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Week of October 17, 2011

Vol. 1, Issue 35

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Through the years there have been many industrial developments, but no other industry has undergone the rapid growth of the plastics industry. Millions of dollars are spent yearly in plastics research to find new and improved plastics and to find ways to lower the cost of producing plastics. To quote Mr. McGuire from the 1967 movie “The Graduate,” “I want to say one word to you. Just one word. Plastics.” Make your way down this timeline to learn more about these amazing materials. • 1862: The world was introduced to plastic at the Great International Exhibition in London by British chemist Alexander Parkes. Parkes formulated a material he called Parkesine, which was derived from organic cellulose (part of the cell wall of green plants). Once heated, this substance could be molded, and it retained its shape when cooled. The product failed due to the high cost of production and its highly flammable nature. • 1869: A $10,000 prize was offered for the discovery of a new material to replace the use of ivory in the making of billiard balls. American printer John Wesley Hyatt entered the contest and discovered what he called “Celluloid.” Celluloid was synthesized from cotton fiber and the plant material camphor, and could be molded into desired shapes. • One big drawback was the flammable nature of celluloid; the balls had a tendency to explode on contact. The plastic was used as a substitute for amber and tortoiseshell and was later used for film in photography and movies. • 1907: Formaldehyde greatly advanced the technology of plastic. New York chemist Leo Hendrik Baekeland improved phenol-formaldehyde reaction techniques creating the first completely synthetic, man-made plastic tradenamed Bakelite. The mixture was highly heat-resistant and extremely hard and could be added to most materials (even softwood) to make them more durable. In the ‘20s and ‘30s, manufacturers made Bakelite jewelry and clock and radio cases that were uniquely styled. Bakelite became a commercial success. • 1920: Polyvinyl Chloride, or PVC, was developed to replace increasingly costly natural rubber. Approximately 75 percent of all PVC manufactured today is used in construction materials, as well as upholstery, clothing, piping, flexible hoses, tubing, flooring, roofing membranes, shower curtains and electrical cable insulation. PVC is useful because it resists fire and water. • 1933: Polyethylene was discovered by accident by two chemists in Northwich, England. It proved to have excellent insulating properties and was used during World War II to insulate radar systems for airplanes. Today, polyethylene makes up the largest volume of plastic in the world with an

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Page 2 For Advertising Call 251-285-4116 THE BOLD AND THE BEAUTIFUL Eric planned a surprise dinner to celebrate Stephanie’s extended remission from her lung cancer. Brooke and Taylor continued to fight over which of their daughters was more suitable for Liam. Justin helped Bill concoct a plan to keep Hope off Liam’s trail. Katie demanded to know the real reason why Bill was so fixated on his son’s love life. Eric confronted Stephanie about their lack of intimacy. Steffy worried that Taylor wouldn’t approve of what happened in Aspen. Wait to See: Bridget returns with baby Logan. DAYS OF OUR LIVES Jennifer felt conflicted over her feelings for both Jack and Daniel. Marlena refused to grant John a divorce, insisting that she stand by him as he goes to trial. Abigail told Jack to take a hike after he forbade her from seeing Chad. Melanie grew despondent while helping Maggie plan her wedding. Kate bragged to Madison that she outbid her on the Japanese distribution deal. Austin had photographic evidence of John supposedly faking his paralysis. Meanwhile, John continued to have unexplainable flashbacks. Jennifer admitted to Daniel that she still loved Jack. Wait to See: Marlena and Stefano have a showdown.

Octoberfest or Oktoberfest? Which way do you spell it? We may have Americanized a traditional German celebration, but we certainly have embraced the best of their traditions -- from polka music to hardy fare. 16 ounces extra-lean ground sirloin or turkey breast 3/4 cup unsweetened applesauce 1/2 cup plus 1 tablespoon purchased graham cracker crumbs 1 teaspoon apple pie spice 1 (10 3/4-ounce) can reduced-fat tomato soup 1 teaspoon dried onion flakes 1 teaspoon dried parsley flakes 1. Preheat oven to 350 F. Spray an 8-by-8-inch baking dish with butter-flavored cooking spray. 2. In a large bowl, combine meat, applesauce, graham cracker crumbs and apple pie spice. Form into 12 (2inch) meatballs. Place meatballs in prepared baking dish. 3. In a small bowl, combine tomato soup, onion flakes and parsley flakes. Spoon soup mixture evenly over meatballs. Cover and bake for 45 to 50 minutes. 4. For each serving, place 2 meatballs on a plate and evenly spoon sauce mixture over top. Serves six. ¥ Each serving equals: About 208 calories, 8g fat, 14g protein, 20g carb., 328mg sodium, 1g fiber; Diabetic Exchanges: 2 Meat, 1 Starch/Carb.

