Page 1

This is a half title page. The half title page, also called the bastard title, is the page only showing the title of the book. Other information such as subtitle, author, and publisher will be omitted on this page.

The art of bookmaking

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This is a title page. The title page gives the full title, name of author, editor, or translator, name of publishing house, sometimes the city of publication or where corporate offices are located, and the year. At a minimum, the title page will show the title of the book and the author’s name, in addition to the names of any illustrators.

the a r t of

BOOKMAKING wai - kin yuen sonia gonz alez ying chen szu - hsuan chen li -jen huang

This is a copyright page. The copyright page contains the copyright notice, which consists of the year of publication and the name of the copyright owner. The copyright owner is usually the author but could also belongs to an organization or corporation.

Copyright Š 2012 by Wai-Kin Yuen, Sonia Gonzalez, Ying Chen, Szu-Hsuan Chen, Li-Jen Huang. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical reviews and certain other noncommercial uses permitted by copyright law. Printed in the United States of America

This is a dedication page. A dedication page is a page in a book that precedes the text, in which the author names the person or people for whom he or she has written the book. The dedication page is optional and written if the author of the book wants to dedicate the book to a particular person or persons. Books are often dedicated to the people who were most influential in the writing or publishing process.

Dedicated to all our family, friends and teachers.

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This is a list of all chapter headings, chapter numbers and subheadings, together with their page numbers, which demonstrates how your book is organized. This includes all front matter items and also body matter and back matter. Nowadays, some books might have two table of contents: a brief, and an expanded version.


ix Preface


xi Acknowledgment

48 Book Made on Tapes

xii Introduction

50 Book Made on Cords 52 Side Sewing



53 Japanese Binding

2 Basic Layout

54 Saw-kerf Binding for Single Sheets

5 Verso and Recto

56 Pamphlets

6 The Grid

57 Magazine

7 Page Margin

58 Book Repair

8 Line Width 9 White Space



10 Leading

62 Cutting and Skiving

11 Indents

63 Decorating

12 Optical Margins

64 Tooling and Stamping

13 Numbers

66 Gold Tooling

14 Small Capitals

68 Applying Leather Cover

16 Paper’s Grain

70 Titles 71 Cleaning and Preserving



20 Book Parts


24 Cutting and Trimming

74 Hot Water Bottle Journal

28 Pasting

75 Potato Chip Bag Notebook

31 Pressing

76 Roll Up Field Journal

32 Making Cover Material

77 Other Materials of Binding

38 Mitering Corners 43 Applying End papers

84 Glossary 88 Index 89 Bibliography 90 Colophon vii

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A preface generally covers the story of how the book came into being, or how the idea for the book was developed; this is often followed by thanks and acknowledgments to people who were helpful to the author during the time of writing.

preface For most of the students, I am pretty sure we all have faced the moment that instructor asked us to buy a course required book. You start to hear all the complaining about the price of the book, and you just can’t agree more. With the invention of the e-book, books that make out of ink and paper are somehow way more expensive than the one that you can read everywhere on you tablet. We were all like that, until the day we started to make this book, we started to realize how much work you have to put in to create a complete professional book. There are five of us, and it takes more than two months to finally complete this book. The fact is creating a book is not just about the body text. A nice cover can catch people’s attention; an organized layout can save people’s time for finding the information they need. The reason we make this book is for people who want to learn how to make books. This is the book not only for graphic design students, but also for the people that intend to know more about the book. This book organized the parts of a book. We separate the book into five chapter, in order for readers to easily identify the differences between each book parts. “The Art of Bookmaking” is a reference book that gives you a clear understanding of the order and the steps of making a book. This book contains all of the description of the book parts with pictures for you to fully understand with the texts. We have all the information put in the order of the steps of making a book. Hope this book will be useful for you when you need it.


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This part acknowledges those who contributed to the author’s book. It is important to recognize the contribution and support of friends, colleagues, institutions, and even grants, with a paragraph thanking these people for their assistance and time spent in helping with the writing and publishing of the book.

ack nowledgment This book would not have been possible without the support of many people. First of all we would like to thank our professor Michael Kilgore for his invaluable assistance, support and guidance throughout this process. Deepest gratitude to our families who have always supported us and given us the opportunity to have a high level education. Finally, an honorable mention to all of our teachers at the Academy of Art University who have helped us improve our design skills.


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This is an overview of what the author intends to cover in the book. An introduction can precede chapter 1 or it can be the first chapter of the book; it is usually shorter than other chapters.

introduction Bookbinding as we know it today began in the Christian era. First the accordionfolder scrolls were flattened, and later they were turned into books with sheets tied together at one side through holes punched in the margin. In about the fifth century books with folded sheets of parchment were sewn together over leather thongs for more strength, and thin wooden boards were placed on the top and bottom to protect the pages and make the curled edges lie flat. Eventually the protruding ends if the thongs were laced into the boards. As the art of binding developed, the back of the book was covered with leather to conceal the thongs, and finally the protective strip was extended over onto the surface of the boards far enough to cover the lacing in of the thongs or bands. Later leather was used to cover the entire board area, setting the stage for the embellishment of covers and the development of the rich art of binding. The principles of construction remain the same today, although methods and materials vary, and paper has supplanted parchment. The production of manuscripts and the binding of books became major art forms with the support of the church, wealthy patrons, and royal personages. Today, book has evolved into many different forms and a one of the main elements in Graphic Design. It takes a while from designing the layout to binding, but eventually the looks and feel of your finished book will be kept for a very long time.


Chapters divide the main subject of the book into smaller sections. The layout and style of each chapter should remain the same throughout the book.


The designing of a book should be considered from the standpoint of the total production, for out of the assembling of the parts grows the harmony of the whole, down to the last detail. This includes the selection of the paper for pages and the establishment of their size and proportion, the choice and use of colors and textures, and the appropriate combination of materials. All the parts should be unified, and no ornamentation should be added as a separate or unrelated element, for a good decoration must support the total plan. In the following chapter we will explain the basics of designing a book.

chapter 1 The header is also called the running head. It is located at the top or bottom of the book and it is often the title or the specific chapter title of the book that goes in each of the pages. Page numbers can also be incorporated with the header of footer.

basic l ayout The term “page layout� is used simply to describe the way text and images are situated on a page. Beginning from early illuminated pages in hand-copied books of the Middle Ages and proceeding down to intricate modern magazine and catalog layouts, proper page design has long been a consideration in printed material. With print media, elements usually consist of type (text), images (pictures), and occasionally place-holder graphics for elements that are not printed with ink such as die/laser cutting, foil stamping or blind embossing. There are four basic principles for a layout to look professional. These principles are contrast, alignment repetition and proximity.

This image shows principles such as proximity and repetition.

2  the art of bookmaking

Contrast is closely linked to pace: when you want to inject pace into a design you can create visual emphasis in the form of large type and imagery, or unusual cropping.

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chapter 1

These pictures shows a good use of rythgm and repetition which are basic principles of good design.

Use of a grid in a layout design

4  the art of bookmaking

verso and recto All chapter, section, and part titles must appear on a right-hand (recto) page. If you have set up your book correctly, each right-hand page will be an odd-numbered page. Insert blank pages as necessary. The recto and verso are respectively


the “front” and “back” sides of a leaf of paper in a bound item such as a codex, book, broadsheet, or pamphlet. In languages written from left to right the recto is the right-hand page and the verso the left-hand page.


