Page 1

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FUNDAMENTALS OF PATTERNMAKING FOR

WOMEN'S APPAREL BOOK 2 STYLE PATTERNS

by ESTHER KAPLAN

nvmcx

3rd REVISED EDITION


F U N D A M E N TA L S

PATTERNMAKING

OF

FOR

APPAREL

WOMEN'S

BOOK

STYLE

II

PATTERNS

by

Esther

Kaplan

Pivnick

3rd Revised Edition

DARWIN COIMUNITY COLLEGE LIBRARY

T1453o


INTR ODU CTION This book follows from Book I on Foundation Patterns. Book I describes the important basic foundation patterns f o r all types of garments, their draping and grading. It also includes a set of pertinent measurement charts.

Book II uses the foundation patterns to make the most important and basic of styl e patterns. There can be m a n y s ty le variations, but only a few basic ways a types piece of material can be cut into to m a k e a style, from the patternmaker's point of view. Collars will have one type of roll or another; a sleeve can be handled only in certain basic ' w a y s ; the procedure for making gathers is the same whether f o r a waist, a skirt or a sleeve. The principles of cutting underlying these basic types is the concern here. They have been kept as general and flexible as possible, suitable for all types of garments in all size ranges. Rigid measurements have been avoided as unnecessary. The relationships between the instructions for the various parts of the garment have been carefully noted.

The book has been laid out with a defi nite order in mind for learning. One problem develops from another, and so each section should be followed in its sequence for b e s t r e s u l t s . Each problem should be c a r e f u l l y worked o u t exactly as presented, at first. The patterns should be cut out in s o m e kind of fi tting cloth such as unbleached muslin, and pinned or basted together. They can then be tried on the dress form or the person from which the foundation patterns were made. Changes and corrections can be made in the muslin fi t t i n g and transferred back to the paper pattern.

Later, a f t e r the basic principles involved are clear, the completion of the style lines can be l e f t to the cloth fi tting. A sort of combination of "flat" patternmaking and draping can be used. There is no need in my opinion for any argument about draping versus "flat" patternmaking. Both make patterns. In each case, the patterns are based on the same principles. Since the principles work out automatically in " fl a t “ patternmaking, the beginner can achieve b e t t e r r e s u l t s by starting his learning with the handling of paper foundation patterns. He can then b e t t e r apply his understanding to working with fabrics on a dress form if he wishes. The more advanced worker can produce his effects more quickl y . There is no clear l i n e separating the two. I, in my own work as a patternmaker and an assistant designer have constantly combined the two methods. I have used the foundation patterns to block out swiftly, d i r e c t l y in the muslin if possible, the important construction lines, such as the shifting of the bust dart to some style l i n e , the type of r o l l f o r the c o l lar neckline, the basic shape f o r a kimono sleeve, e t c . The muslin w a s then cut with suffi c i e n t seam allowances f o r any changes, and fi tted to the dress form. Working on the dress form I could perfect the shape of my s ty le lines, take care of any change caused by the nature of the fabric, s h i f t fullness a l i t t l e , tighten up a bit where better design seemed to call for i t , e t c . Even then, the pattern, carefully corrected and fi nished, might undergo l a t e r corrections because of the fabric used for the garment. A fi n e wool will give d i f ferent results from the s a m e pattern than a slippery rayon. B u t these changes are minor, not affecting the basic construction of the pattern. Draping shows the learner the signifi cance of the grain of the fabric. It permits experimentation with fabric and allows for a sort of three-dimensional sketching. "Flat" patternmaking shows the learner c l e a r l y the relations between the parts of the p a t tern. It makes him appreciate the need for accuracy, f o r a "good“ l i n e . It teaches him how to maintain the s a m e basic standards of fi tting no matter what the style variation. It allows h i m to make well-fitted garments t h a t can be m a s s produced with uniform r e s u l t s in fi t and s t y l e . It permits creativeness based on sound principles.

The tools needed are a sharp p e n c i l , a sharp pair of shears, an accurate ruler, a tape measure, and loads of paper, muslin and patience f o r m u c h practicing. Esther Kaplan Pivnick February, 1958 Cold Spring Harbor, N. Y.

iii


TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

DARTS Bust Darts, Back Waist Darts, Yokes

INDEX............................................page

1

SKIRTS Yokes, Pleats, Gathers, Flares, Circle Skirts, Godets

INDEX............................................page 31

SLEEVES Set-In S l e e v e s Bell Sleeves, Bishop Sleeves, Lantern Sleeves, Special Style Sleeves, Gathered Cap Sleeves, Darted Cap Sleeves, Cowl Sleeves

I N D E X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p a . g e 55 Sleeve- W a i s t C o m b i n a t i o n Sleeves’ F i t t e d Raglan Type Sleeves, Gusset Kimono Type Sleeves, Non-Gusset Kimono Type Sleeves

I N D E X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p a g e 77

COLLARS AND SPECIAL NECKLINES Flat C o l l a r s , Rolled C o l l a r s , Band Collars, Raised Necklines, Cowl Necklines

INDEX............................_................page 103

APPENDIX The Two-Piece Sleeve, Cuffs, Pockets, Circular Ruffles, Groups of Pleats, AComplete Dress Pattern and I t s Grading, Grading the Two—Piece Sleeve '

INDEX............................................page129


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INDEX

DART-S

TO

P\'I‘HE BUST DART....................... . . . . ...PAGES 3-24 THE B A C K D A R T S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P A G E S 25-29

Shifting The Position Of The Bust Dart

Page 5

.,

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pages 5-7

Page 6

Page 6

Using The Bust Dart As Gathers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pages 8-10

Page 8

Using The Bust Dart As Pleats Or Tucks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

\

Page 10

Page 9

. . . . . . . pages

11—17

A

Page 11

P

Page 12

Page 14


Page 16

Page 15

P

'

.

5

Using The Bust Dart In A Style Line . . . . . . . . . . . .

I

W Page 16

Page 17

. . . .pages 18-24

.

Page 18

Page 18

Page 19

Page 20

Page 21

Page 22

Page 23

Page 24


DARTS

\

\

/

\

/ A dart is a seam made by joining the two edges of a triangular section removed to shape a fl a t piece of cloth so that it covers a round form. The pattern f o r a cone is a good example. The shaded section has been removed. When lines A and B are joined together, the flat c i r c l e ‘ is forced i n t o a cone shape.

/

\

I

I

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3/

@

The dart shows the place where surplus material has been removed to fi t a piece of c l o t h smoothly to a round form.

Fitted garments have darts wherever the body is rounded, for example: the b u s t , the hip, and the shoulder blades. A loosely flared or gathered garment provides ample fullness f o r the round parts of the body in its o w n design.

// No darts are needed in the gathered bodice since the fullness is more than enough to make room f o r the bust.

/

//

)1)

/V

In the fi t t e d bodice the material used to cover the bust is reduced by the two darts to shape it to the size of the waist. (See Book I on draping the f r o n t waist pattern. )

The bust dart has many s ty le uses. The back waist and hip d a r t s are more limited. But the principles involved in the use of a l l the d a r t s is the same. The next two lessons on Bust Darts and Skirts illustrate the basic principles.


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The bust dart, as explained in the introduction to Darts, removes the surplus material resulting from fi tting the roundness of the bust.

The surplus material need not be removed as one severe dart. It can be divided into m a n y smaller darts, or tucks, or pleats, or gathers, e t c . It can be hidden in s e a m lines. I

The Figures in this section illustrate a l l the basic uses of the bust d a r t . The possible number of variations is limited only by the designer's imagination.

Figure 1A

a

The bust dart can be placed in any position on the f r o n t waist p a t t e r n so long as it points to the bust area. the center of the bust (A) or (The dotted line G outlines the average bust area, approximately two inches from the Cen-

This is the basic f r o n t waist pattern with the bust dart at the waistline. (See Book I, The Front Waist Draft, Fig. 9.)

to

The position of the dart at the waistline convenient for most style uses of the dart. The dart at the side seam can be

is

ter A.)

equally useful.

The dotted lines B, C, D, E, F show the other basic positions: the center front, the neckline, the shoulder, the armhole, and the side seam.

..

The method of shifting the dart from one place to another is the s a m e for a l l positions. The following Figures 2A—2.C can be applied to any

..

..

.

E

position desired.

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Figure 1B


Shifting T h e P o s i t i o n Of

T h e Bust Dart.

Figures 2A, 2B, 2C show a simple way the dart is shifted to another position; in t h i s illustration, to the shoulder.

Figure 2A

Figure 2B

Line D shows the new position of the dart.

The pattern is cut in two on lines 1-A-D and 2-A-D.

FIGURE 2C. The pieces are placed together again, on another sheet of paper, so that lines A-1 and A-2 meet. The dart is n o w open at the shoulder. It has been completely removed from the waistline. (The shoulder dart opens wider than the waist dart because the distance from the center of the bust to the shoulder is longer than to the waist.)

L}

FIGURE ZCC shows Figure ZCC

the muslin fi tting of the pattern in Figure 2C.

Fi g ure 2c


D i v i d i n g T h e Bust Dart.

dart Figures 3A through 31-! show the shifting of the to two positions.

Figure 3A

The two parts of the p a t t e r n in Figure 2B can be placed together at Point A so that a dart is opened both at the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;shoulder and the waistline.

Figure 3B

Figure 3C

The darts can be shortened if desired by bringing them only to the bust area. instead of to the center point.

The dart space can be divided i n t o two or even more darts if so desired. The darts s t i l l f a l l within the bust area.

The correct shape of the shoulder and waist l i n e s at the darts can be obtained by folding the d a r t s in the paper pattern the way they are folded in â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;cloth and either cutting through or r o l l i n g a tracing wheel through the folded dart.

Figure 3D

Figure 3E

The waist dart of Figure 3B is shown folded.

The two waist darts of Figure 3C are shown folded.

Figure 3F

The shoulder dart shown folded.

is


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â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;

Figure 3 G G

Figure 3G

This is the same as Figure 3B with the correct shape of the darts at the shoulder and waistline.

This shows the c l o t h fi tting of the pattern in Figure 3G. (The pattern should be cut out in muslin or other fi tting cloth, with seaxns allowed, and basted together for a trial fi tting. Any desired changes in style or fi t can be made in the fi tting and transferred back to the paper pattern, if the paper pattern is the fi n a l step. Sometimes the corrected muslin is used as a pattern.)

Figure 3H This is the same as Figure 3C with the correct shape of the darts at the shoulder and waist l i n e s .

Figure 3 H H This shows the cloth fi tting of the pattern in Figure 3B.


U s i n g T h e B u s t D a r t As

FIGURES 4A through 4G show the use of

Gather3_

the d a r t as gathers.

The bust dart shifted to the neckline is used f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n . The bust dart can, of course, be shifted to any place such gathers are desired, in the same manner.

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;} ,

:1

31 f

Figure 4A

Figure 4B

Figure 4C

FIGURES 4A, 4B, and 4C show the bust dart shifted from the waist to the neckline. FIGURE 4D. The neckline has to be redrawn as a continuous l i n e f o r gathers from points 3 to 4. The correct the shape can be approximated by adding to one side of d a r t whatever amount has been removed from the other. A cloth fi tting should be made f o r fi n a l adjustment of the shape of the l i n e . The neckline, when gathered to i t s original size, should have the shape of the original neckline in Figure 4A. If not, it can be redrawn while gathered. When the fabric is opened flat again, the corrections can be transferred to the paper pattern.

Figure 4D

FIGURE 4DD shows the cloth fi tting. The gathers f a l l from the neckline to the bust. The waist area is smoothly fi t t e d with no d a r t .

Figure 4DD

8


Figure 4E

FIGURES 4E, 4F and 4G show how only- part of the waist d a r t can be shifted to the neckline, if desired.

There w i l l be fewer gathers at the neckline than in Figure 4D. The dart l e f t at the waistline can be shortened for a softer effect.

Figure 4G

FIGURE 4GG shows the muslin fi tting of the pattern in Figure 4G.

Figure 4GG


A d d i n g M o r e Fullness To T h e W a i s t Pattern T h a n T h a t A l l o w e d By T h e Dart.

.

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sums LINE H

G

2

_\_

um;

H

I V

S \G B. Figure 411

The p a t t e r n is that from Fig-

ure 4G.

The pattern must be cut and spread for additional fullness. Lines G and 1-1 show where the additional fullness is to go. A guide l i n e is drawn across the pattern at right angles to the center front to help keep the pattern pieces in l i n e when spread.

The p a t t e r n is c u t into 3 pieces on lines G and H. A n e w guide l i n e is drawn on a fresh sheet of paper." The pieces of the pattern are placed on the paper so that the guide l i n e of each piece f a l l s on the guide l i n e drawn on the

paper.

The pieces can be spread any amount desired. The waist dart is ‘dotted because it should become p a r t of the new gathers at the waistline:

This shows the muslin fi tting of the pattern in Figure 41. - This fi tting should be compared

with the fi tting of the pattern in Figure 4G. In 4G, the gathers at the neckline f a l l only to the bust. The rest of the fitting has no surplus fullness.

In 41, the gathers at the neckl i n e and waistline produce excess fullness a l l through the fi tting.

The approximate shape of the new neckline is indicated by a dotted l i n e .

FIGURE 4J. The p a t t e r n pieces of Figure 4H can be spread so that more

fullness is added only to the neckline.

FIGURE 4K.

The p a t t e r n pieces of Figure 4H can be spread so that m o r e fullness is added only to the waistline.

T H E PATTERN PIECES MUST BE CUT THROUGH TO SOME OUTSIDE E D G E OF T H E PATTERN SO THAT

THEY WILL LIE ABSOLUTELY FLAT

WHEN SPREAD.

Figure 4.1

T H E CUTTING LINES MUST BE T H E DIRECTION THE FULLNESS IS TO FALL. DRAWN IN

10

Figure 4K


U s i n g T h e Bust Dart As

Pleats Or

Figure 5A

W

red â&#x20AC;&#x2DC; t n in the

Tucks.

Figure SC

FIGURE 5A. Figure 5A is the same as Figure 4E. The dart fullness is used to make aninv e r t e d pleat. I

us

The dotted l i n e B-A is drawn in the c e n t e r of the d a r t space D-A- E.

ck-

Line F-G shows the length this inverted pleat w i l l be stitched.

the

I

Figure 5B

FIGURE 5B. Line D-F is folded over to the center l i n e B-A. Line E-G is folded over to the center l i n e B-A. A tracing wheel should be rolled through the neckline over the folded darts, or the neckline can be cut out with the dart folded.

FIGURE 5C. This is the shape of the folded neckline when it is opened. The shaded area shows the depth of the pleat. The waist dart can be shortened if desired.

FIGURE 5CC. The

sketch shows the c l o t h fi t -

ting of Figure 5C.

Figure 5CC

11

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If the dart is to be divided into many small pleats or tucks, it is easier to draw fi r s t the exact position of the tucks and then shift the d a r t i n t o them.

Figure 6C

The correct shape of the tucks at the shoulder line can be obtained by folding the tucks in the paper p a t t e r n the way they are folded in cloth.

_ The now broken shoulder Figure 6A

Figure 6B

Lines B, C, and D show the posit i o n desired f o r three shoulder tucks. Each tuck. is drawn the length desired and then connected to point A, the center of the bust area.

The pattern in Figure 6A is c u t on lines B to A, C to A, and D to A. The B u s t Dart

IT IS IMPORTANT THAT EVERY T U C K OR PLEAT MADE FROM THE BUST DART FALLS WITHIN THE BUST AREA. (See Figure 1B.)

A.

The dotted lines continuing from B, C, and D show where the tucks would f a l l if they were continued to the bust area. Tuck D is as f a r out as it can be f o r satisfactory results.

E-A-F is

c u t out.

ALL THE PIECES SHOULD BE LEFT JOINED AT POINT

l i n e is redrawn using the basic p a t t e r n as a guide.

A tracing wheel is r o l l e d through the shoulder, over the folded tucks, or the shoulder l i n e can be c u t out with the tucks folded.

The dotted lines show the tucks folded inside.

The c u t pattern is placed on another sheet of paper. The bust d a r t E-A-F can be completely closed and the dart fullness .opened entirely in the new tucks, or it can be p a r t i a l l y closed, as here, leaving some fullness at the waistline f o r slight gathers (between points G and H).

FIGURE 6D.

The folded tucks in Figure 6C are opened. The arrows at the bottom of each tuck show the direction the tuck is to be folded when stitched in cloth.

K

-,

The d a r t fullness remaining at the waistline is to be gathered between points G and H.

:

~:

1-»

*7’ ,-a-.

.

GATHERS Figure 6D

Figure 6DD

FIGURE 613]). This is the c l o t h fi tting of Figure 6D. 12

“6


FIGURES 6E and 6F show how it is possible to introduce more fullness into the pattern than the bust d a r t allows. (See Figures 4H, 41, 4J, 4K where the s a m e procedure is used

for gathers.)

I‘ III I‘ I II I

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I I I

I I

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I II

are

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I-the

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G

I Figure 6F

Figure 6E

cut

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I

,

Each tuck is made wider by spreading the p a t t e r n pieces from the waistline, which changes i t s shape but remains the same size.

Lines are drawn from each tuck or pleat in the same direction it f a l l s , to some outside edge of the pattern. (Here it is the waistline.)

Each tuck w i l l have to be folded again as in Figure 6C to get the fi n a l shape of the shoulder line.

