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NE W IN T ERN AT IO N A L V ER SIO N

EXECUTIVE EDITOR Jack W. Hayford, Litt.D.

ASSOCIATE EDITOR Paul G. Chappell, Ph.D.

ASSOCIATE EDITOR Kenneth C. Ulmer, Ph.D., D.Min.

OLD TESTAMENT EDITORS Judy Brown, Ed.D. Roy Hayden, Ph.D.

NEW TESTAMENT EDITORS Jonathan David Huntzinger, Ph.D. Gary Matsdorf, M.A.

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Spirit-­Filled Life® Mission Statement The mission of Spirit-­Filled Life Bibles and reference products is to serve the body of Christ with a broad range of trustworthy products marked by Biblical soundness, balanced scholarship and a sense of honor toward the modern-­day working of the Holy Spirit. These resources are designed to provide Biblical equipping for practical living in God’s kingdom and around the world. New Spirit-­Filled Life® Bible Copyright © 2002, 2014 by Thomas Nelson, a division of HarperCollins Christian Publishing, Inc. Holy Bible, New International Version® NIV® copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984, 2011 by Biblica, Inc.® Used by permission. All rights reserved. The NIV® text may be quoted in any form (written, visual, electronic or audio), up to and inclusive of five hundred (500) verses without the express written permission of the publisher, providing the verses quoted account for twenty-­f ive percent (25%) or more of the total text of the work in which they are quoted. Notice of copyright must appear on the title or copyright page as follows: Scripture quotations taken from The Holy Bible, New International Version® NIV® Copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984, 2011 by Biblica, Inc.® Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide. The “NIV” and “New International Version” are trademarks registered in the United States Patent and Trademark Office by Biblica, Inc.® When quotations from the NIV® text are used by a local church in non-­saleable media such as church bulletins, orders of service, posters, overhead transparencies or similar materials, a complete copyright notice is not required, but the initials (NIV®) must appear at the end of each quotation. Any commentary or other Biblical reference work produced for commercial sale, that uses the NIV® text must obtain written permission for use of the NIV® text. Permission requests for commercial use within the USA and Canada that exceeds the above guidelines must be directed to, and approval in writing by Zondervan, Grand Rapids, MI 49530, USA www.Zondervan.com Permission requests for commercial use within the UK, EU and EFTA that exceeds the above guidelines must be directed to, and approved in writing by Hodder & Stoughton Limited, 338 Euston Road, London NW1 3BH, United Kingdom, www.Hodder.co.uk Permission requests for non-­commercial use that exceeds the above guidelines must be directed to, and approved in writing by Biblica US, Inc., 1820 Jet Stream Drive, Colorado Springs, CO 80921, USA, www.Biblica.com A portion of the purchase price of your NIV® Bible is provided to Biblica so together we support the mission of transforming lives through God’s Word. Biblica provides God’s Word to people through translation, publishing and Bible engagement in Africa, Asia Pacific, Europe, Latin America, Middle East and North America. Through its worldwide reach, Biblica engages people with God’s Word so that their lives are transformed through a relationship with Jesus Christ.   All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 /DCI/ 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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Kingdom Dynamics

Among its multiple study resources and category of spiritual truth, and the component approaches, the New Spirit-­ Filled Life® Bible parts of each one expand on key “new wine” contains a developed coverage of forty-­ one principles of Bible-­ centered, Spirit-­ filled life themes referred to as “Kingdom Dynamics.” and ministry—­proven to manifest “blessing” as This term is derived from abounding Biblical Jesus’ name is lifted up, souls are drawn to him, and experiential evidence that verifies proven lives are transformed, and the kingdom is Biblical principles and values as essential for advanced through his servants—­ dynamically the dynamic spread and effective advance of enabled to do his will. the “gospel of the kingdom” Jesus commisWherever one of these timeless topics is P S A L M 111 4 I 7 3 5 it is highlighted (keyed sioned to be “preached in the whole world” (Mt mentioned in :Scripture, 8 While they curse, r may i ofsymbol 109:28 24:14). Understanding of and faithful attention with a dove and gray-­screened to set it you bless; and crushing the rulers the r 2Sa 16:12 s Isa 65:14 to these values and truths has always characterapart from the Bible text). Each entry follows may those who attack me be put to whole earth. 109:29 ized the church where God’s people7 He move the from thisaformat: chapter(s) shame, willindrink brook along the and verse(s) being refert Ps 35:26; 132:18promised would enable s d fullness of power Jesus enced, title of the particular article under its but may your servant rejoice. way, 109:30 the fulfillment commissions (Acand 1:8).so he willlarger 9 May my accusers be clothed topic (abbreviated form in capital letters) with of hisu Ps 35:18; lift his head high. j 111:1 Godly pastors, teachers, evangelists and and commentary. disgrace 109:31 v Ps 16:8; a Kingdom Dynamics chain is other key have contributed to the provi- PsalmFollowing t as inleaders a and wrapped in shame 111 e 73:23; 121:5 easy to do. The last line of each entry includes sion of the wisdom, 110:1 insight and spiritual cloak. w Mt 22:44*; 1 Praise the Lord. freferences separated by a slash (/). The reference instruction contained in these Kingdom 0 With my mouth I will greatly extol the Mk 12:36*; Dynamics articles. Their work has been orga- before the slash takes you to the passage where Lk 20:42*; I will extol the Lord with all my heart Ac 2:34* Lord; nized into nine “clusters,” in the spirit of Isaiah the preceding Kingdom Dynamic is found (an x 1Co 15:25 the council of the upright in y u 110:2 Ps 45:6 of worshipers in the great throng65:8 which notesI how “the new wine isinfound in asterisk in thisand position indicates that the 110:3 z Jdg 5:2; the assembly. the cluster” and that “a blessing is in it” (NKJV). Kingdom Dynamic you are currently reading is will praise him. Ps 96:9 ◊ See WW at 1 For he stands at the right v of the each Thesehand “clusters,” representing a general the kfirst in Lthe The reference after the 2 Great are the works of the ordchain). ; Ps 8:5. 110:4 needy, they are pondered by all who a Nu 23:19 b Heb 5:6*; to save their lives from those who delight in them. 7:21* 3 Glorious and majestic are his deeds, would condemn them. c Heb 7:15‑17* d 110:5 Ps 16:8 and his righteousness endures e Ps 2:12 f Ps 2:5; Ro 2:5 Psalm 110 forever. 110:6 g Isa 2:4 h Isa 66:24 4 He has caused his wonders to be Of David. A psalm. remembered; 1 The Lord says w to my lord: a “Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.” x

