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Rochester Minnesota Livability

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For thousands of years, native peoples traversed and settled in the area that would become Minnesota. The earliest European Annette M. Larson Counseling explorers came to this area seeking a northwest passage to the Pacific Specializing in Crisis & Addiction Recovery Ocean. First to arrive in 1660 were Father Louis Hennepin and Pierre M.A., LPC, LADC Le Sueur. Other English explorers paddled their birch bark canoes Northtown Psychology Associates either up the Mississippi River or across Lake Superior, but for almost 199 Coon Rapids Blvd., Suite 310 two centuries after Hennepin few non-natives had seen the rolling (763) 785-8111, ext. 10 plains and deep valleys of what is known as southeastern Minnesota. Under a treaty with the U.S. in 1853, the Dakota/Sioux relinquished the area, that would include Rochester, to the Territory known as Minnesota. Rochester developed as a stop along the Dubuque trail, a stagecoach line between St. Paul and Dubuque, Iowa. Located at a crossroads near the Zumbro River, travelers would stop to camp and Use your water their animals. On July 12, 1854, George Head and his family Smart Phone laid claim to land that now forms part of Rochester's central business district. It was there that they built a log cabin known as Head's to Scan Our Tavern. Head named the city after his hometown of Rochester, NY. QR Codes In 1863, a physician named William Worrall Mayo, who and emigrated to the U.S. from England in 1845, arrived in Rochester from Le Sueur, Minnesota, to become an examining surgeon of federal B Inspired draftees during the Civil War. Dr. W.W. Mayo stayed on and became Rochester’s “County Doctor”. By 1880, with an establlished railroad, Rochester had become a regional urban center with a population of 5,103 people. On August 12, 1883, a thunderstorm swept across the rolling GET A FREE APP plains with a tornado hitting Rochester, killing 24 people, injuring 100 and destroying 150 buildings. The Sisters of Saint Francis, Dr. W.W. Mayo and his sons, William and Charles, came to the aid of those injured by the storm. Afterward, Franciscan Sister Mary Alfred Moes was convinced Rochester needed a permanent medical facility. She approached Dr. Mayo with a proposal. The Sisters would find a way to build a hospital if the good doctor and his sons would agree to provide the medical staff. This collaboration laid the framework for today’s St. Mary's Hospital which opened in 1889 with 27 beds. Other doctors came to practice with the Mayo’s, and the medical team developed scientific laboratories to test and refine their medical knowledge. Their efforts would set in motion the development of what has become one of the world's foremost, and the largest notfor-profit centers of medical care. Thomas J. Watson, Jr., who would later become the second President of International Business Machines – IBM, was a pilot in WW II. and became CEO of IBM. Watson decided to build a plant at one of two comparable sites, Madison, Wisconsin and Rochester, Minnesota. He chose Rochester to honor his close friend and Rochester native, Leland Fiegel, also a WWII pilot, awarded the distinghuished service cross and who perished in a plane accident in 1948 after visitng Watson. IBM's engineering and educational facilities sits on a 397 acre site on the edge of Rochester. IBM began with 174 employees and had 1,800 employees by the opening of the first phase of the main “blue” building. With continuous growth, IBM’s biggest building under one roof would employ around 6,000 by the late 70’s. Rochester was situated on the banks of the South Fork of the Zumbro River to take advantage of the water supply, the power of natural falls and, eventually, manmade mill races. The City was laced with small creeks feeding the Zumbro - Cascade, Bear, Silver and Willow. This location made the city subject to periodic flash, and often severe flooding, from heavy rainfall events. Working with the federal government, a flood control plan for Rochester was developed during 1976-77 and first submitted for funding in a bill to Congress in 1977. After a relatively wet early summer in 1978, an epic rainstorm began on July 5th. The tributary creeks entering Rochester flowing to the Zumbro River began to rise during the night causing flash floods through residential neighborhoods which would later be again inundated as the Zumbro River rose and left its banks. Rising during the evening at a foot per hour through the night the river crested (at 10 AM) with an all-time record of 23.36 feet (flood stage is 12 feet). Five deaths were attributed to the July flood, which caused $60 million in damage to homes, buildings and infrastructure. This flood and another just a couple months later on September 12, 1978, prompted Congress to approve construction of a major flood control project. The project was completed in 1996, at a cost of $140 million dollars and protects a large part of the city against a 200-year recurrence interval flood event. The highest the Zumbro River level reached since completion of the project occurred in June of 2014 with almost no flood related effects. The recreational component of the Be Part of theTidbits project created 10 miles of bicycle and pedestrian trails in a linear park corridor throughout the city - the backbone of the robust trail Reading Event system which has developed throughout the city. Rochester, Minnesota was's No. 1 city on its 2017 ranking of Top 100 Best Places to Live.

