LIBRARY OF LIGHT
THOMAS TAYLOR 237699
LIBRARY OF LIGHT This Report provides an overview of the design ideas and intentions for the London Road area of Liverpool. Beginning with the framework plan for the whole area, working down to individual buildings and the spaces within.
CONTENTS 3 . . . . . . . . . . . London Rd Framework Plan 7 . . . . . . . . . . . Concept 9 . . . . . . . . . . . Design Theory 11 . . . . . . . . . . Site Analysis 21 . . . . . . . . . . Key Moves / Objectives 23 . . . . . . . . . . Research 27 . . . . . . . . . . Experimentation 31 . . . . . . . . . . Design Development 37 . . . . . . . . . . Precedent 39 . . . . . . . . . . List of Accommodation 41 . . . . . . . . . . Plans Sections Images 49 . . . . . . . . . . Technology/Structure 51 . . . . . . . . . . Technology/Materials 54 . . . . . . . . . . Technology/Environmental
M I 7 G F
buildings [a] limestreet station [b] empire theatre [c] carling academy [d] walker art gallery [e] liverpool library [f] liverpool museum [G] car park/transport interchange [H] tj huges [I] main inner ring road [J] st georges hall [K] st andrews halls of residents [L] residential/mixed use tower [M] residential area [N] transport museum [O] the mill education centre spaces  tower square  textile square  culture square  welington column  london rd pedestrian routes  market square  LIVING BRIDGE [PARK] nb. bold text = new interventions
LONDON RD FRAMEWORK PLAN The aim is to regenerate the London Rd area through the consolidation and conservation of the existing urban fabric. This will be done through key interventions, strategically placed within the area, acting as catalysts to stimulate growth and regeneration. Each intervention will be designed to expand and develop the existing uses of the area, rather than echoing the uses of other city sectors. An additional goal is to create a strong sense of community, keeping events and activities local, rather than creating a tourist hot-spot. An emphasis will be placed on mixed and multi use developments, in order for the areas to be most effective at all times. Sustainability will be paramount in the regeneration process. This will work on two levels. Firstly the interventions will be designed and located so that there are only small distances to travel, aided by good public transport links. Secondly the construction phase will be as sustainable as possible, demolition will be kept to a minimum, and materials will be locally sourced where practical. Important and significant landmarks such as Limestreet Station and TJ Huges will be highlighted, and from this a series of new routeways, or axis, created. This concept is designed to move people easily through the area, and take the strain away from the traffic dense London Rd which dissects the location. The first axis runs East-West with Kempson Street providing a strong visual link with Wellington column. A second axis runs North-South linking residents from the housing estates in the North, and student accommodation to the south into the heart of the London Rd area. Tertiary spines run throughout the area intertwining between the buildings allowing people to discover their own paths, gaining individual perceptions and experiences of the area. 3/4
LIBRARY OF LIGHT CONCEPT
The Library of light is envisioned as an insight into Liverpool’s past, present and future via the medium of photography as a means of recording and celebrating the city’s unique culture. The Library will be locally focused, a record of the people, by the people. A place for people to come together, share, learn and enjoy. A strong of sense of community will be fostered, as people of all skill levels and backgrounds will be encouraged to contribute to the collection. Professionals will work with novices to create a collective archive of what it means to live in Liverpool, as it is now and as it was.
Photography is a way of feeling, of touching, of loving. What you have caught on film is captured forever... it remembers little things, long after you have forgotten everything.
Aaron Siskind (1903-1991) American abstract expressionist photographer
DESIGN THEORY 01 As the digital age dawns and high quality photography becomes continuously available to the populace the value of the photograph undergoes both an increase and decrease in worth. Regarded by some as unworthy of the label of art, photographs are increasingly displayed on computers, stored on discs, hundreds taken, few preserved. The aim of the Library is to celebrate photography in all its forms, from the mundane to the extraordinary, allowing glimpses into different worlds, lives and experiences. The unifying factor of this eclectic collection will be the Library itself, allowing all photographs the opportunity to stand equal, displayed and bathed in light allowing the ordinary to become extraordinary.
