Exploring the impact of food
2 Special Edition 2017
CONTENTS 2017 | Special Edion
Exploring the impact of food
03 EDITOR’S LETTER A few words on the creation of this magazine and its message.
What are macronutrients and micronutrients?
06 THE DARK SECRET OF GREEK YOGURT It’s a delicious snack, but something not so good is hidden behind the scenes. 08 FOOD WASTE The statistics of our food waste are sometimes surprising. 10 FOOD AT YOUR FINGERTIPS The concept of farm to table explained and its impact on our health and the environment.
The Dark Secret of Greek Yogurt
Food at Your Fingertips
IMPRESSUM EDITOR • Tiﬀany Matthé ASSISTANT EDITOR • Tiﬀany Matthé
EDITORIAL AND DESIGN
13 THREE MOST DECEPTIVE FOOD LABELS Discover the labels that lie to you in supermarkets.
EDITOR IN CHIEF • Tiﬀany Matthé EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR • Tiﬀany Matthé ARTISTIC DIRECTOR • Tiﬀany Matthé GRAPHIC DESIGNER • Tiﬀany Matthé PAGE DESIGNER • Tiﬀany Matthé
14 EATING OUR EMOTIONS The explanation behind our food impulsions and how to control them.
TO CONTACT US EMAIL
HOW MUCH DO WE REALLY EAT? Circular graphics show surprising facts about our food consumption levels.
JUNK FOOD IN OUR BODY What is junk food doing to our body? It’s not very good.
THE 5 SIGNS THAT PROVE YOU ARE ADDICTED TO FOOD Food might be too irresistible for some...
AN INTERVIEW WITH ABBEY SHARP Interesting answers from an expert in the field of food.
WEBSITE akitchenfable.wordpress.com © 2017 by Mangé, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part is prohibited without the prior written permission of the copyright holder. Mangé is a trademark of Tiﬀany Matthé.
PHOTO CREDITS freepik from flaticon.com : p.5, 7 Nikita Golubev from flaticon.com : p. 5 Gregor Cresnar from flaticon.com : p. 5 Anatoly from flaticon.com : p.5 Roundicons from flaticon.com : p.5 Dashu83 from freepik.com: p.8 madebyoliver from flaticon.com : p.4, 5, 18 Abby Sharp : p.20, 21 The Pink Group from iconfinder.com : p.24 Xinh Studio from iconfinder.com : p.24
CREAMY GREEK YOGURT And yes, you can make your own yogurt with just 2 ingredients.
AVOCADOS IN THE SPOTLIGHT A smoothie that helps you start your day right.
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25 CHOCOLATE CHIP BANANA MUFFINS A delicious snack that is easy to make and healthy.
EDITOR’S LETTER MY FIRST TIME
t was a long year full of words written and erased, pages moved up and down, pictures searched and frustration expressed. But my magazine is ﬁnally ﬁnished and ready to be read by you, dear reader. The articles describe the eﬀects of food on our life and our environment and the infographics have been carefully created to show in detail the statistics concerning food. One of my favorite pages is the interview with Abbey Sharp, a certiﬁed dietitian on page 20. Her opinions have opened my mind on our food mentality and habits that are not always good for us when we eat. So I hope that you will ﬁnd something that you never knew and if you have any comments, do not hesitate to contact me by my email address, matthetiﬀany@gmail.com. Your opinions or suggestions help me a lot to measure my success of my personal project for my school criteria.
WHAT ARE MACRONUTRIENTS AND MICRONUTRIENTS? Micronutrients Vitamin A
Protects eye health, helps the immune system, ﬁghts inﬂammation, prevents cancer and supports healthy hair growth.
Helps metabolism and nervous system, boosts energy production, strengthens muscles and prevents heart diseases.
Supports muscles and connective tissues, helps iron absorption and prevents diabetes.
Combats depression, improves muscular function, helps weight loss and prevents cancer.
Good sources: carrots, eggs, sweet potatoes and bell peppers.
Good sources: chicken, ﬁsh, eggs, cheese and lamb.
Good sources: oranges, green leafy vegetables, tomatoes and kiwis.