Figure 6G

It is possible to spread the p a t t e r n pieces of Figure 6E at the waistline only so that the tucks B, C, and D remain the same size at the shoulder line, while the waistline increases in size. 13


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Figure 7A

Figure 7 B

Figure 7C

In t h i s fi gure the tucks are drawn at the neckl i n e . Checking the tucks‘ position in r e l a t i o n to the bust area shows that tuck E falls far outside.

Only tucks B, C, D can be opened by closing dart F-A-G. TUCK E HAS TO BE CUT ON ITS OWN LINE THROUGH TO AN OUTSIDE

The tucks should be folded in the paper as they will be in cloth, and the neckline shape corrected.

TUCK E CANNOT BE MADE F R O M THE BUST

DART.

E D G E OF THE PATTERN.

THE FULLNESS F R O M TUCKS B, C, D WILL DISAPPEAR AT THE BUST. THE FULLNESS F R O M T U C K E GOES THROUGH THE ENTIRE PATTERN MAKING THE PATTERN W_IDER ACROSS THE BUST.

A tracing wheel can be run through the folded tucks at the neckline or the neckline can be cut out with the tucks folded.

Dart F-A-G can be shortened f o r a s o f t e r effect.

44:

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V.

uam rmsa./A-x¢.»4w,r

Figure 7D

Figure 7DD

The tucks are opened flat showing

This is the cloth fi tting of Figure 7D.

the corrected shape of the neckline.

14


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I

Figure 8C

Figure 8B

Figure 8A ed

be

Figure 8 D D

Figure 8D

FIGURES 8A, 8B, 8C, 8D and 8DD. These fi gures show the bust dart E-A-F shifted to three tucks drawn from the center f r o n t at the bustline. A c l o t h fi t t i n g (Figure 8DD) is important to check the curve of the n e w center f r o n t line.

15


FIGURES 9A and 9B show the bust dart C-A—B shifted into six tucks or pleats drawn from the shoulder and waistlines.

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F

A foundation pattern with the bust dart at the side s e a m is used because it does not i n t e r f e r e with the placement of the s ty le tucks. ( S E E method f o r Shifting The Bust Dart, Figures 2A-2C.)

The tucks should be folded in place as explained in Figure 6C to get the correct shape f o r the shoulder and waistlines.

Figure 9A

FIGURES 9C and 9D show how the tucks can be made l a r g e r by cutting and spreading the p a t t e r n . Figures 6E, 6F and 6G show the same process with only shoulder tucks. Cutting and spreading the p a t t e r n to add more fullness than the bust dart allows increases the width of the pattern across the bust.

Figure 9C

Figure 9D

FIGURE 9CC shows the cloth fi tting of Figure 9C. The soft folds f a l l from the end of the stitched tuck to the bust. THE FITTING IS SMOOTH

ACROSS THE BUSTLINE.

\

Figure 9 C C

FIGURE 9DD shows the cloth fi t ting of Figure 9D. The extra width placed in the tucks increased the fullness through the bustline. The soft folds continue from the shoul» der to the waistline over the bust. 16

Figure

9131)


_

FIGURES IOA, 10B, 10C, 10D show the bust dart shifted from the side s e a m to make two other darts, retaining some d a r t at the side seam.

jhe

bust tucks or er and

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bust ed bethe

V

"th

J; ( S E E t Dart,

i

place

get the , e r and

NE

Figure 10A

Figure 10B

Figure 10C

The procedure followed is the same shown f o r pleats and tucks.

Dart 2 is almost too f a r off the bust area to be a bust d a r t . It has been made smaller than d a r t 1 deliberately to offset its forced position. The extreme s l a n t of the l i n e which joins the d a r t to point A indicates i t s limitations. A cloth fi tting may show it to be

The darts have been drawn in their new positions. They should be folded in position as shown in Figure 10-D to get the correct shape f o r the The side seam waistline. dart should be folded, too.

impractical.

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6!

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Figure 10D

Figure 10CC A cloth fi t t i n g should be made of the p a t t e r n in Figure 10C to check on the lengths of the darts and their positions.

Figure IOCC

17


g

x

U s i n g T h e Bust D a r t In

A Style L i n e .

When a style line goes d i r e c t l y over the bust, the dart fullness can be moved d i r e c t l y into the style line, seeming to disappear.

i

i

Figure l1BB

c

C

'

Figure 11A

Figure llB

D-A-C is

the style l i n e directly through the center of the Bust A.

going

av

The pattern is c u t i n t o two pieces, cutting away the bust dart B-A-C.

The corner at point A should be rounded off.

A c l o t h fi tting should be made to check the shape of the l i n e D-Aâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;B at Both p a r t s of point A. the patterns should be c u t in muslin or other fi tting cloth with seams allowed. Line D-A-B is stitched to l i n e D-A-C. Both l i n e s are the same length.

In t h i s fi gure the style line is not drawn d i r e c t l y through the center of the bust A. It is so close, however, t h a t point A can be moved to the style line and a n e w dart l i n e AA-B drawn.

The n e w dart B-AA-C should be the same s i z e as the o r i g i n a l dart B-A-C. The pattern pieces are separated as shown in Figure 11B.

1

1â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Figure 11C

13


Figure 11D

Figure l1DD

The pattern is cut into two pieces on l i n e s B-AA-D, and C-AA-D.

A c l o t h fi tting should be made to check the shape of l i n e D-AA-B. The fi tting will also show t h a t the extra length in l i n e D-AA-C f a l l s easily within the bust area and is unnoticeable .

Line D-AA-C is longer than l i n e D-AA-B. The extra length should ,

be kept between points E and F, the Bust A r e a .

or

Figure 11F Figure 1113

In this fi gure the style l i n e D - A - G is drawn d i r e c t l y through t h e center of the bust A, but is not part of the waist dart. E and F are two notches located to aid in sewing.

Figure l1FF

The pattern is cut i n t o two pieces on the s ty le l i n e D-A—G. The bust dart B-A-C is cut out and closed by bring-

ing lines B-A and C—A together.

I

The shape of line D-A—G in the lower section changes when the bust dart is closed, b u t remains the same length. The corner at point A can be rounded off.

19

A cloth fi tting of the pattern in Figure 11F shows no visible evidence of the bust dart in the s t y l e l i n e D—E—F-G.


The style l i n e D-E—F-G is drawn outside the bust area. It becomes a yoke l i n e . (See Section on Yokes.) The bust dart B—A-C can be shifted i n t o the yoke l i n e but some evidence of the dart must be seen, as gathers or pleats or tucks or darts.

‘In this figure, the bust d a r t is shifted as gathers i n t o the yoke l i n e between the points E and F, covering the bust area.

The dotted lines 1, Z, 3 from A to the yoke l i n e help spread the d a r t fullness smoothly. The pattern is cut in two pieces on l i n e D-EF-G. The dart B—A-C is c u t out. Lines 1, Z, 3 are c u t ALMOST to point A.

Figure 12A

Figure 12B

Figure 12C

The bust d a r t B—A-C is closed, causing the lines 1, 2, 3 to spread

A new, curved l i n e must be drawn between E and F.

apart.

The spaces 1, 2, and 3 should be about even. 20


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;wv-V -ww-uys-my-Mggmm

Figure 12D

Figure IZDD

This shows the fi nished pattern of Figure 12C.

This shows the muslin fi tting of the pattern.

Figure 12E

Figure 12F

In this fi gure, s o m e of the bust dart has been l e f t at

The dart at the waistline m a y be shortened below

the waistline.

point A.

21

Figure

IZFF

This shows the c l o t h fi t ting of the p a t t e r n in Figure 12F.


Figures 12G and 12H show how more fullness can be added both to the yoke line and the waistline by cutting and spreading the pattern. (See Figures 4H, 4I, 4.}, 4K.)

D

,

#7

E

§Q‘

E\F

6

1.

E :

§

-E

2

GUIDE

LINE

:

Figure IZG

LINE

Figure 12H

Figures 121, IZJ and 12.1.1 show a yoke style line made across an open dart. No shifting of the dart is necessary.

Figure l2I

The yoke line A-B-C-D is drawn as desired across the dart G-I-I-I. Lines G-B and I - C must be the same length. (It helps to fold the d a r t closed when drawing the yoke line.) Points E and F are notches between which the gathers w i l l be confined.

4

a

«

1

Figure I Z J

'

Figure 12;

The yoke pieces are c u t away from the rest of the pattern. Sections 1 and Z are traced together as one piece. The center f r o n t l i n e can be a f o l d l i n e .

The dart space remaining (B-H-C) can be used for gathers, pleats, tucks, darts, e t c .

Figure I Z J J shows the finished appearance of the p a t t e r n with the dart fullness used as gathers.

Figure I Z J J

Q ,

22

:

Figure lZJ


FIGURES 13A, 13B, 13C, and 13D i l l u s t r a t e the bust dart shifted to a yoke l i n e as pleats or tucks.

01

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;_.__â&#x20AC;&#x201D;_

Figure 13A

Figure 1313

D-E is a type of yoke style l i n e t h a t is not cut away from the p a t t e r n .

The pattern temporarily is cut in two from D to l i n e 3, down to A and B.

The pleat lines 1, 2, 3 should f a l l within the bust a r e a . Line lhere is slightly forced. A cloth fi tting l a t e r w i l l t e l l whether this line is practical

Lines 1,2, 3 are cut ALMOST to A.

Figure 13D

FIGURES 13C and 13D. The two pieces are joined at A leaving a small waist dart B-C ( o r no d a r t if so desired), causing lines 1,2 3 to spread.

The tuck spaces 1,2,3 should be made even. The tucks should be folded in place either in the paper p a t t e r n or in the c l o t h fi tting so that a straight line can be drawn across the folded tucks from D to E. (Figure 13D.)

Figure 13C

The dotted line across the tucks shows the corrected line D-E.

Figure 13CC

The waist dart m a y be l e f t as a dart, or gathered.

Figure 13CC shows the cloth fi tting of the pattern in Figure 13C.


Figures 14A, 14B, 14C illustrate how fullness can be added to a waist front without using the bust dart to make the f u l l n e s s . (Here the bust dart remains at the waistline as gathers. ) Although t h i s does not add to the information on bust darts, it does show that

T H E PATTERN MUST ALWAYS BE CUT AND SPREAD IN THE S A M E DIRECTHION TI-IE FULLNESS IS TO FALL.

Figure 1413

Figure 14C

Figure 14CC

Figure l4CC shows the cloth fi t t i n g of the p a t t e r n in Figure 14C. 24


T u g The Back Darts In A

Style Line

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pages 27-28

Page 27

.

|&hering The Back Waist Dart To A Yoke

Page 28

. . . . . . . ... pages 28-29

Page 28

Page 29

25


26


U s i n g T h e B a c k D a r t s In

A Style L i n e .

The back waist pattern in the following figures is the basic back waist pattern from Book I (Foundation Patterns).

Figure 1A

Figure 1B

New darts are drawn from the

The shoulder and waist d a r t s can be moved i n t o any style line drawn in the same area as the d a r t s .

style line, the same width and length as the basic darts (A-B-C

and B-D-F).

Line A-B is a style l i n e drawn any shape. A-C is the length of the shoulder d a r t . B-D is the length of the waist d a r t .

Figure 1C The pattern is cut into two pieces, eliminating the dart spaces. The darts are invisible, but present, when the two parts of the pattern are sewed together.

Figure ICC Figure ICC shows the c l o t h fi tting of the pattern pieces in Figure 1C.

27


Figure

2A

The style line (D-E) in this figure goes only through the area of the waist dart (A-BC).

Figure 2B

Figure ZBB

The pattern is cut into two pieces on the style line D-B-E.

Figure ZBB shows the muslin fi tting of the pattern.

The d a r t space A-B-C is cut out. Lines A-B and C-B are placed together, elimi n a t i n g the dart space, and the new p a t tern piece is drawn.

G a t h e r i n g T h e B a c k W a i s t Dart To

A Yoke.

A C

as-g1>\

-

*

.x..,

*3

T

‘t ‘i V

:. ‘_«.,~a.

.. 2-;

E} .3.

Figure 4BB

E H

'.-

FAAH Figure 4A

In this figure a neck yoke line (D-E) and a waist yoke line ( I - J ) have been drawn.

A!»

The neck dart will be l e f t as a dart beneath the yoke. (It can be gathered or f o l d ed as a small pleat.) The waist dart will be gathered between points K and L.

Figure 4 B B shows the c l o t h fi t t i n g of the p a t t e r n in Figure 4B.

'

FIGURE 4B. 'The neck yoke is cut away from the rest of the pattern. The d a r t space from A to C is cut out, leaving the neck yoke in two Figure 4B pieces. The pieces are placed toa gether at the dart lines and a n e w one-piece yoke is drawn without dart. The dart is hidden in the n e w shape of the neck yoke’. The s a m e procedure is followed f o r the waist yoke. The dart space l e f t in the body of the pattern is gathered between points K and L to match points K and L of the waist yoke. 28


FIGURE 5A. The back waist has been joined to the back skirt to permit a yoke (I—E-H-L) to be drawn across t h e waistline. (See Book I, Foundation Patterns.)

w -—w—v-~mw.~,.‘

A shoulder yoke (M-N) is also shown.

J o

M

The remainder of the skirt section is ignored f o r this illustration.

FIGURE 5B. The pattern is c u t i n t o three sections on the yoke lines M - N , E-H and I- L.

I

I

I

FI

The center section can be c u t and spread to allow for gathers between points M - O and 15-13, as shown in Figure 5C.

In certain materials this small dart can be eliminated by removing s o m e of it from t h e center back s e a m and s o m e from the side s e a m as shown by t h e dotted lines. This can be tried in the c l o t h fi tting. (See Figure SCC.)

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Figure 5B

ON

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LINE

Iinszred. :5

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mt

also possible to spread them so m o r e fullness is added to the top,

to t h e

bottom.

M-O of

t h e center section is gathered fzt M - O of the shoulder yoke sec'm:m..m:. in Figure 5B. in

E—P of t h e center section is gathered rm 5;: 13-? of the waist yoke section in

fJF".g-re 5B.

Figure 5 C C

Figure 5 C C

Figure SCC shows two cloth fi ttings. In one, the waist darts have been kept in the waist yoke. In t h e other, the dart has been eliminated by removing it frorn t h e center back and side seams.

29

H

-

’»

‘Ema pieces can be spread as much as gk

écut

_, LINE

6 IDE

The shoulder yoke section shows the one dart made into two, as a s t y l e p o s s i b i l i t y.

In the waist yoke section the dart space is cut out and points F and G and J and K are brought together, leaving a small dart (J-A-F-C-K).

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_

INDEX

SKIRTS

TO

Yokes And Yoke And Style Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pages 33-37

“\

Page 35

Page 36

\LLL Page 38

‘~~..'-”

Page 38

Page 37

— Page 39

/

Page 40

Circle Skirts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pages 43-46 Whole Circle Skirts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 43 Half Circle Skirts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 45 Quarter Circle Skirts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 46

.

.

Page 41

Page 44 Whole Circle Skirt With Loose Pleats


SeamF1ares...................

.pages47-50

II

Hi

Page 47

Page 49

Seam Pleats.................................page 51

n..-

inn-

nu

llll s

:'l"|"

.Hu-.U

Page 51

Page 51

Godets.......................

LI)

pages 52-53

I\

Page 52

ยง

Page 52

Page 53

Page 53


The following pages illustrate basic skirt style variations such as yokes, pleats, gathers, flares, e t c . A l l of the styles are drawn on the skirt foundations patterns from Book I on Foundation Patterns.

w ‘ .,A—

.— .-— — .v

SKIRT Y O K E S A N D Y O K E A N D S T Y L E LINE COMBINATIONS A yoke line, or any style line drawn in the area of the skirt darts is handled in way as in a l l other dart areas. (See the sections on Bust Darts and Back Waist Darts.)

._.—._—r-.y—.w

t h e same

B a c k Skirt H i p Y o k e

Figure 1B

aAcK

The yoke is c u t away from the rest of the skirt p a t t e r n . csuren

The d a r t A-B-C is c u t out and closed by bringing lines A-B and C-B together. The pattern is then drawn as a one-piece hip yoke with no d a r t . The d a r t is hidden‘ in the curve of line D-B-E. The center back line is placed on a fold.

Figure 1A

D-B-E is drawn f o r the back hip yoke l i n e .

‘a.

Figure IBB

Figure 2A

Figure lBB shows the muslin fi tting of the pattern.

When the back yoke line is drawn lower than the hip dart, a l i n e must be drawn from the bottom of the dart to the yoke l i n e (B-F). The yoke l i n e should not be drawn lower than the hip section in any case, if t h e yoke l i n e is to remain a fi t ted line. 33


FIGURE 2B. The yoke is cut away from the skirt pattern. The dart A-B-C is cut out. Line F-B is cut, ALMOST to point B. The d a r t A-B-C is closed, opening a small space

at point F.

The extra space in line D-E can be gathered and shrunk out so t h a t it is i n v i s i b l e , if not more than about 1/2", depending on the fabric used. Figure 2B

T h e Front Y o k e . s

.3‘

J

i T ,

1

i

I

| ‘I

> l

Figure 3A A front yoke l i n e E-D has been drawn slightly below t h e dart A-B-C.

Figure 3B

A l i n e must be drawn from the end of the dart to the s t y l e line (B—F).