DESIGN THEORY 02 The buildings narrative is conceived as a dynamic journey through spaces, highlighting framed city views. Specific day lighting strategies augment the spatial experience. The space is designed to focus the visitor inward, on the photographs, only turning attention to the outside world in order to display majestic views of the city, about which they learn. Visitors will experience at first hand the dramatic effect that space and light can exert on your perceptions, understanding and appreciation of your surroundings.
Light is my inspiration, my paint and brush. It is as vital as the model herself. Profoundly significant, it caresses the essential superlative curves and lines. Light I acknowledge as the energy upon which all life on this planet depends. Ruth Bernhard (1905 - 2006) American photographer.
SITE ANALYSIS 01 LIVERPOOL [CITY]
SITE SELECTION The site was chosen due to its commanding position and as the opportunity to create a gateway into Liverpool and the London Rd area. It also gives the opportunity for the continuation of the ‘Avenue’ of key cultural buildings within the area. LINKS The site has strong links to the whole city, with the newly created living bridge the city centre links directly into the site and surrounding civic buildings. The project also seeks to engage with the new emerging communities to the west and east.
GATEWAYS  DOCK ROAD  ISLINGTON [SITE]  LIMESTREET STATION [TRAIN LINE]  EDGE LANE [M62]  PIER HEAD [FERRIES]
With the newly created living bridge the city centre is brought right into the heart of the London Rd area.
JMU campus, possible relationship with the library and its facilities.
NEW EMERGING CITY COMMUNITY Large amounts of residential areas all needing access to the city centre and its amenities.
In close proimity to the site is existing civic buildings of historic value.
LONDON ROAD DEVELOPMENT AREA Improvements in pedestrain access and car parking mean the site has excellent transport links and amenities close by. The area has many different facilities with textile making to theatres and restaurants.
SITE ANALYSIS 02
ISLINGTON / LONDON ROAD [COMMUNITY] This diagram shows the existing and potential occupants and communities in the vicinity.
INVERTED URBAN GRAIN [URBAN SPACES AND USES]
ION CT SE AA DUAL CARRIAGEWAY - ISLINGTON - DUAL CARRIAGEW AY - ISLINGTON - DUAL C ARRIAGE WAY - ISL INGTON DUAL CARR POSSIBLE BUILDING IAGE ISLINGTON POSITION
POSSIBLE PUBLIC SPACE
VIEWS [PREVIOUS PAGE] SITE LINE TRAFFIC/SOUND PEDESTRIAN MOVEMENTS
1 ACTIVE FRONTAGES
SITE ANALYSIS 03 DETAIL [SITE] 0900
21 JUNE 21 DECEMBER
This page shows the site movements for pedestrians and vehicles. It also shows the active frontages and possible positioning of the building and urban landscapes.
The section is intended to demonstrate the levels but more importantly the diversity of uses across a short distance.
21 JUNE 21 DECEMBER
Section AA 21 JUNE 21 DECEMBER
es H ide ou nt si ial ng
un t W er S ES t T
H 0 58 A
un te EA r S ST t
rt ch Int an er ge -
SITE ANALYSIS 04 HISTORY
These maps are intended to show how the site has developed and changed over the past century, they show the site being densely populated until the late 20th century where the cityâ€™s urban fabric was broken up by the age of the motor car. The site is also close to where the former Islington market was held and could be reinstated as part of the urban design.
URBAN GRAIN 2007
Key MOVES / OBJECTIVES - To create a strong entrance / gateway onto the Living bridge [park] which will lead into the heart of the city centre. - To create a gateway into the cultural quarter of Liverpool around St Georgeâ€™s Hall, which is seen as one of the main entrances into the city centre. - To control the noise and pollution from the main road to the north of the site [Islington Road], by sheltering the space with the building and creating a new public square. - To be conscious and positively respond to the surrounding historic context, in its materials, proportions and proximity to building lines. - To maximise the use of natural daylight whilst still considering / responding to issues relating to potential glare and heat gains. - To allow a strong connection with the library and other cultural buildings in close proximity.
