Culture Books By: Tiara Memeh
Mexico Colonialism: â—? Mexico was really important to Spain, and it got colonized fast. Indians were put into communities governed by the Church. At first many of the Indians were held in slavery. Later they were free, but lived and worked wherever the Spanish agreed to.
● Indians supplied the labor for the plantations, called haciendas, for the mines, and for the textile industry. ● Mexico was only allowed to trade only with Spain and certain Spanish territories. After Spanish occupied the Philippines in the early 17th century, a brisk Oriental trade developed. Cultures: ● The Aztec Empire were people that was once nomadic, the Mexicas. Song and poetry were highly advertised; there were presentations and poetry contests at most of the Aztec festivals. ● There were also dramatic presentations that included players, musicians and acrobats. Economy: ● Current news say that as much as 44.2 percent of the Mexican Population (over 49 million) lives below the poverty line as defined by the country's National Council of Social Development Policy Evaluation. In 2008, 33.7% of the population lived in little poverty and at least 10.5% suffered from extreme poverty. ● After the Mexican Revolution, the government ceded an estimated 50 percent of the land to the population, covering a small portion of the gap between the wealthy and the poor.
Central America & The Caribbean Native Peoples,Colonialism in Central America: ● Colonies were established on South and Central America, and in 1519 Cortez began an expedition which soon came the Aztec empire of Mexico. ● South America was settled quickly. The conquest of Mexico was quickly followed by the empire of Peru.
● Chili was conquered in 1541, with the exception of the country of the Araucanians, the only Indian nation which has successfully held its own against European invasion.
Native Peoples,Colonialism in the Caribbean: ● The population today at the Caribbean is 37 million, before Spanish colonization, it was just under one million, over half these people lived on the island of Hispaniola. ● These early inhabitants are classified under three different groups; the Ciboney, Taino Arawak, and Carib. The earliest Europeans to see the Caribbean were Columbus and his crew, first landing on Hispaniola in December 1492, naming it La Espanola. ● Spain wanted a bigger role as a trade nation.
Culture:Language,Religion,Music Carribbean: ● The Caribbean Music has reflected the multi-cultural influences that have shaped the Caribbean. ● The first historical figures to influence Caribbean musicians are from the South America's and Africa. ● The Spanish, the French, and the British, have all made major contributions to the music industry.
Economy : ● Weather & beaches attract tourists ● Manufacturing of textiles, electronics and clothing, and oil production or refining are also quite important to several islands within the Caribbean area.
Spanish Speaking South America Spanish Conquest & Rule:
● One of the great civilizations of the Americas were discovered in the Andes Mountains of Peru. This civilization was created by the Inca. ● The descendants of people who came across a land bridge from Siberia to Alaska and crossed the Isthmus of Panama into South America. ● The countries of South America got their independence from Spain in the first half of the 19th century.
Culture: ● Spanish-speaking South America has a strong literary heritage. In the last quarter of the 20th century, South American writers claimed the world’s attention with their novels.
Economy: ● One of the advantages in the region is that it produces a wide variety of products. ● This is because of its resources, landforms, climate, and vegetation. In the north, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana grow crops for export on really large farms. ● Colombia and Venezuela both have huge oil reserves that are their greatest economic advantage.
Education: ● The countries of Spanish-speaking South America have higher literacy rates than most of the countries of Central America and the Caribbean. ● Chile’s literacy rate for the total adult population is 95 percent. For young people between the ages of 15 and 19, it is even higher than 97%
Brazil History: ● The first European to explore Brazil was Pedro Álvares Cabral on April 22, 1500 under the help of Portugal.
● From the 16th to the 19th centuries, Brazil was a colony of Portugal. On September 7, 1822, the country had its independence from Portugal.
Culture: ● Brazil is the largest Catholic country in the world . Today about 73 percent of Brazilians identify themselves as Catholics by tradition, not by faith. ● The country has a rich literary tradition and several Brazilian writers have gone international, including Jorge Amado, Brazil's best known contemporary author.
Economy: ● The Federal Constitution of Brazil provides three independent governing branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. ● Although the constitution has undergone revisions in the last century, it has always had this division of governmental powers.