Good sources: salmon, shrimp, fortiﬁed milk and eggs.
Protects heart muscles, reduces risk of colon cancer and improves bone health.
Reinforces bones, promotes cardiovascular health and supports the immune system.
Good sources: spinach, turmeric, chia seeds, beef and kale.
Good sources: milk, almonds, broccoli and sesame seeds.
Good sources: spinach, pumpkin seeds and black beans.
Improves brain development, transports oxygen and helps blood formation.
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They are composed of amino acid chains and can be found in DNA and muscles. It is the base of all body cells. There are 8 essential amino acids and they have to come from our diet.
There are three types of carbohydrates present in our diet. Sugars, starch and ﬁber are all quick sources of energy that deliver energy to our cells.
These are fatty acid molecules that can be stored in the body as fat tissue. They also transport vitamins and other molecules that ﬁght diseases around the body.
Controls levels of nitrogen in the liver
Important source of energy
Converts fatty acids to energy
Helps the body to absorb vitamins
Keeps hair and skin in good health
Supports cellular functions
Creates antibodies for immune response
Good sources of proteins: beans, chicken, ﬁsh, chia seeds and pistachios.
Fiber maintains blood sugar levels
Good sources of carbohydrates: rice, whole grains, blueberries and bananas.
Helps brain function
Good sources of fats: cheese, olives, salmon, eggs and avocadoes.
But if we overconsume... Overconsumption of all foods contributes to weight gain, high blood sugar levels and many diseases, such as stroke or cancer.
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ONTAINING PROBIOTICS THAT HELP OUR IMMUNE SYSTEM AND MANY PROPROTEINS, it is not surprising that healthy people love Greek yogurt. The fact that it has less sugar and lactose than normal yogurt also attracts people who are lactose intolerant and people who want to be healthier. One thing is certain, Greek yogurt is good for our health. But what is hidden by yogurt producers, such as Chobani, is not as good for our environment. According to Modern Farmer, we need three to four ounces of milk to make just one ounce of creamy Greek yogurt. The rest is named acid whey and that is where the problem is. If this runny liquid is thrown in the nature, waters will not be clean anymore and millions of aquatic creatures will die because of acid whey’s toxic decomposition.
produce electricity. But there is just so much that a cow can eat, and the quantities used in fertilizers and biogas are not enough to make all this acid whey disappear. Dave Barbano, a dairy scientist, thinks he found another solution. With infant formula for babies. He would need to do a lot of research and tests, but he wants to use the small quantity of protein that is in acid whey to add to the infant formula for babies. But even if all these innovative ideas work, it’s unlikely that they will be able to use up the enormous amounts that commercial Greek yogurt produces. So while we wait until they really ﬁnd an extraordinary idea, why not make your own Greek yogurt? The recipe is on page 22.
The producers do not know what to do with this toxic substance.
The farmers, who are paid by Greek yogurt companies to take back the acid whey, have tried to integrate this product in their farms. It’s used to feed cows, mixed in fertilizers, and even transformed into biogas to
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FOOD WASTE W
E PRODUCE ENOUGH FOOD TO FEED THE ENTIRE WORLD. But there is 795 million of people who don’t eat enough to lead a healthy lifestyle and we can change that. Canadians waste more than 40% of food as retailers and consumers. In total, that’s 31 billion dollars thrown away in Canada, and 47% of this amount is wasted in households. Also, in addition to these losses, there is also the cost of oil, gas, and workers’ wages associated to the production of this wasted food that is also lost. Don’t forget that 30% of greenhouse emissions come from landﬁll sites, which also includes the food that was thrown away. This problem is caused by many things, but our elevated standards contribute to the majority of the wasted food thrown away by
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supermarkets. More than 30% of fruits and vegetables in North America never reach the consumer level because the food is not aesthetically pleasing enough and high quality for our expectations. Contrary to what most think, hunger is not only present in developing countries (although 12,9% of the population in these countries is undernourished, which represents the majority of those who are touched by hunger), but also in the developed countries. In Canada, one in eight families have trouble buying healthy food for their family. Hunger is a real problem in the world and we can help make a diﬀerence. Plan your meals in advance and follow your grocery list! Check the expiration dates to make sure you eat them before they expire. Keep leftovers from previous meals for a meal today. And conserve your food items
correctly. Bread goes in the pantry or the freezer, apples go in the fridge, potatoes go in a dark and cold place, vegetables in the drawer of your fridge and tomatoes on the counter. You have a can of soup you’ll probably never eat? Don’t throw it away! Make a donation to your local food bank instead.