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ODD MEASUREMENTS (Continued) • A peninkulma is equal to about ten versts. A verst is equal to 500 sazhen. A sazhen is defined by the Russian language as the distance between the tips of the outstretched arms of an adult human. • The distance between the tips of the outstretched arms of an adult human is also called a fathom, from the German word “fadumâ€? meaning “embracing armsâ€? which has now been standardized at six feet (1.8m) and was typically used by sailors to measure the depth of the ocean. When it became necessary to bury someone at sea, the body needed to be sunk to a depth of at least six fathoms, leading to the phrase “to deep sixâ€? something by disposing of it. The word fathom in the sense of being unable to understand something: “I can’t fathom thatâ€? refers to the word’s original meaning of “embraceâ€? as in, “I can’t wrap my mind around that.â€? • A “morgenâ€? was defined as the amount of land that one ox and one man could till in a day. “Morgenâ€? is German and Dutch for “morning.â€? The morgen was an official measurement in South Africa until the 1970s due to Dutch influence. • The morgen is similar to the acre, which is the area of land a yoke of oxen can plow in a day with a wooden plow. It comes from the Latin “agerâ€? meaning “field.â€? The acre begat the furlong, which is the distance an ox can plow before needing to rest. It comes from the Old English “furhâ€? meaning “furrowâ€? and “langâ€? meaning “long.â€? Turning a team of oxen around while they were dragging a heavy plow was a difficult task, so furrows were made as long as possible, and the oxen were given a chance to rest before turning around and plowing in the opposite direction. The furlong became standardized at 660 feet (201m). • The Romans noted that a two-step pace of a marching man was about five feet. One thousand paces, or 5,000 feet, became the mile, called “milia passuumâ€? meaning “1,000 paces.â€? However, farms in England were measured in furlongs, which equaled 660 feet. In 1575, England’s Queen Elizabeth I proclaimed the mile should be 5,280 feet, so it could easily be divided

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â–˛ On March 17, 1762, in New York City, the first parade honoring the Catholic feast day of St. Patrick, patron saint of Ireland, is held by Irish soldiers serving in the British army. â–˛ On March 16, 1802, the United States Military Academy -- the first military school in the United States, also known as West Point -- is founded by Congress. West Point was the site of a Revolutionary-era fort that Patriot General Benedict Arnold agreed to surrender to the British in exchange for 6,000 pounds. However, the plot was uncovered and Arnold fled to the British for protection.

▲ On March 22, 1894, the first championship ice hockey series for Lord Stanley’s Cup is played in Montreal, Canada. Since 1962, only one trophy has been used, making the Stanley Cup the only trophy in major sports that is not reproduced each year. ▲ On March 19, 1931, in an attempt to lift the state out of the hard times of the Great Depression and stem the drop in population, the Nevada legislature votes to legalize gambling. A year later it legalized divorce.