The yoke is cut away from the rest of the pattern, and the same procedure followed as in Figures 2A and 2B f o r the back.

Points G and H help in sewing the yoke line to the s k i r t .

FIGURE 3 B B shows

the muslin fi tting

of the yoke pattern.

Figure 3 B B

34


A

Front Y o k e A n d Center P a n e l

FT

*1

L

-—

LNE

E

LINE

GIFLIDE

__ __ _

3

'

I

F

z

2 u_

.— Z In 0

F

2

I

I In

G

Figure 4A

T

L

3

4

I I

' — - —

L

F

G

_

Figure 4B

:_

_ —— _ __

t

- 2 - —

___

__

Figure 4c

FIGURE 4A. The yoke and panel lines (D-E and E—F) are drawn as desired. A panel line is m o r e pleasing to the eye when it is drawn so that the panel is Wider at the bottom than the top, by about one inch. (See Figure 14A.)

FIGURE 4B. The yoke and panel are cut away from

the rest of t h e p a t t e r n .

The dart space is cut o u t and the dart lines brought together, making the dart

invisible.

The ‘side section of the pattern can be cut into as many sections as desired f o r creating additional fullness either by m e a n s of gathers or flares, or even loose pleats. (See Figure 4D.) A guide line has been drawn to help spread the sections in a straight line.

FIGURE 4C. Here the side sections have been spread for gathers, or pleats, under the yoke.

loose

The curve of the side seam no longer necessary, a straight l i n e can be drawn from the waist to the h e m as shown by the dotted line D-G.

7

FIGURE 4CC. This fi gure shows a

c l o t h fi tting of the pattern with the side sections of the skirt gathered to match the yoke lines. 35

4

Figure 4 C C

F


FRONT

CENTER

-

an

.

:

_____

j

:

T

1

:

"

if

j

:

———-

F

§‘

F

— - % . _ — _ — : : " ‘ —

Figure 4B

Figure 4D In this fi gure, the side sections are spread in a circular fashion for circular flares. See Figure 9B also.

A flare can be added to the center panel l i n e from E to the hemline, matching the flare from point E of the side section.

The sections are kept together at line D—E, while t h e width of the hemline is increased.

The dart space is eliminated since it is no longer necessary. Additional flares can be added from points D and E as well as shown by the dotted lines.

FIGURE 4DD shows

the cloth

fi t t i n g of the pattern.

Figure 4 DD

36


A

I

2

3

Front Y o k e A n d L o o s e Pleats

41 '5

Figure4F

Tmthis fi gure, the f r o n t skirt has a yoke l i n e beneath which f a l l loose pleats.

The yoke l i n e D—E is drawn at the base of the dart to i l l u s t r a t e another basic s t y l e . Lines 1, 2, 3, 4 represent the loose pleats.

\

\ ~ _ — ’

/

Figure 4G

The yoke is cut away from the rest of the pattern. dart space A-"B-C is cut out and the dart closed.

The

The rest of the skirt is cut i n t o sections 1,2, 3,4 and The sections spread as desired for the loose pleats. can be spread wider at t h e bottom as shown so that the pleats will have m o r e depth at the hemline. It is important that the sections remain level with each other no matter how far apart they are spread.

The p l e a t s should be folded in paper the way they will be laid in c l o t h and a tracing wheel rolled through l i n e D—E to get the correct yoke line in the p l e a t spaces. The dotted lines from 1 to 2 to 3 to 4 show the shape the l i n e takes to make the curve of line D-E.

F I G U R E 4GG shows the cloth fi t t i n g of the pattern.

r—L Figure 4GCv

37


P L E A T S A N D GATHERS When the skirt is gathered or pleated throughout the entire waistline, no basic skirt pattern is needed. The final pattern can be drawn immediately by Calcul a t i n g the amount needed to make the gathers or pleats desired.

Groups of narrow, pressed pleats are best l e f t to the professional pleater who has the proper machines. Other types of pleats and gathers are made by cutting and spreading the s k i r t patterns. Some types have been illustrated in Figures 4C and 4G.

All-Over Gathers A n d Pleats.

B

GATHERS

3 E

E; l.|.l

l

K Ill

(D

B

B

B

Figure 5B

'2 3

*5 (D

Figure 5A

FIGURE 5A. This pattern represents one-half a back or a front skirt to be gathered at the waist. For gathers, a width two to three times the finished waist measurement is usually allowed.

FIGURE 5B. For all-over loose or pressed pleats, the amount nec-

essary for the pleat inlays must be fi gured and each p l e a t space (or face of the pleat)marked. This figure shows only a section of the entire pattern which has been marked o ff in pleat spaces. There are 28 oneâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;inch pleats (A) making a 28'' waistline. The p l e a t inlays (B) or the amount the pleat f o l d s i n , are two inches, making a p l e a t 1" deep.

Figure 5C This diagram shows the pleats folded in place. Only the oneinch p l e a t spaces show on the surface. The two-inch p l e a t inlay folds in half t o â&#x20AC;&#x2DC; r n a k e a p l e a t one inch deep.

The skirt will have 28 pleats, 1" apart and 1" deep.

FIGURE 5 A A shows a cloth fi tting of a gathered s k i r t .

FIGURE SBB

shows an all-over

pleated skirt.

m i x

Figure 5 A A

38

Figure 5BB


A L i m i t e d N u m b e r of

Loose Pleats.

The pattern must be cut and spread where each pleat is to f a l l . The procedure is the s a m e one described in Figure 4G. A back s k i r t is handled in the same way.

C

MEN

H3.LN30

H3J.N33

.LNOUJ

.LNOH:|

FRONT

CENTER

—-1'“-§

I

2 ___._.__...._

Figure 6A ‘

Line 1-1 shows where one side P163-t W111 fa11-

The center pleat will f a l l from the Center f r o n t l i n e 2 - 2 -

2

-§“‘*——‘ ---—-‘-—-J

Figure 6B The pattern is cut on line 1-1 and spread any depth desired for the p l e a t .

The center p l e a t depth is allowed directly to the center f r o n t , making a n e w center f r o n t l i n e which can be placed on a fold. The arrows point to the directions in which the pleats are to The pleats should be folded in the paper and a tracing wheel rolled through the waistline to get the correct shape of the waistline in the p l e a t depths. be folded.

Pleat 1 can be folded over a l i t t l e deeper to point A to take 0 in_ the space of the d a r t .

FIGURE 6BB shows the cloth fi tting of

the pattern. The two side pleats facing each o th e r at the center front make an i n verted pleat.

The pleats can be stitched as far down as desired. Figure 613B

39


CIRCULAR FLARES A flare is additional width or fullness added to a skirt causing it to spread o u t . Circular flares are so named because the skirt is spread in a circular fashion to obtain the additional width.

F l a r e s F r o m T h e Skirt Darts In both the front and back skirt patterns the waist d a r t s can be used to open fl a r e s in the skirt. This keeps the flare below the level of the dart. Thus, a four piece flared s k i r t can be made in which the hip area is smoothly fi t t e d because the flares fall from the hipline.

...

_&_.‘,;_:

O

l"'|

Z

-4

TH 3 U!

P

O X

___..—.___._.—

Figure 7B

Figure 7A

FIGURE 7A. A line (F-H) is drawn from the base of the dart to the h e m in the direction the p l e a t is to f a l l . FIGURE 7B. The dart space E—F-G is cut o u t . The pattern is cut on l i n e H-F A L M O S T to point F. The d a r t E-F-G is closed, open~ i n g space H-F—H. This flare f a l l s only from point F. Additional flare can be added to the center back seam from the hipl i n e as shown by the dotted line I- J.

Additional flare can be added to the side seam as shown by the dotted line K-L. (See Figures 9A and 9B as well.)

FIGUR E 7BB. This figure shows the c l o t h fi tting of the p a t t e r n . Figure 7 B B

40

'


E F r E

Adding M o r e Circular F l a r e s T h a n T h e Darts Allow.

F 5 F

The skirt pattern can be cut and spread as much as desired f o r circular fl a r e s . These flares, however, must c o m e from some outside edge of the p a t t e r n , usually the waistline, and cannot be confined below the h i p .

E IF E

E

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

Figure 8A

z?'JcZ'x dotted line represents apiace where a flare is to fili.

Figure 8B

The waist dart A-Bâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;C is closed as described in Figure 7B. The pattern is cut on the fl a r e lines from the h e m A L M O S T to the waistline. The sections are spread to give as m u c h width at the h e m l i n e as desired. The pieces of the pattern must l i e absol u t e l y fl a t .

Additional fl a r e s can be added to the center front and side s e a m s if desired as shown by the dotted lines.

41


I I

I I

4

I I

3

I

2

I

FRONT

I

I

CENTER

I

I

I I Figure 9B

Figure 9A

FIGURES 9A and 9B. These fi gures show the same procedure f o r the front skirt pattern. The front dart can be lengthened if desired to have the fl a r e f a l l from

the s a m e depth as in the back.

The curve at the h i p l i n e in Figure 9B is no longer necessary.

FIGURE 91313. This fi gure shows the finished appearance of the p a t t e r n . The skirt can be cut in four pieces with center front, back and side seams, or in two pieces, as desired. The straight grain lines can be drawn as desired, provided a l l the pieces are marked in t h e s a m e way.

Figure 9BB 42


CIRCLE SKIRTS A circular skirt can be cut on the basis of a circle without using a basic skirt, pattern. The amount and position of the flares cannot be controlled in t h e s a m e way they are when the skirt pattern is cut and spread. Skirts can be cut as a WHOLE CIRCLE, a H A L F CIRCLE, and a Q U A R T E R CIRCLE with comparative differences in the sweep of the hem.

T h e W h o l e Circle Skirt.

iI"'EGURE 10A. Lines

A

D

sum: SEAM

A and B are drawn at right angles to each o t h e r.

0

/7?’

"fl"T:.e edges of the paper can be used as guides.) The corner is markti C f o r identification. This represents O N E - Q U A R T E R OF T H E _,I3rI1RE SKIRT. the waistline, l i n e C-D must C—D is one-sixth the measure‘illmuent of the entire waistline. If t h e waist measurement is 24", line ID-D is 4". C—D is measured off as many times as necessary from NJ I C to draw the waistline curve D—D—D~D—D. If the waistline is to yk 24'‘, the curve D—D—D-D-D, which is ~« -quarter of the entire waistline, Aw measure 6". It m a y be 1/4" so too large, in which case e C—D is shortened a bit a n e w curve drawn m the waistline.

"Um draw t h e part of the circle which K figured (the radius of the circle).

is

«

»w

of the skirt

measured off

,.».aem-n

4&4‘ \

am the waistcircle and “'''iilel to i t .

Figure l0A

D

°/XDA

FIGURE 10B. This fi g ure shows how four of these sections are necessary to make an entire skirt. The sections can be cut together m a k i n g a skirt with no s e a m , or with only two seams,

if desired. Figure IOB

FIGURE IOBB.

This figure shows

the c l o t h fi tting of the finished skirt, spread so t h a t half its width can be

seen.

Figure 1GBB

43


A SKIRT CAN BE CUT AS T W O W H O L E CIRCLES IF AN E X T R E M E L Y F U L L SKIRT IS DESIRED. T H E WAIST MEASUREMENT IS DIVIDED IN H A L F A N D E A C H H A L F MADE INTO A W H O L E CIRCLE SKIRT. For a 24-inch waist measurement, there would be two whole circle skirts, each measuring 12" at the waistline.

The waist measurement can be enlarged to include loose pleats, or folds or gathers.

Figure 11A shows the construction of such a skirt with two pleats in each quarter skirt. Figure IIAA shows t h e cloth fi tting of the finished skirt. The skirt resembles t h a t in Figure 6BB but has a f u l l circle

sweep at

the hem.

CENTER FRONT

SEAM

SUE

. um,

.,;v.m,.=.

,.y.;v.

Figure l1AA

Figure 11A

44


T h e H a l f Circle Skirt.

A SIDE SEAM

OR

CENTER BACK

FIGURE 12A. The procedure is the same as described for Figure 10A E X C E P T T H A T LINE

C-D IS APPROXIMATELY ONE-THIRD T H E ENTIRE WAIST MEASUREMENT.

The waist curve D—D-D—D—D should measure one-half the e n t i r e waistline or be adjusted to \fi£ by shortening or lengthening l i n e C-D. 2

lithe waistline is 24", l i n e c¢D is about 8" and the waist curve D should measure 12".

<

E O E

$1: 1: B

m° #1‘2 Q T

2

Figure 12A

FIGURE 1213.

This fi gure shows the two sections nec~ essary to make the e n t i r e skirt.

Figure IZB

FIGURE IZBB.

;

This fi gure shows the c l o t h fi tting of the fi nished skirt spread so t h a t h a l f i t s width can be seen.

Figure IZBB

45


T h e Q u a r t e r Circle Skirt.

c

A SIDE SEAM

FIGURE 13A. The procedure is the s a m e as described for Figures 10A and 12A, EXCEPT TI-{AT LINE C—D IS APPROXIMATELY T W O THIRDS T H E WAIST M E A S U R E M E N T .

The

waist curve, D-D—D-D—D, should be the entire waist measurement, or adjusted to fi t by lengthening or shortening line C—D.

If the waistline is 24", line C—D is about 16", and the waist curve D should measure 24''.

SEAM

SIDE

Figure 13A

FIGURE 13B. This figure shows t h e one section necessary to m a k e t h e entire skirt. Figure 13B

FIGURE 13BB. This figure shows the c l o t h fi t t i n g of the fi nished skirt spread so that h a l f its width can be seen.

Figure 13BB

46‘


S E A M F LARES

A seam flare is additional width or f u l l n e s s added to the lengthwise seams of the skirt. Skirts can have any number of lengthwise seams, dividing the skirt i n t o panels or gores. Figures 14BB and l5BB show a 6-gored skirt and an 8-‘gored skirt with s e a m fl a r e s . Figure l6CC shows a 16-gored skirt with seam flares.

EH

G

H

A

G

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Figure 14A A panel l i n e or gore line H-1 has been drawn on the basic front skirt pattern. The panel will have a better shape if the bottom width (I- B) is made about one inch m o r e than the top (H—A).

3

: '

Point J is the level from which the flare will f a l l , and can be any place C.

.

o

a

1

V

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ta: .n: “-

B Figure 14B

The skirt is cut i n t o two sections on the panel line H- J'—I. Any amount of flare (I-K) can be added to the hemline from the points I. The n e w s e a m flare l i n e is drawn from K to J. J-K must be m a d e the same length as l i n e J - I .

Equal halves of the waist dart can be removed from each section of the pattern. The seam line n o w runs G-F- J-K or E-F-J-K.

the l i n e .

FIGURE 14BB. This figure shows the cloth fi tting of the pattern.

47

Figure l4BB

.


Figures 15A and 15B follow the s a m e procedure described in Figures 14A and 14B, except t h a t the center f r o n t or back is kept a seam l i n e instead of a f o l d line. A fl a r e can be added to the center back and front seam lines, and the entire skirt c u t as eight pieces.

SEAM

BACK

CENTER

Figure 15B

Figure 15A

The waist dart E-F—G can be divided equally into three parts, each part removed from a seam line as shown by the dotted lines 1, 2, 3. The center back s e a m is n o w l—F— J-K. The panel seam lines are Z-F—J—K and 3-F-J-K. The side seam l i n e is

C—J-K.

FIGURE l_5BB. This fi gure shows t h e cloth fi tting of the pattern. Figure 15BB


Figures 16A-16C show the procedure for making a sixteen-gored skirt with gores of equal size.

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.

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a

-

-

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FRONT

CENTER

Figure 16A

The f r o n t and back skirt patterns are traced together at the side seams. The entire skirt area is divided equally i n t o the number of gores desired.

49


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Figure 16B

Figure 16C

The t o t a l amount of dart space, (the front, side seam and back waist darts) is divided equally among the gores, as shown by the shaded areas.

E-—‘

p

Each gore or panel is traced through separately on to another sheet of paper (without the shaded d a r t areas) so that flares can be added, or pleats, if desired. (See Figure 17A for the addition of pleats.)

FIGURE l6CC. This fi gure shows the finished appearance of a flared 16-gored skirt.

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r5115‘

Figure 16CC

50


S E A M PLEATS Just as a fl a r e can be added to the lengthwise seams of the skirt, so can additional width for pleats be allowed.

c

l

,

H

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A FIGURE 17A. The same skirt sections of Figure 14B are shown here with pleat allowances instead

V -F

of fl a r e s . The p l e a t allowance has width at the top, different from the flare.

-F

The p l e a t allowance m a y be the same width top and bottom, or the top can be made narrower as shown by the dotted lines. The p l e a t allowances are usually h e l d in place by top stitching along the seam lines. See Figure 6B for pleats running the f u l l length of the s k i r t .

J

K

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FIGURE l7AA. This figure shows the finished appear-

ILI

ance of the pattern. These are two side pleats, facing in opposite directions.

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Figure l7AA

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Figure 17A

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FIGURE 17B. An in-

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The p l e a t inlay secis the size of both side p l e a t s . KL is stitched to K-L of the s k i r t .

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I \,_-.

,-.__-_-.__-

tion

L

Figure 17B

verted p l e a t can be made from the side pleat, allowances in Figure 17A by adding a p l e a t i n l a y section to the pleat allowances.