of all the food in the world never gets eaten 20% of meat products is wasted
45% of fruit and vegetables is wasted 30% of fish and seafood is wasted 30% of cereal products is wasted
20% of dairy products is wasted
20% of oilseeds and pulses is wasted 45% of roots and tubers is wasted
Statistics taken from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
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Food at your fingertips
ROM FANCY RESTAURANTS TO FAST FOOD CHAINS SUCH AS MCDONALD’S AND CHIPOTLE, it seems that everyone has caught drift of the concept “farm to table”. This concept is not new, like some might think, but started in the years 1960 and 1970, when natural and organic food was the rage. The term “farm to table” is being used so much by the foodprocessing industry that we do not really know what the concrete
rules are to deﬁne which foods can carry this name. In a very loose deﬁnition “farm to table” simply means that the cook uses ingredients that came from a local farm (and hopefully organic) to make his dishes. Although you might already know that eating fresh and natural food is good for you and has a better taste, do you know the impact it has on our environment?
have to be picked before they are ripe so they don’t rot during transportation. This gives the fruits and vegetables time to ripen during the trip by absorbing the nutrients from their surroundings and it guarantees the consumer fresh and ripe produce. But according to the United States Department of Agriculture, fruits and vegetables that are picked before they are fully ripe
Food importation produces 5 to 17 more times of carbon dioxide. A study conducted by Iowa State University's “Leopald Center for Sustainable Agriculture” found that on average, imported food travels 2400 km to reach the consumer, while local food only travels 72 km. This means that the vehicles transporting the food release more CO2 when they have to travel greater distances. Also, the study shows that the distribution system of conventional food uses 4 to 17 more times of gas and produces 5 to 17 more times of CO2 than the local and regional systems. There is also a problem with the imported fruit and vegetables. In their case, if they are imported from other countries, they
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do not receive all the nutrients they would’ve been able to get if they had been picked when they were ripe. Some critics say that it’s too much, the menus crowded with farm names so it’s impossible to ﬁnd the ingredients and the advertisements ﬁlled with local farmers next to McDonald’s. But one thing is certain, food that comes from a local farm has been proven to be good for your health and for our Mother Nature.
THREE MOST DECEPTIVE FOOD LABELS MADE WITH REAL FRUIT
ALL NATURAL The FDA (U.S. Food And Drug Administration) doesn’ doesn’t have a deﬁnition for this term, term so products that advertise that they are ‘All Natural’ might not actually contain all natural ingredients. The producers can use this label if their food product doesn’t contain added colours, artiﬁcial ﬂavours or synthetic substances. Which means that ’All Natural’ products can contain preservatives and can be injected with sodium. Some companies say that high fructose corn syrup is also natural because it is made with corn, but that is deﬁnitely not the case. To make sure you’re buying what you want, look for the ‘organic’ label instead as it has been deﬁned by the FDA.
Do not trust this label! The companies that use these words only have to add one fruit, like a blueberry or a bit of fruit concentrate. Many food companies have already been sued for this label, in particular ‘Fruit Roll-Ups’ who had pear concentrate and not strawberries in their strawberry product. The majority of fruit juices, cereals and fruit snacks in supermarkets only contain 2% to 6 % of ‘real fruit’. fruit’.
SUGAR FREE Although sugar-free products contain less than 0,5 g of sugar per portion, they can contain more carbs and calories than the regular version and the ingredient list can be stranger too. Also, to replace sugar, food manufacturers use sugar alcohols (for example, mannitol, xylitol and sorbitol) which contain less carbs but can cause stomach problems if you consume too much of it.