Illustrations explaining the position of verso and recto in a book.

designing a book  5

chapter 1

the grid The grid system in graphic design is a way of organizing content on a page, using any combination of margins, guides, rows and columns. It is commonly seen in newspaper and magazine layout with columns of text and images. One grid, or a collection of grids, may be used across an entire project to achieve a consistent look and feel. In a finished product, the grid is invisible, but following it helps in creating successful print and web layouts.

Layout for books using the grid

6  the art of bookmaking

There are several types of grids the designer

can choose from. Perhaps the simplest method is to use the rule of thirds. This involves dividing a page into thirds with two equally spaced vertical and/or horizontal lines so that important compositional elements can be placed along these lines or intersections. This method is also commonly used in photography.

page margins Margins, first came out of use in the Middle Age period, is an important element in book design. When planning margins, remember that a book spread isn’t flat. A certain amount of paper will disappear into the gutter where the pages are attached to the book’s spine. A common form for classic art and architecture is the “golden ratio” of 1:1.618. To implement the golden ratio, simply create a rectangular box in your drawing or page layout program 1 inch wide x 1.618 inches tall. Scale the rectangle

Removing tension from the design allows the reader’s focus to return to the meaning of the text.

up proportionately to preserve the relationship between width and height. Page Margins make a difference because certain shapes and proportions are naturally pleasing to the eye. These have provided a historical backbone for classic architecture and were adopted by typesetters as early as the 1400s. A page with a well-proportioned and wellpositioned block of text is perceived to be at rest.

Page Margins using the Golden Ratio

designing a book  7

chapter 1

line width Text set in wide line widths becomes difficult to read because it’s more difficult for the eye to keep track of where it is in the text. That’s why newspapers use narrow, single columns; to facilitate faster and easier reading. The rule of thumb is 65 characters per line, but ideal length can vary with choice of typeface and with the writing itself.

Long line lengths require greater lateral eye movements, and it is more likely that the readers lose their place within the text.

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white space One of the principles of design, is the absence of text and graphics. White space provides visual breathing room for the eye. Seen as a single unit, a block of text has a certain density.

Viewed out of focus, it appears as a dark gray rectangle within the white rectangle of the page. Dark and light areas of the page should be in harmony. If the page is too dense, it feels heavy; the page creates tension.

Layout of a Book with a good use of Negative Space.

Layout of a Book with a good use of Negative Space.

designing a book  9

chapter 1

le ading Leading is the typographer’s word for line spacing, named for the lead shims that were once inserted between rows of typeset characters. Manuscripts are generally created double-spaced, not only so editors have a place to write comments above the text, but because they’re easier to read that way. Convention suggests a leading value of 50%—that’s 50% (1.5 times) larger than the size of your chosen typeface. In other words, if you’re using 12-point type, start with 18 point leading. From there, make fine adjustments to account for the typeface itself.

Examples of different leading sizes

10  the art of bookmaking

indents Typesetters have traditionally used an em as the standard size for a paragraph indent. What’s an em? Back in the days of hot metal typesetting, an em was literally the width of the letter “m” in a given typeface and type size. With digital type, there’s no need to measure the letter “m.” Simply use a measurement equivalent to the point size of your type. If the text is set in 12-point type, use a 12 point indent.

Indent is the additional space by which the first line is shorter or longer than the rest of a paragraph.

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chapter 1

optical margins Optical margins are margins that line up the letters while letting the punctuation hang over the edges. When we turn optical margins on, the effect creates an illusion of straight, tidy margins.

Optical margins make a page look more aesthetic.

12  the art of bookmaking

numbers Numbers (figures) come in four primary categories. Though they play a very small role in the text of an average novel, numbers still have an important effect on the appearance of your text. Tables, menus and recipes use numbers in different ways than text set in paragraphs. There are two figure styles: Oldstyle and Lining. Each comes in two flavors: Proportional and Tabular. An understanding of their differences allows your numbers to communicate clearly and effectively. Tabular Figures are monospaced. They’re ideal for columns of numbers that have to add up or be compared because they always line up vertically.

Proportional Figures (like proportional type) are designed for ideal letter-spacing between characters. When you’re not dealing with rows and columns of data, they are easier to read. Use them whenever numbers are embedded in text. Lining Figures Uniformly the same height as capital letters, Lining Figures sit on the baseline of the type (though they are sometimes of a lighter weight than the capitals). Use Lining Figures for forms, tables, business reports or any place alignment is critical. Lining Figures also blend in nicely with headlines set in all capitals.

Oldstyle Figures break the flow of the headline

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chapter 1

small capitals Small capitals letters mixed with full-caps have a certain regal quality to them. When not overused and properly tracked (letter-spaced), mixed

capitals are great for captions and headlines. Some publications use small caps for acronyms and initials longer than three letters.

This is an option rather than a rule, but “old school” typesetters often used

caps or small caps to transition between a drop capital (a large capital letter that spans two or more lines at the beginning of a block of text) and the regular text.

Whether you use all caps, small caps or a combination, be consistent in your use of capital letters. If you do use small caps for a professional touch, choose a typeface that has the alternate small cap characters built in.

14  the art of bookmaking

Generally speaking, small caps are about as tall as the font’s x-height.

Look, for instance, at Minion Pro’s lower case m compared to a small cap Minion Pro m; it’s marginally taller than the lowercase m and the font’s

x-height. Other typefaces have small caps that are the same height as the

x-height, while others still stand a little shorter. Obviously, since the height of the small cap m is about as tall as the x-height of a regular Minion Pro lowercase m, a small cap m at any given point size is significantly smaller than an upper case or regular cap M at the same point size.

Small caps are almost as tall as the font’s x-height.

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chapter 1

paper´s gr ain A paper’s grain is the direction in which most of the fibers lie. Grain is determined during the papermaking process, when fibers tend to align in one direction or the other. Paper is identified as either grain short (grain is parallel to paper’s short side) or grain long (grain is parallel to the paper’s long side), depending on how the paper is cut. When you are binding a book, always make sure the paper grain of every page is parallel to the binding edge of the book. Do not mix grain directions in book pages.

Paper is produced by pressing together moist fibers, typically cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.

16  the art of bookmaking

How to find out the grain direction of a piece of paper? Try bending it carefully from the long side or the short side. When you determine which way was easiest to bend, you found the grain direction.

designing a book  17


Although the artistic value of a book is determined by its design qualities, even a good design that reflects the originality and creative ability of the designer is rendered ineffective by poor craftsmanship. The reverse is true also, for all the technique in the world cannot substitute for inspiration. Technique, unless accompanied by artistic form is lifeless and has no real appeal. Craftsmanship and design are both essential to the success of a book, and one depends upon the other. Sometimes the designer and the craftsman are the same person, but often a book is planned by one person and bound by another. The methods described include ways of cutting cover boards so that the corners are square, processes of trimming book pages, the manipulation of pastes and glues, various means for pressing books so they will remain flat when dry, a description of the usefulness of a finder, ways of applying cover material, the mitering of corners for neat results, the attachment of end and lining sheets.

chapter 2

book parts Before bringing your book to bind, first you will need the contents of the book. A book is composed of contents enclosed within a hard or soft cover. The contents are the main body of the book, made up of sections called signatures fastened together at the spine. These signatures are formed by folding a sheet of paper one or more times. A paper folded once makes a folio; twice, a quarto; and three times, an octavo. Beginners may want to cut separate sheets, fold them once, and assemble two or more, one inside the other. The number of sheets in a single signature will depend upon the thickness of the paper. If too many are used the result will be thick and awkward. Also pay attention to the grain direction, as explained in the previous chapter.