3D Color Matrix Meter ABC Accessory Shoes Adjustable Camera Adjustable-Focus Lens Advanced Photo A-PEN APO
Aperture Priority Aperture ring Artificial light Aspherical lens ASA Aspec
era Automatic iris AV Background Backlighting Back-Printing Barrel Distortion Balance Balanced Fill Bracketing Burning-In Bulb Camera
Angles Camera shake Candid Pictures Capacitor Cartridge Casse
Compositio tact Printer Continuous Servo AF Focus Contrast Grade Contrasty Coma CPU Cropping Curva Depth of Field Depth of Focus Developer Developing Tank Diaphragm Diffuse Lighting Diffusing Diffu Color Balance Colour negative Colour reversal Colour temperature CompactFlash
Exposure Drop-in-Loading DX DX Data Exchange Element Emulsion Side Enhanced Back-Printing Enlargem Flashbulb Flash Memory Card Focal meter Lux Macro Lens
Length Focus Focus Range Format Foreground Frame Full
Macro photography Magnification ratio Mammum aperture Mirror lens
Perspective Photomicrography Plane Polarising Screen Processing Rangefinder Relative Scale Selective Focus Split-image Synchronisation
Telephoto Lens Thin Negative Time Exposure
Photo System AE-L (Automatic Exposure Lock) Agitation Alphabetical Coding Ambient Light Angle Of View
ASA Aspect Ratio Auto
Exposure Bracketing Autofocus AF-I & AF-S lenses Automatic Cam-
Shutter Blowup Bounce Lighting Bracket flash e Cassette Cast CCD Cds Chromatic aberration CI Clearing Agent Click stop Close-Up CRC Coated Lens sition Computerised flash Condenser Condenser Enlarger Contact Print Contrast Con-
ed Fill-Flash Bellows Between-The-Lens
g Curvature of Field Darkroom Data Disk Dedicated Flash Definition Delayed action Densitometer Density
ng Diffusion-Condenser Enlarger Diffusion Enlarger DIN Dispersion Distortion Dodging Double
argement Enlarger Exposure Film Safe Film Status Indicators
Filter Fisheye lens Fixed-Focus Flash
me Full aperture metering Highlights Infinity Iris Grain Lens-Shutter Camera Lens-Shutter Camera Light
lens Reflex Lens Negative Overexposure Camera obscura Panning Panorama Perforations
ative aperture Reciprocity Resolution Reticulation Retrofocus Design Safelight Saturation
posure Tone Transparency Tripod Underexposure Viewfinder Wide-Angle Lens
Zoom Lens 23/24
Lens opening. The hole or opening formed by the metal leaf diaphragm inside the lens or the opening in a camera lens through which light passes to expose the film. The size of aperture is either fixed or adjustable. Aperture affects depth of field, the smaller the aperture, the greater is the zone of sharpness, the bigger the aperture, the zone of sharpness is reduced. The hole or opening formed by the metal leaf diaphragm inside the lens; controls amount of light and depth of field.
The process of taking photographs of small objects with regular photographic lenses at reproduction ratios of 1X or greater; also referred to as “photomacrography. “
Contrast The range of difference in the light to dark areas of a negative, print, or slide the brightness range of a subject or the scene lighting. It may be also explained as tonal difference of the image.
Exposure The quantity of light allowed to act on a photographic material; a product of the intensity (controlled by the lens opening) and the duration (controlled by the shutter speed or enlarging time) of light striking the film or paper. The act of allowing light to reach the light-sensitive emulsion of the photographic material. Also refers to the amount (duration and intensity) of light which reaches the film.
Filter A coloured piece of glass or other transparent material used over the lens to emphasize, eliminate, or change the colour or density (ND) of the entire scene or certain areas within a scene
obscura The camera obscura (Lat. dark chamber) was an optical device used in drawing, and one of the ancestral threads leading to the invention of photography. The principle of the camera obscura can be demonstrated with a rudimentary type, just a box with a hole in one side. Light from only one part of a scene will pass through the hole and strike a specific part of the back wall. The projection is made on paper on which an artist can then copy the image. The advantage of this technique is that the perspective is right, thus greatly increasing the realism of the exposure.
