Issuu on Google+

Blog Book-Version 1.0

Selective Blog posts

ENiAC Department Of Computer Science & Computer Applications Pioneer college of arts and science Jothipuram, Coimbatore - 641047

HISTORY OF NOBEL PRIZE – MR.SAMSON The Nobel Prizes (definite form, singular, Swedish: Nobelpriset, Norwegian: Nobelprisen) are annual international awards bestowed by Scandinavian committees in recognition of cultural and scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, established the prizes in 1895. The prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace were first awarded in 1901. The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel was instituted by Sveriges Riksbank in 1968 and was first awarded in 1969. Although technically not a Nobel Prize, its announcements and presentations are made along with the other prizes, with the exception of the Peace Prize which is awarded in Oslo, Norway. Each Nobel Prize is regarded as the most prestigious award in its field. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Nobel Prize in Physics, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. The Swedish Academy grants the Nobel Prize in Literature. The Nobel Peace Prize is not awarded by a Swedish organisation but by the Norwegian Nobel Committee. Each recipient, or laureate, is presented with a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money which depends on the Nobel Foundation's income that year. In 2009, each prize was worth 10 million SEK (c. US$1.4 million). The prize cannot be awarded posthumously, unless the winner of the prize has passed away after the prize's announcement. Nor may a prize be shared among more than three people. The average number of laureates per prize has increased substantially over the 20th century. Alfred Nobel ( listen (help·info)) was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden, into a family of engineers. He was a chemist, engineer, and inventor. In 1895 Nobel purchased the Bofors iron and steel mill, which he converted into a major armaments manufacturer. Nobel also invented ballistite, the immediate precurser to many smokeless military explosives. Nobel amassed a fortune during his lifetime, most of it from his 355 inventions, of which dynamite is the most famous. In 1888, Alfred had the unpleasant surprise of reading his own obituary, titled ‘The merchant of death is dead’, in a French newspaper. As it was Alfred's brother Ludvig who had died, the obituary was eight years premature. Alfred was disappointed with what he read and concerned with how he would be remembered. This inspired him to change his will. On 10 December 1896 Alfred Nobel died in his villa in San Remo, Italy, at the age of 63 from a cerebral haemorrhage.

To the surprise of many, Nobel's last will requested that his fortune be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, chemistry, peace, physiology or medicine, and literature. Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime. The last was written over a year before he died, signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895. Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million SEK (c. US$186 million in 2008), to establish the five Nobel Prizes. Because of the level of scepticism surrounding the will, it was not until 26 April 1897 that it was approved by the Storting in Norway. The executors of his will were Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, who formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobel's fortune and organise the prizes. Nobel's instructions named a Norwegian Nobel Committee to award the Peace Prize, the members of whom were appointed shortly after the will was approved in April 1897. Soon thereafter, the other prize-awarding organisations were established: the Karolinska Institutet on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June. The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the prizes should be awarded, and in 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly-created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II. In 1905, the Union between Sweden and Norway was dissolved. Thereafter Norway's Nobel Committee remained responsible for awarding the Nobel Peace Prize and the Swedish institutions retained responsibility for the other prizes.

BLACKBOX TESTING - MISS. KANIMOZHI Introduction Black box testing takes an external perspective of the test object to derive test cases. These tests can be functional or non-functional, though usually functional. The test designer selects valid and invalid input and determines the correct output. There is no knowledge of the test object's internal structure. This method of test design is applicable to all levels of software testing: unit, integration, functional testing, system and acceptance. The higher the level, and hence the bigger and more complex the box, the more one is forced to use black box testing to simplify. While this method can uncover unimplemented parts of the specification, one cannot be sure that all existent paths are tested. Contents: ♣ Testing Strategies/Techniques ♣ Black Box Testing Strategy ♣ Black Box Testing Example ♣ Advantages and Disadvantages ♣ Dimensions for Examining Testing Testing Strategies/Techniques • black box testing should make use of randomly generated inputs (only a test range should be specified by the tester), to eliminate any guess work by the tester as to the methods of the function • data outside of the specified input range should be tested to check the robustness of the program • boundary cases should be tested (top and bottom of specified range) to make sure the highest and lowest allowable inputs produce proper output • the number zero should be tested when numerical data is to be input • stress testing should be performed (try to overload the program with inputs to see where it reaches its maximum capacity), especially with real time systems • crash testing should be performed to see what it takes to bring the system down • test monitoring tools should be used whenever possible to track which tests have already been performed and the outputs of these tests to avoid repetition and to aid in the software maintenance • other functional testing techniques include: transaction testing, syntax testing, domain testing, logic testing, and state testing.