20  the art of bookmaking

Qua r to

Signatures a re formed by folding a sheet of paper one or more t imes.

binding procedures  21

chapter 2

End papers are folded sheets placed on either side of the assembled signatures to form a lining for the inside of the cover board, which is the pastedown, and the other side which has not been pasted is called flyleaf. Headbands and tailbands are applied at the top and bottom of the spine to produce a more finished appearance. The term “headband” is often used to refer to both. They are also called bandstrips. The fore edge or front edge is the side opposite the back or folded parts of the book. The back of a book, including the part where the folded and sewn sections are glued together, is also called the spine.

End Papers

22  the art of bookmaking

Pastedow n


Top edge

Fore edge Flap

Bel ly ba nd Verso


Gut ter

Headba nd

Ta i l edge

Besides the cover and end papers, the book also includes these important parts below: f ro n t m at t e r


- Half title page

- Title page

The text or contents of the book, the pages often collected or folded into signatures; the pages are usually numbered sequentially, and often divided into chapters.

- Copyright page

b ac k m at t e r

- Table of contents

- Appendix

- Dedication

- Glossary

- Acknowledgments

- Index

- Foreword

- Notes

- Preface

- Bibliography

- Introduction

- Colophon

- Frontispiece

Familiarity with the parts of a book and the terminology associated with them will be of help in understanding the directions that follow. These parts can be seen in any well-bound commercial book. If all the stuffs above is prepared, your book is ready to bind.

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chapter 2

cut ting and trimming Cardboard used for book covers must be cut to exact measurement, with all corners at right angles and edges perfectly straight. This process, referred to as “squaring” is accomplished with steel square, a carpenter’s try square, or a T-square. If a square is not available, a sheet of paper or stiff cardboard known to be square can serve as a guide for the corners, with a ruler being used to establish the width and length of each board. A well-sharpened pencil makes for more accuracy in the measurement of all lines that are to be drawn.

Ma rk ing t he cover size w it h r u ler to ensure it is squa re.

24  the art of bookmaking

Using an aluminum gauge could also measure the boards and securing square corners by adjusting screws. It is very useful in making cases for books or portfolios. Boards are cut from large pieces of cardboard, and then cut to exact size with heavy X-acto knife or mat cutter, with the guiding of squares or rulers.

A lu minu m gauge

In order to cut off edges of the pages, there are few methods to use. A sharpened chisel or sharp knife blade is used while the pages are hold tight in a press. This method is a bit slower among the other methods. For the press, the upper board should be thicker than the lower one so that it could support the chisel when it is used. The lower board should be wider than the upper one, approximately 1 inch, in order to provide space to cut the pages. To protect the pages underneath, cardboard is placed under the book.

Using a chisel to cut of f t he edge of t he paper.

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chapter 2

Another method uses clamps, in which the lower board must be propped up to allow room for the clamps to fit underneath. Then a pencil line is marked on the top sheet of the pages to be trimmed and the pages should be exactly square. In order to cut the pages, a chisel is held upright and braced against the upper board with weights on the corner, and then the chisel is pulled firmly towards yourself until the book is trimmed entirely, with not more than one page at a time. If the cutting is slightly rough, sandpaper could be used to make the outside look better.

A binder made w it h t wo block s of wood, cla mp a nd w ingnuts to keep t he pages t ight.

26  the art of bookmaking

The plow (also known as plough) and press is another method in cutting and trimming, including a sharp blade which could slide through the pages. The blade should be kept sharp all the time so the edges of the pages are sharp. To begin cutting, a plow is moved back and forth with rhythm. Books with rounded backs should be placed between wedge-shaped wooden boards for trimming. The knife blade projects from beneath the section that has the screw on top, with its point touching the paper or cardboard to be cut. The cutter is grasped lightly in the hands as it is moved forward.

The worker bends over t he plow whi le mov ing it back a nd for t h. Wrists a re rela xed as t he cut ter is pu l led back .

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chapter 2

pasting In pasting together the book parts, it is advised not to use too much paste because it will make the book stiff. It is important to manage the amount of paste used for the book, as the paper will expand when wet and contracts when dry. The paste mixture is put in the middle of the paper and spread quickly to the edges before it dries. A sheet could be placed under the material being pasted and threw out after it is used. Some binders will apply paste to the cardboard rather than to the papers as it will not wrinkles easily. If bumps or wrinkles happen, sometimes a slightly warm iron could smooth things out when the paste isn’t dry yet.

Pay at tent ion to t he a mount of paste used.

28  the art of bookmaking

When cardboard is pasted, it must be pressed to prevent warping, and each side should be pulled the equal the tension after two side has been pasted. Paste is better than glue for leather covers; however, as it softens the leather and dries slower, it should be used more on leather than on paper. Glues can be used on limp leather covers since they are put in casings. The paste should go up and down to the paper’s grain, since paper curls in the direction of the grain, and the grain of the paper should follow the grain of the board. More information about grain is mentioned in a later chapter. Papers can be smoothed with fingers or wax paper immediately after the paste is applied. Then rub gently from the center outward with a bone folder to remove air bubbles and wrinkles.

Using a bone folder to smoot h t he paper.

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chapter 2

For pasting the spine, it is advised to use a press with two pieces of wood screwed together with a bolt at each end. A book is lowered into the upright press until the spine touches the table and screwed tightly. Another method is placing two boards upright within the finishing press and clamped in position with the book protruding between them. Apply the glue by moving the brush from the center to the ends of the spine to prevent accidentally getting the glue down the other edges of the text block.

Another method is to apply adhesive to the spine liner paper in a star burst pattern and position on the text block spine. Firmly attach the paper spine liner to the text block spine, you can use a bone folder or a brush to firmly attach the spine liner to the text block. Pay special attention that the edges are firmly attached. Let the paper liner dry then open the book. If the open text block forms a “V� instead of a gentle curve, repeat the procedure.

Pictures show ing past ing t he spine.

30  the art of bookmaking

pressing After pasting, all books should be put to the press to dry, which helps preventing cardboard from warping. And the amount of time for pressing should depends on the how much paste is used, but usually left for 1 day. When pressing, paste may penetrate through pages and cause them to stick together, therefore tins covered with wax paper placed in the front and back of the book could be used to prevent this from happening. There are a few methods available for pressing, such as placing bricks or heavy books. Other presses can be devised with smooth boards of hardwood, masonite, or plywood, held together by C clamps or bolts. Another mean is to insert pressing boards and fasten them to a work table. Pressing more than one book at the same time is possible if there are pieces of chipboards to separate them. To press a smaller book, there is a press with screw top which attached to the bottom board.

A press w it h screws on t he top at tached.

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chapter 2

making cover material Cloth, paper and leather are common materials used for covering books. When the whole book is covered with one piece of material, it is called full-bound. When it is covered around the back and at the corners or outside edge with one material, such as cloth or leather, and other material on the other side, it is called halfbound. If one material is used on the back and another on the side, it is called quarter-bound. For full binding, the material to be used on the cover is cut so that when wrapped around the book it will project beyond the edges at the top, bottom and sides. On the side which will not be shown, a line is drawn on the center of it and slip of paper is placed around the spine of the book (diagram A). The position of the cover boards is drawn on the material, with the distance of the width of the spine of the book between them. Paste is put either on the board or the material in order to cover the book, which the book is put on the marked area of the material, and then turned over and rubbed gently with a bone folder (diagram B), same way for the other side of the board.