â–˛ On March 20, 1965, President Lyndon Johnson notifies Alabama’s Gov. George Wallace that he will call up the Alabama National Guard to supervise a planned civil-rights march to protest voting discrimination against Selma’s black â–˛ On March 12, 1903, the New York population. Highlanders join baseball’s American League, changing its name to the New â–˛ On March 21, 1980, President Jimmy York Yankees in 1913. Carter informs a group of American athletes that, in response to the December â–˛ On March 14, 1950, the FBI institutes 1979 Soviet incursion into Afghanistan, the “Ten Most Wanted Fugitivesâ€? list the United States will boycott the 1980 in an effort to publicize particularly Olympics in Moscow. It is the only time dangerous fugitives. Only eight women the U.S. has boycotted the Olympics. have appeared on the Most Wanted list. â–˛ On March 23, 1999, bestselling â–˛ On March 13, 1965, Eric Clapton author Thomas Harris delivers his 600leaves the Yardbirds. The English page manuscript for his new novel, guitarist, singer and songwriter was “Hannibal,â€? to Delacorte press, more enough of a purist to quit when the than 10 years after he had promised the band drifted from the blues toward book. It was his third novel featuring experimental pop with its 1965 hit “For serial killer and cannibal Hannibal Your Love.â€? Lecter. â–˛ On March 15, 1970, Boston Bruin (c) 2018 Hearst Communications, Inc. Bobby Orr becomes the first defenseman All Rights Reserved in NHL history to score 100 points in a

into 8 furlongs. Today the furlong is rarely used outside of horseracing, and the mile is rarely used outside the U.S., Myanmar, and Liberia. • A league is the distance a person can walk in an hour, 3.5 miles. In Jules Verne’s book “20,000 Leagues Under the Seaâ€? Captain Nemo would have travelled about 70,000 miles under the ocean, far enough to circumnavigate the Earth nearly three times. • A mile is an arbitrary measurement, but a nautical mile is a precise measurement based on the circumference of Earth. If you cut the Earth in half at the equator and pick up one of the halves, the equator forms a circle. That circle is divided into 360 equal parts, called degrees. Each degree is divided into 60 smaller parts, called minutes. A nautical mile is one of these minutes. The nautical mile is a standardized unit of measure used by all nations for air and sea travel. It equals 1.1508 miles (1.852 km). • If you are traveling at one nautical mile per hour, you are travelling at the speed of one knot. Why is it called a knot? To tell speed, a ship would carry a line wound on a reel. A chip of wood on the end of the line was allowed to drag in the water behind the ship, causing the line to unreel. The line was knotted at intervals of 47'3" and the line was allowed to drag for exactly 28 seconds. (47'3" are to 1.1508 miles what 28 seconds are to one hour.) If the line unwound to the fifth knot in 28 seconds, the ship was moving at 5 knots per hour. • Before cardboard boxes were invented, goods were shipped in barrels. Barrels were very practical because they could be stacked on top of each other, and could be easily moved around simply by rolling them down a skid. There were all kinds of different barrels, made out of all kinds of different materials, made in standard sizes. • A barrel isn’t just a container; it’s a unit of measure, equal to 32 gallons, or 1/8 of a ton. With a capacity of 32 gallons, a barrel is a medium-sized cask. A barrel is half the size of a hogshead, a cask that holds 64 gallons. A hogshead is half the size of the butt. A butt is half the size of the largest cask, called a tun, or ton. • On the other end of the scale, a cask that is half the size of a barrel is called a kilderkin. Half a kilderkin is a firkin, holding just 8 gallons. Half of a firkin is a pin. Half of a pin is a gallon. The word “kilderkinâ€? is Dutch meaning “small cask.â€? The word “firkinâ€? is from the Dutch word meaning “one-fourth.â€?