ONE LIFE TO LIVE Rex asked Delphina to send him back in time so that he could prevent Gigi’s death. Blair pleaded with Jack to tell the truth about his father’s murder. Aubrey was furious to learn that Cutter never turned in the gun to the police. Rama was determined to get the money Kim stole from her. Nate apologized to Dani for starring in an adult film, hoping that she would forgive him. Blair wanted Shane arrested for threatening her son with a gun. Rex and Shane shared an emotional talk. Kim’s friend in the hospital bed began to wake up. Wait to See: Victor’s killer is revealed. THE YOUNG AND THE RESTLESS Devon wanted nothing to do with Katherine after she kept his birthright from him. Genevieve gloated to Colin that she had the key to his ledgers. Tucker informed the press that Jabot was back on the market. Neil offered Katherine his resignation after hearing about Devon. Jack threatened Colin after he manhandled Genevieve. Sofia gave birth to a baby boy. Billy tried to get Victor off his back by showing him the divorce papers. Ronan tapped into Colin’s phone and overheard his plans for Genevieve and Gloria. Wait to See: Malcolm makes a stunning decision. PHOTO: Kelly Sullivan stars as “Kate” on “General Hospital”

1. What was Peter Gabriel’s first No. 1 U.S. hit? 2. Name the girl group that released “Head Over Heels” and “Turn to You.” What year was that? 3. Which group released “Temptation Eyes” and “Sooner Or Later”? 4. Where was the original “American Bandstand” recorded? Big bonus for remembering the call letters of the television station where it first aired. 5. Name the two acts that appeared on the first nationally televised “American Bandstand.” 6. Jennifer Lopez (aka J.Lo), now of “American Idol” judge fame, snagged her first No. 1 hit with what song? Answers 1. “Shock the Monkey” in 1982. His next chart topper came in 1986 with “Sledgehammer.” 2. California new-wave band The Go-Go’s, in 1984. The songs, off their third album, “Talk Show,” ranked No. 11 and No. 33, respectively, in the U.S. 3. The Grass Roots, in 1970 and 1971, respectively. The songs made it into the Top 20, but the group never did have a No. 1 hit. 4. Philadelphia, on WFIL-TV in 1952. The show went national on ABC in 1957. 5. On Aug. 5, 1957, both The Chordettes and Billy Williams appeared live, but Jerry Lee LewisÕ “Whole Lotta Shakin GoinÕ On” was the first song played. 6. “If You Had My Love,” in 1999. The song went gold or platinum in a half dozen countries.

Octoberfest Meatballs

GENERAL HOSPITAL Sonny nearly shot Kate after she walked in on him while sleeping. Olivia and Steve ended up hurting themselves while getting to know each other. Patrick surprised Robin with a whirlwind birthday celebration. Luke interrupted Tracy’s meeting with Anthony at the Metrocourt. Lucky and Ethan bonded as brothers. Sonny sent Kate flowers, raising the question of a future together. Lucky bluntly rejected Elizabeth’s attempt to get back together. Carly crashed Jason and Sam’s honeymoon in Hawaii. Lisa had a surprise in store for Robin and Patrick. Wait to See: Steve makes an important announcement.