• finite state machine models can be used as a guide to design functional tests • According to Beizer the following is a general order by which tests should be designed: 1. Clean tests against requirements. 2. Additional structural tests for branch coverage, as needed. 3. Additional tests for data-flow coverage as needed. 4. Domain tests not covered by the above. 5. Special techniques as appropriate--syntax, loop, state, etc. 6. Any dirty tests not covered by the above Black Box Testing Strategy Black Box Testing is not a type of testing; it instead is a testing strategy, which does not need any knowledge of internal design or code etc. As the name "black box" suggests, no knowledge of internal logic or code structure is required. The types of testing under this strategy are totally based/focused on the testing for requirements and functionality of the work product/software application. Black box testing is sometimes also called as "Opaque Testing", "Functional/Behavioral Testing" and "Closed Box Testing". The base of the Black box testing strategy lies in the selection of appropriate data as per functionality and testing it against the functional specifications in order to check for normal and abnormal behavior of the system. Now a days, it is becoming common to route the Testing work to a third party as the developer of the system knows too much of the internal logic and coding of the system, which makes it unfit to test the application by the developer. In order to implement Black Box Testing Strategy, the tester is needed to be thorough with the requirement specifications of the system and as a user, should know, how the system should behave in response to the particular action. Various testing types that fall under the Black Box Testing strategy are: functional testing, stress testing, recovery testing, volume testing, User Acceptance Testing (also known as UAT), system testing, Sanity or Smoke testing, load testing, Usability testing, Exploratory testing, ad-hoc testing, alpha testing, beta testing etc. These testing types are again divided in two groups: a) Testing in which user plays a role of tester and b) User is not required. Black Box Testing Strategy Testing method where user is not required: Functional Testing: In this type of testing, the software is tested for the functional requirements. The tests are written in order to check if the application behaves as expected.

Stress Testing: The application is tested against heavy load such as complex numerical values, large number of inputs, large number of queries etc. which checks for the stress/load the applications can withstand. Load Testing: The application is tested against heavy loads or inputs such as testing of web sites in order to find out at what point the web-site/application fails or at what point its performance degrades. Ad-hoc Testing: This type of testing is done without any formal Test Plan or Test Case creation. Ad-hoc testing helps in deciding the scope and duration of the various other testing and it also helps testers in learning the application prior starting with any other testing. Exploratory Testing: This testing is similar to the ad-hoc testing and is done in order to learn/explore the application. Usability Testing: This testing is also called as ‘Testing for User-Friendliness’. This testing is done if User Interface of the application stands an important consideration and needs to be specific for the specific type of user. Smoke Testing: This type of testing is also called sanity testing and is done in order to check if the application is ready for further major testing and is working properly without failing up to least expected level. Recovery Testing: Recovery testing is basically done in order to check how fast and better the application can recover against any type of crash or hardware failure etc. Type or extent of recovery is specified in the requirement specifications. Volume Testing: Volume testing is done against the efficiency of the application. Huge amount of data is processed through the application (which is being tested) in order to check the extreme limitations of the system.

HOW TO PREPARE FOR EXAMS IN A SHORT TIME - MR. SARATHBABU Instructions Things You'll Need: * Study Material * Pen & Paper OR Computer * Sharp Mind 1 Get yourself a fully relaxed mind. Choose a place where there is peace and no noise or disturbances etc. 2 Gather your study material in a logical way. Arrangement may be in order of topics you will prepare first or the topics in order of their importance or in the order the topics were covered in the class. 3 The real business starts now. Study the topic first by quickly going through the whole text. Now you have the main idea of the topic or the subject. You cant cram everything so make key notes, points, keywords 4 Point-wise Summary This is the most important step. So try to follow it. After going through the topic well, prepare a brief summary of the whole chapter/topic. Make it in a way that all the contents are in the shape of points and are arranged in such a logical order that there is a main title first, then the subtitles and so on. Assign numbers to the points/titles so you will remember them easily and in case you forget some of these, your brain might stimulate to remember missing ones. 5 Make the summaries of all the topics you have covered as explained in the above step. 6 Now get some sleep or have a break after you are done with the study material. Give a last review to all the topic summaries you have prepared just minutes before the exam.

ACHIEVING PERSONAL SUCCESS - MISS. SUBASRI Strategic Step #1: Develop a clearly defined and focused vision for your business and your personal life. Strategic Step #2: Commit to and become a lifelong learner. Strategic Step #3: Commit to and become an avid reader.Make time each day to do some reading. Strategic Step #4: Subscribe to a selected target group of publications and read them to get new ideas, gain new perspectives and to identify trends. Strategic Step #5: Strategically identify seminars, workshops and/or boot camps to attend each year, make arrangements and then attend them. These will provide valuable amounts of information and also the opportunity to network with other successful people. Strategic Step #6: Strategically review training information available on audio tapes, CDs and DVDs and invest in a select group of them. These training aids will provide insights that will keep you from “reinventing the wheel,” stimulate your thinking and provide additional sources of knowledge. Strategic Step #7: Adopt a positive and “can do” attitude. Be proactive in facing issues and challenges and dealing with them as they happen. Believe in what you are doing and that you can do it. Strategic Step #8: Always look for the “lessons learned” from your mistakes. Use the experience to turn failure into success. Strategic Step #9: Seek out a good mentor and a good coach. They will provide valuable help and guidance for you.


Time and Work 1. Work from Days: If A can do a piece of work in n days, then A's 1 day's work = 1/n 2. Days from Work: If A's 1 day's work = 1/n ,then A can finish the work in n days. 3. Ratio: If A is thrice as good a workman as B, then: Ratio of work done by A and B = 3 : 1. Ratio of times taken by A and B to finish a work = 1 : 3.

