORTANT

4

NOT IMPORTANT

9

NEUTRAL

6

NEUTRAL

15

IMPORTANT

12

IMPORTANT

NOT SO IMPORTANT

2

VERY IMPORTANT

4

VERY IMPORTANT

10

12

3 1 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10


IMPORTANCE: ABSTRACT REPRESENTATATION OF DATA

IMPORTANCE: OPTION TO SHARE THE DATA

9

VERY IMPORTANT

11

IMPORTANT

5

NOT SO IMPORTANT

NEUTRAL

6

NOT SO IMPORTANT

6

NOT IMPORTANT 0

0

12

IMPORTANT

2

NEUTRAL

3

VERY IMPORTANT

NOT IMPORTANT 0

2

4

6

8

10

12

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

IMPORTANCE: BEING ABLE TO FOLLOW DATA FROM SOMEONE ELSE 2

VERY IMPORTANT

7

IMPORTANT

10

NEUTRAL

4

NOT SO IMPORTANT

2

NOT IMPORTANT

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

53

Final report apps on wheelsaiqu app  

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