annual production of approximately 80 million metric tons. It’s cheap, flexible, durable and chemically resistant. It is used in soda bottles, milk jugs, plastic bags and food storage containers. • 1933: Polyvinylidene Chloride was discovered at Dow Chemical. PVDC was found to be resistant to oxygen, water, acids, bases and solvents and creates a barrier against oxygen, moisture, chemicals and heat. It was originally used to protect military equipment. The substance was sprayed on fighter planes to protect them against saltwater. After Dow discovered PVDC would cling to almost any surface, Saran Wrap was introduced to the public in 1953. • 1937: Polyurethane was first developed as a replacement for rubber at the beginning of WWII. This organic polymer was invented by Friedrich Bayer of Germany. It is now used for mattresses, furniture padding and thermal insulation. It is also used for sports wear fabrics such as “lycra.” • 1938: A chemist working for DuPont named Roy Plunkett discovered Teflon. Plunkett pumped Freon gas into a cylinder left in cold storage overnight. The gas dissipated, leaving a slippery, solid white powder. He found this powder to be impervious to acids, cold and heat. It was ideal for use in the lining of pots and pans to make them stick-free and is widely used in kitchenware today. • 1939: The first nylon stockings were introduced by DuPont labs at the New York World’s Fair in 1939-1940. During the 1940s, cheap synthetic polymers, such as nylon, acrylic, neoprene and polyethylene, began to replace the use of natural materials in many things. One example is nylon replacing animal hairs in toothbrushes. • 1948: ABS, or Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, was first discovered during World War II as an alternative to rubber. ABS was patented in 1948 and introduced to commercial markets in 1954. It is a tough, light-weight plastic, resistant to heat and has the ability to be injection molded and extruded, which makes it useful in the manufacture of many different products like piping, musical instruments, golf club heads, car parts and some toys, including Legos. Even some tattoo inks use particles of ABS ground down to less than a micrometer in diameter to make the colors more vivid. • 1953: Chemist Dr. Daniel Fox of GE became one of the discoverers of the polycarbonate resin that was patented as Lexan. He found that once the gooey substance hardened, it could not be broken or destroyed without great effort. In 1968, the company began using sheets of Lexan in bus and train windows and to make bullet-resistant laminates. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin wore pressure helmets made of Lexan as they took the first steps on the moon. The material is also used in football helmets, traffic signal housing units, car headlights, fighter jet windshields, car dashboards, laptop housings, CDs, DVDs and cell phones. • 1954: Polystyrene foam, more commonly known as Styrofoam, was discovered in 1839. Dow Chemical introduced Styrofoam to the public in 1954. The material is used for packaging, as a building material and in toys and other household items. • 1965: DuPont scientist Stephanie Kwolek developed a way to spin fiber from liquid crystalline solutions. The resulting material was lightweight, flexible and five times as strong ounce for ounce as steel. This later became known as Kevlar and is used to make various military and police protection products including flak jackets, bulletproof vests and other protective wear. • 1979: Polar fleece is a soft, napped insulating synthetic fabric made from Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) and other synthetic fibers. Polar Fleece was first created in 1979 by Malden Mills, now Polartec LLC. The goal was to develop a new, light, yet strong, pile fabric that could mimic, and in some ways surpass, wool. Fleece has some of wool’s finest qualities but weighs a fraction in comparison, is more lightweight than other polyester fabrics and doesn’t hold moisture.


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Page 3

1. MUSIC: What was the name of the 1987 song and the movie starring Madonna? 2. WEATHER: What are the “sirocco,” “mistral” and “Chinook”? 3. MEASUREMENTS: A triennial event occurs how often? 4. MOVIES: Who was the Oscar-winning director of the “The Silence of the Lambs”? 5. LANGUAGE: What does the Greek prefix “cyto-” mean? 6. COMICS: What famous comics character had a girlfriend named Dale Arden? 7. HISTORY: When did the USS Maine explode in Havana’s harbor, an event that preceded the Spanish-American War? 8. LITERATURE: Henry David Thoreau’s famous Walden Pond is nearest to which town? 9. MYTHOLOGY: Who is the Norse goddess of love and fertility? 10. GEOGRAPHY: Cork and Limerick are major cities of which nation? Answers 1. “WhoÕs That Girl” 2. Names of winds that affect different regions of the world: (sirocco/Mediterranean; mistral/France; Chinook/western North America) 3. Every three years 4. Jonathan Demme 5. Cell 6. Flash Gordon 7. 1898 8. Concord, Mass. 9. Freyja 10. Ireland

