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TIDBITS® TAKES A DIP IN
SALTWATER by Patricia L. Cook
Of all of the water on earth, 1 percent is fresh water available for human consumption, 2 percent is frozen, and a whopping 97 percent is saltwater. On average, every 2.2 pounds (1 kg) of seawater contains around 1.2 ounces (35 g) of dissolved salt. • You’ve probably seen movies where people are stranded on the ocean with no fresh water to drink. Seawater, or saltwater, is not safe for human consumption. Salt dehydrates our bodies and is harmful if ingested in large quantities. • So is it possible to make saltwater safe for humans to drink? Yes. The process is called desalination. Scientists have come up with several ways to desalinate water, but they are all costly processes. Reverse osmosis, distillation, electrodialysis and vacuum freezing are some examples. • Since saltwater is harmful to humans, is it also harmful to all animals? The answer is obviously no as there are millions of saltwater fish and other saltwater creatures that thrive in our oceans. turn the page for more!
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Tidbits® of Fort Wayne, Allen County There are three types of sturgeon in the SALTWATER (continued): • The Hebrew name for the Dead Sea is “Yam ha Maved,” which actually means “killer sea.” The Dead Sea is nearly 10 times more salty than other seas and the open oceans, having a salinity reading of 33.7 percent. This means nearly 35 percent of the water is dissolved salts. It is one of the world’s saltiest bodies of water. By comparison, ocean water is 3.5 percent dissolved salts. • The Dead Sea is over 1,300 feet (396.2 m) below sea level. At its deepest part, it is over 2,300 feet (701 m) below sea level. It is 42 miles (67 km) long and 11 miles (18 km) wide at its widest point. The Jordan River empties into the Dead Sea; the Dead Sea does not empty out anywhere. It is endorheic, which means it has no outlet besides evaporation. It is totally landlocked, and the deeper areas are the saltiest. There are an estimated 1.9 billion tons of potassium chloride salt in the Dead Sea, which are harvested by using a system of evaporation ponds. • The McMurdo Dry Valley in Antarctica has a small pond that is actually considered the saltiest body of water on earth. Don Juan Pond is an ankledeep mirror pond between mountain peaks. It never freezes, even in temperatures that go as low as -40°F (-40°C). • The Great Salt Lake near Salt Lake City, Utah, is another endorheic lake, sometimes called “America’s Dead Sea.” The Jordan, Weber and Bear Rivers empty into the lake and deposit around 1.1 million tons (over 997 million kg) of minerals in the lake annually. • The Great Salt Lake provides habitat for brine shrimp, native birds, shorebirds and waterfowl, including the largest population of Wilson’s Phalarope in the world. This small migratory bird is halophilic, which means “salt loving.” • Another large endorheic lake is the Caspian Sea. This sea is bordered by five countries: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan and Iran. The largest lake on the planet at 143,000 square miles (371,000 sq km), it is called a sea because the Romans who discovered it found it to be salty. With the huge size of the Caspian, the saltiness varies greatly. The southern Caspian is more salty than the northern portion. There are 130 rivers that flow into the Caspian with the Volga in the north being the largest. • Major oil and gas production takes place along the edges of the Caspian Sea. In addition, caviar harvested from the lake’s sturgeon, which are large ancient-looking fish with large mouths and no scales, is a major commodity.