I

Lines 51-1 of the skirt sections are creased and folded over to meet on line J-L of the inlay section.

Figure 17C

Figure 17D

FIGURES 17C and 17D. These figures show two other style p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Figure 17BB This figure shows the cloth fi tting of the skirt with in-

verted pleats. 51

Two side pleats facing each other make an inverted pleat. Two side pleats fairly close together, facing in opposite directions, m a k e a b_§ pleat. A series of inverted pleats as in Figure l7D are also a series of box pleats.


GODET S A godet is a separate piece inserted into a part of a garment to give a difference of width at a particular place.

Two basic types of godets are illustrated here as skirt godets. can be used in the same way in any part of the garment.

They

Figures 18A-18BB show a triangular godet set i n t o a slash, producing

a flare.

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;-- B Figure 18B The triangle f o r the godet is drawn as large as desired. A l l the length l i n e s of the godet (A-B) must be the same length as the slash l i n e A-B of the s k i r t .

3 Figure 18A The slash line A-B is drawn any place on the skirt.

FIGURE 18BB. This fi gure shows two_ ways this godet can appear in the finished skirt-â&#x20AC;&#x201D;as a flare tucked away inside the slash, almost like a pleat, and as a flare which "pops" out of the skirt. Figure ISBB

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54


Variations In The Cap Of The Sleeve

Page 74

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pages

Page 75 .56

69-75

Page 75


HEIGHT

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CAP

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Figure 1D

Figure IE

Figure 1F

a c l o t h fi t t i n g of the onethe a r m is lowered. piece fi t t e d sleeve. The sleeve fi t s best when There is no excess fullness under the a r m or in the width of the sleeve. The wrist is tight. The sleeve cap has the m i n i m u m full— ness necessary to fi t smoothly over the curves of the shoulder and t h e top of the a r m . The amount of extra fullness in the sleeve cap about one inch (from A to B to C in Figure 1C) usually averages m o r e than the armhole, depending on the fabric used.

FIGURES 1D and 1B. These fi gures show

V a r i a t i o n s In

is ; *1

T h e H e i g h t Of

The a r m can be raised no m o r e than about h a l f way between the shoulder and waistline without pulling up the rest of the garmerit. (As soon as the a r m is raised, diagonal wrinkles form from the top of the a r m to t h e underarm. )

T h e Sleeve Cap.

Figure 2B Figure 2A show These and 2C. FIGURES 2A, 2B, figures what happens to the fi t of the sleeve when the underarm is lengthened and the sleeve cap made shallower. The sleeve has to become wider and so l i t t l e or no extra f u l l n e s s is needed in the cap to fi t over the top of t h e a r m . The a r m can be raised almost shoulder height without pulling up But there is excess t h e rest of the garment. fullness in the underarm when the a r m is lowerThe sleeve shows diagonal wrinkles from ed. the top of the cap to the underarm. This type of sleeve, found in sport shirts, is best used when freedom of a r m movement is m o r e important than a smoothly fi t t e d cap.

More details on t h e construction of such a sleeve cap can be found in Book I. The sleeve cap line can be made as shallow as desired, even approaching a straight line. =u.,n> .uwum . n«.

.

58

Figure 2C


V a r i a t i o n s In

T h e B o d y Of

T h e Sleeve.

Style Variations Based On The Folded Sleeve.

Those style variations which a f f e c t only the f r o n t or back of the sleeve, or both, are m o s t easily made when the sleeve is folded like an a r m . The design can be drawn exactly as it is to appear finished, and then the sleeve opened. Folding The Sleeve.

(Refer to Figure 1C for the basic sleeve.)

s§“‘

FRONT

Figure 4A

Figure 4B

The back underarm line D—E-H is folded over to the overarm or center line of the sleeve.

Line D - F of the front underarm line is folded over to meet l i n e D-E of the back.

The elbow line must be cut from F to the f o l d before the bottom h a l f F—J can be folded over.

First the upper half D-E is folded over, thenythe bottom half E-H.

The elbow dart fullness is folded in place as one dart.

60


I

I I

I I

I

I

E

I I A

Figure 5D

The bottom width of the sleeve can be gathered to a band cuff. The c u f f usually is cut twice the finished width, plus whatever underlay is necessary for buttons or snaps or any other fastening (the shaded section).

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f

I I I

I I

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FIGURE 513.

added to the sleeve if m o r e of a puffed effect is wanted when the sleeve is gathered. (The straight grain l i n e is usually shifted to the center of the sleeve.)

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Extra length can be

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Figure 5F

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This fi gure shows the fi nished appearance of the gathered or "Bishop" sleeve in Figure 5E.

Figure G

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FIGURES 5F and 5G. More width can be added to the body of the sleeve as well as the bottom by cutting and spreading the sleeve pattern of either Figure 5C or SE, from the bottom almost to the cap line. The pieces must l i e fl a t when spread, b u t they can be spread any amount. 62


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More width can be added to the cap Line of the sleeve as well as the bottom, if desired, by spreading the pieces along a straight line. The pieces can also be spread so t h a t m o r e fullness is added to the bottom than the cap. (See Figure 11B.) The n e w cap line can be drawn as dotted lines.

/

indicated by the

The sleeve does not have to be made f u l l length. Wherever it is, the n e w bottom line should be drawn perpendicular to the center l i n e of the sleeve. (See the lantern sleeve, Figure 8A, and also following Figures 6A-6BB.)

/

FIGURE 5HH. This fi gure shows the finished appearance of the sleeve in Figure 5H, gathered to a band cuff, or l e f t loose at the bottom, gathered only 31 the cap.

Figure 5 H H

63


.

Figure 6B

Figure 6A

.4

Figure 6BB

FIGURES 6A, 6B and 6BB. These figures show how width is added to the f r o n t and back of a short sleeve. The procedure is similar to t h a t described for Figure 5A. The sleeve in Figure 6B can be cut and spread as m u c h m o r e as desired as described in Figures 5G and 5H.

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(Figures 11A and 11B show other ways in which the short sleeve can be c u t and spread without first folding the sleeve.)

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A d d i n g To

T h e B a c k Of

T h e Sleeve Only.

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a

FIGURE 7B. is

as“

The sleeve opened the same way described f o r Figures

5A-C.

(The shaded sec-

tions are traced through.)

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V.

K

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Léfflfl, Figure 7A

M

iL Z \

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A straight line drawn from L Figure 7B through K can be extended as m u c h as desired to point M. Point M is connected to the cap line. Point L can a l s o be connected to the cap line by a straight line. The curve of the elbow is no longer necessary since there will be no elbow dart in this wider sleeve.

A n e w underarm line can be drawn from D through the center of t h e n e w bottom l i n e M--L. In t h i s sleeve it coincides with the grain line, b u t it m a y not always. The straight grain line can always be made the center of the sleeve. 64

Figure 7 B B This fi gure shows the finished appear3-RC6 Of the Sleeve-


.a.,

.,

Figures 9A, 9B, and 9BB show another s ty le variation t h a t can be made on a The sleeve flares out in a point at the back over a fi t t e d cuff.

folded sleeve.

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K Figure 9A The fi t t e d cuff O-N-M-L-I-K-O can be drawn as desired. The rest of the style line O—P is drawn as desired and joined to the cap line.

Figure 9B

The sleeve is opened in two parts by tracing through the

A straight underarm seam l i n e can be drawn from D to N. The undera r m seam line of the c u f f is N - I . A straight f r o n t line can be drawn from M to the cap line.

shaded sections.

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.».».u.u.n.n»_.-

FIGURE 9BB. This fi gure shows the finished appearance of the sleeve.

Figure 9 B B

66


Figures 10A, 10B and IOBB show another s ty le variation which can be m a d e on a f o l d ed sleeve. The back of the sleeve is a puff formed from gathers, over a fitted c u f f .

FIGURE 10A.

The s ty le lines for the puff at the back, and the c u f f (M-PO-R to the cap l i n e ) are drawn as

desired.

The

gathers will f a l l between 0 and P.

A straight underarm seam for the upper section is drawn from D to N. The f r o n t f o l d l i n e is straightened from M to the cap line.

In this sleeve, the seam of the c u f f runs down the back l i n e O-K, instead of the

underarm.

Figure 10B

The sleeve is opened in two parts as in Figure 9B.

Figure 10A

Before the upper p a r t L K of the sleeve can be K the back curved l i n e must be R-O opened, straightened out to make a f o l d l i n e . R - Q is extended from the back fold l i n e the same length as line R-O. A curved l i n e is drawn from Q into line O窶年.

The shaded sections of the sleeve are opened as explained in previous fi gures. Line Q - P gathers to meet line O-P of the sleeve c u f f .

The c u f f is folded on line M- L, and the shaded section traced through. The seam line 0 - K can be closed by buttons, a zipper, etc.

FIGURE IOBB. This fi gure shows the fi nished appearance of the sleeve. Figure IOBB


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V a r i a t i o n s In

T h e Cap Of

T h e Sleeve.

Adding Fullness To The Head Of The Sleeve. Fullness can be added to the top of the sleeve by means of gathers, darts, pleats, or tucks. The top of the sleeve can be c u t and spread in various ways depending on the effects desired. The following fi gures show the basic ways this fullness can be achieved. Adding Gathers To The Top Of The Sleeve.

Figure 13A Line E- G-F is drawn any place above the elbow line, showing the level at which the fullness to be added to the sleeve cap will narrow down to the normal width of the sleeve.

The two halves of the sleeve head are spread equal amounts on each side of the center l i n e .

The sleeve is cut on lines B—G to points E and F. THE PIECES S H O U L D REMAIN ATTACHED TO T H E SLEEVE AT POINTS E AND F f o r ease in handling.

The shaded section between the points G indicates the extra length being added to the height of the sleeve cap at the same time.

Figure 13B


FIGURE 13C. This is one way the new cap line f o r the sleeve can be drawn. The m a x i m u m width of the spread of the sleeve has been kept. A l i t t l e m o r e height has to be added to fi n i s h the curve of the cap.

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The shaded section at the top of the cap plus the shaded section between points G make the t o t a l increase in height of the sleeve cap. This extra height enables the sleeve to stand up from the level of the shoulder like the old fashioned ''leg 0' mutton" sleeve, or stand out from the shoulder as a puffed sleeve.

A

Figure 13CC This fi gure shows fi nished appearance of the sleeve. the

The sleeve fullness is gathered between points A-B-C to fi t the arm-

. hole.

Figure 13C

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Figure 14A

Figure l4AA

This fi gure shows the same procedure as Figures 13A-C f o r a short sleeve.

This fi gure shows the fi nished appearance of the sleeve.

The cap is shaped differently from t h a t in Figure 13C to show a possible variation. Here the n e w cap line is drawn to make the top of the sleeve narrower and with more height than t h a t in Figure 13C.

70


A d d i n g Pleats, Or

Darts,. 01:» T u c k s , To

T h e T o p Of

T h e Sleeve.

Darted Sleeves Can Be Made In Two Ways. Figures 15A-15C show how the sleeve cap is c u t and spread to make the darts, making the e n t i r e sleeve head wider. Figures 16A, etc., show how a darted cap can be made without affecting the width of the cap. 2 3 “— I 3

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Figure 15A Lines 1, Z, 3 mark the places for the three darts which are to be made in this sleeve cap. These lines are continued to the l e v e l at which the fullness is to stop, line E-G-F. (The sleeve in t h i s fi gure is shown drawn only to the elbow l i n e because the rest of the sleeve remains exactly the same.)

The sleeve is cut down line B-G almost to points E and F.

F

G

'

—-——-——-—-—————Figure 15B

The sleeve is spread so t h a t there are equal spaces between lines 1, Z, and 3, if that is the way the darts are to be. The extra height (between the points G) added to the sleeve determines the length of the d a r t .

FIGURE 15C. The individual darts can be made as long as the space in the shaded sect i o n between points G. D a r t s 1-4-1, 245-2 and 3-6-3 should be equal distances ap a r t . Points 4,5, and 6 can be drawn any place within the spaces made by spreading the sleeve. Both sides‘ of each dart must be the same length.

Figure l5CC This fi gure shows the fi nished appearance of the sleeve in Figure

15C.

Notice the n e w points 7 and 8. Line 4-7 is made the same length as l i n e 4-1. Line 6-8 is made the same length as line 6-3. Figure 15C

A n e w cap line is drawn from The cap l i n e between points 1-2 and 2-3 will have Ibbe reshaped to make a smooth cap l i n e when the darts are stitched. This is iclt done in the fi tting and transferred back to the pattern. points 7 and 8 into points D.

Figure l5D

FIGURE 15D. This fi gure shows the appearance of a sleeve with longer darts, spreading far enough apart to be individual points. For longer darts, the sleeve pieces are spread further apart so t h a t the space between the points G increases. 71


Figures 18A, 18B and l8BB show the construction of a sleeve with four d a r t s which are not p a r a l l e l to each other. They cannot be spread more than 1/2" at t h e bottom in t h i s construction (see Figures l5A- 15C).

— — — — — — — — — — -—"

E

Figure 18 BB

Figure 18A Figure 183 FIGURE 18A. L-N is the combined length of the dart spaces 2-1 and 1-7. combined length of the dart spaces 3-4 and 4 - 9 .

L-O is

the

This fi gure shows the fi nished appearance of the sleeve.

FIGURE 18B. The dart sections are cut out and pivoted from points 5, M, and 6, making four even dart spaces. To complete the darts in this fi gure, the dart line must be drawn from 8 through N (8-P) for the same length as line 7-8. 10-O-Q equals 9-10. In this type of sleeve the dart spaces cannot spread m o r e than about 1/2" at the bottom, otherwise points P and Q extend too far beyond the sleeve cap. New cap lines are drawn from P and Q into the cap lines at A and C.

The fi n a l shape of the sleeve cap is b est determined by a c l o t h fi tting.

~

Figures 19A and 19B show the construction of two other possible style variations.

lop FIGURE 19A. A separate "box cap" can be drawn any shape desired, but O-M can be no longer than l i n e L—M. L-Q equals N-O.

L-R

equals O-P.

M--S equals M-N. M-T equals M-P.

The n e w cap lines are drawn from points S and T into the points D. Section M-N-O—P-M is cut away as a separate section. In the fi tting, line 5- M-T is sewed to N- M~ P.

Figure 19

FIGURE l9AA. This fi gure shows the fi nished appearance of the sleeve.

FIGURE 19B. In this style variation, style l i n e N-M-O is drawn fi r s t . N-P equals N-M. O - Q equals O-M.‘

L-P should equal L-Q since they are sewn gether.

N- M-O.

to-

Then line N-P, (1-0 is stitched to line

FIGURE 19BB. This fi gure shows the fi nished appearance of the sleeve. .

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.

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G

Figure 19B

74

Figure -19

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Another variation possible on the fl a t or open sleeve is the cowl sleeve. See Cowl Necklines as w e l l . |

Figure 20A

The "cowl" l i n e s 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 are drawn as deep and as far apart as desired. The shaded

sections show how

the

extra fullness in the normal sleeve Figure 2013 cap can be removed. It is no longer necessary in a sleeve with cowl The sleeve sections are cut apart and spread fullness. as desired. The shaded sections can be c u t away first and the pieces rejoined at the cap. When spread, points E and F should be kept together. The top sections can be spread apart less than the bottom or all the sections spread evenly.

Figure 2033 This fi gure shows the fi nished appearance of the sleeve.

H-I sews to I - J , making the inside fold of the top flcowl. The shape of this l i n e can be adjusted in the fi tting. Usually the sleeve is cut on the bias grain, as marked.

Figure 21A

Figure 21B

’Figure ZIBB

FIGURES 21A, 21B and 21BB. These figures show another style variation included here because it illustrates the problem of inserting gathers in the middle of the head of the sleeve. ‘

A center section H—I- J-K has been kept fl a t just as a style possibility. Only the side sections have been spread to give increased width and length to the center of the head of the sleeve. 75


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K i m m i e Type Combination Sleeves . . .

. . . . . . . : . . . . . . pages 88- 102

G u s s e t - Type Kimono Sleeves.

Page 89

. . . . . . . . . pages 89-94

Page 89

Page 93

Page 94

Page 94

Non-Gusset Type Kimono Sleeves. . . . . . . . . . pages 95-102

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Page 98

Page 101

78

Page 99


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Fitted Type C o m b i n a t i o n Sleeves.

Figure 2A shows the positions of the basic patterns for a l l fi t t e d types of sleevewaist combinations.

The top cap l i n e of the sleeve is placed with the armholes of the waist patterns similar to the way it is sewed into them. It is then easy to combine the overarm part of the sleeve with the waist patterns. The excess fullness at the sleeve cap, which normally is eased into the armhole when sewed together, becomes a shoulder dart. The underarm sections of the sleeve and the armholes are not changed. Any s tyl e l i n e drawn on the waist patterns must be joined to the sleeve p a t t e r n at approximately point D so t h a t it can continue into the normal underarm and sleeve cap lines.