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Eating Our Emotions “It’s a bad day and you are so hungry. The supermarket is open, which would be the healthier choice, but you ﬁnd yourself walking in the opposite direction, towards the ice cream shop.” This situation is not as weird as you think. Each day, thousands of people make food choices based on their emotions. Let’s see why, exactly, this happens.→
ROVEN BY MANY STUDIES, when we have negative emotions (such as being angry or sad), we usually choose junk food. And when we have positive emotions (like being happy), we usually choose healthy options. Why is that? What do emotions have to do with our food choices?
EATING OUR EMOTIONS
A study in the article “Better moods for better eating?: How mood inﬂuences food choice”, published in the Journal of Consumer Psychology, shows that people who are not happy will think of the present, which also applies to their food choices. When they choose their food, they will think of the taste, which diﬀers from happy people, who will choose healthier foods because they think of the impact of their choice in the future. But watch out! Anoth-
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er study, published in 2013 by the journal Appetite, reveals data that is completely diﬀerent than the ﬁrst study. The team, lead by Anita Jansen, found that happy people will eat more chocolate and chips to continue, or celebrate, their happiness. There is also a link between eating healthy and happiness. An article, published in the British Journal of Health Psychology, studied 281 young adults for 21 days. The adults that ate more fruits and vegetables were more likely to be happy on that day and the day after that. Eating emotionally is not a question of selfdiscipline, but rather ignorance of what we’re eating. It’s called unconscious eating and it’s when you’re full but continue eating because it’s right in front of you. Another factor than plays in our emotional eat-
ing is our love for food. After a long day of work, for example, we usually reward ourselves with food. When we consume sugars and carbs, this releases opioids in the brain and produces a relaxing sensation similar to the eﬀects pro-
ly hungry or is it just your emotions? If it’s your feelings, ﬁnd other ways to cope with them before overeating. •
Depressed? Do something that makes you happy, such as calling a friend, looking at a
Happier people choose healthy foods because
breathes, ﬁnd something that makes you laugh, etc. Last thing. Here’s a surprising fact: 75% of overeating (which is directly linked to unhealthy weight gain) is caused by emotional eating. So think twice before eating if you’re not hungry.
they think of the impact of their choice in the future. duced by narcotics such as cocaine. This means eating junk food is relaxing. To avoid this from happening, you have to ﬁnd other ways to relax yourself.
But how, exactly, can we stop eating emotionally?
There are some tricks. For example, if you are depressed, think of something you’re thankful for before choosing what to eat. Also, before eating, think about it. Are you real-
favourite photo, playing with your pet, etc.
Bored? Go and do anything you like. Take a walk, read a book or watch a TV show. Tired? Relax! Take a short nap or a warm bath. Stressed? Go for a quick walk, sing or dance to your favourite songs, clench a stress ball, etc. Angry? Listen to calm music, do some exercise, take controlled, deep
HOW MUCH DO WE REALLY EAT? WORLD AVERAGE (Daily calories: 2 870) Cereal products are still the top choice to satisfy our hunger, but sadly, other types of food are not consumed enough.
UNITED STATES (Daily calories: 3 641) Sugar and carbs convert food energy into fat cells, which is deďŹ nitely bad for your body. The quantity that Americans consume is staggering, no?
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ALCOHOL DRINKS: From 2 to 4 half glasses a day. (Only for adults, of course!) 2 PORTIONS OF MEAT AND SUBSTITUTES:
7 PORTIONS OF CEREAL PRODUCTS: A slice of bread, 1/2 tortilla, 1/2 cup rice or 1/2 cup couscous are all delicious examples of examples of a portion.
Such as 1/2 cup ﬁsh or chicken, 3/4 cup tofu, 2 eggs or 1/4 cup nuts.
RECOMMENDED (Daily calories: 2000)
SUGARS AND FATS: 3 PORTIONS OF MILK AND SUBSTITUTES: For example, a cup of milk, 3/4 cup yogurt or 50 g cheese.
8 PORTIONS OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLES:
Maximum 2 to 3 tablespoons of oils. Stay away from sugary products!
1 cup of leafy vegetables, 1/2 cup 100% fresh juice, 1/2 cup fresh vegetables or a stone fruit are some options.