Profit and Loss Cost Price: The price, at which an article is purchased, is called its cost price, abbreviated as C.P. Selling Price: The price, at which an article is sold, is called its selling prices, abbreviated as S.P. Profit or Gain: If S.P. is greater than C.P., the seller is said to have a profit or gain. Loss: If S.P. is less than C.P., the seller is said to have incurred a loss. 1. Gain = (S.P.) - (C.P.) 2. Loss = (C.P.) - (S.P.) 3. Loss or gain is always reckoned on C.P. 4. Gain Percentage: (Gain %) Gain % = (gain x 100) / C.P. 5. Loss Percentage: (Loss %) Loss % = (Loss x 100 ) / C.P. 6. Selling Price: (S.P.) SP = ((100 + Gain %) x C.P ) / 100 7. Selling Price: (S.P.) SP = ((100 - Loss %) x C.P. ) / 100 8. Cost Price: (C.P.) C.P. = (100 x S.P. )/ (100 + Gain %) 9. Cost Price: (C.P.) C.P. = (100 x S.P. )/ (100 - Loss %) 10. If an article is sold at a gain of say 35%, then S.P. = 135% of S.P. 11. If an article is sold at a loss of say, 35% then S.P. = 65% of C.P. 12. When a person sells two similar items, one at a gain of say x%, and the other at a loss of x%, then the seller always incurs a loss given by: Loss % = (Common Loss and Gain % /10)/2 = (x/2)/10 13. If a trader professes to sell his goods at cost price, but uses false weights, then Gain % =[(Error * 100 )/(True Value) - (Error)]%

Stocks and Shares • Stock Capital: The total amount of money needed to run the company is called the stock capital. • Shares or Stock: The whole capital is divided into small units, called shares or stock. For each investment, the company issues a 'share-certificate', showing the value of each share and the number of shares held by a person. The person who subscribes in shares or stock is called a share holder or stock holder. • Dividend: The annual profit distributed among share holders is called dividend.Dividend is paid annually as per share or as a percentage. • Face Value: The value of a share or stock printed on the share-certificate is called its Face Value or Nominal Value or Par Value. • Market Value: The stock of different companies are sold and bought in the open market through brokers at stock-exchanges. A share or stock is said to be: i. At premium or Above par, if its market value is more than its face value. ii. At par, if its market value is the same as its face value. iii. At discount or Below par, if its market value is less than its face value. Thus, if a Rs. 100 stock is quoted at premium of 16, then market value of the stock = Rs.(100 + 16) = Rs. 116. Likewise, if a Rs. 100 stock is quoted at a discount of 7, then market value of the stock = Rs. (100 -7) = 93. • Brokerage: The broker's charge is called brokerage. (i) When stock is purchased, brokerage is added to the cost price. (ii) When stock is sold, brokerage is subtracted from the selling price. Remember: i. The face value of a share always remains the same. ii. The market value of a share changes from time to time. iii. Dividend is always paid on the face value of a share. iv. Number of shares held by a person = Total Investment/Investment in 1 share = Total Income/income from 1 share = Total Face value/ Face of 1 share • Thus, by a Rs. 100, 9% stock at 120, we mean that: i. Face Value of stock = Rs. 100. ii. Market Value (M.V) of stock = Rs. 120. iii. Annual dividend on 1 share = 9% of face value = 9% of Rs. 100 = Rs. 9. iv. An investment of Rs. 120 gives an annual income of Rs. 9. v. Rate of interest p.a = Annual income from an investment of Rs. 100 = (9/120) x 100 % = 7 1/2 %.


Word 2007 Shortcuts 1. Common tasks ctrl+shift+spacebar Create a nonbreaking space ctrl+- (Hyphen) Create a nonbreaking hyphen ctrl+b Make letters bold ctrl+i Make letters italic ctrl+u Make letters underline ctrl+shift+< Decrease font size one value ctrl+shift+> Increase font size one value ctrl+[ Increase the font size by 1 point. ctrl+] Decrease the font size by 1 point. ctrl+spacebar Remove paragraph or character formatting. ctrl+c Copy the selected text or object. ctrl+x Cut the selected text or object. ctrl+v Paste text or an object. ctrl+alt+v Paste special ctrl+shift+v Paste formatting only ctrl+z Undo the last action. ctrl+y Redo the last action. ctrl+shift+g Open the Word Count dialog box. 2. Working with documents: Create, view, and save documents ctrl+n Create a new document of the same type as the current or most recent document. ctrl+o Open a document. ctrl+w Close a document. alt+ctrl+s Split the document window. alt+shift+c Remove the document window split. ctrl+s Save a document. ctrl+n Create a new document of the same type as the current or most recent document. ctrl+o Open a document. ctrl+w Close a document. alt+ctrl+s Split the document window. alt+shift+c Remove the document window split. ctrl+s Save a document. ctrl+n Create a new document of the same type as the current or most recent document. ctrl+o Open a document. ctrl+w Close a document. alt+ctrl+s Split the document window. alt+shift+c Remove the document window split. ctrl+s Save a document.