Diagra m A

32  the art of bookmaking

Diagra m B

Exa mples of f u l l-bound book s

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chapter 2

For a quarter-bound book, a piece of material is placed on the back of the book according to your preference. After applying paste, the material is placed as diagram C is shown, then wrapped around the spine and pasted to the board on the other side (diagram D). The book is opened up, and the material is slit on each side of the spine between the cover boards so that it can be tucked in (diagram E). The cover paper is cut so that it will overlap the back material at least a quarter inch (diagram F). The paper is pasted and well rubbed, the corners are mitered, and the edges are turned in (diagram G).

Diagra m E

Diagra m C

34  the art of bookmaking

Diagra m G

Diagra m D

Diagra m F

Exa mple of qua r ter-bound book s.

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chapter 2

Half-bound book means a book with a style of binding which was common from the beginning of the 19th century, where binding leathers or vellum were used on the spine and corners and the rest of the boards were covered with marbled paper or plain paper and cloth. For a half-bound book, the method is similar to the quarter-bound book, with addition of corners or fore-edge of the same material used around the back (diagram I). When the corners are used, a pattern of paper should be cut to determine the proportion and amount of material needed, as shown in diagram J.

Diagra m I (lef t) a nd J (right)

36  the art of bookmaking

Exa mples of ha lf-bound book

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chapter 2

To make a case, two boards are cut larger than the book. A piece of paper used as a measure is placed around the spine of the book and the width is marked with pencil. A lining strip is cut from a piece of thin card, tagboard, or kraft paper, ¼ inch less than the width of the spine and the same height as the boards. A piece of material is cut extending about ¾ inch beyond the top, bottom, and sides of the book. A line is drawn down the center of the wrong side of the material, and the lining strip is placed on it. The boards are out on either side of the lining strip, leaving a space of ⅛ inch or more. The boards and the lining strip are glued to the cover material, which is then turned over and rubbed with a bone-folder. For a smooth surface or effect, wedge-shaped pieces can be cut out at the top and bottom as indicated by the dotted lines in diagram M. To finish the case, the corners are mitered and the flaps are folded over and pasted down in the inside (diagram N). A paste paper will be placed between the end sheets and the book when the book is ready to be put into the case. Paste is applied to one outside sheet, and the book is laid on its side on the casing and pressed firmly. The case will be wrapped round so that it covers the whole book, and the other end sheet is pasted in the same way. A wax paper should be put at the front and back of the book and put to a press to dry.

Diagra m M

38  the art of bookmaking

Diagra m N

mitering corners A mitered corner is a corner that comes together at a precise 45° angle, like a picture frame. This is considered an advanced technique, but with practice, you can master it. The beautiful seam is worth the extra brain power. After pasting the material on the board, the next thing you should do is to finish the corner, which is to fold over the edge. There are five ways in doing it, which you could choose which one you prefer based on the material used. Diagram A shows a corner cut off straight across, leaving a space to do the folding. Diagram B shows a corner is folded without cutting off the edge and pasting the overlapped part to the board. Diagram C is similar to A except the corner are not cut straight through, it is cut with a slight angle which allows little overlap of the edges. Diagram D shows a corner cut from the outer edge of the material and the divided corner are folded down until the edges are parallel with the edge of the cardboard.

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chapter 2

Diagra m A

40  the art of bookmaking

Diagra m B

Diagra m C

Diagra m D

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chapter 2

42  the art of bookmaking

applying end papers The first step is to fold half of the sheet so half of it becomes part of the pastedown and the other half is left free, which we call it flyleaf. The flyleaf is cut as the same size as the pages of the book to create a unified feeling, and the pastedown half should allow â…› inch wider to allow for the thickness of the board at the hinge. When an end paper is being prepared to be tipped in, the cover is opened and a piece of wax paper is laid on top of the contents exceeding â…› inch from the hinge edge (diagram A). Paste is applied to the excessed area of the end paper and the excess paste will go to the top of the wax paper, which will be removed later. The folded end sheet is place on top of the pasted area (diagram B). Then, clean wax paper is placed inside the folded sheet of the end paper, and thin paste is applied sparingly to the part that is to be pasted to the cover board. This must be done carefully so that the paper will fit straight when it is attached to the cover (diagram G), then rub the surface gently with bone folder, and the same process repeats when you paste the end of the book.

Diagra m A

Diagra m B

Diagra m C

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chapter 2

1. Place some waste paper inside t he endpaper to protect t he rest of t he book a nd paste out t he rema ining lea f.

3. Turn over, open a nd smoot h of f w it h your folder a nd leave it to dr y under weighted boa rds for at least 24 hours.

4 4  the art of bookmaking

2. Remove t he waste paper a nd gent ly holding t he pasted endpaper dow n, close t he cover onto it.

binding procedures  45


The working procedures describing the processes of cutting, pasting, pressing, and so forth that are used in book construction should be studies and referred to as the information is needed when individual problems are worked on. The operations involved in binding a book are of two kinds: forwarding and finishing. This chapter will be focusing on forwarding.

chapter 3

book made on tapes A multisignature book is composed of several sections, or signatures, sewn together and bound in covers. Blank pages can be made up into a book and used for a sketchbook, to keep the record of a trip, or for any other desired purpose. If an old book is taken apart to be bound, it may need some repair. Several sheets of paper are folded and inserted one inside the other to form a signature. Four sheets folded once and inserted together make eight leaves for a book. If the paper is quite heavy in weight, two or three folded sheets may be enough for each signature, vice versa. The number of sheets used in a signature can be observed by reference to a printed book.

Using a saw, pu l l back a nd for t h to a dept h of about 1/16 of a n inch, enough to go clea r t hrough t he signature.

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Place some waste board cut to the same size as the book either side and secure it all in a press. Using a carpenters or engineers square mark across the sections between a 5/10mm from the head, and 15mm from the tail. We are going to use three tapes on this book so measure the distance between these two marks and divide it by 4. Mark the waste board at these points. Using a fine toothed saw, such as a dovetail saw or a gentleman’s saw, saw across these marks at a depth just enough to nick the inner folio of each section.

Place t he book on t he f ra me base a nd line up t he tapes w it h t he saw n ma rk s a nd t hen t ighten t he crossbea m.

Take a piece of thread that’s not overly long. Try and cut enough for three to four sections. Any more than this will just make sewing awkward and just start to get a little worn and dirty. Thread your needle and tie a not at the other end but leave a tail of thread roughly 7cm or so. Sewing starts on the last section, in this case the back end paper. Start at the tail hole and enter from the spine. Pull through and exit from the next hole. Sew around the tape and re-enter through the next hole. Sewing continues in this fashion, through the holes and around the tape. Always pull taught but not too tight in the direction of the sewing.

Sew t hrough t he ta i l hole a nd enter f rom t he spine.

When you exit from the last hole in that section pull taught and place the next section on top. Sew up to the corresponding hole and continue to sew in the opposite direction until the last hole. When exiting the last hole pull taught in that direction and tie this thread to 7cm tail beneath it. These two sections are now sealed at both ends.