• The term “hogsheadâ€? may have originated with a particular brand depicting the head of an ox, that looked a bit too much like the head of a pig. “Buttâ€? comes from the French “botteâ€? meaning “pipe.â€? A “buttloadâ€? is a real measurement, equaling 126 gallons. The word “gallonâ€? comes from the Latin “galusâ€? meaning “a measure of wine.â€? • A “gallopâ€? is an informal measurement used in cooking, equaling the amount of liquid necessary to leave a gallon milk jug before it literally makes the sound “gallop.â€? • A slug is a unit of mass, equal to a mass that is accelerated by one foot per second when a force of one pound is exerted against it. A slug is equal to twelve blobs, with a blob being the unit of mass that is accelerated by one inch when a force of one pound is exerted against it.

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Every year, more than 2,400 entries are submitted for the Pulitzer Prize competition. This week, Tidbits keeps you in the know on this celebrated group of awards. • The Pulitzer Prizes were established in 1917 by the generosity of newspaper publisher Joseph Pulitzer. Born in Hungary, Pulitzer came to America in 1864 at age 17, with his passage paid for by Massachusetts military recruiters who were looking for soldiers during the Civil War. He actually ended up in the First New York Lincoln Cavalry, serving for eight months. • After the war, Pulitzer tried whaling and waiting tables without success. Settling in St. Louis, Missouri, he was a regular patron at the city library, studying English during every spare minute. After being deceived by a job

offer hoax, Pulitzer wrote a short story about the ruse, which he sold to a small local newspaper, and soon was working as a reporter. At age 25, he had already purchased a share in that paper, the Westliche Post, a stake he sold for a good profit the following year. Six years later, Pulitzer bought two other newspapers, the St. Louis Dispatch and the St. Louis Post, merging them into the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, a paper that is still that city’s daily newspaper. turn the page for more! • At age 37, the now-wealthy Pulitzer bought the New York World, and his two major newspapers became noted for crusading against dishonest government, big business, and public corruption. • Pulitzer also had a place in politics, beginning as a state legislator at age 22, going on to the U.S. House of Representatives before he was 40. • Because he believed that journalists should be trained at the university level, Pulitzer set aside $2 million to establish a graduate school for journalism at New York’s Columbia University, as well as calling for a prize system to honor creative excellence. Pulitzer died in 1911, and the Columbia University School of Journalism was established in 1912, and the Pulitzer Prizes were first awarded five years later. • Pulitzer had specified four awards in journalism, four in letters and drama, one in education, and four traveling scholarships. A poetry category was added in 1922, photography in 1942, and a music category in 1943. The Pulitzer Prize for non-fiction was awarded for the first time in 1962 to Theodore White’s The Making of the President, 1960. The book recounted the presidential campaign of John F. Kennedy from the primaries to his victory over Richard Nixon. It remained on the best seller list for more than 40 weeks. • Today there are 21 categories: Public Service, Local Reporting of Breaking News, Investigative

Reporting, Explanatory Reporting, Local Reporting, National Affairs, International Affairs, Feature Writing, Commentary, Criticism, Editorial Writing, Cartoons, Breaking News Photography, Feature Photography, Fiction, History, Biography/Autobiography, Original Verse, Nonfiction, Theatrical Play, and Musical Composition. There are 102 judges who make three nominations in each of the 21 categories. • The formal announcement of the Pulitzers is made each April, and presented by the president of Columbia University. (Continued Pg 7)


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The legend of Saint Patrick has evolved during the 1500-odd years since the missionary brought Christianity to Ireland. Much embellished in the telling, his story has become a mixture of truth, myth and allegory. Read on below for some of the myths about his mission in Ireland. The Shamrock Perhaps the best-known legend of Saint Patrick involves the shamrock, the little plant that has gone on to become famous throughout the world as a symbol of Irish heritage. After training as a priest and bishop, Patrick arrived in Ireland in 432AD and immediately set about trying to covert the pagan Celts who inhabited the island. (Continued Pg. 6)