3. Working with documents: Find, replace, and browse through text ctrl+f Find text, formatting, and special items. alt+ctrl+y Repeat find (after closing Find and Replace window). ctrl+h Replace text, specific formatting, and special items. ctrl+g Go to a page, bookmark, footnote, table, comment, graphic, or other location. alt+ctrl+z Switch between the last four places that you have edited. alt+ctrl+home Open a list of browse options. Press the arrow keys to select an option, and then press ENTER to browse through a document by using the selected option. 4. Working with documents: Switch to another view ctrl+page up Move to the previous edit location. ctrl+page down Move to the next edit location. alt+ctrl+p Switch to Print Layout view. alt+ctrl+o Switch to Outline view. alt+ctrl+n Switch to Draft view. 5. Working with documents: Outline view alt+shift+arrow left Promote a paragraph. alt+shift+arrow right Demote a paragraph. ctrl+shift+n Demote to body text. alt+shift+arrow up Move selected paragraphs up. alt+shift+arrow down Move selected paragraphs down. alt+shift++ (Plus Sign) Expand text under a heading. alt+shift+- (Minus Sign) Collapse text under a heading. alt+shift+a Expand or collapse all text or headings. The slash (/) key on the numeric keypad Hide or display character formatting. alt+shift+l Show the first line of body text or all body text. alt+shift+1 Show all headings with the Heading 1 style. alt+shift+n Show all headings up to Heading n. ctrl+tab Insert a tab character. 6. Working with documents: Print and preview documents ctrl+p Print a document. alt+ctrl+i Switch in or out of print preview. arrow up, arrow down, arrow left, arrow right Move around the preview page when zoomed in. page up or page down Move by one preview page when zoomed out. ctrl+home Move to the first preview page when zoomed out. ctrl+end Move to the last preview page when zoomed out. 7. Working with documents: Review documents alt+ctrl+m Insert a comment. ctrl+shift+e Turn change tracking on or off. alt+shift+c Close the Reviewing Pane if it is open.

8. Working with documents: Full Screen Reading view home Go to beginning of document. end Go to end of document. n, enter Go to page n. esc Exit reading layout view. 9. Working with documents: References, footnotes, and endnotes alt+shift+o Mark a table of contents entry. alt+shift+i Mark a table of authorities entry (citation). alt+shift+x Mark an index entry. alt+ctrl+f Insert a footnote. alt+ctrl+ Insert an endnote. 10. Working with documents: Work with Web pages ctrl+k Insert a hyperlink. alt+arrow left Go back one page. alt+arrow right Go forward one page. f9 Refresh. 11. Edit and move text and graphics: Delete text and graphics backspace Delete one character to the left. ctrl+backspace Delete one word to the left. delete Delete one character to the right. ctrl+delete Delete one word to the right. ctrl+x Cut selected text to the Office Clipboard. ctrl+z Undo the last action. ctrl+f3 Cut to the Spike. 12. Edit and move text and graphics: Copy and move text and graphics Press alt+h to move to the home tab, and then press F,O. Open the Office Clipboard ctrl+c Copy selected text or graphics to the Office Clipboard. ctrl+x Cut selected text or graphics to the Office Clipboard. ctrl+v Paste the most recent addition to the Office Clipboard. f2 (then move the cursor and press enter) Move text or graphics once. shift+f2 (then move the cursor and press enter) Copy text or graphics once. alt+f3 When text or an object is selected, open the Create New Building Block dialog box. shift+f10 When the building block â&#x20AC;&#x201D; for example, a SmartArt graphic â&#x20AC;&#x201D; is selected, display the shortcut menu that is associated with it. ctrl+f3 Cut to the Spike. ctrl+shift+f3 Paste the Spike contents. alt+shift+r Copy the header or footer used in the previous section of the document.

13. Edit and move text and graphics: Insert special characters ctrl+f9 A field shift+enter A line break ctrl+enter A page break ctrl+shift+enter A column break alt+ctrl+- (Minus Sign) An em dash ctrl+- (Minus Sign) An en dash ctrl+- (Hyphen) An optional hyphen ctrl+shift+- (Hyphen) A nonbreaking hyphen ctrl+shift+spacebar A nonbreaking space alt+ctrl+c The copyright symbol alt+ctrl+r The registered trademark symbol alt+ctrl+t The trademark symbol alt+ctrl+. (Period) An ellipsis enter (after you type the first few characters of the AutoText entry name and when the ScreenTip appears) An AutoText entry 14. Edit and move text and graphics: Insert characters by using character codes The character code, alt+x Insert the Unicode character for the specified Unicode (hexadecimal) character code. For example, to insert the euro currency symbol ( ), type 20AC, and then hold down ALT and press X. alt+x Find out the Unicode character code for the selected character alt+the character code (on the numeric keypad) Insert the ANSI character for the specified ANSI (decimal) character code. For example, to insert the euro currency symbol, hold down ALT and press 0128 on the numeric keypad. 15. Edit and move text and graphics: Extend a selection f8 Turn extend mode on. f8, and then press arrow left or arrow right Select the nearest character. f8 (press once to select a word, twice to select a sentence, and so on) Increase the size of a selection. shift+f8 Reduce the size of a selection. esc Turn extend mode off. shift+arrow right Extend a selection one character to the right. shift+arrow left Extend a selection one character to the left. ctrl+shift+arrow right Extend a selection to the end of a word. ctrl+shift+arrow left Extend a selection to the beginning of a word. shift+end Extend a selection to the end of a line. shift+home Extend a selection to the beginning of a line. shift+arrow down Extend a selection one line down. shift+arrow up Extend a selection one line up. ctrl+shift+arrow down Extend a selection to the end of a paragraph. ctrl+shift+arrow up Extend a selection to the beginning of a paragraph. shift+page down Extend a selection one screen down. shift+page up Extend a selection one screen up. ctrl+shift+home Extend a selection to the beginning of a document.