Sew ing sta r ts on t he last sect ion.

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book made on cords In the cord-bound book the signatures are sewn on cords instead of tapes. e cord are laced into the cover boards, permitting a more flexible type of cover. This method is preferred by the professional hand binder. Unlike tape, which lies flat, the cords can either be sunk in, level with the backs of the signatures, or left raised, standing on top. Many of the early books bound in leather had raised cords, or with pieces of thick cardboard, to make them project more. A thinner cord is used for sunken cords, and the saw cuts are made a little stitch. Heavier cord is needed for very large books, or the cord can be used double to give more strength.

If an adjustable frame is available, the cords are tied to two-pronged brass keys and inserted through a slot near the edge at the bottom of the fram bed.

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The slips that have been laced into the board are tapped gently with a hammer or mallet in order to flatten them down as much as possible.

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side sewing Unfolded, single sheets of paper can be bound together by side sewing. A margin of 1 inch of more is desirable on the pages when there is written or printed material that might be blocked off by the sewing. The stacked sheets, including end sheets, are placed between two boards which are clamped in an upright press or a gluing press. Glue is applied and worked well between the edges of the sheets, and the book is taken out of the press to wait for the glue to set.

Examples of side-sewing.

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saw - k erf binding for single sheet The term “kerf � refers to a cut, and in saw-kerf binding cuts are made in the back edge of the book (Diagram A). This method can be used for old books that are in too bad shape to be sewn for rebinding, for paperback books composed of single sheets glued together in the back, for old magazines, or for a group of single sheets. Books bound by this method will not lie flat when open as do those bound with sewn signatures. If gluing is necessary, the book is placed between two heavy cardboards or book boards and clamped in a gluing press. End sheets can be included at this time or tipped in later. The book is removed from the press and left until the glue is dry. When the cut in the back are to be made, the book is returned to the gluing press and positioned so that it projects slightly above the edge of the press. If no press is available the book can be placed so that about 1/4 inch of the back projects over the edge of a table and held in position by means of a board or strip of wood on top clamped to the table with a C clamp. Cuts are made with a small saw such as a coping saw, if thread is used, or a fine-toothed saw like a hack saw if cords are used. The cuts are made so that they are straight across the back at right angles but slanting as they go downward, to the depth of 1/8 inch. For this the saw must be tipped a little. These cuts are referred to as dovetails.

Diagram A

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japanese binding This technique is ideal for binding single sheets of paper in soft covers and can be used for diaries, class notes, phone messages, recipes, and school or business reports. Most types of papers—handmade, commercial or tracing papers, even acetate can be used for Japanese stab binding. If the book will contain writing, the paper must be smooth. Inexpensive photocopy paper is also fine for text pages, and has the added benefit of being readily available and cut to a standard size. Cutting is not required for this technique, which makes it suitable for both young and beginner bookbinders.

Example of a book binded in Japanese style.

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Although the cover for this binding is always soft, it can be single sheets of heavy card-weight paper, single sheets with a turned-in flap, or sheets doubled over. The cover also can be one piece that wraps around the spine to give the pages more protection. For a hard-cover book, refer to the procedures for making a scrapbook in which the cover is hinged with two piece of cardboard. Holes can be drilled or punched in the narrow cardboard strip, and the holes for the paper marked through these holes in the board so thay they will coincide; or the book can be put into a drill press and the holes drills through the board and the paper at the same time.

p r e pa r i n g f o r b i n d i n g :

1. Choose your cover option and the paper for the text pages. Based on its intended use and the paper available, decide the size of your book and the number of pages. 2. Using the triangle, metal ruler, craft knife, and cutting mat, mark with a pencil, and then cut all text pages to size, or start with paper cut to a standard size, such as 8½ x 11”. Then cut two pieces of scrap paper to the same size as the text pages, reserving one for a template and the other to place underneath the text pages to protect them during handling. 3. Using the triangle, ruler, and pencil, measure ½” (12 mm) from the left side of the template and draw a straight line. Measure ½” (12 mm) down from the head and ½” (12 mm) up from the tail, and mark these points on the line. These will be the lowest and highest sewing holes (sewing stations). Measure the distance between these marks along the line. Divide that distance into equal parts and mark two other points along the line. These four marks on the template show where to punch holes. Four-hole binding is traditional, though five or more holes may be used.

An illustration showing the procedures of Japanese binding.

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pamphlets Pamphlets, catalogues, music scores, and books of a similar nature can be bound with pamphlet binder made of hinged cloth tapes. This hinged tapes are glued to the back of the pamphlet, and cardboard covers are glued to the extra flaps. Singlestitch binders are generally used for pamphlets up to 3/16 of an inch in thickness, and double-stitch binders for those Âź inch thick or more. A pamphlet can also be bound like a single-signature book. The staples are removed from the back. End sheets are either tipped on with paste or cut double the size of the pages, wrapped around the back, and sewn in with the pages along with a piece of cloth to act as a hinge. The binding is completed with addition of cardboard covers and whatever decoration or labeling is desired.

Commercial bindera are made of gummed cloth stitched down the center or each side of the center.

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These hinged tapes are glued to the back of the pamphlet, and cardboard covers are glued to the extra flaps.

The binder is glued to two cover boards, after which the pamphlet is inserted.

maga zines Magazines can be bound singly or together in a series to form a book. If a year’s edition is desired, and the combined weight is too heavy, the series can be broken up into two or three parts and each part bound separately. Covers and advertising material not wanted are removed. The magazines are stacked in correct order and put into an upright press. If no press is available they can be laid on the edge of a table with the backs protruding slightly over the edge and a weight like a brick placed on top to keep hem in position. A strong, hot glue is applied to the backs and permitted to seep between the magazines to hold them together, or an adhesive called padding cement can be used for this purpose.

W hile the glue is still moist, a piece of super about 2 inches shorter than the magazines and approximately 4 inches in width is put on the back.

A space of 1/4 inch is left between the edge of the spine and the voer board to allow the cover to open.

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book repair When a book is in need of major repair it is well to make certain it is of sufficient value to justify the time and effort required for its renovation. Often a few minor repairs are all that is needed rather than a complete rebinding; some books, however, have reached the point where they are beyond the possibility of any repair. When the threads that hold the signatures together are broken, or the joints of the cover are split, a rebinding job is usually necessary. If the signatures are not too worn they can

Repairing the spine.

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be resewn with tapes or cords; otherwise the single-sheet method, in which the book is sewn through the side, can be used. After a book has been taken apart for binding, the pages are opened out flat and examined for holes and week spots in the crease from which the thread was removed. If they are in need of repair, a mending tissue is laid on a piece of paste paper, and a very thin solution of past is applied with a brush.

This Page Remains Blank

Chapter 4 COVERING

Now that books are available to all at moderate cost, methods of mass production and machine requirements are given first consideration. No longer is it practicable to use expensive materials limited to hand processes that require tedious and careful manipulation. Only occasionally, for some special purpose, is there any justification today for binding a book in leather. Bibles, important documents, and rare editions are sometimes given this distinction.

chapter 4

cut ting and skiving Lightweight, thin leathers can easily be cut with scissor. Heavier leathers like cowhide and calfskin are cut with a sharp-pointed knife and the assistance of a steel square or metal-edge ruler. Skiving knives are available from leather supply sources, or a shoemaker’s knife can be used. it is important to keep the knife sharp at all times for good results as a dull knife will not work. A sharpening stone and a small can of oil should be kept at hand for this purpose. The

Worker skiving the leather.