NEW YORK -- I went to New York to a Broadway show and found out that Harry Potter can sing and dance! Daniel Radcliffe is singing and dancing his way into the hearts of Americans in “How to Succeed In Business Without Really Trying” until the end of the year, when Nick Jonas of The Jonas Brothers takes over. Former “Night Court” and five-time Emmy winner John Larroquette won a Tony Award for the show. Anderson Cooper also is listed as a cast member. He narrates the book “How to Succeed in Business” for Radcliff’s character. Isn’t CNN and a new talk show enough? Daniel worked hard to win over “Harry Potter” fans, but he works even harder to win over experienced theatergoers ... and succeeds. Audiences love him! *** While dining at Onieal’s on Grand Street, I was surprised to see 40 women arrive at once and found myself in the middle of the “Sex and the City” tour! People pay $44 to ride a bus around to New York locations where the show and movie were shot. In addition to Onieal’s, which doubled as Steve and Aiden’s bar, Scout, in three or four shows, they are taken to the site of Carrie and Big’s wedding rehearsal dinner; The Pleasure Chest, where Charlotte bought her “rabbit”; and several Greenwich Village boutiques where the girls shopped, to name a few stops. Three gals from London found the tour online and said it was a must see for them -- even in a heavy rainstorm. Their favorite stop? “Onieal’s,” one said, “because we drink Cosmos like the girls on the show did!”

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I went to see “The Addams Family,” which stars Brooke Shields as Morticia and “Cheers” alum Roger Rees as Gomez Addams. The musical, based on characters in The New Yorker Magazine and TV series, gives the audience sight gags, humor and a chance to enjoy Brooke Shields’ strong singing voice and flair for comedy. The show runs ‘til New Year’s Eve, then goes on tour. It’s great fun.

“The Beginning to an Amazing New You!”

Also saw “Billy Elliot,” with songs by Elton John. Five boys rotate as Billy (in my performance Joseph Harrington played the title role). Audiences enthusiastically applaud throughout the show and give several standing ovations to whichever boy is playing Billy. The story is about a Northern England coal miner’s son who wants to be a ballet dancer. It starts out as a tragedy and ends up a feel-good show. It won’t be long before it becomes a favorite school play.

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Q: I am heartbroken that Fox has canceled “America’s Most Wanted.” I’ve watched the show since the beginning, and I am so proud of all the good John Walsh and his crew have done to “get those dirtbags off the streets”! Is there an address for Fox that we can write to, hopefully to change their minds? -- Gertrude T., via e-mail A: I have good news for you, Gertrude. Lifetime Television recently announced that it has picked up John Walsh’s top crime-fighting show, which will return for its 25th season later this year. While there is not an exact airdate scheduled as of this writing, keep an eye on this column for updates as I get them. Also, check online at www.celebrityextraonline.com as December gets closer for my exclusive interview with John Walsh about the resurrection of “AMW” on Lifetime. I’m sure we’ll also talk about all those “creeps” and “slimeballs” that John will be trying to capture this upcoming season.

*** Q: I loved the TV show “Lost” and have been wondering about the man who played Sawyer. He is such a good actor. Do you have any info on what he’s doing now? -- Janet R., Newark, Ohio A: The handsome Josh Holloway, 42, has been keeping pretty busy since “Lost” ended last year. You can see him again soon on the big screen in “Mission: Impossible -- Ghost Protocol.” In the movie, which hits theaters on Dec. 21, Josh plays Trevor Hanaway, a member of Ethan Hunt’s (played by Tom Cruise) Mission Impossible force, along with Ving Rhames and Academy Award-nominee Jeremy Renner. *** Q: I really liked your idea a few months back of having Beth Littleford (of “Crazy Stupid Love”) playing James Spader’s wife in “The Office” this season, but now I hear Maura Tierney has been tapped for the part. Is that true? If so, what do you think about that? Holly T., via e-mail A: While Maura is no stranger to comedy -- she co-starred on “News Radio” from 1995-99 -- she usually plays the straight (wo)man, which is exactly what James Spader needs, now that we are getting a better idea of what his character, Robert

California, is like. So now I make this modest proposal: How about we cast Beth as Robert’s Scranton mistress? Her offbeat and hilarious sense of humor, along with her improv skills and deadpan humor, would make her the perfect “secret lover” for the new boss, as well as an excellent foil for the rest of the cast. Are you listening, Paul Lieberstein and crew? *** Q: I really like the reality/survival series, “The Colony,” on the Discovery Channel. When will the third season start? -- Jane R., Philadelphia A: According to a Discovery Channel representative, currently there are no plans to bring “The Colony” back in 2011. I’ll keep checking and keep you posted as I learn any more details for 2012.