ctrl+shift+end Extend a selection to the end of a document. alt+ctrl+shift+page down Extend a selection to the end of a window. ctrl+a Extend a selection to include the entire document. ctrl+shift+f8, and then use the arrow up, arrow down, arrow left, arrow right; press esc to cancel selection mode Select a vertical block of text. f8+arrow up, arrow down, arrow left, arrow right; press esc to cancel selection mode Extend a selection to a specific location in a document. 16. Edit and move text and graphics: Select text and graphics in a table tab Select the next cell's contents. shift+tab Select the preceding cell's contents. Hold down shift and press an arrow key repeatedly Extend a selection to adjacent cells. shift+alt+page down with cursor in columns top cell Select a column. shift+alt+page up with cursor in columns top cell Select a column. ctrl+shift+f8, and then use the arrow up, arrow down, arrow left, arrow right; press esc to cancel selection mode Extend a selection (or block). alt+5 on the numeric keypad (with NUM LOCK off) Select an entire table. 17. Edit and move text and graphics: Move through your document arrow left One character to the left arrow right One character to the right ctrl+arrow left One word to the left ctrl+arrow right One word to the right ctrl+arrow up One paragraph up ctrl+arrow down One paragraph down shift+tab One cell to the left (in a table) tab One cell to the right (in a table) arrow up Up one line arrow down Down one line end To the end of a line home To the beginning of a line alt+ctrl+page up To the top of the window alt+ctrl+page down To the end of the window page up Up one screen (scrolling) page down Down one screen (scrolling) ctrl+page down To the top of the next page ctrl+page up To the top of the previous page ctrl+end To the end of a document ctrl+home To the beginning of a document shift+f5 To a previous revision shift+f5 After opening a document, to the location you were working in when the document was last closed

18. Edit and move text and graphics: Move around in a table tab To the next cell in a row shift+tab To the previous cell in a row alt+home To the first cell in a row alt+end To the last cell in a row alt+page up To the first cell in a column alt+page down To the last cell in a column arrow up To the previous row arrow down To the next row alt+shift+arrow up One row up alt+shift+arrow down One row down 19. Edit and move text and graphics: Insert paragraphs and tab characters in a table enter New paragraphs in a cell ctrl+tab Tab characters in a cell 20. Character and paragraph formatting Copy formatting ctrl+shift+c Copy formatting from text. ctrl+shift+v Apply copied formatting to text. 21. Character and paragraph formatting Change or resize the font ctrl+shift+f Open the Font dialog box to change the font. ctrl+shift+< Decrease font size one value ctrl+shift+> Increase font size one value ctrl+[ Increase the font size by 1 point. ctrl+] Decrease the font size by 1 point.

22. Character and paragraph formatting Apply character formats ctrl+d Open the Font dialog box to change the formatting of characters. shift+f3 Change the case of letters. ctrl+shift+a Format all letters as capitals. ctrl+b Apply bold formatting. ctrl+u Apply an underline. ctrl+shift+w Underline words but not spaces. ctrl+shift+d Double-underline text. ctrl+shift+h Apply hidden text formatting. ctrl+i Apply italic formatting. ctrl+shift+k Format letters as small capitals. ctrl+= Apply subscript formatting (automatic spacing). ctrl+shift++ (Plus Sign) Apply superscript formatting (automatic spacing). ctrl+spacebar Remove manual character formatting. ctrl+shift+q Change the selection to the Symbol font.

23. Character and paragraph formatting View and copy text formats ctrl+shift+* Display nonprinting characters. * on numeric keyboard will not work shift+f1 (then click the text with the formatting you want to review) Review text formatting. ctrl+shift+c Copy formats. ctrl+shift+v Paste formats.

24. Character and paragraph formatting Set the line spacing ctrl+1 Single-space lines. ctrl+2 Double-space lines. ctrl+5 Set 1.5-line spacing. ctrl+0 (zero) Add or remove one line space preceding a paragraph.

25. Character and paragraph formatting Align paragraphs ctrl+e Switch a paragraph between centered and left-aligned. ctrl+j Switch a paragraph between justified and left-aligned. ctrl+r Switch a paragraph between right-aligned and left-aligned. ctrl+l Left align a paragraph. ctrl+m Indent a paragraph from the left. ctrl+shift+m Remove a paragraph indent from the left. ctrl+t Create a hanging indent. ctrl+shift+t Reduce a hanging indent. ctrl+q Remove paragraph formatting.