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leather is placed face down upon a hard surface skiving like a marble slab, a piece of heavy plate glass, or a hardwood block. Held with one hand while the other grasps the knife and pushes it forward at an angle toward the edge. Skivers with razor blade inserts are available from leather supply sources. To manipulate this type the worker pulls the blade toward him instead of pushing it away.

decor ating The binder must decide whether you wants to leave the leather plain and undecorated with its natural color and finish or change it in any way. You have the choice of combining it with other leathers, using inlay or onlay, applying color, or adding a pattern by means of stamps and tooling. The decoration is usually applied to the finished book, but in some cases it is advisable to complete it before the leather it put on the cover.

It can be sprayed on with a spray gun; or the leather can be dipped into a dye bath in a pan.

The book cover after it is dried.

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tooling and stamping Not all leathers can be tooled. Only those with a surface firm enough to hold a line, such as calfskin and goatskin, are suitable. Tooling can be applied to a leather cover either before or after it has been put on the book. A steel modeling tool is used for pressing lines into leather. The most common type has a turned-up point at one end and a flat, broad shape at the other. Tooling can be applied to a leather cover either before or after it has been put on the book. If it is applied to a finished cover, a piece of tin such as is used in pressing can be inserted under the cover board to provide a firm working surface.

A worker tooling on a leather.

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Example of tooling and stamping.

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gold tooling An adhesive size called “glair” in the traditional process of gold tooling. It is applied to the leather, and pieces of gold leaf are laid on it and pressed down with heated tools to hold them to the leather. The size acts as a binder and cause the gold leaf to adhere to the leather when it is pressed with the heated tool. It is made by adding about ¾ teaspoon of vinegar to the white of an egg in a bowl and beating with an egg beater until the mixture stands up stiffly. The glair is the liquid that forms under the foam when it has been left to stand for several hours or overnight. This is poured off and saved. Unless it is kept in an airtight bottle, it will not keep more than two or three days.

Tool are heated quickly and placed upon the strip of gold leaf which has been laid on the leather with the bright or shiny side upward, and held for few second until the gold adheres to the leather.

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Pressure must be firm and applied quickly before the heated tool cools off, or the print will be imperfect. If the tool is given a forceful blow with a mallet or hammer the tooled impression and the gold application are achieved with one process.

This signed tool is for gold tooling on the flat back of book.

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applying le ather cover Leather for covers may be cut all in one piece, used in combination with other leathers, or combined with decorated paper. When the leather is ready to be put on the cover boards, it is dampened all over on both sides with a sponge or cloth. A thick paste is applied with a brush to the underside and worked in thoroughly for several minutes until the pores are saturated. The leather can be folded over and left to soak for a few minutes, with more paste add as needed. Any excess can be wiped off later. This process make the leather more pliable and easier to work with. If cords or other raised areas are used on the spine, the leather can be stretched or modeled right over them. Plenty of paste is also put on the spine of the book, which is then laid down in position on top of the leather piece, where it has been marked. Unlike cloth bindings, the leather binding is pasted to the spine.

Worker applying paste on the leaher cover.

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Ready to paste the other side of the leather cover.

A book with decorated leather cover. The gold stands out brilliantly against the black calfskin binding.

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titles When title are placed on books the letters become part of the design. They can be put directly across the spine, spread lengthwise along the spine from tail to head or from head to tail, or arranged in any position on the front cover. Three ways of composing titles to be applied to leather covers are: (1) by using single letters, made on the end of a brass tool with a wooden handle, which can be pressed into the leather one at a time to form words; (2) by using a typeholder pallet in which the type is set and stamped with one operation; (3) by using individual tools, each composed of a straight line of varying length, which can be combined with gouges of concentric curves made from various segments of circle . (diagram A) The letters formed by lines and curves, used in combination, are geometrically structured and have great beauty and strength. The first and third methods allow for greater freedom and originality and permit the letters to be incorporated into the design pattern of the cover so that there is a harmonious relation between them. Titles can also be tooled freehand, with care, after considerable practice.

Leather binding by Sween Erik Swawonius, detail of spine showing letters stamped on calfskin.

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cle aning and preserving Most commercial leathers have a preparation on them that serves as a finish and produces a highly glossy appearance, When a leather needs cleaning, it can be rubbed on the surface with a small piece of moistened synthetic sponge dipped in saddle soap, which comes in the form of a congealed cream. The sponging should be done lightly but with a firm motion. The sponge is rinsed often in slightly warm water; the soap in not wiped off the leather, but is left on to dry.

Grease spots can be removed with benzine on absorbent cotton. When the leather is dry it can be oiled with neat’s-foot oil, which is available from leather or sporting goods stores. The book is spread out on a table with its spine upward, or in a similar position on a book rack, with newspapers placed underneath to catch any drippings.

Cleaning and preser ving is important to leather bound books.

covering 7 1

Chapter 5 C R E AT I V E B I N D I N G

Making a book is one of the most satisfying artistic pursuits. Books offer limitless possibilities they can be functional, sculptural, or both. From concept to design to construction, each step offers challenges and opportunities. Book binding doesn’t always have to be critical, in facet there are a lot of new fun ideas about binding books yourself, or even use recycle materials. Just make sure not to use things that will break easily. Searching for inventive materials to use for book binding should be one of the most enjoyable parts of your journey. Look in unusual places like thrift stores, hardware stores, your kitchen, craft stores and even dumpsters (wear gloves) -- you will be surprised at what you find to generate your next masterpiece. Heres are few examples of interesting book binding ideas that you can try yourselves. The best way of getting start a book binding idea is to handle with new supplies and see what they can do for your project. You can create your own handmade books from recycled and repurposed materials.

chapter 5

hot water bot tle journal materials 1. Hot water bottle, 7” x 12” 2. Sixteen sheets text weight paper, 6.5 x 5.75 3. Two 30” pieces waxed linen thread 4. 2 rivet and rivet setting tools 5. Snap and snap-setting tools 6. Pinking shears 7. Cover punching template

i ns t ruc t ion

Cut around the hot water bottle along the seam. Round off the cover with scissors. Smooth the rubber edge with a razor. Using Japanese binding technique to sew the cover and signature together. Do not trim the thread end. Cut the funnel piece along one side seam, and then cut along the bottom, preserving any writing. Since the funnel is curved, place the center along the straight fore edge and allow the end to curve down across the cover front and back. This binding require the sewing skill that most of the book making required. Sew the hot water bottle cover and pages together. The binding style is cross stitch. The finish size is about 4’’ x 6’’.

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potato chip bag notebook materials 1. 2 chip bags rectangles for covers 2. A smaller chip bag for cover lining 3. Two 1.25” x 2.25” chip bag for closure 4. Tyvek rectangles for cover 5. 28” of wax linen thread 6. Bookbinding needle 7. Nine 8” x 6” sheets loose-leaf paper, folded in half widthwise 8. Eight sheets graph papers, folded in half and nested into one signature. 9. Glue stick 10. Sewing machine or needle and thread

i ns t ruc t ion

Mark the large Tyvek cover from both long edges and draw two parallel pencil lines across the page at the mark. Turn the piece over and trim on the diagonal. Apply glue to the chip bag. For the closure, center and glue each Tyvek rectangle to the foil side of each. Apply glue to the foil side of the chip bag. Fold the cover in half with right side facing. The two signatures will be sewn to the cover at the same time. This structure is also known as two-sewnas-one.