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claimed that Shulkin was to receive an award at the ambassador’s place in Copenhagen. Therefore, by the rules, the wife’s travel would be paid. Except there was no award. A VA employee, working with the wife on her wish list of things to see and do, played travel agent, on VA time. While in London, Shulkin and his wife attended Wimbledon using tickets given to them by an alleged friend of his wife. During the subsequent investigation interview, that “friend” could not remember Shulkin’s wife’s name. During the nine days they were away, only three-and-a-half days were spent in official meetings. Among a long list of unofficial activities, they visited palaces, took tours, zipped over to Sweden for dinner, went to Buckingham Palace, took a Thames River cruise and much more, apparently dragging security staff along the whole way. Changes in travel plans added $15,699 to airfare costs, but there was insufficient documentation to verify all of the other expenses, which totaled $122,000. Color me disappointed to have to suspect that Shulkin is no different from the rest of them. (c) 2018 King Features Synd., Inc.

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Kevin told Pat that his was was driving him to drink. Pat thinks he's very lucky because his own wife makes him walk. -----------------Wife: Why do you go out on the balcony when I start singing? Husband: Because I don't want people to think I am hitting you.

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■ “An open bowl of rolled oats can absorb strong odors from other foods in your fridge. My roommate always puts a small bowl in there when she brings home funky leftovers. It works for us.” -- R.E. in Massachusetts ■ “When making cookies that are dropped by the spoonful, dip your spoon in milk first, then scoop. The dough drops perfectly, and the milk does not affect the finished cookie at all.” -- F.D. in Pennsylvania ■ “If you’re having trouble opening a jar, try slipping on a pair of latex dishwashing gloves for extra traction. -- A.L. in Texas ■ “If you want to ripen avocados fast, put them in a brown bag and add a slice of lemon.” -- Pat in New York ■ No need to purchase pricey seed-starting kits, use a toilet paper roll instead! Just cut the roll in half, set upright in a tray, fill with dirt and seeds, water, and away you go. When you start a tray inside, you should be ready for planting after the danger of frost is over.

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the tight spots while wearing the socks and shoes. Keep them on until they’re cool and remove the socks. Problem solved!

■ “The dishwasher in my new apartment smells bad. What should I do?” -- P.K. Check the bottom of the dishwasher for stuck food pieces and remove them if present, then add two cups of white vinegar to unit and run. When that cycle’s done, quick-scrub any gunky spots on the inside with baking soda, and then add a cup to the bottom; re-run dishwasher once more. ■ If you hate bending over to scrub the tub, use a broom as a scrub brush. (Just make sure it’s clean, or you’ll end up with MORE dirt!) And while we’re on the subject of brooms, clean yours regularly with soap and water, and trim off stray or fraying bristles to ensure Send your tips to Now Here’s a Tip, 628 Virginia a clean sweep. ■ Too-tight flats? Put on a thick pair of socks Drive, Orlando, FL 32803. and grab your hair dryer. Run the hot air over (c) 2018 King Features Synd., Inc.

(Continued from pg. 3)