26. Character and paragraph formatting Apply paragraph styles ctrl+shift+s Open Apply Styles task pane. alt+ctrl+shift+s Open Styles task pane. alt+ctrl+k Start AutoFormat. ctrl+shift+n Apply the Normal style. alt+ctrl+1 Apply the Heading 1 style. alt+ctrl+2 Apply the Heading 2 style. alt+ctrl+3 Apply the Heading 3 style.

27. Mail merge and fields: Perform a mail merge alt+shift+k Preview a mail merge. alt+shift+n Merge a document. alt+shift+m Print the merged document. alt+shift+e Edit a mail-merge data document. alt+shift+f Insert a merge field.

28. Mail merge and fields: Work with fields alt+shift+d Insert a DATE field. alt+ctrl+l Insert a LISTNUM field. alt+shift+p Insert a PAGE field. alt+shift+t Insert a TIME field. ctrl+f9 Insert an empty field. ctrl+shift+f7 Update linked information in a Microsoft Office Word source document. f9 Update selected fields. ctrl+shift+f9 Unlink a field. shift+f9 Switch between a selected field code and its result. alt+f9 Switch between all field codes and their results. alt+shift+f9 Run GOTOBUTTON or MACROBUTTON from the field that displays the field results. f11 Go to the next field. shift+f11 Go to the previous field. ctrl+f11 Lock a field. ctrl+shift+f11 Unlock a field. 29. Function key reference: Function keys f1 Get Help or visit Microsoft Office Online. f2 Move text or graphics. f4 Repeat the last action. f5 Choose the Go To command (Home tab). f6 Go to the next pane or frame. f7 Choose the Spelling command (Review tab). f8 Extend a selection. f9 Update the selected fields. f10 Show KeyTips. f11 Go to the next field. f12 Choose the Save As command (Microsoft Office Button ). 30. Function key reference: SHIFT+Function key shift+f1 Start context-sensitive Help or reveal formatting. shift+f2 Copy text. shift+f3 Change the case of letters. shift+f4 Repeat a Find or Go To action. shift+f5 Move to the last change. shift+f6 Go to the previous pane or frame (after pressing F6). shift+f7 Choose the Thesaurus command (Review tab, Proofing group). shift+f8 Shrink a selection. shift+f9 Switch between a field code and its result. shift+f10 Display a shortcut menu. shift+f11 Go to the previous field. shift+f12 Choose the Save command (Microsoft Office Button ).

31. Function key reference: CTRL+Function key ctrl+f2 Choose the Print Preview command (Microsoft Office Button ). ctrl+f3 Cut to the Spike. ctrl+f4 Close the window. ctrl+f6 Go to the next window. ctrl+f9 Insert an empty field. ctrl+f10 Maximize the document window. ctrl+f11 Lock a field. ctrl+f12 Choose the Open command (Microsoft Office Button ). 32. Function key reference: CTRL+SHIFT+Function key ctrl+shift+f3 Insert the contents of the Spike. ctrl+shift+f5 Edit a bookmark. ctrl+shift+f6 Go to the previous window. ctrl+shift+f7 Update linked information in an Office Word 2007 source document. ctrl+shift+f8, and arrow keys Extend a selection or block. ctrl+shift+f9 Unlink a field. ctrl+shift+f11 Unlock a field. ctrl+shift+f12 Choose the Print command (Microsoft Office Button ). 33. Function key reference: ALT+Function key alt+f1 Go to the next field. alt+f3 Create a new Building Block. alt+f4 Exit Office Word 2007. alt+f5 Restore the program window size. alt+f6 Move from an open dialog box back to the document, for dialog boxes such as Find and Replace that support this behavior. alt+f7 Find the next misspelling or grammatical error. alt+f8 Run a macro. alt+f9 Switch between all field codes and their results. alt+f10 Maximize the program window. alt+f11 Display Microsoft Visual Basic code. 34. Function key reference: ALT+SHIFT+Function key alt+shift+f1 Go to the previous field. alt+shift+f2 Choose the Save command (Microsoft Office Button ). alt+shift+f7 Display the Research task pane. alt+shift+f9 Run GOTOBUTTON or MACROBUTTON from the field that displays the field results. alt+shift+f10 Display a menu or message for a smart tag. 35. Function key reference: CTRL+ALT+Function key ctrl+alt+f1 Display Microsoft System Information. ctrl+alt+f2 Choose the Open command (Microsoft Office Button ).

KEEP WALKING - MR. MANICKARAAJ The Organs of your body have their sensory touches at the bottom of your foot, if you massage these points you will find relief from aches and pains as you can see the organs are on right and left foot, the heart is on the left foot.

This time, it put organs on the feet as they are. Typically they are shown as points and arrows to show which organ it connects to. It is indeed correct since the nerves connected to these organs terminate here. This is covered in great details in Acupressure studies or textbooks. God created our body so well that he thought of even this. He made us walk so that we will always be pressing these pressure points and thus keeping these organs activated at all times. So, keep walking...