Figure 2A

The sleeve pattern is marked on a sheet of paper.â&#x20AC;&#x2DC; (Any type of style sleeve with a fi t t e d cap can be used.) The back waist pattern is placed on the sleeve so t h a t point D meets point I-1 and point C is raised l/4" above the sleeve cap line. The f r o n t waist pattern is placed on the sleeve in the same way. (The 1/4" allowance helps keep the waist armholes from overlapping the sleeve cap too much. As much as 1/2" can be allowed if necessary. ) The f r o n t and back shoulder lines B-C are brought together as a dart at point J, making a n e w shoulder line for the sleeve and waists. The point of the dart should curve enough below J to make a line which will follow the curve of the shoulder and top of the arm. This line is best adjusted in a cloth fi tting. Approximately, it can be drawn as shown here from the center of the shoulder lines to a point about 1/2" below point J. 80


T h e Fitted Raglan Sleeve.

Figure 3A D - Q and D—R are style lines, drawn as d e sired, making "Raglan" style lines K-D-Q and E-D-Q, and M-D-R and E-D-R. Figure 3B

WHATEVER STYLE LINE

IS DRAWN MUST COME B A C K TO POINT D ON THE ARMH O L E OR WITHIN APPROXIMATELY O N E HALF INCH OF IT, to retain a closely fi tted underarm.

FIGURES 3B, 3C and 3D. These fi g ures show the pattern pieces traced separately from the construction diagram of Figure 3A.

K-H-Q sews to E-DQ of the back waist. M—L-Q sews to ED - Q of the front. waist. B—J sews to B-J.

Figure 3D

Figure 3C

Figure 3DD 81

FIGURE 3DD. This fi gure shows the cloth fi tting of the fi tted raglan sleeve pattern.


Figures 4A-4D show how the style lines of the fi t t e d raglan sleeve can be modified by moving the shoulder dart fullness to the armhole lines.

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Figure 4A

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_

.

This shows the s a m e sleeve as in Figure 5A, but shortened to the elbow line because the rest of the sleeve is not pertinent.

The dotted l i n e is the center of the sleeve-shoulder d a r t B- J - B . H-5 and L-T are notch points within which the fullness in the armhole lines will f a l l . (The fullness should be placed in the area of the shoulder and top of arm c u r v e . )

.

The shaded sections which have been cut ,j out are placed back on the sleeve so that points J meet and points B come together on the central dotted l i n e . 4.-/"

This procedure opens two darts H-J-H and L—J-L in the armhole l i n e s , replaci n g the shoulder dart B-J-B.

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,-«,r

The shaded shoulder sections should be t r a c e d through to another sheet of paper and c u t out.

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FIGURE 4C. New armhole lines are drawn approximately as shown here. They can be adjusted in the cloth fi tting.

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j

Figure 4B

K-H and M-L on the new armhole lines are the same measurement as K-H and M-L of the o rig inal sleeve. The n e w fullness (shown by the shaded spaces) is spread between points H and S and L and T. This fullness can be gathered, pleated, or tucked, as desired.

Figure 4C

82

L


FIGURE 4CC. This fi gure shows a cloth fi tting of the sleeve in Figure 4C, with the fullness laid in pleats.

Figure 4 C C

Figure 4D

Figure 4DD

This fi gure shows another possibility. Here the shoulder dart Bâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;.T-B is only p a r t i a l l y closed, opening a smaller amount of fullness in the armhole. This fullness can be gathered, as shown in Figure 4DD. If the material used is of such nature, and the fullness is not too much, the gathers can be shrunk out leaving no v i s i b l e signs of the fullness. Only the shoulder d a r t would remain.

It is possible to swing a l l the fullness of the shoulder dart into only one armhole, either the f r o n t or the back.

The shaded sections can be moved any way at from point J.

all, pivoting

83

This fi gure shows the fi tting of the pattern in Figure 4D. cloth


T h e F i t t e d D r o p p e d Shoulder S l e e v e

FIGURE 5A. The position of the basic pattern: is the sa.me as in Figures 2A and 2B. The dropped shoulder style line O-P is drawn any way desired. (Usually it is not drawn any lower than points D on the armhole.) The shoulder dart lines are continued through J to the n e w style l i n e (point Q).

FIGURE 5AA. This

Figure 5A

shows the cloth fi tting of the pattern in Figure

figure

5A.

Figure 5AA

Figures 5B, 5C and SD show the pattern pieces traced separately from the construction diagram of Figure 5A. The dotted l i n e s show the procedure if a deeper

armhole l i n e is desired.

O

P

Q

W Figure 5D

FIGURES 5B and 5C. Both the f r o n t and back armholes must be lowered the same amount.

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FIGURE 5D. The sleeve cap l i n e must be extended both f r o n t and back to match the n e w Figure /5B Figure 5C armhole lines on the waist patterns. A l i n e is drawn through points K and M as a guide for extending the cap lines. The curve of the new cap lines should approximate the shape of the n e w armhole lines, and must measure the s a m e length. (O—T of the sleeve cap sews to O-R of the back armhole. P—U of the sleeve cap sews to P—S of the f r o n t armhole.) K-T and M-—U should be the same size if possible. The shape of the armhole and sleeve cap lines can be fi n a l l y adjusted in the cloth fi tting. 84 ‘


A Fitted Y o k e A n d Sleeve C o m b i n a t i o n .

Figures 6A-6C show j u s t one of many possible fi t t e d yoke and sleeve combinations.

FIGURE 6A. The position of the basic patterns is the same as in Figures 2A and 2B. Here

the yoke style lines are drawn into the waist d a r t s . They can be drawn any way desired. (Usually, the yoke line should not go lower than points D on the armhole.

The shoulder dart lines continued through J, down the center of the sleeve f o r whatever length sleeve is desired.

cL____ Figure 6A

FIGURES 6B and 6C. These figures

show

the

pattern

pieces traced separately from the construct i o n diagram of Figure 6A. The dotted lines show a modifi cation of the sleeve seam to give a more rounded effect.

Figure 6B Figure 6C

FIGURE 6AA. This fi gure shows the cloth fi tting of the patterns in Figures 6B and 6C.

Figure 6AA

85


A Fitted Y o k e A n d D e e p A r m h o l e C o m b i n a t i o n .

Figures 7A-7D show another one of many other style p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the fi t t e d sleeve and waist combination.

Figure 7A

The position of the basic patterns is the same as in Figures 2A and 2B. In this fi gure a f r o n t yoke is combined with a. deep armhole (O-D-P). The back waist pattern has simply a deep armhole Q-R which matches

the f r o n t in depth.

F-R

equals F-P.

Point S is simply a notch on the front shoulder l i n e B-J marked off to match point 0 on the back.

FIGURE 7B. Only part of Figure 7A is shown here to avoid the confusion of too many lines. The cap lines of the sleeve have to be lengthened to match the deep armhole lines on the f r o n t and back waist patterns. (See Figure 5D.) The n e w cap lines D-T and D-U are drawn to meet the guide l i n e through points K and M. D-T is drawn the s a m e length as the back armhole line D-R of Figure 7A, and similar in D-U matches the f r o n t armhole line shape. D-P in Figure 7A and should be similar in shape. Points T and U are joined to the sleeve at any depth desired. \\F

V

It should be noted here that T-K is longer than M - U because of the difference in shape between the f r o n t and back armholes. If it appears practical in the cloth fi tting, the side seam l i n e of the waist could be moved toward the back to h e l p make T-K and M-U equal so t h a t both sides of the sleeve are in balance.

Figure'7B

86


FIGURES 7C and 7D. These fi gures show the back and f r o n t waist patterns traced separately without the sleeve.

Figure 7D

Figure 7C

FIGURE 7E. The

sleeve lines T-V and Uâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;W should be made the same length. Also, points T and U need not remain as sharp as they are. T They can be dropped and flattened out because there is plenty of length in the underarm o f x \ the sleeve.

The dotted lines show how these changes can be made. D-X equals D-T. D-Y equals D-U. X-V equals Y-W. The shape of these lines can be adjusted further in the cloth fi tting, if necessary.

Figure 7E

Figure 7 E E This fi gure shows the c l o t h fi tting of the patterns in Figures 7C, 7D and 7E. 87


K i m o n o Type C o m b i n a t i o n Sleeves.

When the entire sleeve is joined to the waist, there is always the problem of raising the a r m comfortably. (See Figure 1F in the introduction to Sleeves.) More " l i f t " can be given to the underarm either by inserting a separate underarm section known as a "gusset, " or by providing enough extra length for the underarm of the sleeve in ' the construction of the pattern. The gusset gives extra length without extra f u l l n e s s . It is diffi cult to set in and frequently rips out, but it does allow for a m o r e fi t t e d type of kimono sleeve. When extra length is added to the underarm as in Figures 10A and 10B, more f u l l ness comes into the armhole. The shaded sections in Figures 8B and 10B should be compared. The a r m can be raised higher with no gusset piece, but there is m o r e excess fullness at the underarm. f.

E

G u s s e t — T y p e K i m o n o Sleeves.

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52

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Figure 8A

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This fi gure shows the positions of the basic patterns f o r a l l gusset-type kimono combinations in relation to the fi t t e d type combination sleeves. This fi gure is based on Figure 2A of the fi t t e d type combination sleeves, which is shown here in dotted lines. It is d i f ferent from Figure 2A in t h a t both waist patterns have been swung away from the sleeve, (using points C as pivots), to keep the underarm lines of the sleeve entirely free from the waist patterns. This causes the extra fullness (shaded sections) at the armhole which is t y p i c a l of a l l kimono type sleeves. The shaded sections in Figure 8B show this more c l e a r l y.

88


The Basic Position Of The Waist And Sleeve P a t t e r n s For A l l Gusset-Type Kimono Sleeves

Figure 8B The instructions for Figure 2A under Fitted Type Sleeves must be followed fi r s t . The sleeve pattern can be marked in place, but the waist patterns should not be marked until the following instructions are completed. The back waist p a t t e r n is placed on the sleeve so t h a t point D meets point H and point C is raised 1/4" above the sleeve cap l i n e . Point C is pinned in position as a p i v o t so t h a t the waist p a t t e r n can be moved away from the sleeve u n t i l the side seam l i n e E~F meets the underarm point K of the sleeve.

The front waist p a t t e r n is moved in the same way until the side seam line E-F meets the underarm point M of the sleeve. The p a t t e r n s â&#x20AC;&#x2122; are marked in this position. The armhole lines of the waists and the sleeve cap l i n e are no longer of any use except as guide lines f o r the drawing of style lines.

89


Figures 9A-9K show various types of gussets which can be constructed to give "lift" to the underarm of the sleeve.

The larger the gusset, the more freedom of a r m movement. A balance must be struck between the small gusset which is invisible when the a r m is down and a gusset large enough for comfort when the a r m is raised. This can be achieved only through many trials with cloth fi ttings. (The gusset is usually cut on the bias grain to lessen the strain on the corners.)

The basic procedures outlined here are the same whatever the size and shape gusset desired.

Figure 9A The front and back armholes must be cut into to allow the insertion of the Enough space must be c u t out to make r o o m f o r small s e a m allowances. The slash line_s must be drawn to s o m e outside edge of the waist and sleeve patterns. gusset.

The front gusset slash lines U—T-M‘ meet the above requirements. The back gusset slash lines Q-R-S must be drawn to fall the same way on the side seam and the sleeve underarm as the front. K-S must measure the same as M-U. E - Q must measure the same as E—M. Points R and T can be brought as high into the armhole as p r a c t i c a l . The higher the points, the higher the a r m can be raised. In effect, new armhole and sleeve lines have been drawn. R - Q and T-M are the back and f r o n t armhole l i n e s . R-S and T—U are the sleeve cap lines.

90


Drawing The Gusset

B

Y

B

J

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T

U,S Figure 9C

Figure 9B

FIGURE 9B. Only part of Figure 9A is shown f o r greater c l a r i t y. The dotted lines show the gusset pieces which will be joined and inserted in the shaded spaces. The underarm l i n e of the gusset has to be large enough to make up for the amount c u t away from the sleeve underarm (K-S and Mâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;U in Figure 9A) plus the amount of extra "lift" desired for the a r m .

In this fi gure, the underarm gusset lines S-V and U-W a r e about 4" long. (About 1" to replace the sleeve underarm, plus 3" f o r " l i f t . ") Line T-W must be made the same length as line T-M. Line R-V must be made the same length as l i n e R-Q.

FIGURE 9C. Both the front and back halves of the gusset (T-U-W-T and R - S V-R) must be traced through from the construction in Figure 9B and joined t o -

gether at the underarm lines

U-W and S- V.

The armhole lines T-W and R-V must be placed on the same side. R-5 and T-U must be placed on the same side.

The sleeve

lines

@\? Figure 9AA

This fi gure shows the c l o t h fi tting of the p a t t e r n in Figure 9A.

91


â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;K

Figure 9D

U,$ Figure 9E ,.

FIGURES 9D and 9B. These fi gures show another gusset in which the armhole l i n e s are shorter and the sleeve lines longer.

w,v Figure 9F

R T

u,s Figure 9G

FIGURES 9F and 9G. These fi gures show another gusset in which

the armhole lines are longer and the sleeve lines shorter.

92

'


Figures 9Hâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;9K show how a gusset can be used in a short kimono type sleeve-

Figure 9H Figures 9JJ and 9KK should be studied first to understand this fi gure. Line 1-2 is the length of the short sleeve and only part of the finished width of the sleeve at that l e v e l . Lines Q-R-1 and M-T-2 are the slash lines for the gusset. They can be drawn as desired.

T H E SLEEVE IS SO SHORT THAT P A R T OF T H E WIDTH OF T H E SLEEVE IS T H E GUSSET.

Figure 91

The dotted lines show one type of gusset t h a t can be made to fi n i s h the short kimono sleeve. Since l i n e 1-2 is too short to m a k e the fi nished width of the sleeve, the gusset must have part of the sleeve width allowed in i t . Lines X-V and Y - W of the gussets are part of the width of the sleeve. X-V plus 1-Z plus W - Y make up the complete width of the sleeve.

Lines Q - X and M - Y rnustbe the same length for they are the underarm of the gusset and the sleeve. These lines can be curved if desired, to blend m o r e smoothly i n t o the side seam of the waists. Line R-V must be the same length as R-1. Line T-W must be the s a m e length as T-2.

93


R

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V

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Figure 9J

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The front and back gus sets should be traced separately, and are best kept t h a t way.

The grain lines of the gussets should be drawn to match

the sleeve.

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Figure 9JJ This fi gure shows the fi tting of the gusset in Figure 9J. cloth

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Figure 9K

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It is possible to make the sleeve gusset with no underarm extension at a l l , but have the width of the sleeve join directly to the side seam of the waists.

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Points Q - V and M-W are joined directly by either a straight or curved l i n e blending smoothly into the sleeve line 1-2.

j

i

Figure 9KK

This fi gure shows the cloth fi tting of the gusset in Figure 9K.

Figure 9L This shows a short kimono sleeve similar to that in Figures 91 and 9K, but without a gusset. It is m o r e d i f fi c u l t to raise the a r m comfortably in such a sleeve unless it is c u t very short.

FIGURE 9LL. This fi gure shows the fi nished appearance of such a sleeve.

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/ Figure 9LL

94

J


Non-Gusset T y p e K i m o n o S l e e v e s . W h e n there is no gusset to provide the extra underarm length needed to raise the a r m comfortably, the construction of the p a t t e r n i t s e l f must allow for i t . (See the introduction to Kimono Sleeves.)

Figure 10A This figure is based on Figure 8A of the gusset type kimono sleeves which is shown in dotted l i n e s .

Both waist patterns are swung f u r t h e r away from the sleeve pattern to make room for m o r e underarm length. A center l i n e Bâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;J is drawn between the two shoulder lines B-C. Using points C as pivots, the waist patterns are moved toward the center l i n e so that both shoulder points B meet on the center line. The patterns are marked in t h i s position.

There is now more fullness at the armholes (shown by the shaded sections) than in Figure 8A.

95


Figure 10B This fi gure is the basic position of the patterns f o r all non-gusset type kimono sleeves and is made

from Figure 10A.

(The dotted shoulder lines B-C have been retained simply to make the position of the center l i n e B-J m o r e c l e a r. ) The sleeve cap and armhole lines are now u s e f u l

only as guide lines.

96


FIGURE 10C. The

I

,

sleeve underarm lines can be joined with the waist pat— t e r n s in various ways as shown here by the dott e d lines.

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K

M

I I

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The front and back underarm lines should be drawn as nearly ‘alike as possible. Differences in length can be adjusted l a t e r as shown in Figures 10D—l0F.

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The n e w shoulder and sleeve l i n e can be drawn from point B down through the center of the sleeve, or any other way desired.

Figure 10C

F Figure 10D

FIGURE 10D. This fi gure shows the back p a t t e r n with the deeper underarm from Figure IOC. FIGURE 10E. This fi gure shows the front pattern with the deeper underarm from Figure 10C. IF T H E FRONT U N D E R A R M C U RV E IS N O T T H E S A M E LENGTH AS T H E BACK, IT MUST BE ADJUSTED TO M E A S U R E T H E S A M E , as shown in Figure 10F. dotted l i n e X—Y.)

(The adjustment can be made along the 97

Figure 101-:


Figure IOFF This fi gure shows the cloth fi tting of the p a t t e r n s .

Figure 10F

FIGURE 10F. The f r o n t pattern pieces have been spread at point Y u n t i l l i n e W-F measures the same as line U-F of the back (Figure 10D). T H E FRONT A N D BACK BASIC PATTERNS USUALLY DO N O T JOIN T H E SLEEVE IN EXACTLY T H E S A M E WAY BECAUSE THEY H A V E DIFFERENT SHAPES AT THE ARMHOLES AND SIDE SEAMS. It is better to l e t the patterns f a l l in r e l a t i o n to each o th er the way they were originally fi tted, and make the adjustments later. This preserves the original "swing" of the sleeve. (Refer to the introduction to S e t - I n Sleeves.)