PHOTO: Josh Holloway


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1. In 2010, Carlos Gonzalez became the 5th Colorado Rockies player to win an N.L. batting title. Name two of the first four to do it. 2. Name the last major-league team to hit .300 or better for a season. 3. Which college football team, entering 2011, had a longer streak of double-digitwin seasons: Boise State or Virginia Tech? 4. Who held the Boston Celtics record for assists in a season before Rajon Rondo set a new mark of 794 in 2009-10. 5. How many times have the Vancouver Canucks been in the Stanley Cup Finals? 6. By the time another driver (Cale Yarborough) had won the Daytona 500 a second time, how many times had Richard Petty won it? 7. Of the past 12 Wimbledon women’s tennis singles finals (2000-2011), three were not won by either of the Williams sisters (Venus and Serena). Who won them?

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Answers 1. Andres Galarraga (1993), Todd Helton (2000), Matt Holliday (2007) and Larry Walker (1998, ‘99, 2001). 2. The Boston Red Sox hit .302 in 1950. 3. Virginia Tech had seven seasons (200410), while Boise State had five (2006-10). 4. Bob Cousy had 715 assists in the 195960 season. 5. Three times -- 1982, 1994 and 2011. 6. Five times -- 1964, ‘66, ‘71, ‘73 and ‘74. 7. Maria Sharapova (2004), Amelie Mauresmo (‘06) and Petra Kvitova (‘11).


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Pet Of The Week

My name is Gage and I was found as a stray. It was early one morning when my rescuer saw me and my mom searching for food in the parking lot of a CVS pharmacy. She offered me a can of cat food and I quickly ate it. She picked me up but mom was not so trusting. Who knows where my mom is now. I was adopted shortly after, but their other dog kept beating me up. Now I am looking for another home. They did teach me how to sit and shake. I am crate and house trained and just a good all around Golden Retreiver mutt. I am 8 months old, heartworm negative and 39 pounds. If you are interested in adopting Ginger or another great pet, call (251) 6333531 or complete the pet adoption application online. All Mobile SPCA pets are fixed, up to date on shots, microchipped, vet checked and come with training information and a bag food!

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Breakfast, Lunch and Dinner. What better way to eat healthier with amazing flavors! Stop by for a Delectable Fresh Smoothie made with Real Fruits. Need some energy? Try one of their Coffee Smoothies. Also serving up Delicious Grilled Flatbreads, Toasted Wraps, Soups and much more. Catering is also available. Everything’s Fresh! Eat Better, Feel Better! (251) 634-3454 • (251) 378-5648

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A.J. Allmendinger Has ‘Kingly’ Goals A.J. Allmendinger earns the interest of thousands of fans just on the basis of the No. 43 on the side of his Ford Fusion. “43” is the number made famous by Richard Petty, the owner. Petty won a record 200 races carrying that number. No one else ever come close to that total, and it’s almost unthinkable that anyone will ever approach it. It’s among many reasons why Petty is uniformly regarded as NASCAR’s King Richard. Allmendinger, 29, came reasonably close to making the Chase for the Sprint Cup. He moved up from 15th to 14th in Sprint Cup points after finishing seventh at Dover International Speedway in the AAA 400. To date, the Los Gatos, Calif., native has collected one top-five and seven top-10 finishes during the current season. The one-time Rookie of the Year in the ChampCar World Series (2004) began competing regularly in NASCAR in 2007. He finished third in the 2009 Daytona 500. Allmendinger’s goal, obviously, is to restore Richard Petty Motorsports to the position of royalty enjoyed by Petty. Teammate Marcos Ambrose picked up a victory earlier this year at Watkins Glen, N.Y. “The Chase doesn’t define our season,” Allmendinger said. “If we get to Homestead (Fla., site of the final race) and are a lot better than we were last year, I’ll be happy with that.” Regarding his performance at Dover, he said, “You just want to put