PAPER SIZES -MISS. DIVYA The paper sizes are common American and European paper sizes, including the ISO standards. All dimensions are defined in inches, millimeters as well as PostScript points (always rounded off). This overview covers: 1. ISO page sizes (the ever popular A4,… but also SRA press sheet sizes) 2. American paper size dimensions, such as ‘Letter’, ‘Legal’ and the ANSI series. 3. English sheet sizes for writing paper and book printing. A Series Paper Sizes Formal Definition The ISO 216 definiton of the A paper sizes is based on the following basis: * The length divided by the width is 1.4142 * The A0 size has an area of 1 square metre. * Each subsequent size A(n) is defined as A(n-1) cut in half parallel to its shorter sides. * The standard length and width of each size is rounded to the nearest millimetre.

Extensions - B Series Paper Sizes There are some requirements for paper sizes where the A series isn't suitable and to take these into account the B series paper sizes were introduced. In order to explain the rationale behind the B paper sizes, we are going to need a bit more maths. The B series paper standards are also based around the 1:root 2 aspect ratio, but in order to provide sizes not covered by the A series, the length and width of size B(n) are defined as being the geometric mean of size A(n) and size A(n-1)

The C Series Envelope Sizes The C series sizes were introduced to define the sizes of envelopes suitable for the A series paper sizes. This is also based on the root 2 aspect ratio and the size of a C(n) envelope is defined as the geometric mean of paper sizes A(n) and B(n). This leads to a C(n) envelope which nicely holds a sheet of A(n) paper unfolded. This sizing also has some neat properties when dealing with folded paper, so a C4 envelope will hold a sheet of A4 paper unfolded, a C5 envelope will hold a sheet of A4 paper folded in half once parallel to its shortest sides and a C6 envelope will hold the same piece of paper folded twice. Sizes for C Series Envelopes - C0, C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7 and C8

BASICS OF VISITING CARDS Most of the time many students of computer arts misunderstand the concept of designing visiting card. The space is limited and the matter too. People think it is easy but from the designing point of view, card designing is the most difficult part of DTP. In the good old days, PageMaker was the first preference. Dimensions Generally visiting cards comes in two standard sizes. American size and Business size. American size is 92 X 54. Both the cards can be designed either horizontally or vertically according to the choice of the user. 2-3 mm space is left for the margin from the border of the card. Impressions Using colors depends upon the type of the card and the cost. More the colors more the cost is the rule of thumb. Formal cards need less color. It can be single color card or maximum two colors. The type of processing is also important. If the photograph is used for the card then it goes for offset printing. If it is more of a text with no continuous toned graphic it goes for screen-printing. The cost of the card is decided on the basis of color impressions. It is generally impression per thousand cards. Fonts The choice of font depends upon the type of the card. If it is very formal card like the card of lawyer, doctor etc. Times New Roman is the best choice. Arial also can be used. If you want to use some script font, the distance between the characters has to be properly adjusted by loosing the tracks. Bold and thick font can be used for company title. Address font is generally the smallest of size and at the bottom of the card. Spacing As a rule, you should keep good amount of white space in the card. It can become too crowded if lots and lots of things are added. The matter has to be chosen very carefully. It has to be short and precise. Since the sight travels from left to right, the most important things have to be aligned left if the card is not center aligned. Sometimes short cuts can be used to save the space i.e. Rd for Road etc. Horizontal line can be drawn above the address if you desire. It creates prominent impression. If you are using more than one address it can be separated with the vertical line. Graphics Designers use the combination of page layout and vector and/or raster packages to design visiting cards. Use of graphics is little tricky area and requires experience. The balance of the card should be properly taken care of while using graphics. Generally people want to print company logo on the card. It is fixed and nothing can be changed. Not even color. At this stage you can try out something by changing the size of the logo uniformly. Backgrounds You can get the ready-made colored or textured cards. There are no. of types available in the market from simple card to plastic coated and pearl finished stuff. Everything depends upon customer's choice. Designer can suggest the proper combination of the color, which can stand out with particular background. He can actually create the card with specific colors and show it to customer. For screen printing you need to have B/W output.