2 I

Figure 10G

FIGURES 10G and 10H. These fi gures show

the f r o n t and back patterns with the high

curved underarm from Figure 10C.

Figure 10G shows how the back elbow dart (U) can be closed by pivoting from a point (V) on the center seam line. This is poss i b l e only because the kimono sleeve has a bias grain and will stretch.

FIGURE IOHH. This fi gure shows Figure l0HI-I

the cloth fi tting of the sleeve.

98

F

Figure 10H


Figure 101

FIGURES 101 and 10J.

—These

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fi gures show

another po ssi b i l i ty. The underarm seam can ‘be lengthened so much that when the a r m is lowered a cowl-like effect is obtained.

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/

The back p a t t e r n is used here to illustrate how the underarm can be c u t and spread to add more length. The f r o n t p a t t e r n would have to be increased in the same way.

2

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G

F

Figure 10J show 11A-llD another Figures style possibility.

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Figure 11A FIGURE 11A. In this fi gure, the sleeve and part of the bodice are removed from~ the

rest of the waist patterns, making a s o r t of yoke and sleeve combination. lines can be drawn any way desired. E - Q must equal E-R.

99

The style


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Figure 11 B

Figure 1 1 C

FIGURES 11B and 11C. These figures show the back and front waist p a t t e r n s removed separately from the construction in Figure 11A.

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Figure 11D

.

Figure 11DD

If desired, the sleeve underarm seams can be made " longer f o r even more"1ift.

X—1 must equal X-Q. Y-2 must equal Y-R. Points X and Y can be placed higher or lower as desired. The underarm seams 1-U and 2—W must equal each o t h e r.

'

‘fl.‘’'v.2-"

«.».~.x.¥I:' ,

100

This fi gure shows the c l o t h fi tting of the p a t t e r n .


Figures 12A-12D Show another style possibility.

I

__VI __ __

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Figure 12A

Here the armhole is "squared." l '

Line Qâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;U should equal l i n e T-W. If the underarm lines are not the s a m e length because of the position of the patterns, they can be adjusted as shown in Figure 12B.

101


Figure IZB

Figure 12D

Figure 12C

FIGURE 12B. The "squared" armhole

sections (shaded) should be traced through and c u t out. They can be pivoted from points 1 and 2 and moved up as much as desired to increase the underarm length

of the sleeve.

In this procedure, the underarm lines Q-U and the same shape and length.

T-W can be made

The armhole lines O-1-P and R-2-S should be rounded off at points I and Z. This may require an adjustment in length as shown.

FIGURES 12C and 12D. These fi gures show the back and front waist patterns removed separately from the construction in Figure 12A.

\\ Figure

IZBB

This fi gure shows the c l o t h fi tting of the p a t t e r n .

102


INDEX

COLLARS

TO

Flat Collars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Page 106

Page 105 Rolled Collars

Page 109

Page 112

Page 106

Page 113

Page 111

Page 113

- Type II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pages 114-119

/ Page 114

NECKLINES

- Type I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pages 107-113

Page 107

Rolled Collars

SPECIAL

AND

---,pages 105-106

R Page 116

Page 115

103

\ยง

Page 117


Baud Collars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .pages 119-121

Page 119

Page 120

Page 120

Raised Necklines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page 122

Page 121

.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .pages 123-127

Cowl Necklines . . . . . . . . . .

/

\/ Page 123

Page 126

Page 124

Page 127

Page 126

104


F L A T COLLARS Flat c o l l a r s follow the exact shape of the neckline. l i n e without any standing r o l l . They are the

They f a l l fl a t from the necksimplest type of c o l l a r to construct.

FIGURE IA. The front and back waist patterns are placed together at the shoulder seam to give a continuous neckline.

4:

3

'

V

Point B of the back neckline meets point B of the f r o n t neckline. Point E of the back shoulder l i n e can rest on the extension of the front shoulder l i n e .

E.â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;

>+-

(I)

FIGURE 1B. A c o l l a r has been drawn around the basic neckline. znrn-czrnn

-I203â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;?!

The neckline of the c o l lar is the same as the neckline of the garment A-B-C. The style line is any shape.

Figure 1B

Figure 1A

Figure ICC This fi gure shows a muslin fi tting of the c o l l a r. Any adjustments necessary for the c o l l a r to l i e absolutely fl a t should be made.

A Figure 1C

Any desired change in the style l i n e can be made on the fi tting. Sometimes it is more satisfactory to cut the c o l l a r wider than the desired fi nished width so t h a t the fi n a l shape of the style l i n e can be drawn directly on the fi tting.

This is the p a t t e r n of the c o l l a r alone. The center back line is placed on a fold to make a complete c o l l a r. Point B is the shoulder notch.

105


Figure 2B

Figure

ZBB

FIGURES 2A, 2B and ZBB. These fi gures i l l u s t r a t e another type of flat c o l l a r, with a " V " neckline instead of a round one. A neckline of any shape can be drawn, and the c o l l a r constructed around i t .

Figure 2A

A Convertible Flat Collar.

FIGURE 3A. In this fi gure, a flat c o l l a r is drawn to be convertible, that is, to l i e fl a t when the neckline is opened to form a lapel as well as when the neckline is closed.

gN

D

D-E is the l a p drawn to allow for a button closing. F-G is the break or fold line of the lapel. The shaded s e c tion F-A-D-G is folded back on l i n e F-G and t r a c e d so that the neckline is in i t s open or lapel position. The neckline of the fl at c o l l a r is drawn following the shape of the neckline A-F-B-C.

G

FIGURE 3B. This is the pattern f o r one-half the convertible fl at llar.

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ceursn BACK

F O L D

1'

E

R

F R O N T

E

Figure 3A

,

Figure 3B

FIGURE 3AA.

This fi gure shows

the muslin fi tting of the c o l l a r in both its open and closed positions.

Figure 3AA

106

'


R O L L E D COLLARS Rolled c o l l a r s rise from t h e neckline of the garment f o r some determined height before folding over to rest on the shoulders. Rolled c o l l a r s can be divided into two types: I.

Those in which the f o l d or break l i n e of the c o l l a r hugs the side and back of the neck as, for example, the shirt collar.

II.

Those in which the fold or break l i n e of the c o l l a r stands away from the neck.

In Type I the c o l l a r is limited in i t s size. In Type II the c o l l a r

can be any shape.

TYPE I (This group includes a l l small "tailored" type collars.) Shirtwaist Collars

.

Figures 4A-4EE show t h e construction of the typical tailored shirtwaist collar. The fold line hugs the neck tightly. The center back depth of the c o l l a r is j u s t enough to cover the back neck seam.

FIGURE 4A. Point C is the center of the front neckline A-B. The dotted lines A-C and C-B are temporary construction lines. Line C-B is continued beyond the shoulder l i n e .

V

The fold l i n e is as f a r from point B as desired f o r the c o l l a r to rise at the side of the neck before it folds back. (See Figure 5A f o r a different rise.) In this construction it is about 1 1/4".

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B D C

E

FIGURE 4B and 4BB. The shoulder line D-B is extended to the E). E-F on the fold l i n e is the same measurement as the back neckline F-E in Figure 4BB.

A

The shaded section represents the stand of the collar up to the {old or break

\

{old l i n e (point

line.

C E N T E R F R

F E N

o

N T

E

T E R

E C

Figure 4A

K

Figure 4B

107

Figure 4BB


Figure 4C

Figure 4D

This fi gure shows t h a t p a r t of the c o l l a r which f a l l s from the fold line to the shoulder.

The stand must he opened flat to complete the collar ' pattern.

From point F a line (F— G) is drawn at right angles to A-E-F for the center back of the c o l l a r. Line F-G should not be more than 1/2" deeper than the

The shaded stand section is traced through and drawn on the other side of the f o l d l i n e A- E - ] : ' ‘ . (The paper can be folded on l i n e A—E-F and the shaded section traced through with a tracing wheel. )

line

stand of the c o l l a r.

A smoothly curved neckline is drawn rounding off the corner at point C.

Style l i n e G-I-I-A is drawn as desired.

The c o l l a r is now completed, folded over the stand, or shaded section, which cannot normally be seen

B - I is made the same Length as E-F, the back neck measurement.

through the cloth.

The center back line of the c o l l a r is I-F-G, usually ' a shaped l i n e .

Figure 4E This is the finished c o l l a r p a t t e r n f o r one-half the complete c o l l a r.

If I—F-G is not a straight line, the c o l l a r will have a seam at the center back. It is possible to draw a straight l i n e from I to G and place the c o l l a r on a fold. The dotted line from G to I to B shows the fold l i n e and the adjustment which needs to be made in the neckline for it to continue straight into the center back fold. When this is done, the f o l d l i n e becomes longer and the c o l l a r does not hug the neck so t i g h t l y.

Sometimes the under c o l l a r is l e f t with a center back seam to maintain the good fi t and the top c o l l a r is cut on the fold since it has to be a. b i t larger anyway. (See Figures 51-‘ and 5G. )

108

Figure 4EE This fi gure shows the muslin fi tting of the c o l l a r.


B .a\ B \

oA

\ \

D‘ \

\ \

\\\

‘\k

‘‘ ‘\\ I

J "'-

I

I I I

In Figure 5C

Figure 5D

The stand of the c o l l a r must be opened to complete the c o l l a r p a t t e r n .

The completed [collar pattern is traced C-B—I—F-G-H-A and through from A—D' cut out.

The paper is folded under on the fold l i n e D- E-F, and the shaded stand sect i o n is t r a c e d through to the other side of the fold l i n e . The neckline of the c o l l a r has to be adjusted.

The collar is i l l u s t r a t e d in this position only to show how it fi ts into the front neckline. The lapel section is shown back in i t s original position.

A smoothly curved l i n e is drawn from C i n t o the center back point I as shown by the dotted l i n e .

Figure 5E

The dotted line J-K is the facing line.

The front facing is J-B-D-A around to L and K. (Refer to Figure 6D for f u r t h e r discussion on facings.)

Figure 5F

FIGURES 5E and SF. The top c o l l a r always should be a t r i fl e larger than the under c o l l a r so that the c o l l a r will roll over easily. The ‘center back of the top c o l l a r is a straight l i n e from G to I. G-I is lengthened up to 1/2" (depending on the fabric used) and a new neckline is drawn into point D as shown in Figure 5F.

(Refer back to the discussion under Figure 4E as well. ) 110

Figure 5DD This figure shows the muslin fi tting of the c o l l a r in its open position. W h e n closed, it would look like Figare 4EE.


Non-Convertible T y p e T a i l o r e d N o t c h Collars. Figures 6A-6D show the construction of a tailored notch c o l l a r drawn to fi t i n t o a non- convertible l a p e l . The shape of the l a p e l is such that it must always be worn open. It cannot be worn closed around the neck since ' i t does not have the shape of the neckline. The construction of the c o l l a r and l a p e l proceeds in the same way described in Figures 5A, 5B, and 5C.

Figure 6A

Figure 6B

Figure 6C

The construction of the stand and lapel ‘follows the instructions in Figure 5A.

The c o l l a r is completed a c cording to the instructions in Figures 58 and 5C.

The completed c o l l a r pattern is t r a c e d through as described in Figure 5D.

The lapel is immediately drawn in i t s finished position, from point D, any shape desired.

The lapel section is opened fl at by folding the paper under on the fold line D-L and tracing through the l a p e l lines D-MN-L with a tracing wheel.

The stand of the c o l l a r is narrower than t h a t in Figure 5A because the ‘lapel has been drawn open wider at the

The c o l l a r can be treated as described in Figures 5E and 5F. (When the stand of the c o l l a r is made narrow, as it is here, there is very l i t t l e shape to the center back of the c o l l a r. )

neckline.

FIGURE 6D. When the l a p e l remains open permanently, the facing must be m a d e larger than the l a p e l i t s e l f so t h a t the l a p e l can roll over on to the f r o n t easily.

Just as described f o r the c o l l a r in Figure 5F, the facing can be made up to 1/2" longer than the lapel, and abit yvider, depending on the material, i. e. how well it can be eased in sewing and shrunk in pressing.

Lines J- B—D— M-N and the center front l i n e should be ‘drawn first on another sheet of paper. The p a t t e r n can then be moved down on the center front line, up to 1/2". In this position the rest of the facing from N to L down the center front to K and back to J can be drawn.

The dotted l i n e s are the finished l i n e s of the facing. They show how the increase in length comes out when properly

added.

Figure 6CC Figure 6D 111

This fi gure shows the muslin fi tting

of the pattern.


T a i l o r e d S h a w l Collars.

Figures 7A-7C show the construction of the tailored shawl c o l l a r in which the c o l l a r and l a p e l form an unbroken l i n e from the center front to the center back neck.

The construction of the collar proceeds in the same way 5B, 5C and 6A—6D.

Figure 7A

asdescribed

in Figures 5A,

Figure - [ B

FIGURE ‘IA. The l a p e l and c o l l a r construction proceeds as described in Figures 6A and 6B.

The style l i n e of the collar, G-H, is drawn to make a. smoothly curved, continuous l i n e with the lapel line L-}{.

FIGURE 7B. The under c o l l a r section is shown separated from the lapel, and the l a p e l is opened as shown in Figure 6C.

FIGURE 7C. The facing for

the l a p e l can be cut in one piece with the top c o l l a r so t h a t no seam is v i s i b l e except at the

center back. The c o l l a r and facing are kept joined at lines B—D—H. Extra length should be added to the collar—lapel facing as w a s explained in Figure 6D. T

FIGURE 71313. This fi gure l i n fi tting f o r the c o l l a r.

Figure 7C

Figure 7BB 1 12

shows the mus-


Stand Collars. Figures 8Aâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;8CC and 9Aâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;9BB show the construction of collars which do not roll over at the neck, b u t consist of a, stand alone, joined to the lapel. The procedure is the same as described f o r Figures 6A, e t c . The l a p e l can be drawn from any place on the f o l d line. Two different types of lapels are shown here, but any number of variations is possible. At the back neck, the c o l l a r is j u s t a band collar, as shown in Figure 8CC.

Figure 8C

Figure 8A

G

F

Figure 8B

<3

F Figure 8AA

H

Figure 9A

Figure 9B 113

Figure 8 C C

Figure 9 B B


T Y P E II There are many variations in t h i s group of collars. Some collars have a slight, uniform r o l l from the center back to the center front; others r o l l away from back of the neck o n l y, lying fl a t at the f r o n t ; some are c u t in one with the center front waist. A l l the c o l l a r s are constructed basically in the s a m e way.

Figures 10A-10E show a c o l l a r with a slight roll around the entire neckline.

0

H

CENTER BACK NECK

pC6,4'

G

I

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9

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Figure 10C

Figure 10A Point C is the center of the front neckline A-B. A temporary guide l i n e is drawn from A to C. From point A a l i n e is drawn at right angles to A-C f o r the cent e r front l i n e of the neck.

Figure 1013 The center back l i n e of the back waist pattern is extended through point D f o r the center back of the neck.

R FOLDBACK

F -G is the n e w neckline of the front c o l l a r. If the c o l l a r is to have a one-inch roll, that is, 1/2" up from the base of the neck and 1/ 2" down again, F-G must be drawn one inch above the neckline A- B.

F-G is drawn p a r a l l e l to the neckline A-B and the same length. The style l i n e of the c o l l a r (H-I-A) is drawn as desired. Points H and G are joined.

Figure 10E

Figure 10D The new back neckline J-K is drawn in the same way as the front F-G.

E-L should measure as B-H of the front.

the same length (The shoulder dart is ignored.) The style l i n e of the back collar is drawn as desired. Points K and L are joined.

The f r o n t and back c o l l a r sections are c u t out. The shoulder lines are placed together so that points G and K meet. Any necessary adjustment in the style l i n e can be made.

Figure IOEE

The shaded section is the depth of the roll or stand of the c o l l a r which turns down to meet the neckline.

This fi gure shows the muslin fi tting of the c o l l a r.

114


Figures 11A-11D show a type of collar in which the roll of the collar is greatest at the center back, gradually narrowing u n t i l it disappears at the center front.

It is easier to construct the back of the c o l l a r fi r s t , since the back r o l l of the c o l l a r is the height to be determined.

Figure 1 1A

Figure 11 B

Figure 11C

Line A-C is continued from the center back line f o r twice the desired rise of the c o l l a r. If the r o l l of the c o l l a r is to be 3/4" in depth, line A-C is made 1 1/2".

The neckline for t h e c o l l a r on the f r o n t waist p a t t e r n can be drawn as desired. In this figure the neckl i n e is a shallow " V " type neckline

The back section of the c o l l a r (Figure 11A) is cut out and joined to the f r o n t so that point D meets point I and l i n e D-F meets l i n e I-.]â&#x20AC;&#x2122;.

Line C-D is drawn at right angles to l i n e A-C and is made the same measurement as the back neckline A-B. The style line E-F is drawn as desired. Points D and F are joined.

G-H.

H-I is the new neckline of the f r o n t c o l l a r. I-I-I should measure the same as the neckline G-H. The distance from I to G is the same as the distance from D to B in the back collar (Figure 11A). G-J is the same length as B-F of the back collar. Points I and J are joined.