World and USA graphs: Data (in calories) taken from What the World Eats - National Geographic. Recommended graph: Data (converted to calories) from Canada’s Food Guide based on the average male.
JUNK FOOD IN OUR BODY What unhealthy food, such as fries, candy and bad fats do to your body.
THE TEETH: The bacteria in your mouth, when combined with sugar, creates acids that decay the enamel of our teeth. If we do not brush our teeth often enough, these acids contribute to tooth decay.
THE HEART: Unhealthy food is responsible for 35% of heart attacks and rises the chances of heart diseases. Studies show that it also causes strokes.
THE LIVER: The medical center of Saint-Louis found that a diet high in sugars and fats can cause serious damage to the liver.
THE STOMACH: The calories, fat and sugar is directly linked to obesity and bloating of the stomach.
THE BLOOD: What junk food is made of can cause increased blood pressure, increase in blood sugar, insulin resistance (which is linked to diabetes) and increase in cholesterol levels.
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THE BRAIN: Junk food can slow down brain function and deteriorates our learning capacity and memory. Also, itâ€™s linked to mental health disease and can cause depression and anger.
THE SKIN: Fat has an indirect role in the emergence of acne. Our pores need to produce an excess of oil to get rid of it and this contributes to the inďŹ‚ammation of the skin.
THE LUNGS: A study in New Zealand has found that an increase in junk food consumption levels is associated to asthma in children.
THE KIDNEYS: Our kidneys cannot support the excess of sodium found in junk food and the kidney stones formed from it. In consequences, we are more susceptible to kidney diseases.
THE DIGESTION: Junk food is very hard to digest and this is the source of many digestive problems.
THE 5 signs that prove you are addicted to food If this applies to you, consult a doctor or dietitian to help bring you on the right track. Also, try to completely avoid foods that trigger you into eating more.
You want to stop. But it’s too hard. You always eat way too much. Food is the only thing you’re thinking about. Even if you’re not hungry, you still want to eat. You eat in secret or lie about what you eat.
AN INTERVIEW with
Abbie Sharp Interviewed by Tiffany Matthé
Abbey Sharp took culinary lessons at George Brown College, is a culinary Registered Dietitian, a TV and radio personality, food brand spokesperson, a food writer and blogger, and the founder of Abbey’s Kitchen Inc.
Why did you choose to work in the domain of food? I love food. I think food is a language we all can speak. It communicates love, comfort, joy, sadness. And it's delicious and nourishing!
I read that you researched on how gendered food selections are inﬂuenced by body expectations. Does this mean that women are more likely to eat healthier than men? I don't know if that's the case, but women are more likely to diet than men.
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food. When you dichotomize food, you run the risk of getting into a binge restrict mentality, and that is deﬁnitely not healthy.
What problems do you see in Canada's Food Guide? I think it overDo you have any tips to shoots the stay healthy during holiday feasts and parties? amount of food a lot of people need I suggest staying hyand if you follow drated and having a snack before you go to it, you don't have really any room a party to take the What's the number edge off so you're not for pleasurable one thing people usu- starving by the time treats without ally get wrong about you get there. Also, algoing well over eating healthy? ways have a few sips of your caloric I think they have an all water between each needs. I think it or nothing mentality sip of alcohol. also isn't very about food. They behelpful for people lieve you're either on a diet or to envision "Servings" because oﬀ, eating good food or bad we don't naturally eat in such a
disjointed way. I also believe that foods shouldn't be lumped into just "vegetables" when clearly a potato delivers a very diﬀerent nutrient proﬁle then broccoli. Also, fruit juice shouldn't be counted as a fruit. Another issue is that it doesn't really celebrate food as something to be shared and enjoyed and created as a family- it's just a series of servings lumped together each day.
It depends how you deﬁne healthy. Do they have more calories? Probably. But are they more satisfying and possibly pack more protein and fewer carbs? Probably. You have to consider the satiety factor. I will always go for something with more protein and ﬁbre even if it has more calories because I know I won't be hungry again in an hour and needing another snack.