yourself in that position, but we weren’t quite good enough to win. Depending on what call and where you restarted, I think we might have been top-five there at the end.” The race began disastrously but also spectacularly. After his Ford was bumped from behind by Denny Hamlin’s Toyota, Allmendinger made a spectacular save, keeping the car out the Dover walls and recovering. “Denny had a nose right there, but it was lap four,” Allmendinger said. “Those guys would expect you to give them some room, but he just stuffed it down in there and jacked me sideways. It was no surprise, and as I started spinning toward the wall, I just hammered the throttle. I didn’t think it was going to hit the wall, but then I was afraid that everybody behind me would come piling in. “I’d like to say it was all driver, but luckily, I tapped the brake and kept it on the throttle, it straightened back up to where I didn’t stop in front of anybody and, thank God, everybody behind us was alert and kind of got it slowed down. I’d say it was 60 percent driver and 40 percent luck. I’ll give myself a little bit of credit.”

Every Wednesday September 28th - October 26th 11:30AM - 1:30PM Bienville Square, Downtown Mobile Live Jazz, Pop & Blues Music

4th Saturdays on the Block October 22, 2011 Food, Art, Music & Beverages Upper Dauphin Street 11am - 5 pm

Greater Gulf State Fair

October 21st - 30th Games, Rides, Shows, Food MUCH MORE! Weekdays 4-10pm; Weekends noon-10pm. Located at the Greater Gulf State Fairgrounds 1035 North Cody Rd. Mobile AL www.mobilefair.com

Taste of Mobile

PHOTO CUTLINE: A.J. Allmendinger has one top-five and seven top-10 finishes this season and came reasonably close to making the Chase. (John Clark/NASCAR This Week photo)

October 27th, 2011. Arthur Outlaw Mobile Convention Center 6:30pm Local judges will select winners as restaurants, cafés, caterers & hotels showcase their best dishes! Those in attendance will vote a People’s Choice Award. Admission is charged. *Proceeds benefit Goodwill Easter Seals of Gulf Coast. To have your local event featured here, email your information to tidbitsofmobile@gmail.com. All submissions may not be run due to time and space limitations.


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¥ On Oct. 29, 1618, Sir Walter Raleigh, English adventurer and favorite courtier of Queen Elizabeth I, is beheaded in London, under a sentence brought against him 15 years earlier. He had been released to establish a gold mine in South America. ¥ On Oct. 27, 1873, an Illinois farmer named Joseph Glidden submits an application to the U.S. Patent Office for his design for a fencing wire with sharp barbs. Glidden’s two-strand barb wire design changed the face of the American West. ¥ On Oct. 28, 1886, President Grover Cleveland dedicates The Statue of Liberty, a gift of friendship from the people of France to the people of the United States, in New York Harbor. Originally known as “Liberty Enlightening the World,” the statue was to commemorate the Franco-American alliance during the American Revolution. ¥ On Oct. 24, 1901, a 63-year-old schoolteacher named Annie Edson Taylor becomes the first person to take the plunge over Niagara Falls in a barrel. Taylor reached the shore alive, if a bit battered, 20 minutes after her journey began. ¥ On Oct. 30, 1938, Orson Welles causes a nationwide panic with his broadcast of “War of the Worlds” -- a realistic radio dramatization of a Martian invasion of Earth. The radio hoax included an announcement of a large meteor crash in New Jersey and the annihilation of 7,000 National Guardsmen. ¥ On Oct. 25, 1944, during the Battle of the Leyte Gulf, the Japanese deploy kamikaze suicide bombers against U.S. warships for the first time. More than 1,321 Japanese pilots crash-dived their planes into Allied warships during World War II. ¥ On Oct. 26, 1986, Red Sox first baseman Bill Buckner lets an easy ground ball dribble between his legs and roll down the right-field line during the 10th inning of the sixth game of the World Series. The game was tied and, thanks to Buckner’s error, the runner on third had time to score, winning the game for the Mets and forcing a tiebreaking seventh game -- which, in the final innings, the Mets also won.