The style line J-K-H is drawn as desired.

If points F and J do â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;not meet, the style l i n e of the c o l l a r can be adjusted as shown by the dotted l i n e . 'Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;he back neckline (D-C) can be redrawn so that it makes a better curve with the front neckline I-H as shown by the clotted l i n e . Because this removes some of the c o l l a r

roll, just enough shaping should be done to prevent a sharp corner at

points I, D.

Figure 11D This shown the fi nished pattern f o r o n e - h a l f the c o l l a r. L-E is the center back fold.

The shaded section is the depth of the roll or stand of the c o l l a r which turns down to meet the neckline. 115

Figure 1lDD This fi gure shows the muslin fi tting

of the collar.


Figures 12A-12D show the construction of the s a m e type of c o l l a r as in Figures 11Al1D, except that the c o l l a r is shown cut in one piece with the front waist p a t t e r n . A f r o n t with an overlap f o r buttons is shown f o r variation.

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Figure 12A Figure IZB

Figure 12C

These fi gures follow the same proFigures 11A and 11B.

FIGURES 12A and 12B.

K cedure explained in

The completed c o l l a r H-I-L-E-K-F-H can be used as a separate c o l l a r. Line H-1 sews to the f r o n t neckline I-Iâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;G. Line I-L sews to the back neckline A- B. L-E is the center back f o l d of the collar.

FIGURE 12C.

c u t out and

FIGURE 12D. The collar is joined to the waist p a t t e r n by joining the collar neckline H-I to the front waist neckline H-G. M - N is the collar-front facing line (see Figures 7B, 7C). FIGURE IZDD. This fi gure shows the f r o n t and back of the muslin fi tting of the collar.

\ Figure IZDD Figure 12D 116

//


FIGURES 13A-13D.

These fi gures show the same c o l l a r construction as in Figures 12A-12D. The neckline has been drawn lower than the normal neckline of the basic pattern just to show t h a t the construction of the c o l l a r remains the same wherever the neckline is drawn.

E

Figure 13A

Figure 13B

Figure 13C

Figure 13D

FIGURE 13CC. This fi gure

shows the muslin fi tting of the p a t t e r n .

Figure 13 CC

117


Figures 13E and 13F show a variation in the roll of the c o l l a r. To make the c o l l a r stand away from the neck even more than this construction allows, the r o l l l i n e can be increased in length by means of darts, or tucks, or gathers.

LINE

LINE

NECK

NECK

H

Figure 13E

Figure 13F

The dotted lines 1, 2, 3, 4 show where the c o l lar is to be cut and spread for the increase in length. These lines can be drawn anywhere on the neckline depending on where the collar is to stand away from the neck.

The lines are cut almost to the edge of the p a t t e r n and spread as m u c h as desired. Line 5, the center back line, cannot be spread. The same amount of fullness is added to i t . The spaces formed (the shaded sections) can be m a d e into darts, p l e a t s , tucks, or gathers, up to the roll line. The neckline of the collar is reduced to its normal size so that it will fi t into the neckl i n e of the garment. The r o l l l i n e retains its increased length.

FIGURE 13FF. This fi gure shows

the muslin fi tting of the c o l l a r.

Figure 1 3 F F

118


B a n d Collars. Band collars can be of two types: a..

b.

A simple s t r i p hugging the base of the neck. A double c o l l a r consisting of a band c o l l a r plus a fl a t c o l l a r attached to the top of the band.

The Simple Band Collar.

Figure 14B

The collar neckline is drawn as a curved line from points A to B, eliminating the corner at C. The neckline of the band c o l l a r (A-D-E)_ equals the measurement of the front plus the back neckline: of the waist patterns. A-D equals the front neckline. D-E equals the back neckline.

Figure 14A Point C is the center of the neckline A-B. C and A are joined by a line. C and B are joined by a l i n e which is extended through point B. From point A, a center front line f o r the collar is drawn at r i g h t angles to line

The c o l l a r can be drawn any width and shape Lines E-Fâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;G-A complete the c o l l a r.

A-C.

desired.

G

F E

A 0 Figure 140

Figure 14cc

This is the pattern for oneâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;half the band The center back l i n e E-F is placed on a f o l d to make the complete c o l l a r.

.

c o l l a r.

119

This fi gure shows the muslin fi tting of the coua_r_


FIGURES 15A, 15B and l5BB. These fi gures i l l u s trate one possible style variation of the band c o l l a r.

Y G ’

G

A

E

D Figure 15B

Figure 15A

Figure ISBB.

'

The Double Band C o l l a r.

3

BAND

E

D

G

A

TOP COLLAR Figure IGBB

Figure 16B

Figure 16A I

The band C o l l a r A-D-E-F-G-A is the same construction shown in Figure 14B.

§ 1

Another c o l l a r G—I—H-F-G is drawn over the band c o l l a r. The top collar and band collar patterns must be c u t out separately,

This fi gure shows the finished appearance of both collar patterns. Line F-G of the top c o l l a r is sewed to l i n e F-G of the band collar.

The dotted curve from type of button extension which could be added to the band c o l l a r to be but— toned at the center

This fi gure shows muslin fitting of 311011 3 C o l l a r.

3

A-B shows a

front.

120

i ‘


Figures l7A-17D show the procedure which would have to be followed if a very deep top c o l l a r were desired.

E

V

D

J H

Figure 17A

Figure 17B

.

The construction of the c o l l a r is the same as t h a t described in Figure 16A. The top collar is made as deep as desired.

Line H—J on the back waist p a t t e r n is the style l i n e of the back section of the collar.

The shaded area of the top c o l l a r represents the back section of the c o l l a r. As constructed, it could not possibly fi t around the body. It must be widened to measure the same as the back waist pattern at t h a t

Line E-H isthe same m e a s u r e m e n t as the back depth of the c o l l a r E-H in Figure 1 7 A ,

depth.

Figure 17C

Figure 17D

The top c o l l a r ‘of Figure 17A is c u t out (G-A-I-J—I-I—F). The dotted lines show

The top c o l l a r is cut and spread so t h a t l i n e H-1 is the same length as l i n e H—J of Figure 17B, PLUS l i n e .]’-I

where the c o l l a r can be c u t and spread to increase the length of l i n e H- J - I .

of Figure 17A.

The fi nished collar pattern consist of the band collar pattern of Figure 17A (A-G-F-E-D-A) and the top c o l lar pattern of Figure 17D. Line F-G of the top c o l l a r sews to l i n e F-G of the band c o l l a r. The center back l i n e }:‘-E of the band c o l l a r is placed on a fold. The center back line F-H of the top c o l l a r is placed on a fold.

FIGURE l7DD. This fi gure shows the muslin fi tting of such a c o l l a r. Figure l7DD

121


RAISED NECKLINES

The neckline of a garment can be moved higher up on the neck than the basic neckline making a finish for the neckline without a separate c o l l a r. Figures 18A and 18B show the construction of the "neck" on which the raised neckline can be drawn.

i

CENTER FRONT

. “_

f

Figure 18A

Figure 18B

Point C is the center of the neckline A-B. A l i n e is drawn The center front Line of the neck is drawn at right angles to l i n e AA-C. The side l i n e of the neck (B-D) is drawn parallel to the center front l i n e .

-

from A to C.

i

The center back line of the waist pattern is extended above the neckline through point E. The side line F-G is drawn p a r a l l e l to the center back

is

line. the human neck is not the same width from i t s base to the head, the side l i n e should be tapered l/4" about 1" above point B.

Because

.-

‘:

_ ‘V

B-D is one inch. D-D‘ is 1/4". The n e w side line is B-D‘.

_ E

_. »

(}.C,' is constructed in the

as D-D‘ in the front. line is

F-G’.

same way The new side

i

* ;‘

6‘ ’F

1

‘L ~

é

«

t

Figure 1313

Figure l8BB

FIGURE 18B and l8BB. Any type of "raised neckline" can be drawn on the "neck". Figure 18B illustrates one type of neckline. Figure l8BB shows

the muslin fi tting of such a neckline.

Since the shape of the "neck" is approximated, fi n a l adjustments in the shape of the side of the neckline can be m a d e in the muslin fi tting.

122 ..,,..iJLs:~a.,y._..;, ~

~-

‘ ‘


COWL NECKLINES

A cowl is a sort of soft pleat or fold, usually cut on a bias grain. Figures 19A-22B on the following pages i l l u s t r a t e basic types of cowl necklines. (The method of constructing cowl necklines‘ can be applied to skirts, sleeves, e t c . )

T h e S i m p l e Neckline C o w l . The cowl fold is confi ned to the neckline only. It is not cut i n t o the body of the waist p a t t e r n as in l a t e r fi gures.

:_____2/

——————-—o'=

Figure 19A

Figure 1.93

The depth of the cowl neckline

Line A-B is raised any amount desired f o r the cowl fold. Line A‘-B‘ is the same length as l i n e A-B, and is the new neckline.

(A-B) is drawn on the front

waist pattern.

If the center front is to be placed on a bias fold, point B‘ is joined to the waistline C by a straight line. If a center front seam can be made, point B’ can be joined to the center front at any level (D), keeping the cowl fullness as close to the neckline as desired. The center front seam l i n e would be

B‘-D-C.

FIGURE 19BB. This fi gure shows the muslin fi tting of the cowl with a center f r o n t seam. Usually a small weight is attached to point B‘ to keep it down in its proper po sition. Figure 19BB

123


T h e Center窶認ront-To-Shoulder C o w l .

A Figure 20A

Figure 20B

Lines 1, 2, 3 show where the cowl folds are to f a l l .

The pattern is cut on lines 1, 2, 3 ALMOST to the shoulder seam. The pieces are spread as much as desired for the depths of the cowls. (The pieces must be b a r e l y attached at the shoulder so that they w i l l l i e absolutely fl a t when spread. ) The depth of the top cowl (3) is just added to the pattern as in Figure 19B. The new top l i n e (3) is made the same length as the old neckline (3). The center front fold l i n e is drawn from 3 to A. This l i n e should be placed on a. true bias fold. (See Figure 21C.)

/

Figure ZOBB This fi gure shows the muslin fi t t i n g of the pattern.

124


cowl set i n t o a yoke.

Figure 21A

The yoke l i n e A-B is drawn on the center front waist p a t t e r n . Points C and D are notches marked to help stitch the yoke and waist sections together correctly. Line F-H is drawn to shift the waist dart E-F-G into the yoke line A-B. (See Figures 11E, 11F in the section on B u s t Darts.)

Figure 21B

The waist d a r t E窶認-G is closed, opening a small dart (H-F-H)which l a t e r can be gathered or eased into the yoke line.

Lines 1, 2, 3 are the cowl lines.

Figure 21C

The yoke section is cut away from the rest of the front pattern. Each of the cowl l i n e s (1, 2) are c u t from the center front ALMOST to the shoulder l i n e and spread as m u c h as desired. In this illustration, the cowl spaces have been made different widths. The top cowl depth (3) is j u s t added to the pattern. The n e w line 3 is made the same length as the old.

If the center front l i n e of the yoke section can remain a seam l i n e , it can be drawn as a curved l i n e from 3 to B. This l i n e should be cut on a bias grain, as indicated.

The square is drawn so t h a t part of the center f r o n t curve becomes the diagonal of the square. One side of the square becomes the straight grain l i n e , as shown by the arrows. (See Figure 21E.) 125

Figure ZID Figure 21D is the same as Figure 21C except that the center front

l i n e of the cowl has been kept a straight l i n e so that it could be placed on a fold. To achieve t h i s it is necessary to lengthen the n e w l i n e 3 enough to meet the straight center f r o n t l i n e continued up from B. The n e w center f r o n t fold l i n e 3-B) should be made the same length as the o l d curved l i n e 3-B.


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Figure ZIDD

This is the fi nished pattern of t h e yoke section of Figure 21D.

The center f r o n t fold is placed on a bias grain by making it the diagonal of a square, one side of which is the straight grain.

This fi gure shows the muslin fi tting of the patterns in Figures 21B and 21D.

Figure 2 1FF

Figure 2 IF

FIGURES 21F and ZIFF. These fi gures show the same type of cowl construction as the previous fi gures, except t h a t here the cowl pieces are spread apart at the shoulder as well, allowing f o r pleats. The cowl folds will f a l l from pleats on the shoulder l i n e , instead of from a smooth shoulder. This extra depth makes the cowls m o r e sharply defi ned.

When the pleats are folded in place in the muslin fi tting, as indicated by the arrows, the shoulder l i n e should be the normal one in Figure 21A. Corrections can be made in the muslin and the p a t t e r n adjusted from i t .

126

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T h e A r m h o l e - C e n t e r Front Cowl.

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FIGURES 22A and 22B. These figures show

the construction of originates from the armhole line instead of the shoulder. The neckline has been kept normal. To i l l u s t r a t e something else that can be done, the center front is made with an extension for buttons.

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Figure ZZBB This fi gure shows the muslin fi tting of the p a t t e r n .

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128


INDEX

TO

THE

The Two-Piece Sleeve . . . . . . . . . . . . pages 131-132 Grading The Two-Piece Sleeve . . . . . . . . . .page 145

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APPENDIX

Cuffs . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . page

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Page 132

Pockets...

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Page 132

Page 133

... . . . . . . . . . . . page 134

Circular Ruffl es

Page 133

- Groups of Pleats . . . . . . page 135

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Page 135

Page 134

129

Page 135


A Complete Dress Pattern And I t s Grading . . . . . . . . .

130

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136- 144


T H E T W O - PIECE SLEEVE The two-piece sleeve is a tailored sleeve limited today to suits and coats. It is a basic-style sleeve based on the folded one-piece sleeve, with separate overarm and underarm sections.

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Figure 1A The one-piece sleeve is traced in i t s f o l d e d position. (See Figures 4A and 4B in the section on Sleeves.)

The wrist measurement usually is widened enough for a hand to slip through. The back l i n e G-K—E can be moved o u t to increase the width of the wrist. The new wrist line E-F usually measures 4 1/2"—4 3/4".

,

The underarm section of the sleeve has no rigid dimensions. It can be varied as wished. The shape illustrated here is a good average one. The back underarm l i n e I-J-K is drawn as follows: I is the center of l i n e A-D. G-J is 1/2". E-K is 4".

The f r o n t underarm l i n e L—M-N is drawn as follows: L is the center of l i n e D-C. M-H is 1". N-F is 3/4".

131

The new back l i n e G-E is drawn first. E-K is 4 inches. J-K is drawn.


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Figure 1C

Figure ICC

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Figure 1E

FIGURE 1C. The underarm section of Figure 1B is traced through separately from the rest of the sleeve. 1, 2, 3 are notches placed to aid in sewing. . .]'-1 is about 3".

M-Z is

about 2''.

FIGURE 1D. The folded sections (shaded) of the overarm section of the sleeve have to be opened. (The underarm section has been omitted from this drawing.) Back: The paper is folded under on l i n e A- G. A-I—J is traced through. J-1 is the same measurement as J-l of the underarm section. J is joined to K.

Front: The paper is f o l d e d under on l i n e C-H. C—L-M is traced through. The paper is opened fl a t and r e - f o l d e d on l i n e H-F. M-N is traced through. M-2 equals M-2 of the underarm section.

M-3 equals M-3 of the underarm

section.

FIGURE 1E. Sometimes it is desirable to give m o r e shape to the two—piece

The f o l d e d sleeve of Figure 1A can be cut on line G—H and spread at another h a l f inch or so, as shown by the shaded section. The sleeve is G point now bent more at the elbow. The rest of the procedure follows as described above. sleeve.

FIGURES ICC and IDD. These fi gures show the underarm and overarm views

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of the sleeve.

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132


CUFFS Cuffs can be pieces cut to match the sleeve and stitched back on, similar to an outside facing. These are simply drawn from the fl a t sleeve.

The cuffs i l l u s t r a t e d here are separate from the sleeve, with their own shape. They are drawn in their fi nished position on the folded sleeve. (See Figure 4B of the section on Sleeves.)

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The cuff lines A-C-D-B are drawn any shape desired. This cuff swings away from the back of the sleeve (A-D) and will be opened there.

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Figure 2B

Figure 2A

(Only the lower section of the folded sleeve is used.)

B

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_

The c u f f is opened by folding t h e paper under on the frontfold l i n e B-D, and tracing through

D-C-A-B.

.

Figure ZBB This figure shows the fi nished appearance of the cuff.

Line B-D is the front fold

of the cuff.

C

A Figure 3A This cuff has a slight swing from the front and back of the sleeve (B-D and A—C). The cuff is seamed or opened at the underarm E-F.

Figure 3B The f r o n t section of the c u f f is opened by folding the paper under on line D-B and tracing through D-E-F—B. The back section C-E-F-A is opened in the s a m e way.

133

Figure 3 B B This fi gure shows the finihed a p pearance of the cuff.


POCKETS All pockets stitched to the outside of the garment, or "Patch Pocket" types, can be cut any shape desired and stitched to the garment. They present no particular problem and so are not illustrated here.

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"Inside Pockets” can be separate pieces of material stitched to an inside seam or some slash l i n e . The type illustrated here is a special problem because it is part of the garment. It can be applied to a skirt as w e l l . A P o c k e t Cut As

Part Of A Front W a i s t Y o k e A n d P a n e l S e c t i o n s .