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roll up field journal i ns t ruc t ion

Separate the pages from the found books by holding the cover open and firmly pulling the text block. Remove the cookcloth by peeling it away from the spine head and tail edges inside the cover. If it doesn’t peel easily, lift it off with a craft knife that has a dull blade. Overlap the spine, and sew together by hand. Trim any loose thread. Cut the sewn spines. Center the fuse. Sew the book together. Find the mid point of the back cover to make the closure, and set the two-part grommet. materials 1. 11” x 13” hardback books with bookcloth spines 2. 26.5” x 10.5” rectangle cut from the back of a man’s extra large cotton shirt. 3. Two waxed line threads. 4. Large two- part grommet for closure, grommet-setting tools. 5. 100 grit sandpaper 6. Faux leaves for embellishment 7. Hand drills 8. Needle and threads 9. Rotary cutter

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other materials of binding Here are other examples of creative binding using different materials. Most functional handmade books journals and photo albums are made from some combination of book board, paper bookcloth, and leather. In over a decade of creating books out of these materials, you will never feel tired of learning these new techniques and perfecting old ones.

Using screws, washer, and connecting metal parts t create this unique photo album. You can even make this for your color charts.

A recycled book’s theme or function can match the materials or not. An empty pasta box could house recipes, or bingo cards could become a baby book. There are no rules or limits. Use these interesting binding as your inspiration. Devise creative challenges with yourself and friends to see what kind of books can be made from other supplies. Here are some example you can make it on your own.

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chapter 5

Using straws and strings, and metal rings to bind the small books. This one only use metal rings, clear straws, and hole punch to hold it together.

78  the art of bookmaking

This is a simplest biding of all kinds. Using a rubber band, paper clips, and hole punch to bind your notebook pages. It proves that binding a book doesn’t need to use expensive materials.

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chapter 5

Using screw and hole punch to create the fan shape of small books, it can be use as a color chart or calenders.

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Using pencils, tape measure, and strings to create this interesting book. Using strings to tie the pencils together, and using the measure tapes to hole the pages.

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chapter 5

Using ribbons, papers, hole punch, and cardboard to create the simplest book binding. It can easily be accomplished in one hours.

Using papers, ribbons, and hole punch to create this Japanese style binding book. It is simple, and the materials are really easy to find.

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Using beer bottle openers, papers, hard cardboards, hole punch, coasters, and ribbons to create this menu look book.

creative binding  83

glossary A glossary is an alphabetical list of content specific terms used in the book and their meanings. Most times glossaries are found in textbooks and reference material. The glossary lists acronyms, words, and phrases relevant to the subject of the book along with a brief definition.

glossary ACK NOW L E DGM E N T This pa r t ack nowledges t hose who contributed to t he aut hor’s book . It is impor ta nt to recognize t he contribut ion a nd suppor t of f riends, col leag ues, inst itut ions, a nd even gra nts, w it h a pa ragraph t ha n k ing t hese people for t heir assista nce a nd t ime spent in helping w it h t he w rit ing a nd publishing of t he book . A PPE N DI X The Appendi x is a col lect ion of impor ta nt informat ion li ke cha r ts, tables, a nd ot her resources usua l ly found in t he back of t he book . Materia l t hat does not f it w it hin t he body of t he book is of ten included in a n appendi x. This supplementa l addit ion to a given ma in work may correct errors, expla in inconsistencies or ot her w ise deta i l or update t he informat ion found in t he ma in work . BIBL IOGR A PH Y The Bibliography is a list of book s, a r t icles a nd ot her resources t he aut hor used in w rit ing t he book . Bibliographies a re used to reference t he sources used in docu ment. A l l t y pes of work ca n be in a bibliography, including: websites, book s, a r t icles, maga zine, newspapers, speeches, inter v iews, v ideos, blogs, a nd ma ny more. The bibliography may list ot her book s, maga zines or specif ic a r t icles, a nd Web sites. COL OPHON The term “colophon” derives f rom t he late Lat in colophon, mea ning “su mmit”, “top”, or “ f inishing”. This brief descript ion, usua l ly located at t he end of a book, describes product ion notes releva nt to t he edit ion a nd may include a printer’s ma rk or logot y pe. Somet imes found in t he f ront mat ter a nd most of ten found in older book s. The colophon is a list or descript ion of t y pefaces, t y pe of paper, print ing met hod, a nd possibly sof t wa re used to produce t he book . COPY R IGH T PAGE The copy right page conta ins t he copy right not ice, which consists of t he yea r of publicat ion a nd t he na me of t he copy right ow ner. The copy right ow ner is usua l ly t he aut hor

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but cou ld a lso belongs to a n orga nizat ion or cor porat ion. This page may a lso list t he book ’s publishing histor y, permissions, ack nowledgments a nd discla imers. DE DICAT ION A dedicat ion page is a page in a book t hat precedes t he tex t, in which t he aut hor na mes t he person or people for whom he/ she has w rit ten t he book . The dedicat ion page is opt iona l a nd w rit ten if t he aut hor of t he book wa nts to dedicate t he book to a pa r t icu la r person or persons. Book s a re of ten dedicated to t he people who were most inf luent ia l in t he w rit ing or publishing process. W hi le bot h nonf ict ion a nd f ict iona l book s ca n have dedicat ion pages, t hey a re most of ten found in f ict iona l genres. FOR EWOR D The Foreword is a n introductor y rema rk at t he beginning of a book . It is not w rit ten by t he aut hor of a book, but rat her by a n exper t in t he f ield who is able to commend your work to readers. Of ten, it w i l l tel l of some interact ion bet ween t he w riter of t he foreword a nd t he stor y or t he w riter of t he stor y. A foreword to later edit ions of a work of ten expla ins in what respects t hat edit ion dif fers f rom prev ious ones. W hi le foreword a nd preface a re not a lways ent irely intercha ngeable, t hey a re of ten sy nony mous w it h each ot her. Bot h a re found at t he beginning of a book or ot her piece of literature, but a preface a re of ten w rit ten by t he aut hor or editors of t he book . GL A IR The g la ir is t he liquid t hat forms under t he foa m when it has been lef t to sta nd for severa l hours or overnight. GL OS SA RY A g lossa r y is a n a lphabet ica l list of content specif ic terms used in t he book a nd t heir mea nings. This sect ion is of ten found on ly in nonf ict ion tex t; most t imes g lossa ries a re found in tex tbook s a nd reference materia l. The g lossa r y lists acrony ms, words, a nd phrases releva nt to t he subject of t he book a long w it h a brief def init ion.