For Advertising Call 251-680-7052 Asthma Not Only for Children DEAR DR. DONOHUE: What gives? When I was a kid, I had asthma. Then it went away completely. Now, at age 37, it’s come back. As a child, I took only one medicine, and did well. Now I have a number of medicines and inhalers, and I’m confused. Will you simplify asthma for me? It isn’t the same as it used to be. Do you think I have developed allergies that brought it back? -- H.F.

CRUDE OIL Crude oil (petroleum) is a complex mixture of many different chemical compounds called hydrocarbons. The separation of these compounds into useable products is known as fractional distillation. Through distillation, crude oil is heated to separate the hydrocarbons into raw fractions: gasoline, kerosene, fuel oil, gas oil, wax distillate and cylinder stock or bottoms. These raw fractions are then selectively changed through conversion methods (cracking and rearranging the molecules) and treatments to improve the products to meet specific requirements. Here is a simplified look at the different fractions of petroleum and what they are made into. • The gasoline fraction is further refined through a variety of processes that convert it into the different fuels we power our cars with. • The kerosene fraction is used for aviation fuel, and fuel oil fractions are used as diesel for the trucking and construction industry. This fraction is also processed into a variety of specialty solvents used in manufacturing. • The gas oil fraction is a heavy, non-volatile fuel and is used either as a fuel or an oil. If the gas oil fraction is hydroprocessed, it can be made into white oil (sewing machine oil), or a higher processed oil for use in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. • The wax distillate fraction is a valuable source of lubricating stock and paraffin. When the wax or paraffin is separated out, one of the basic components of lubricants is produced, which is called a neutral. Neutrals are further refined through distillation and hydroprocessing to produce specialized components used in the manufacture of engine oils, gear lubricants and greases. • Paraffins are used in many products, from candles to cosmetics to paper coating, inks, fabrics and even in our foods. • The cylinder stock or bottoms fraction is what is left over after crude oil has been distilled. It is a heavy, oily wax. The wax portion is separated out to create a product called Micro Wax. This wax has a much higher melting point than paraffins and is used in a variety of products such as plastics and building materials. It’s also used as a food additive and even as an ingredient in candies and gums to help them keep their shapes. • The oil portion of the cylinder stock is a heavy lubricant base stock used in heavy-duty gear oil and many industrial lubricants. When it is further processed to remove resins, the resins are used to make many different products like hightemperature insulations and undercoatings, as well as fuels for ocean-going barges. • The bottoms fraction is very asphaltic and is used for making road tar and heavy burner fuel. • Crude oil is more a part of our lives than most of us realize. The refining process is a complex operation generating many components that are the building blocks for much of what we use every day. We depend on petroleum to fuel our cars, but it’s also a key component in fertilizers and pesticides; products such as plastic, synthetic rubber and synthetic fibers such as nylon, vinyl, acrylic and polyester; building materials; epoxy; paint; insulation; soaps; nail polish; hair spray; dental fillings; and the list goes on and on.

ANSWER: In the more developed countries of the world, around 15 percent of children and 12 percent of adults suffer from asthma. Asthma resolves for many children as they reach adolescence, but it can come back. Adults also can develop asthma for the first time. It’s not strictly a childhood problem. Cough, wheezing and shortness of breath are the signs of an asthma attack. Asthma comes in attacks separated by periods when the asthmatic is well. The goal of treatment is to extend the well periods and shorten any attacks, something that wasn’t all that possible when you had only one medicine as a child. The basis of an attack is constriction of the breathing tubes, the airways, the bronchi. Along with narrowed airways, inflammation strikes them, and they fill with thick mucus. The combination makes it difficult to get air into and out of the lungs. Exhaling is particularly difficult. Triggers for asthma attacks include cold air, exercise, viral infections like the common cold and allergens. If your doctor believes that aller-