Figure 4A

Figure 4B

The Yoke-panel Style lines are drawn as desired. A-C-B is the outside pocket fl ap. The dotted l i n e represents the inside pocket. (The bust dart can be moved O v e r to the Panel line.)

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The center front panel and yoke section (1) is traced through separately with the shape of the inside pocket joined to i t . The side section (2) is c u t out separately a f t e r the fl ap of the pocket (A-C-B) has been opened fl a t from l i n e A-B. The dotted l i n e showing the shape of the inside pocket is kept f o r later use.

Figure 4C

The pocket fl ap and inside pocket are traced through from section (2) of Figure 4B. This makes the facing for the fl ap and one—half the inside pocket. The fl ap facing A- C—B is stitched to the fl ap A-C—B of section (2). The curved pocket l i n e A-B is stitched to the curved pocket line A-B of section (1). The fl ap turns back. The opening of the pocket is in the straight line A-B.

134

Figure 4 B B This fi gure shows the finished ap-

pearance pocket.

of

the


CIRCULAR RUFFLES Circular ruffl es are circular flares and follow the same procedures. The one i l l u s t r a t i o n shown here can be applied to any loose, fl a r e d section of the garment such as: fl ounces, peplums, etc.

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D Figure 5A FIGURE 5A. The shaded section of the sleeve (A-BC-D) will be a circular-ruffle-cuff as shown in Fig-

ure

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Figure 5c

FIGURE 5B. The section to be r u f fl e d (or flared) is cut away from the sleeve. lines are drawn (dotted lines) for cutting and spreading the section.

Guide

FIGURE 5C and 5CC. Each dotted l i n e is c u t ALMOST to the top line A-B. The sections are spread as m u c h as desired. In t h i s fi g u r e , line A-B becomes almost a com— p l e t e circle. The circular l i n e A-B of the r u f fl e is stitched to the straight l i n e A-B of the sleeve. This forces the flares to f a l l into place as shown in Figure 5CC.

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Figure 5D

FIGURE SD. A circular r u f fl e can be cut immediately as a circle, if that much fullness is desired. The procedure follows that described f o r the Circle Skirts, Figure 10A. Lines A—E and A-D measure 1/6 the length of line A-B of the sleeve in Figure 5A. Line D - E should equal 1/4 the length of l i n e A-B. If it is too large, the l i n e can be raised a b i t to F- G. F—G—I-H—F makes one-quarter of the complete r u f fl e . GROUPS OF PLEATS (IN A SECTION OF THE GARMENT) This is a supplement to t h e pleats shown in the section on S k i r t s .

FIGURE 6A. The pleats are folded fi r s t as they will appear fi ni shed in the paper to be used for the pattern. (1 and 4 are side pleats; Z and 3 are box pleats making one inverted center pleat.) The pattern section is placed over the folded pleats and marked in position. This can be done with any section of the garment. Here the sleeve p a t t e r n of Figure 6B of the section on Sleeves has been used. FIGURE 6B. The p a t t e r n is cut out while the pleats are folded in position. The p a t t e r n is then opened fl a t , and the pleats notched f o r use. FIGURE 6BB. This fi gure shows the finished appearance of the p l e a t s . Figure 6A

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135

6B3


A C O M P L E T E DRESS

PATTERN A N D ITS GRADING

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This section summarizes some of the procedures which have been shown individually to make clear how a whole dress pattern is made and graded.

The grading procedure is based on the basic grading instruction in Book I on be referred to in order to understand the instructions below. The parts of that TOGETHER they grade the t o t a l amount shown for the basic patterns. p a t t e r n is to be increased, or decreased, as for example, a panel or a yoke,

Foundation Patterns, which MUST a style pattern must be graded so The amount each part of the style depends on the t o t a l effect desired.

B u t whatever the effect, no matter how many the parts into which a front waist pattern might be divided, the t o t a l measurement across the bust should increase or decrease no m o r e than the total grading measurement for the size. ex»

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FIGURE 7A. This fi gure is the sketch of the garment for which the pattern is to be made in size 14 and graded to size 16.

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FIGURE 7B. The waist and sleeve patterns are placed in position f o r a fi t t e d yoke and sleeve combination, Figures 6A, 6B and 6C of the section on Fitted

Type Combination Sleeves.

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The c o l l a r is constructed according to the instructions for the c o l l a r in Figures 12A— 12D of the section on C o l l a r s .

The sleeve is made to fi nish the length indicated by line 1. line 2) is added f o r the "push-up" effect.

Additional length ( t o

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desired, the bottom l i n e of the sleeve can be made a straight l i n e f o r ease in sewing and cutting. Some of the elbow dart fullness is l o s t , b u t t h a t is not too important in a sleeve of t h i s length. If

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FIGURE 7C. This is the p a t t e r n f o r the center front section of the waist. The c o l l a r is dotted because it is not part of the p a t t e r n . It is placed here only to make c l e a r how it is sewed on. (C-D of the c o l l a r will be stitched to the back neckline. ) '

The width of the f r o n t facing is dotted l i n e .

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FIGURE 7D. The completed f r o n t skirt p a t t e r n is shown here with i t s seam a l lowances. It is constructed according to the instructions in Figures 6A and 6B in the section on S k i r t s . (See also Fig-

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FRONT SKIRT

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The back skirt. is m a d e the same way. The amount of grade necessary to go to size 14 is indicated. This follows the basic grading instructions in Book I f o r the skirt foundation patterns.

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The necessary 3/8" at the waist l i n e is divided here to keep the pleats in relat i v e l y the same positions as the size increases. The center front panel is increased 1/8" in width. The rest of the measurement (1/4") can be placed a f t e r the l a s t loose pleat.’ This keeps the groups of pleats together as they are in

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T h e F r o n t W a i s t Patterns.

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FIGURES 8A and 8B. These are the completed front waist patterns with seam allowances. The amounts the patterns are to be increased from size 14 to size 16 are indicated by the dotted lines and fractions.

FACING CUT 2 SIZE I4

The measurements of both the center front and side front patterns must be considered together. Together they f o l low the measurements and instructions given for the grading of the f r o n t waist foundation p a t t e r n and one-piece sleeve pattern in Book I.

FIGURE 8C. The facing p a t t e r n is be s t graded by copying it d i r e c t l y from the graded center f r o n t waist p a t t e r n f o r each size, adding the extra length each time (as shown by the dotted l i n e s ) .

Figure 8C

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T h e B a c k W a i s t Patterns.

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FIGURES 8D and 8E. These are the completed back waist patterns with seam allowances. The procedure followed is the same as for the f r o n t patterns.

T h e Collar Pattern.

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COLLAR SIZE I4

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This is the completed c o l l a r p a t t e r n . Because the collar is a straight band, both the top and under c o l l a r s can be cut together as one piece, avoiding an unnecessary seam. The c o l l a r grade has to follow the neckline grade. The back neck (1-2) increases 1/8". The p a r t that sews to the l a p e l (2—3) increases 1/8" as the lapel does.

139


GRADING T H E F R O N T WAIST PATTERNS (from Size 14 to Size 16) FIGURE 9A. The center f r o n t waist pattern (Figure 8A). The guide lines for shifting the p a t t e r n are marked in the same way described in Book I f o r the Basic Waist Grade. The real measurements are used, not reduced to scale, because they would be t o o small. Any changes result from the needs of the style pattern. POINT 1 is the waistline at the center front. POINT 2, the end of the l a p e l , is drawn 1/8" above point 1. POINT 3, top of the l a p e l , is drawn 1/8" above point 2. POINT 4, the beginning of the shoulder l i n e , is drawn 1/16" above point 3 and 1/16" away from i t . POINT 5, the end of the shoulder line, is drawn 1/8" away from point 4. POINTS 6, 7, 8 do not need to be drawn on the guide lines. They will be explained l a t e r. ‘ POINT 9, is on the s a m e line as point 5, but 1/16" below. POINT 10, is on the same cross l i n e as point 1 b u t l/8"

away.

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Shifting T h e Pattern To

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Increase T h e S i z e .

The p a t t e r n is shifted from point 1. The p a t t e r n is placed on the guide lines so t h a t point 1 of the p a t t e r n rests on point 1 of the guide lines and line 1-2 rests on l i n e I, Z, 3. A small corner is marked at point 1.

T H E P A T T E R N IS M O V E D up THE THE THE THE

the same l i n e so that point 1 of the pattern meets point 2 of the guide l i n e s . The notch and a small portion of the l a p e l line are marked. PATTERN IS M O V E D up the sameline so that point 1 of the p a t t e r n rests on point 3 of the guide lines. The corner of the l a p e l is marked. PATTERN IS M O V E D up and away so t h a t point I of the p a t t e r n rests on point 4 of the guide lines. The beginning of the shoulder line is marked. PATTERN IS M O V E D away from point 4 so t h a t point 1 of the pattern rests on point 5 of the guide lines. The shoulder notch and a small portion of the shoulder and sleeve line are marked. P A T T E R N IS M O V E D down on the sleeve l i n e 3/16" and the corner at point 6 is

marked.

T H E PATTERN IS M O V E D across on

the bottom l i n e of the sleeve for 1/8". The corner at point 7 is marked and the corner at point 8. T H E P A T T E R N IS M O V E D so t h a t point I of the p a t t e r n rests on point 9 of the guide lines. The joining of the waist and sleeve are marked. T H E P A T T E R N IS M O V E D down on the s a m e line as 9 so t h a t point 1 of the p a t t e r n rests on point 10 of the guide lines. The corner of the waistline is marked. 140


MARKING T H E NEW PATTERN

CENTER FRONT WAIST OUT 2 PIECES

SIZE I6

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Figure 9B

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The n e w pattern size 16 is completed by using the size 14 pattern as a. guide, centering it between the newly marked points, and drawing the completed l i n e s . The sleeve cap l i n e at point 8 is best drawn by placing point 8 of the size 14 p a t t e r n about l/8" away from the n e w point 8 and moving the pattern‘ so t h a t the cap line blends smoothly i n t o the corner l i n e from point 9.

FIGURE 9C. The side f r o n t waist p a t t e r n (Figure 8B).

POINT 1 is

the side seam at the armscye, drawn on 3. vertical l i n e made longer than the side seam

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line.

POINT 2 is 1/3" above point 1 and 3/16" away from 1:. POINT 3 is 1/4" below point 2 and 1/16" away from i t .

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The p a t t e r n is shifted from point 1. Point 1 of the pattern is placed on point 1 of the

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guide l i n e s and the side seam of the p a t tern rests on the vertical line. The corner at point 1 is marked.

THE PATTERN IS M O V E D so t h a t point 1 of the p a t t e r n rests on point 2 of the guide lines. The corner of the armscye and yoke l i n e is marked.

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THE PATTERN IS M O V E D so that point 1 of the p a t t e r n rests on point 3 of the guide l i n e s and the corner at the waistline is

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marked.

T H E PATTERN IS M O V E D so t h a t point 1 of the pattern rests on point 4 of the guide l i n e s and the waistline at the side seam is marked.

141

Figure 9D

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In this fi gure the n e w p a t t e r n marked from the old as described above. is


GRADING T H E B A C K WAIST P A T T E R N S The back waist patterns are graded in exactly the s a m e way as the f r o n t waist patterns. The shoulder d a r t in Figure 10B can be retained in the center between points 2 and 3, or it can be kept the same distance from point 2 in a l l the sizes. Points 4, 5, 6 are marked without the use of the guide lines as explained for points 6, 7, 8 of the f r o n t .

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GRADING T H E COLLAR PATTERN

Two types of c o l l a r s are i l l u s t r a t e d below. Figures 11A and 11B show the grading f o r the dress p a t t e r n c o l l a r from Figure 8F. The grading problem is a simple one because the c o l l a r is a straight band. Figures 12A, 12B and 12C i l l u s t r a t e the special problem involved in grading the sharp curve of a fl a t c o l l a r, or any c o l l a r with a curved neckline. Collars usually grade 1/2" in e n t i r e t y, or 1/4" f o r the h a l f c o l l a r. The back neckline of the c o l l a r usually grades 1/8", and the f r o n t neckline 1/8", corresponding to the grade of the f r o n t and back waist patterns. Usually, the width of the c o l l a r remains the same. The c o l l a r p a t t e r n is folded in half for grading. When the grade is completed, the can be folded on the center back l i n e and the complete c o l l a r c u t o u t .

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A l i n e is drawn (1) for the new center back fold line of the collar, from which the pat-

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The n e w c o l l a r is completed by joining the marked points with straight lines. The c o l l a r can then be folded in half on the center back fold line and the complete collar c u t out.

Line 2 is drawn parallel to l i n e 1 and 1/8" away from i t .

Line 3 is drawn p a r a l l e l to line 2 and 1/8" away from i t .

The collar p a t t e r n of Figure 8F (folded in half) is placed on the guide l i n e s so that the center back fold l i n e of the c o l l a r rests on the n e w center back f o l d l i n e . The width of the c o l l a r is marked by short l i n e s top and bottom.

T H E COLLAR PATTERN IS MOVED away so t h a t the center back f o l d of the c o l l a r rests on line 2. The shoulder notches both top and bottom are marked as well as short lines for the width of the c o l l a r. T H E COLLAR PATTERN IS MOVED away so

l i n e 3.

t h a t the center

The end of the c o l l a r is outlined.

143

back f o l d of the c o l l a r rests on


FIGURE 12A. This is one-half a fl a t

c o l l a r i l l u s t r a t e d in Figure

1C of the section on C o l l a r s .

The extreme curve of the c o l l a r neckline makes it diffi cult to get the proper 1/4" grade working just from the center back f o l d line as above. The grading will have to be done in two p a r t s , from the center back and from the dotted line at the front part of the c o l l a r.

Figure 12A

FIGURE 12B. Guide lines 1 and Z are drawn as described in ure l1A. The c o l l a r is shifted from 1 to 2 in the s a m e way. shoulder notch at 2 is marked, and a portion of the neckline beyond the dotted line. The dotted line is marked as well portion of the outside edge of the collar.

FigThe a bit as a

A new guide l i n e (3) is drawn p a r a l l e l to the dotted line and 1/8" away from i t .

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The c o l l a r is shifted so t h a t the dotted l i n e of the c o l l a r r e s t s on the new l i n e 3, meeting at the neckline.

.

The shape of the end of the c o l l a r is outlined.

Figure IZB

FIGURE 12C. The n e w collar, size 16, is completed by using

the

size 14 c o l l a r to finish the outline.

Points 1 and 2 of the size 14 c o l l a r are centered between points 1 and 2 of the new c o l l a r. The back neck curve is drawn. Points 2 and 3 of the size 14 collar are centered between points 2 and 3 of the new c o l l a r. The f r o n t neck curve is drawn.

The style line of the c o l l a r is completed in the same way.

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COLLAR SIZE IS Figure lZC

144

5 j


GRADING THE TWO- PIECE SLEEVE The two-piece sleeve as a whole grades the same amount as the one—piece sleeve grade described in Book I. The grading measurements are divided between the overarm and undera r m sections according to the part of the one-piece sleeve they represent. These divisions are i l l u s t r a t e d in Figures 13A and 13B. The sleeve patterns used are from Figures lB—lD of the Appendix. The methods for drawing the guide lines and shifting the patterns to make a new size are the same as described for the one-piece sleeve in Book I. They will not be repeated here.

I

I/I6_. } I/|6_ I4--‘ 3/I6

‘ - _ _ .

'

I

1

L

L

V —— — I/I6

I/I6

->

I'

..2

42

..3

3

K

E

"

J

,,

N

N

E

\/\6

I/I6

Figure 13A

Figure 13B

(The dotted curve and straight line show the l e v e l of the underarm section.)

The underarm section increases 1/16" on each side of the center line to fi nish the sleeve cap measurement and the width aC r o s s the sleeve bicep.-

Part of the sleeve cap belonging to the underarm is s t i l l attached to the overarm section of the sleeve (points land L). These areas grade only half the usual amount, or 1/16". The rest is given to the underarm section. One-

half the wrist measurement, or is applied to l i n e E-N.

{/-

The wrist l i n e E-N increases 1/16". or half the wrist grade.

1/16",

145


v

ifwas g

d}: ted from Emoklyn College trained to teach Biology, but the country was deep in a dc~ on in 1933, gndfic _' York City needed no teachers. For want of work, she spent the summer hefping her ynwrite his fies: (text book an pmernmaknng. (Charles Kaplan was then chairma_n of the Women‘s Garment

'ign Depunmena of the Cemnl High School of Needle Trades. He had been the first gn-ment design teacher in '¥m‘k City §_:hou|s .md'I.\id the foundations nix .n|l subsequent teaghing in the field.) Jr;

,‘fh§%t|/”:',pro\'ed fascjnanng and Mrs Pnmd. begun her c.Irccr. zcachmg p.\uernmnk-i‘ng .1! the Traphagen Sdnool Q pshmn in Ncw'York City. writing 4-idumml hooks. md working on “Sex:-nrh Avenue" mia pmernmaker.

4

a.

Her long, \_'aricd experiences proud: A umquc l'u<k;_-nuund fur U19 wnring of §uiKablc For the L'l.Issroom as well 1: fm pmresuinnml me

.|

text which

us ample; yet practical,

646:. 404

PIVN

Fundamentals of patternmaking ii  
Fundamentals of patternmaking ii  
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