To show a smaller area of an image at a higher magnification (“zoom in”) or a larger area at a lower magnification (“zoom out”), as though using a zoom lense on a camera.
Composition The pleasing arrangement of the elements within a scene-the main subject, the foreground and background, and supporting subjects
RESEARCH In order to get an in-depth understanding and idea from photography extensive research was done into the equipment, techniques and history. This then allowed me to interpret this new knowledge into interesting architectural ideas in the design of the library of light. Taken back to its most basic, photography relies on light and how it is controlled and manipulated into and through the lense of the camera. From this I decided to breakdown some of the key processes and terms in photography and reinterpret them into an architectural language.
EXPERIMENTATION To understand how light can affect the perception of space I carried out a series of experiments using models and photography. These images show a small sample of the experimentation carried out to see how different lighting strategies could effect the atmosphere within a space. The idea of the photographic aperture became appropriate by changing the opening size and allowing different amounts of light to penetrate. Within my design I intend to incorporate this fascination with light and space.
These show a collection of images portraying the design development process.
SECTION INTERIOR 31/32
LAYERING DEVELOPMENT   
James Turrell is a light artist who has exhibited all over the world, his concepts and abilities to distort and control natural light are something I would like to aspire to within the spaces I create.
Cartier Foundation Uses technology to design unique buildings and spaces.
With no Architectural qualification people called him professor, but his abilities to design and construct amazing buildings and spaces using natural light to control the atmosphere and scale of spaces he can be seen to be one of the best architects of all time.
Tadao Ando was inspired in part by Carlo Scarpa and although not an architect himself he creates buildings of similar architectural quality using natural light and concrete, to produce spaces and buildings of amazing form
LIST OF ACCOMMODATION Reception Exhibition Space Auditorium Cafe / Bar Winter Garden / Atrium Archive / Library Research Spaces [Single and Group] Editing Suites Work Units Toilets Dark Room Print Rooms Shop Studios Kitchen Shop Roof Garden
CONTEXT PLAN 1:1250
Second Floor Main Gallery Space, Secondary Gallery Space [Liverpool Gallery], Toilets
Third Floor Dark Gallery
Ground Floor Entrance, Reception, Cafe/Bar, Shop, Input rooms, Toilets, Temporary Exhibition space, Store, Offices
First Floor Main library space, Group Studies, Editing Suites, Auditorium, Meeting Room, Dark Room
Structural Grid [6m]
Structural Grid [8m]
TECHNOLOGY/STRUCTURE Through discussions with ARUP I have decided to use concrete for my primary structure. The layer closest to the road will be load bearing due to its small spaces and short span. The main spaces will be on a concrete frame 6 metres by 8 metres. The advantages to using concrete: - No additional fire proofing - Good acoustic qualities - High thermal mass
TECHNOLOGY/MATERIALS SANDSTONE Locally sourced sandstone will be used for the main wall of the building relating to the context of the historic civic buildings.
CORE 10 STEEL Recycled from the vast nearby scrap yards the main building will be clad in core 10 steel, it also is in direct relation to the industrial past of Liverpool in its ship building and ports.
TECHNOLOGY/ Environmental From the outset the building has been carefully considered and designed to incorporate many different sustainable concepts. An holistic approach was taken to the design incorporating all the concepts and ideas:
Natural Ventilation Grey Water Collection Green Roof Thermal Mass Ground Source Heat Pump Natural Light
WINTER NIGHT All vents closed trapping in the warm air. The thermal mass of the concrete frame radiates the warmth back into the space it absorbed during the day. The heating is topped up by a ground source heat pump subtracting the warmth from the ground.
Vents open to allowing for fresh air circularisation. Ground source heat pump radiates heat throughout the building via underfloor heating. A high level heat exchanger recirculates the warmth to the occupied zone.
Building is left to vent overnight to allow maximum heat loss and fresh air for the next day. Thermally massive structure provides early morning source of coolth.
All vents are open to draw the air out of the stacks, low level vents are opened on the south elevation to allow cross ventilation. Ground floor is recessed to create an overhang and protect from heat gain and glare. Other floors receive most of there light from the atrium cutting through the building. 55/56
Published on Feb 24, 2009