The Celtic Cross

This legend of Saint Patrick is set on a day when the missionary was preaching close to a pagan standing stone. The latter would have been considered sacred to some of his audience of potential converts because it was already carved with a circle. This mark would have been familiar to all pagans as a symbol of the sun or moon gods. St. Patrick is credited with drawing a Christian (or Latin) cross through the circle, and blessing the stone. In this way, it is said, he created the first Irish Celtic Cross Saint Patrick's Breastplate and showed himself willing to adapt heathen practices and symbols to Christian beliefs Attributed to St Patrick, the poem known as The Deer's Cry or St Patrick's in order to ease the transition from pagan to Christian. Breastplate tells the story of how the saint used a power called féth fíada to Blackbirds on Croagh Patrick transform himself and his companion into wild deer so that they could escape St. Patrick spent the forty days of Lent (the Christian period of fasting or ambush while on their way to preach at the Hill of Tara. self-denial prior to Easter) on a mountain in County Mayo. The mountain is now This royal hill in the Boyne Valley was the ancient capital of Ireland and, known as Croagh Patrick. to the Druids, the sacred dwelling place of their gods. During these days, he was harassed by demons disguised as blackbirds. The Awaiting their arrival, and with every intention of attacking or imprisoning the two Christians, their Celtic adversaries saw only a deer with a fawn roaming birds formed such dense clusters that turned the sky black. But according to this across the fields. As a result of this power, the missionairies successfully reached legend, Saint Patrick continued to pray and rang his bell as a proclamation of his the Hill without incident. faith. In answer to his prayers, an angel appeared and told him that all his petitions The Magic Fire The Celtic feast of Beltaine (Feast of the Fires) was a major festival to on behalf of the Irish people would be granted and they would retain their Christian celebrate the beginning of summer and triumph over the dark powers. Traditionally, faith until Judgement Day. a fire would be lit by Ireland's High King on the top of the Hill of Tara, and his fire Banishing the Snakes Probably as famous as the story of the shamrock is the legend of Saint would then be used to light all other fires. So, when St. Patrick lit a fire in advance of High King Laoghaire, he was deliberately inviting attention from the pagan Patrick driving all the snakes of Ireland into the sea where they drowned. chiefs. In many images of the saint, Patrick is seen standing on snakes, i.e. conquering The druid elders were sent by Laoghaire to investigate and they reported snakes. The well-received message is that there are no snakes in Ireland (save those back that Patrick's fire had magical powers because they could not put it out. They in zoos) and he alone is responsible for this happy state. It is, however, very unlikely warned that if the King did not extinguish Patrick's fire, it would burn forever. King Laoghaire was unable to extinguish the saint's fire and accepted that there were ever any snakes in Ireland! This particular legend of Saint Patrick is easy Patrick's 'magic' was stronger than his. Although he did not choose to convert to to translate: snakes were sacred to the Druids; their banishment reflects St. Patrick's Christianity himself, the King endorsed Patrick's mission to convert the Irish. success at removing pagan influence from the island. Having previously lived and worked there, he was very probably already aware that the number three held special significance in Celtic tradition (and, indeed, in many pagan beliefs), and he applied this knowledge in a clever way. He used the shamrock, a three-leafed clover which grows all over the island, to explain the Christian concept of the Holy Trinity with the theory that God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit are each separate elements of just one entity.

SENIOR NEWS LINE by Matilda Charles

Who Really Controls Your Smart Devices? Nowadays there are smart devices for the home that can be operated by your phone or even your voice. As convenient as they sound, there’s a big problem: These devices can be controlled by others. And at this stage in our lives, this is the last thing we need. Smart devices can control things like your front-door lock, central air conditioning and refrigerator/freezer, all hooked up to your Wi-Fi. But imagine what would happen in the middle of summer if a hacker turned off your A/C. Or a hacker instructed your front door to unlock -- no breaking in required. Some smart speakers that respond to questions have been found to record every word spoken in your house and store it away. Smart TVs are everywhere now, and they are huge data collectors. The information on the package makes it sound so convenient to stream movies, but think about what they learn, sitting in our living rooms listening, hooked up to other devices. The problems start when you try to set up your new television. You need to be an attorney to understand all the fine-print legalese you must agree to -- which allows them to collect data on you. If you decline, there’s one TV brand that punishes you by turning off all the set’s smart features. What if you already have a smart TV and find all of this snooping annoying? Put it all back to factory settings. Then, when you set it up again, say no to all of it. If you’re buying a new TV and want to avoid the high-tech data collection, consider a non-smart set. Read up on smart devices and appliances security. If you decide to reject smart devices, you won’t be the only one.