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region: the Beluga, Russian Sturgeon and the Stellate Sturgeon. The Beluga is the largest member of the Sturgeon family, sometimes exceeding 14 feet (4.3 m) and weighing in excess of 2,000 pounds (907 kg). The Caspian and Dead Seas both have areas of sandy beaches and popular tourist resorts built along the banks. The Great Salt Lake has two parks, Antelope Island State Park and Great Salt Lake State Park, that are popular places to boat, swim and enjoy nature. A large resort, the Saltaire Pavilion, was built along the southern shore of the Great Salt Lake in 1893 as a joint effort of the Salt Lake and Los Angeles Railroad Company and the Mormon Church. The resort was built on 2,000 pylons driven into the shore of the lakebed, had a long bridge leading out to the water for swimming and lounging. It became known as the western “Coney Island.” Accidental fires in 1925 and 1931 and an arson fire in the 1970s at Saltaire have made the location famous more for its history than its tourist appeal. The Saltaire boasted the largest dance floor in the world after the rebuilding from the first fire. New investors reopened the venue for music events in 1983. When we think of life in bodies of saltwater, we often think of whales and sharks, but many other odd and interesting creatures call saltwater home. The largest living crocodilians on earth are saltwater crocodiles, called “salties” by Australians. Average males are 17 feet (5 m) long and 1,000 pounds (450 kg). It is not uncommon for them to be as long as 23 feet (7 m) and 2,200 pounds (1,000 kg). The range of “salties” is Eastern India, Southeast Asia and Northern Australia, so we don’t have to be worried about them in North America. A bizarre family of fish called whiteblooded or crocodile icefish are found in the cold salty waters of Antarctica and southern South America. Lacking red blood cells in their bodies, these fish are pale, have long snouts, wide mouths and large teeth — hence, their name. Their blood carries less oxygen than the red blood cells of other fish. Because of this, icefish have oversized hearts that pump large volumes of blood at low pressures. You can bring some of this life into your home or office with a saltwater aquarium. Fill it with colorful fish, sea anemones, jellyfish and other creatures to mimic the abundance of the oceans and seas. Now, to end this Tidbits on a sweet note. Saltwater taffy is a treat found in many stores, fairs and amusement parks. Is it made from saltwater? No. The most popular story is that a shopkeeper in Atlantic City, New Jersey, gave it the “saltwater” name after his shop was flooded by a tidal surge.
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By Chris Richcreek 1. Willie Mays and Barry Bonds are two of the four major-league players to have at least 400 home runs and 300 stolen bases. Who are the other two? 2. Name the last time a pitcher struck out 300-plus batters in a season. 3. Who was the last defensive tackle selected No. 1 overall in the NFL Draft? 4. How many times has Duke’s men’s basketball team won at least 30 games in a season under coach Mike Krzyzewski? 5. Which team was the first in NHL history to have back-to-back 100-point seasons? 6. Name the last winner of NASCAR’s Truck Series season title who was under 40 years old. 7. Who ended Martina Navratilova’s record tennis streak of 74 consecutive singles victories? Answers 1. Andre Dawson and Alex Rodriguez. 2. In 2002, Arizona’s Randy Johnson (334) and Curt Schilling (316) each struck out more than 300 batters. 3. Dan Wilkinson was No. 1. overall by Cincinnati in 1994. 4. Twelve times. 5. The Detroit Red Wings in 1950-51, 1951-52. 6. Travis Kvapil was 27 when he won the series title in 2003. 7. Helena Sukova beat her in three sets in the 1984 Australian Open. (c) 2011 King Features Synd., Inc.
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most unusual lodgings in the country, Kokopelli’s Cave Bed and Breakfast is, as the name suggests, in a cave. Described as a “luxury cliff dwelling,” the cave is reached via a footpath • It was prolific British author G.K. from the top of a mesa. Chesterton who made the following • The poison produced by the golden sage observation: “An adventure poison dart frog, found in the is only an inconvenience rightly rainforests of Colombia, is so toxic considered. An inconvenience is an that one-third of an ounce is enough adventure wrongly considered.” to kill 100,000 people. • According to the Guinness Book • In a traditional Hungarian wedding, of Records, the world’s longest the bride is supposed to ensure place name belongs to a hill in the health of her future children by New Zealand, which is known smashing an egg. How the smashing as Taumatawhakatangihangak of an egg is supposed to accomplish oauauotamateaturipukaka this feat is unclear. pikimaungahoronukupokaiwhe nua • You might be surprised to learn kitanatahu. When translated from that when you snap, the sound isn’t Maori, the language of the native produced when the tip of your finger people, the name reads “place where hits the tip of your thumb. The sound Tamatea, the man with the big knees, actually occurs when the tip of your who slid, climbed and swallowed finger makes contact with the base mountains, known as land-eater, of your thumb. played his flute to his loved one.” *** • If you’re planning a vacation to the Thought for the Day: “Lying to ourselves Four Corners area of the American is more deeply ingrained than lying to West, you might want to consider others.” -- Fyodor Dostoevsky staying at a bed-and-breakfast just north of Farmington, N.M. One of the (c) 2011 King Features Synd., Inc. By Samantha Weaver
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TOP TEN VIDEO, DVD as of June 27, 2011
1. True Grit (PG-13) Jeff Bridges 2. Just Go With It (PG-13) Adam Sandler 3. I Am Number Four (PG-13) Alex Pettyfer 4. Drive Angry (R) Nicolas Cage 5. Sanctum (R) Alice Parkinson 6. Gnomeo & Juliet (G) James McAvoy 7. The Mechanic (R) Jason Statham 8. The Rite (PG-13) Anthony Hopkins 9. No Strings Attached (R) Natalie Portman 10. The Roommate (PG-13) Leighton Meester Top 10 DVD Sales 1. True Grit (PG-13) (Paramount) 2. Just Go With It (PG-13) (Sony) 3. Gnomeo & Juliet (G) (Buena Vista) 4. True Blood: The Complete Third Season (R) (Warner) 5. I Am Number Four (PG-13) (Buena Vista) 6. Sanctum (R) (Universal) 7. Drive Angry (R) (Summit Entertainment) 8. Green Lantern: Emerald Knights (PG) (Warner) 9. The Mechanic (R) (Sony) 10. Burn Notice: Season Four (NR) (Fox) Source: Rentrak Corp. (c) 2011 King Features Synd., Inc.