H A L F T IT L E PAGE The ha lf t it le page, a lso ca l led t he basta rd t it le, is t he page on ly show ing t he t it le of t he book . Ot her informat ion such as subt it le, aut hor, a nd publisher w i l l be omit ted on t his page. I N DE X Arra nged a lphabet ica l ly a nd by subject w it h page nu mbers, t his a lso includes na mes of people, places a nd events. The index brea k s t he book dow n into a l l t he ma ny sub-topics a nd ideas covered in t he body of t he book . It is a list of words or phrases used in t he book a nd where t hey ca n be found in t he content. It is of ten found in nonf ict ion reference materia l. W hen creat ing a n index for a professiona l docu ment, ident if y t he k ind of informat ion t hat your readers w i l l most wa nt to locate. I N T RODUC T ION This is a n over v iew of what t he aut hor intends to cover in t he book . A n introduct ion ca n precede chapter 1 or it ca n be t he f irst chapter of t he book; it is usua l ly shor ter t ha n ot her chapters. A n introduct ion ca n be replaced by t he preface which indicates t he pur pose of t he book . KERF A cut, a nd in saw-ker f binding cuts a re made in t he back edge of t he book . L E A DI NG Leading is t he t y pographer’s word for line spacing, na med for t he lead shims t hat were once inser ted bet ween rows of t y peset cha racters. L I N E W IDT H Is t he dista nce bet ween t he lef t a nd right ma rgins of a tex t colu mn a nd is a lso ca l led leng t h of line. L I N I NG FIGU R E S Uniform ly t he sa me height as capita l let ters, Lining Fig ures sit on t he baseline of t he t y pe M A RGI N Is t he space t hat surrounds t he content of a page. The ma rgin

helps to def ine where a line of tex t begins a nd ends. OP T ICA L M A RGI NS Opt ica l ma rgins a re ma rgins t hat line up t he let ters whi le let t ing t he punctuat ion ha ng over t he edges. PAGE L AYOU T Page layout is t he pa r t of graphic design t hat dea ls in t he a rra ngement a nd st yle treat ment of elements (content) on a page. PA PE R DIR EC T IONS A paper’s gra in is t he direct ion in which most of t he f ibers lie. PA R AGR A PH I N DE N T To set in or back f rom t he ma rgin, as t he f irst line of a pa ragraph. PR E FACE A preface genera l ly covers t he stor y of how t he book ca me into being, or how t he idea for t he book was developed; t his is of ten fol lowed by t ha n k s a nd ack nowledgments to people who were helpf u l to t he aut hor during t he t ime of w rit ing. A preface gets t he reader to read t he book by brief ly describing t he contents, pur pose of t he book, a nd expla ining who is t he book ta rget. For exa mple, a sof t wa re ma nua l may be a imed at beginners or power users. The preface might describe t he terminolog y or specia l convent ions used in t he book, such as sy mbols used for wa rnings, t ips, a nd triv ia. Some prefaces may include a su mma r y of t he problem encountered, or what ma kes it dif ferent f rom ot hers on t he ma rket. SM A L L CA PS Sma l l caps a re uppercase (capita l) cha racters set at t he sa me height a nd weight as surrounding lowercase (sma l l) let ters or tex t f ig ures. TA BL E OF CON TE N TS This is a list of a l l chapter headings, chapter nu mbers a nd subheadings, toget her w it h t heir page nu mbers, which demonstrates how your book is orga nized. This includes a l l f ront mat ter items a nd a lso body mat ter a nd back mat ter.

glossar y 85


Nowadays, some book s might have t wo table of contents: a brief, a nd a n expa nded version. TA BU L A R FIGU R E S Tabu la r f ig ures a re monospaced. They’re idea l for colu mns of nu mbers t hat have to add up or be compa red because t hey a lways line up ver t ica l ly. T IT L E PAGE The t it le page gives t he f u l l t it le, na me of aut hor, editor, or tra nslator, na me of publishing house, somet imes t he cit y of publicat ion or where cor porate of f ices a re located, a nd t he yea r. At a minimu m, t he t it le page w i l l show t he t it le of t he book a nd t he aut hor’s na me, in addit ion to t he na mes of a ny i l lustrators. W H IT E SPACE One of t he principles of design, is t he absence of tex t a nd graphics. W hite space prov ides v isua l breat hing room for t he eye, which ma kes t he book easier to read.

86  the art of bookmaking

This Page Remains Blank

index Arranged alphabetically and by subject with page numbers, this also includes names of people, places and events. The index breaks the book down into all the many sub-topics and ideas covered in the body of the book. It is a list of words or phrases used in the book and where they can be found in the content. It is often found in nonfiction reference material. When creating an index for a professional document, identify the kind of information that your readers will most want to locate.

inde x Ad hesive  30, 57, 66

Layout  2, 4, 6, 7, 9

A l l Capita ls  13, 14

Leading 10

A luminum gauge  25

Leat her  29, 32, 36, 50, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 69, 70, 71, 7 7

Backbone 7

Limp leat her  29

Binder  26, 28

Ma rgins  6, 12, 15, 52

Bolt  30, 31

Mitering  37, 38, 39

Ca rdboa rd  24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 31, 39, 50, 53, 54, 56, 83

Numbers (see Fig ure)

Ca lfsk in  62, 64, 70

Paste (see Ad hesive)

Case  25, 38, 49, 63

Plough (see Plow)

Chisel  25, 26

Plow 27

Cla mp  26, 30, 31, 52, 53

Pressing  16, 31, 64

Clot h  32, 36, 56, 68, 76, 7 7

Punctuation 12

Column  6, 8, 13

Qua r ter-bound  32, 34, 36

Cord  34, 48, 50, 54, 58

Recto  5, 22

Cowhide 62

Sa ndpaper  26, 76

End paper  43, 4 4, 49

Spine (see Backbone)

Fig ure 13

Squa ring 24

Fu l l-bound  32, 33

T-squa re 24

Gla ir 66

Trimming  24, 27

Golden Ratio  7

Wa x Paper  29, 31, 34, 38, 43, 74, 76

Gra in  16, 17, 20, 29

X-acto k nife  25

Grid  4, 6 Ha lf-bound  32, 36, 37 Ker f 53 Indents 11

88  the art of bookmaking

The Bibliography is a list of books, articles and other resources the author used in writing the book. Bibliographies are used to reference the sources used in document. All types of work can be in a bibliography, including: websites, books, articles, magazine, newspapers, speeches, interviews, videos, blogs, and many more. The bibliography may list other books, magazines or specific articles, and Web sites.

bibliogr aphy Lupton, E . (2010). T hinking with ty pe: a critical guide for designers, wr iters, editors, & students. New York : Princeton Architectura l Press. Johnson, P. (197 7). Creative binding. Seat t le a nd London: Universit y of Washing ton Press. Par ts of a book . (2012). Retrieved September 20, 2012, f rom iUniverse website: ht tp:// w w per t Adv ice/Editoria lGuidelines/Pa r ts.aspx Roger Grech. (2012, Ja nua r y 26). Preparing the book block . Retrieved October 25, 2012, f rom Papercut Biner y website: ht tp://papercutbinder evenig-fol k s-a m l Stein, J. (2009). Re-bound: creating handmade book s f rom recycled and repur posed mater ial s. Beverly, M A: Qua rr y Book s.

bibliography 89

colophon The term “colophon” derives from the late Latin colophon, meaning “summit”, “top”, or “finishing”. This brief description, usually located at the end of a book, describes production notes relevant to the edition and may include a printer’s mark or logotype. Sometimes found in the front matter and most often found in older books. The colophon is a list or description of typefaces, type of paper, printing method, and possibly software used to produce the book.

colophon Printed a nd binded by Chum’s Design & Print. Paper used is Kel ly Digita l Color Copy 60lb. Cover. Ty peface used a re Adobe Caslon, Helvetica Neue a nd Minion Pro.

90  the art of bookmaking

The Art of Bookmaking  

This is the book not only for graphic design students, but also for the people that intend to know more about the book. This book organized...

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