Page 6

Danger Lurks on the Internet How can you keep from falling prey to online scammers? It’s getting more difficult every day. Here are a few steps to stay safe: * Step one is to slow down. Use bookmarks for the sites you regularly visit. That will keep you from accidentally typing in the wrong name in a rush. Type in even one letter wrong, and it may send you to a fake site that looks identical to the one you want to visit. Once there, you might be willing to sign in because you think you’re in the right place. It’s called typo-squatting, and scammers actually register domain names that are spelled incorrectly because they know there are common misspellings. Even big names like Google, Apple and Microsoft have been hit with typo-squatting. Only do banking online if you’re very sure of the safety. (Better idea: Don’t do online banking.) * Have a long password, at least eight characters, and be sure to have symbols and numbers in it for any site where you need to sign in. * Beware putting your credit-card number on an online retail site. (Better idea: Call in your order instead. Talk to a person.) * If you’re on a social site, don’t upload photos unless you know for certain that the location information has been stripped from them. Use a fun screen name that isn’t your own name. Never announce that you’ll be away on vacation. That would sound like an invitation to a scammer who can figure out where you live. (It’s not difficult.) * Keep the grandchildren off your computer unless you have a child safety program running, such as CyberSitter. (Better idea: Have computer games they can play, but turn off the Internet.) * Keep your privacy settings on high. (c) 2018 King Features Synd., Inc.

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TIDBITS® LOOKS INTO THE PULITZER PRIZE (Continued from pg 3) • Each winner receives a $15,000 cash award, (raised in 2017 from $10,000), with the exception of the winner in Public Service journalism, a prize that is always awarded to a newspaper, not to an individual. The newspaper receives a gold medal. Joseph Pulitzer’s requirements for meritorious public service reporting included “cleanness of style, moral purpose, sound reasoning, strict accuracy, and the accomplishment of some public good commanding respect.” • The very first Pulitzer for fiction was awarded to Ernest Poole for His Family, a novel about the life of a middle-class New York City widower and his three daughters in the 1910s. • Many of the titles of the winners for novels are familiar, including Gone with the Wind (1937), To Kill a Mockingbird (1961), The Color Purple (1983), and Lonesome Dove (1986). • The 1974 photography winner depicted a United States Air Force Lt. Colonel reunited with his family at Travis Air Force Base after spending five-and-a-half years in a North Viet Nam POW camp. Part of his imprisonment was spent sharing a cell with future Senator John McCain. Photographer Sal Veder captured the image of Robert Stirm and his family, and entitled it “Burst of Joy.” • A photo of Martin Luther King Jr.’s widow and child taken at his funeral captured the 1969 photography Pulitzer. • Although the prize for music is given to an American composition that had its first performance or recording during the year, in 2008, a special prize was awarded to singer-songwriter bob Dylan for his “profound impact on popular music and American culture, marked by lyrical compositions of extraordinary poetic power.” • The prize for Drama, one of the original prizes, is judged by a


jury consisting of one academic and four critics who attend plays in New York and regional theaters throughout the year. Familiar winners include 1955’s “Cat on a Hot Tin Roof,” “The Diary of Anne Frank” (1956), “Driving Miss Daisy” (1988), and more recently, “Rent” (1996), and “Hamilton” (2017). • Only three writers have won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction more than once – Booth Tarkington in 1919 and 1922, William Faulkner in 1955 and 1963, and John Updike in 1982 and 1991. Faulkner also was awarded a Nobel Prize for Literature in 1949. His famous novels include The Sound and the Fury and As I Lay Dying. • Four individuals have received four prizes, poet Robert Frost, playwright Eugene O’Neill, and screenwriter and biographer Robert E. Sherwood. In addition to his plays, Sherwood also served as a speechwriter for President Franklin D. Roosevelt. His 1949 Pulitzer was for a biography of Roosevelt. • Pilot Charles Lindbergh penned his autobiography in 1953, chronicling the events surrounding his 1927 33-hour solo trans-Atlantic flight in his single-engine, singleseat monoplane from Long Island to Paris. The book, The Spirit of St. Louis won the Pulitzer Prize in 1954. • Prizes for cartoons are awarded to those editorial drawings that often exhibit the humorous or satirical side of politics, foreign affairs, and social issues with a sharp wit. Five cartoonists have won the award three times. • The Pulitzer for Investigative Reporting was established in 1953, and has included exposure of corruption, unsafe hospital conditions, unsafe prescription drugs, and narcotics rings, as well as providing the proof necessary to free those wrongfully convicted of violent crimes.