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OVERCOMING THE ODDS:
Paul Orfalea counts his learning problems as “the blessings that allowed him to see the world differently from his peers.” Nicknamed “Kinko” because of his curly red hair, he is an extraordinary entrepreneur. • Orfalea was a child who couldn’t sit still in the classroom. He couldn’t read; he was restless, wiggling all of the time while his mind raced. When he was in school in the 1960s, dyslexia and ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) were not recognized or dealt with as they are today. Educators didn’t always know what to do with children who had the undiagnosed “differences.” • Dyslexia is a neurological condition that affects language processing. People with the condition have a hard time recognizing and decoding words. Reading comprehension and even pronunciation skills are usually lacking. With ADHD, restlessness coupled with impulsivity, frustration, difficulty organizing and completing tasks can lead to behavioral problems in classroom settings. Orfalea flunked two grades in school and was expelled from several schools. He did graduate from high school but was a D- student at the bottom of his class. • In Orfalea’s words, he “had supportive parents, and that made all the difference. I was a sensitive kid. I could have easily fallen through the cracks.” He, like many with similar learning difficulties, had the creative thinking, curiosity, adventurous spirit and boldness to pursue an unusual endeavor. • While Orfalea was a student at the University of Southern California, he realized that photocopiers were a need for students and were not easily accessible.
• In 1970, Orfalea borrowed $5,000 from a local bank, rented a small store-front next to a hamburger stand in Isla Vista, close to the University of California, Santa Barbara, and opened the first Kinko’s Copy Center. He also spent time on the sidewalk in front of the store selling pens and pencils from his backpack and encouraged passersby to give his store a try. The tiny store featured one copy machine selling copies at 2.5¢ each, an offset press, film processing and school supplies. • Orfalea saw a need, zeroed in on it and created a company that eventually grew to more than 1,200 locations and 23,000 employees in 10 different countries. • Orfalea attributed the success of his company to the creation of a working environment where employees loved coming to work. The achievement that really made him proud was having Kinko’s named one of the best places to work in America by FORTUNE magazine three years in a row. • Kinko’s was acquired by FedEx Corporation (Federal Express) in February 2004, and the company was called FedEx Kinko’s. In 2008, Kinko’s was dropped from the name, and it was changed to FedEx Office. • Even though Orfalea has never learned to enjoy reading, there are several books about his success. His autobiography “Copy This!” was published in 2005; “The Entrepreneurial Investor,” about investing, came out in 2008; and the latest book, “Two Billion Dollars in Nickels: Reflections on the Entrepreneurial Life,” became available in February 2009. All three books tell his amazing story of rising above his learning differences to achieve success. •
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1. Is the Book of Zacchaeus in the Old or New Testament or neither? 2. Matthew and which other book record the details of Jesus’ birth? Genesis, Proverbs, Luke, Acts 3. From John 3, who came to Jesus under the cover of night? Elijah, Amos, Nicodemus, Mesha 4. What do the seven stars represent in Revelation 1:20? Continents, Angels, Seas, Churches 5. From Psalms 68, with what are the dove’s feathers covered? Manna, Gold, Leaves, Blood 6. How many people did Jesus himself baptize? Zero, 1, Hundreds, Thousands ANSWERS: 1) Neither; 2) Luke; 3) Nicodemus; 4) Angels; 5) Gold; 6) Zero
Wilson Casey’s new book, “Firsts: Origins of Everyday Things That Changed the World,” is available from Alpha/Penguin publishing. (c) 2011 King Features Synd., Inc.