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gens are leading to your asthma attacks, then testing for them is worthwhile. For many, allergy doesn’t lead to bouts of asthma. Exercise as a trigger needs some clarification. Everyone gets short of breath when exercising, but recovery is quick, within five minutes. Breathlessness brought on by an exercise-induced asthma attack lasts much longer, 30 to 60 minutes. An attack of asthma often can be stopped in its tracks with an inhaler medicine like albuterol (Ventolin and Proventil). For longer control, cortisone inhalers or inhalers containing cortisone and a long-acting drug that expands airways keeps a person attack-free. Advair is an example. The booklet on asthma has a more detailed explanation of the common illness and its treatments. To obtain a copy, write: Dr. Donohue -- No. 602W, Box 536475, Orlando, FL 32853-6475. Enclose a check or money order (no cash) for $4.75 U.S./$6 Canada with the recipient’s printed name and address. Please allow four weeks for delivery. *** DEAR DR. DONOHUE: What can you tell me about glossopharyngeal? My doctor says I have it. He has me on medicine for it. -- K.L. ANSWER: The glossopharyngeal (GLOSS-oh-fair-IN-gee-ul) nerve is one of the 12 cranial nerves, nerves that come directly from the brain. They are the nobility of the nerve kingdom. The glossopharyngeal nerve is the nerve of taste and the nerve that activates some throat muscles. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia consists of episodes of knife-like pain in the throat and back of the tongue. Swallowing, chewing and even talking can provoke an attack. Carbamazepine, gabapentin, phenytoin and valproic acid are some of the drugs used to curtail such attacks. Surgically freeing the nerve from an encircling and pulsating artery is another treatment for this condition.

National Memory Screening Day

Mark your calendar: Nov. 15, a Tuesday, is National Memory Screening Day, put on by the Alzheimer’s Foundation of America. A news release issued by Alzheimer’s Disease International says that there could be 28 million people in the world with dementia -- but no diagnosis yet. The screening events provide free memory screenings using tasks and questions that can detect problems early. Tests will check memory, thinking and language skills. While the tests don’t give a true diagnosis, they can provide indications that a medical exam is needed. Meanwhile, there is a possible Alzheimer’s vaccine on the horizon. In the disease, the amyloid protein stays in the brain and turns into plaque, which causes problems with the nerves that transport information through the brain. Researchers are looking at a way to stop the body from producing too much of the amyloid by targeting the receptors that move it into the brain. At this point only small animals have been used in the research, but the results are promising enough that the next step is to move into large-animal research. To learn more about next month’s free memory screenings, go online to www.nationalmemoryscreening.org, or call 866-AFA8484. Online you just need to click on your state and a list of locations will appear. You’ll need to sign up in advance to ensure a spot. If you’ve been experiencing memory problems or if it runs in the family, be sure to tell your doctor. Or if you just want a baseline test for future reference, the screening can help with that, too. Remember, a memory problem might not be Alzheimer’s. It could easily be something as simple as a vitamin deficiency.


Page 8 For Advertising Call 251-285-4116

injury, or in case property was damaged. ¥ High-quality opals can be more valuable than diamonds. ¥ If you are of a certain age, you might remember that ¥ It was 19th-century American humorist Josh Billings who made the following sage observation: “Don’t mistake pleasure for happiness. They’re a different breed of

in the mid-1960s, root beer-flavored milk was available for purchase. Then again, you might not; the marketing experiment was a flop and the product was pulled in short

dog.”

order.

¥ Those who study such things say that the immortal

¥ When people who are blind from birth dream, they

bard, William Shakespeare, used a grand total of 17,677 words in his works. (That must have been a tedious calculation.) They also say that fully one-tenth of those words had never been used in writing before. ¥ If you’re like the average American, you eat approxi-

don’t see images; instead, they hear and feel the dream. For this reason, it’s said that their dreams can seem much more real. Those who become blind later in life do see images in their dreams, but the images fade the longer they live without sight.

mately 10 pounds of chocolate every year.

¥ In the early 1900s, the average American got about nine

¥ You might be surprised to learn that the first automo-

cludes the parents of new babies, who have been sleep-

bile insurance policy was sold way back in 1897. One Gilbert J. Loomis of Dayton, Ohio, was evidently concerned about the potential damage that could be done by his newly acquired car, so he got general liability protec-

hours of sleep every night. (I presume that statistic exdeprived since time immemorial.) *** Thought for the Day: “Fear is the tax that conscience pays to guilt.” -- George Sewell

tion in case driving his car resulted in someone’s death or

Call Today to Reserve This Premium Banner Position! (251) 285-4116 (251) 680-7052 Or Email Us: tidbitsofmobile@gmail.com


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