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● It seems that artist Leonardo da Vinci pioneered the paint-by-numbers style of art. He would sketch a piece, then number certain sections for his assistants to paint.

● GPS is a powerful tool that has changed the way we navigate the world. Of course, it’s not without its problems. Take, for instance, the case of the 23-year-old Canadian woman driving through the Ontario town of Tobermory. She was a stranger there, so -- as most of us would -- she was using her GPS. Evidently, she was so intent on following the directions provided to her that she wasn’t paying attention to where those directions were taking her -- that is, until she ended up in Georgian Bay. She made it to shore safely, but her car didn’t.

● If you take a close look at New Hampshire’s Constitution Bill of Rights, you’ll find “the right of revolution” enshrined therein.

● A study of prison inmates’ medical files revealed this interesting tidbit: The higher the levels of testosterone in a male inmate, the younger that inmate was when he was first arrested.

● I have some bad news for lovers of the snooze button: Experts say that you’re better off not using it. Researchers have found that the last few minutes of sleep are more beneficial if they’re uninterrupted, so it’s better to go ahead and set your alarm for 10 minutes later to begin with.

* You might be surprised to learn that the White House had a telephone installed before indoor plumbing was.

● Those who study such things say that the trunk of an African elephant has more than 60,000 muscles.

● Have you ever heard of a lipogram? It’s a work of writing that deliberately leaves out one or more letters of the alphabet. For instance, in 1939 a man named Ernest Vincent Wright published a 50,000-word novel titled “Gadsby,” in which the letter e was not used once -- the longest lipogram in English.

● You doubtless know who Thomas Edison was -- the American A i iinventor off such h things hi as the h li light h bbulb, lb the h phonograph and the motion-picture camera. You never learned that he was blind, though, did you? Of course you didn’t -- he wasn’t blind. However, even though he could see, historians say that when he was reading, he preferred Braille to printed text.

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Throughout history, humans have come up with all sorts of ways of measuring things. Here are some lesser-known facts about units of measure. HORSES, REINDEER, and DOGS • James Watt, who invented the steam engine, originated the measurement of horsepower. OUTSOURCE YOUR is equal to a horse at walking BOOKKEEPING, PAYROLL, Horsepower speed, equal to about 750 watts. When a horse AND PAYROLL TAXES is sprinting, it’s generating up to 15 horsepower. A human being can generate about 0.1 With a Dedicated horsepower, while a small engine can create 10 Bookkeeper horsepower, and a jet engine comes in at about and a CPA 1,000 horsepower. Europeans call horsepower 21 years experience with “pferdestarke” which is German for “horse Free Training - Flexible Hours Quickbooks and doing payroll strength.” • A Finnish measurement known as FOR A FREE CONSULTATION CALL: “poronkusema” is the distance a reindeer can walk without having to urinate. If you’re Doyle 612-221-2065 or Call: 763-421-2219 a Finnish reindeer herder, this is important, Dawn 612-919-6744 * bonus is for a limited time call today for details because a reindeer has to stop walking in order to pee. The phrase comes from the Finnish words “poron” meaning “reindeer” and “kusema” meaning “peed by.” It’s equal to about 4.5 miles, or 7.5 km. • Another Finnish measurement is the “peninkulma” defined as the distance a dog Thomas L. Bashaw DDS can be heard barking, from the words “penin” 710 Dodge Ave. #B meaning “dog” and “kuuluma” meaning “to be Fill This Next to McDonald’s heard.” It equals 6.5 miles (10.5 km).


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