Any safe diet you would recommend for people trying to lose weight? I don't recommend diets because they're just not sustainable and they don't promote a healthy relationship with food. My recommendation is to adopt a mindful approach to food.
What would be the best time to eat before doing exercise? And what would be the best thing to eat before exercising? I like to have a snack within an hour before I workout and usually something with some carbs in it for a burst of energy. If its a longer workout, I would pair that carb with some protein. Some of my favourites are bananas, or bananas with almond butter for a longer workout.
Do you think vegans get enough protein? They absolutely can, as long as they're well educated and are making the right choices throughout the day.
Are McDonald’ McDonald’s salads healthier than, let’ let’s say, their cheeseburger?
So fat in food is usually given a bad rap. But how about avocados? Do they contain healthy fats which we can eat all the time? Absolutely. I love avocados for their monounsaturated fats.
What are the beneﬁts of going glutengluten- free? If you're celiac, it is life saving. If you're not, and you don't ﬁnd you have any reactions to gluten then there aren't any beneﬁts to going gluten free.
Any easy recipe on your blog that you recommend for people who want to start eating healthy? Sure! http:// www.abbeyskitchen.com/veganchocolate-dipped-banana-rollups-stick/
Thank you very much, Abbey Sharp!!!
GREEK YOGURT MAKES 4 CUPS This recipe is very easy to make but you have to wait until the next morning to have a creamy Greek yogurt. It’s a delicious snack with fruits and cereal.
4 cups (1 quart) whole milk 2 tbsp. plain yogurt, with active bacterial cultures
• Heat up the milk in a saucepan
until just boiling. Let it cool down until the temperature of the milk reaches 44.5 to 46°C (112 to 115° F). Or, if you don’t have a thermometer, the milk should be ready when you can stick your little ﬁnger (pinky) in the milk for 10 seconds without burning yourself. • Measure out a 1/4 cup of the milk
into a cup. Mix the yogurt with the milk in the cup. Do not omit this step! • Now pour the milk and yogurt
mixture into the milk in the saucepan. Mix until incorporated. Trans-
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fer the milk mixture into a glass container and cover with towels. • Put the towel-wrapped glass con-
tainer in the oven, with the oven light on. Leave it like that for a minimum of 4 hours, and up to 12 hours so the bacteria in the yogurt can multiply. The yogurt should be thick. The longer it stays in the oven, the more sour it gets. • Refrigerate for at least an hour
before eating. Can be stored in the fridge for a week. • This is a very plain yogurt, so you
can eat it with honey, syrup or fruit.
CHOCOLATE AVOCADO SMOOTHIE MAKES 2 CUPS 1 avocado, ripe 1 banana 2 tbsp. honey 1/4 cup cocoa powder 1 1/4 cups almond milk or 2% milk • Put all the ingredients in a blender
and blend until smooth. • Serve in two big glasses.
CHOCOLATE CHIP BANANA MUFFINS
• Preheat oven to 175 °C ( 350 °F). • In a small bowl, sift together the
MAKES 12 MUFFINS
ﬂours, baking powder and baking soda.
1/2 cup whole wheat flour
• In a separate large bowl, beat
1 1/2 cups white flour
together the agave syrup or honey, Greek yogurt and the egg. Mix in mashed bananas and vanilla extract.
2 tsp. baking powder 1 tsp. baking soda 1/3 cup agave syrup or honey 1/2 cup plain Greek yogurt 1 egg 5 mashed bananas 1 tsp. vanilla extract 1/2 cup chocolate chips
• Whisk in the ﬂour mixture and
the chocolate chips into the wet mixture. Mix until combined but do not overmix. • Scoop into 12 greased muﬃn cups
and bake in the oven for 20-25 minutes, or until an inserted toothpick in the middle comes out clean. • Let cool in pan for 5 minutes
before removing. Enjoy!
THANK YOU FOR READING ALL THE WAY HERE! Just a reminder, if you have any comments, please don’t hesitate to contact me. matthetiﬀany@gmail.com akitchenfable akitchenfable.wordpress.com
A Kitchen Fable @akitchenfable A Kitchen Fable
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A magazine on the effect of food on humans and the environment.