OUR PRIME MINISTERâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S RESUME - MISS. KANIMOZHI EDUCATION /Qualification: 1950 : Stood first in BA (Hons), Economics, Punjab University , Chandigarh , 1952 : Stood first in MA (Economics), Punjab University , Chandigarh , 1954 : Wright's Prize for distinguished performance at St John's College , Cambridge , 1955 57 : Wrenbury scholar, University of Cambridge , 1957 : DPhil ( Oxford ), DLitt (Honoris Causa); PhD thesis on India 's export competitiveness OCCUPATION /Teaching Experience: Professor (Senior lecturer, Economics, 1957-59; Reader, Economics, 1959-63; Professor, Economics, Punjab University , Chandigarh , 1963-65; Professor, Inter national Trade, Delhi School of Economics , University of Delhi , 196971; Honorary professor, Jawaharlal Nehru University , New Delhi , 1976 and Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi ,1996 and Civil Servant Working Experience/ POSITIONS: 1971-72: Economic advisor, ministry of foreign trade 1972-76: Chief economic advisor, ministry of finance 1976-80: Director, Reserve Bank of India ; Director, Industrial Development Bank of India ; Alternate governor for India , Board of governors, Asian Development Bank; Alternate governor for India , Board of governors, IBRD November 1976 - April 1980: Secretary, ministry of finance (Department of economic affairs); Member, finance, Atomic Energy Commission; Member, finance, Space Commission April 1980 - September 15, 1982: Member- Secretary, Planning Commission 1980-83: Chairman , India Committee of the Indo-Japan joint study committee September 16, 1982 - January 14, 1985: Governor, Reserve Bank of India ... 1982-85: Alternate Governor for India , Board of governors, International Monetary Fund 1983-84: Member, economic advisory council to the Prime Minister 1985: President, Indian Economic Association January 15, 1985 - July 31, 1987: Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission August 1, 1987 - November 10, 1990: Secretary-general and commissioner, south commission, Geneva December 10, 1990 - March 14, 1991: Advisor to the Prime Minister on economic affairs March 15, 1991 - June 20, 1991: Chairman, UGC June 21, 1991 - May 15, 1996: Union finance minister October 1991: Elected to Rajya Sabha from Assam on Congress ticket June 1995: Re-elected to Rajya Sabha 1996 onwards: Member, Consultative Committee for the ministry of finance

August 1, 1996 - December 4, 1997: Chairman, Parliamentary standing committee on commerce March 21, 1998 onwards: Leader of the Opposition, Rajya Sabha June 5, 1998 onwards: Member, committee on finance August 13, 1998 onwards: Member, committee on rules Aug 1998-2001: Member, committee of privileges 2000 onwards: Member, executive committee, Indian parliamentary group June 2001: Re-elected to Rajya Sabha Aug 2001 onwards: Member, general purposes committee BOOKS: India's Export Trends and Prospects for Self-Sustained Growth -Clarendon Press, Oxford University , 1964; also published a large number of articles in various economic journals. OTHER ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Adam Smith Prize, University of Cambridge , 1956 Padma Vibhushan, 1987 Euro money Award, Finance Minister of the Year, 1993; Asia money Award, Finance Minister of the Year for Asia , 1993 and 1994 INTERNATIONAL ASSIGNMENTS: 1966: Economic Affairs Officer 1966-69: Chief, financing for trade section, UNCTAD 1972-74: Deputy for India in IMF Committee of Twenty on International Monetary Reform 1977-79: Indian delegation to Aid-India Consortium Meetings 1980-82: Indo-Soviet joint planning group meeting 1982: Indo-Soviet monitoring group meeting 1993: Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting Cyprus 1993: Human Rights World Conference, Vienna RECREATION Gymkhana Club, New Delhi ; Life Member , India International Centre, New Delhi PERSONAL PROFILE Name : Dr. Manmohan Singh DOB : September 26, 1932 Place of Birth : Gah (West Punjab) Father : S. Gurmukh Singh Mother : Mrs. Amrit Kaur Married on : September 14, 1958 Wife : Mrs. Gursharan Kaur Children : Three daughters

CYBER CRIME Cyber crime is the latest and perhaps the most complicated problem in the cyber world. “Cyber crime may be said to be those species, of which, genus is the conventional crime, and where either the computer is an object or subject of the conduct constituting crime”. “Any criminal activity that uses a computer either as an instrumentality, target or a means for perpetuating further crimes comes within the ambit of cyber crime”. A generalized definition of cyber crime may be “ unlawful acts wherein the computer is either a tool or target or both” The computer may be used as a tool in the following kinds of activity- financial crimes, sale of illegal articles, pornography, online gambling, intellectual property crime, e-mail spoofing, forgery, cyber defamation, cyber stalking. The computer may however be target for unlawful acts in the following casesunauthorized access to computer/ computer system/ computer networks, theft of information contained in the electronic form, e-mail bombing, data didling, salami attacks, logic bombs, Trojan attacks, internet time thefts, web jacking, theft of computer system, physically damaging the computer system. DISTINCTION BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL AND CYBER CRIMEThere is apparently no distinction between cyber and conventional crime. However on a deep introspection we may say that there exists a fine line of demarcation between the conventional and cyber crime, which is appreciable. The demarcation lies in the involvement of the medium in cases of cyber crime. The sine qua non for cyber crime is that there should be an involvement, at any stage, of the virtual cyber medium. REASONS FOR CYBER CRIME: Hart in his work “ The Concept of Law” has said ‘human beings are vulnerable so rule of law is required to protect them’. Applying this to the cyberspace we may say that computers are vulnerable so rule of law is required to protect and safeguard them against cyber crime. The reasons for the vulnerability of computers may be said to be: Capacity to store data in comparatively small spaceThe computer has unique characteristic of storing data in a very small space. This affords to remove or derive information either through physical or virtual medium makes it much more easier. Easy to accessThe problem encountered in guarding a computer system from unauthorized access is that there is every possibility of breach not due to human error but due to the complex technology. By secretly implanted logic bomb, key loggers that can steal access codes, advanced voice recorders; retina imagers etc. that can fool biometric systems and bypass firewalls can be utilized to get past many a security system. -----All articles are taken from various websites by our blog members