For Advertising Call (260) 467-3394 PAPER BAGS
Paper or plastic? In the 1980s and ‘90s, that was a question asked frequently at grocery stores. More recently, reusable cloth bags are being promoted in conjunction with a “greener” lifestyle. Let’s look at the development and history of paper bags. • Francis Wolle, a Pennsylvania botanist who later became a minister, invented the paper bag-making machine in 1852. Working at his father’s store, he saw the need for something to help customers carry their groceries home. • Wolle received the patent for his machine in the United States and then later in England and France. It was the first of its kind and with further advancements added by others, is very similar to the machines still in use today. • In 1869, Wolle, his brother and other men involved in the paper bag industry founded the Union Paper Bag Machine Company in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. • Probably surprising to many is that a woman first put forth the idea and secured the patent for a device to cut, fold and paste paper bag bottoms, creating flat-bottomed bags. Some tried to discredit Margaret Knight, but she fought and won recognition for her paper bag machine. She was employed by the Columbia Paper Bag Company in Springfield, Massachusetts, when she invented her machine in 187071. During this time, it was unusual for a woman to get recognition as an inventor. Sometimes called the “woman Edison,” she is credited with 22 patents and 90 inventions. • Charles Stillwell, a Union soldier during the Civil War, added another patent to the development of paper bags in 1883. His bag machine
allowed for flat bottoms and pleated sides, which made the bags stackable. Stillwell’s bags were called S.O.S. or “self-opening sacks.” With the birth of supermarkets in the 1930s, the demand for paper bags skyrocketed. They were strong, easy to use and inexpensive and quickly became popular around the world. Savannah, Georgia, was chosen by Union Bag and Paper Company in 1935 as the location for a $4 million plant, thrilling the local area, providing 500 jobs in a depressed economy. In 1956, Union Bag merged with Camp Manufacturing and became Union Camp. In its busiest years, 5,500 people were employed in Savannah; today there are about 700. It is the largest mill of its kind in the world. Over 1 million cords of long-fibered southern pine are used to make 35 million paper bags per day. That is over 9 billion per year! The largest paper bag manufacturer today is a privately owned company, Duro Bag, opened in 1953 and owned by the family of founder David Shor. It is based in Florence, Kentucky. The company has a strong program for recycling its waste and using recycled paper. Plastic grocery bags were introduced to the supermarket industry in 1977. Kroger and Safeway started the craze to replace traditional paper bags with polyethylene “t-shirt” type bags in 1982. Most grocery stores today offer both types of bags but also encourage shoppers to use cloth bags. With the wide availability of inexpensive paper bags, Americans have used them for groceries, garbage, lunch bags and more for years.
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WWII Vets Deserve to See Memorial We’re losing some 1,000 World War II veterans per day due to advancing age. Sadly, many of them have died without ever seeing the World War II memorial built in their honor in Washington, D.C. Honor Flights Network is a not-for-profit all-volunteer grassroots effort started in 2005 to bring as many World War II veterans as possible to Washington, D.C. at no cost to the veteran. By the end of 2010, the group had flown 63,000 veterans to see their memorial. To keep costs down, the trips are made one day, flying in and out and traveling on special buses. If you want to go, don’t let any medical condition, need for oxygen or wheelchair stop you. You can be accommodated if you want to make the trip. Check the website for scheduled trips. If there is no hub city near you, sign up anyway, as new hubs are opening all the time. Here’s how others can help: • Gather contributions from your service group, friends, church and workplace. (Honor Flights won’t accept a dime if you’re a World War II veteran, however.) Donations are tax deductible. Send to Honor Flight, Inc., Attn: Diane Gresse, 300 E. Auburn Ave., Springfield, OH 45505 • Volunteer as a Guardian: an escort for up to three veterans. If you have a medical or EMT background, even better. Or volunteer to escort a veteran who doesn’t live near an air hub city. (See the Solo and Lone Eagle information on the website.) • Print out an application for a veteran who has no Internet access. Help him or her fill it out and send it in. Send email to email@example.com, or call 937521-2400 for more information. • Given the age of these veterans, time is really running out. Write to Freddy Groves in care of King Features Weekly Service, P.O. Box 536475, Orlando, FL 32853-6475, or send e-mail to columnreply@ gmail.com. (c) 2011 King Features Synd., Inc.
Tidbits® of Fort Wayne, Allen County
TO YOUR GOOD HEALTH
By Paul G. Donohue, M.D.
Getting a Handle on Heartburn DEAR DR. DONOHUE: After an endoscopy, the doctor told me I have a hiatal hernia. He said nothing could be done for it and that I will have to live with it the rest of my life. He gave me no medicines or advice. I am anxious about this and would appreciate any info you can give me. -- Anon. ANSWER: The swallowing tube -- the esophagus -- begins at the throat, travels down the chest and finally ends by attaching to the stomach. To reach the stomach, it must go through an opening in the diaphragm, the muscle that separates the chest from the abdominal cavity. That opening is the hiatus. A hiatal hernia is a bulging of part of the stomach through the hiatus and into the chest cavity. Many times, a hiatal hernia causes no symptoms and needs no treatment. At other times, a hiatal hernia produces GERD -- gastroesophageal reflux -- an upward spurting of acid and digestive juices from the stomach into the esophagus. That brings on heartburn, a common problem with many treatments. People without such a hernia also develop GERD. Here are some tips to handle heartburn. Lose weight, if need be. Don’t eat within three hours of going to bed. Elevate the head of your bed using blocks that are 6 to 8 inches tall and placed under the bedposts. This keeps stomach juices in the stomach while you sleep. Sleep on your left side for the same reason. Don’t wear constricting garments around the abdomen or too tight a belt. Take antacids as needed -- Tums, Rolaids, Mylanta and Maalox. Eliminate any food that gives you heartburn. Usual offenders are citrus fruits, tomatoes, onions, spicy foods, fatty and fried foods, chocolate, carbonated beverages, mints and caffeinated drinks. If these steps don’t solve the heartburn problem, try medicines called acid blockers: Tagamet (cimetidine), Zantac (ranitidine), Pepcid (famotidine) and Axid (nizatidine). In low doses, all of these can be purchased without a prescription. The next step is medicines that turn off acid production. Prilosec (omeprazole) doesn’t require a prescription. The prescription drugs are Prevacid, Nexium, Aciphex, Protonix and Dexilant. If necessary, surgical procedures can correct hiatal hernias.
The Allen County Fairgrounds, 2726 Carroll Road, Ft. Wayne, IN 46818 The Allen County Fairgrounds is now collecting papers through the PaperGator recycling program. Bring your newspapers, old phone books, hard or soft back books, junk mail, and magazines and deposit them in the PaperGator bin. This bin is conveniently located at the north end of the main parking lot of the Home and Family Arts Building. This recycling program CANNOT accept: plastic, metal, trash, glass, cardboard and paperboard (grocery item boxes). This PaperGator recycling fundraiser will benefit the Allen County Fairgrounds through grounds and building improvements. The Allen County Fairgrounds is a non-profit 501c3 organization receiving ZERO tax dollars.
LET’S GO GREEN! If you have any questions, please call: 260-449-4444
The booklet on hiatal hernias explains this common condition in detail. To obtain a copy, write: Dr. Donohue -- No. 501W, Box 536475, Orlando, FL 32853-6475. Enclose a check or money order (no cash) for $4.75 U.S./$6 Canada with the recipient’s printed name and address. Please allow four weeks for delivery. *** DEAR DR. DONOHUE: My barber, Vinnie, said my eyebrows were receding and that is an indication of thyroid problems. I write to see what your take is on this. I would like to establish fact from fiction. -- P.D. ANSWER: Vinnie is somewhat near the truth by saying hair loss is a possible consequence of both an underactive and overactive thyroid gland. However, the loss is usually on the scalp, when and if it does occur. Loss only of eyebrow hair isn’t a symptom of thyroid disease. And hair loss from the scalp is not the only sign that things are wrong with the thyroid. Other signs must be present, too.
*** Dr. Donohue regrets that he is unable to answer individual letters, but he will incorporate them in his column whenever possible. Readers may write him or request an order form of available health newsletters at P.O. Box 536475, Orlando, FL 32853-6475.Dr. Donohue regrets that he is unable to answer individual letters, but he will incorporate them in his column whenever possible. Readers may write him or request an order form of available health newsletters at P.O. Box 536475, Orlando, FL 32853-6475.(c) 2011 North America Synd., Inc. All Rights Reserved
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