KINGDOM DYNAMICS

The Lord will extend your mighty scepter y from Zion, saying, “Rule in the midst of your enemies!” 3 Your troops will be willing on your day of battle. Arrayed in holy ◊splendor, z your young men will come to you like dew from the morning’s womb. b

2

4

The Lord has sworn and will not change his mind: a “You are a priest forever, b in the order of Melchizedek. c”

The Lord is at your right hand c; d he will crush kings e on the day of his wrath. f 6 He will judge the nations, g heaping up the dead h

5

110:6 i Ps 68:21 110:7 j Ps 27:6 111:2 k Ps 92:5; 143:5

110:1 Victory in the Fullness of the Holy Spirit, HOLY SPIRIT FULLNESS. Peter’s last quotation in his Pentecost Day message is this prophecy of David (Ac 2:34–35). Significantly, he links the promise of ultimate victory with the coming of the Holy Spirit. The fullest understanding of this Scripture cannot be limited to the human, political, or institutional adversaries faced, since a broader understanding of our spiritual adversaries is found in Ephesians 6:12. Peter unlocks the significance of David’s declaration of victory as he proclaims another dimension of its fulfillment in Acts 2:33–35. The Messiah’s manifest victory extends to the church itself, as the NT teaches how each believer shares in the authority of what Jesus the Messiah has done in vanquishing all adversaries (see Eph 1:22). (*/Isa 28:11–12) S.G.B.

b 3 The meaning of the Hebrew for this sentence is uncertain. c 5 Or My lord is at your right hand, Lord d 7 The meaning of the 1 Or Lord e This psalm is an acrostic poem, the lines of which begin with the successive letters of the Hebrew alphabet. brew for this clause is uncertain. Hebrew Hallelu Yah

10:1–7 The Lord: This psalm is considered by Jews and Christians just a priest but a king-priest as was Jesus (Ge 14:18–20). ke to be Messianic, and this interpretation is confirmed by Jesus’ 110:5–7 These verses are addressed to God (Yahweh) talking about wn use of it to prove his deity (Lk 20:42). the work of the Lord Jesus (’Adonai ). 10:1 My lord: That is, the Lord of the universe (Yahweh) told 110:5 One aspect of the wrath of Jesus is shown in the judgment avid’s Lord (’Adonai, the Messiah) to rejoice. Many NT writers quote predicted in Matthew 23–25. is verse. The word says is a unique word which only refers to spired prophetic utterances. For footstool see Joshua 10:24–25. 110:7 Drink: That is, after the judgment, or battle, he is refreshed 10:2 Scepter: a symbol of power. Rule: As Paul showed in as if drinking12from a cool brook. 9781401679330_int_00_front matter_niv_nsfl_final.indd 111:1–10 This is an acrostic poem of 22 lines, each beginning with

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Kingdom Dynamics   I  xiii

slash takes you to the next passage under that particular theme (an asterisk following the last reference indicates that you have completed the chain and takes you back to the beginning of it). The initials at the end of an entry indicate its author. Most of the Kingdom Dynamics themes have been addressed by a leader noted for his or her study or emphasis in that area. Please do not miss reading the six topics of interest that are presented in article form following the book of Revelation, rather than in chain reference form throughout the Bible text. NOTE: We realize that some of the themes treated are subject to differences in interpretation and application. The New Spirit-­Filled Life® Bible has included these nonetheless, not as a conclusive endorsement of any but as a representation of truth as applied by some, that we all may study together even at points of difference. Often to do so is to discover that one presumed to be a doctrinal opponent is seen on closer examination to be more in line with one’s own thinking than was first supposed. Thus, the diversity of the themes and approaches offered here may contribute to better understanding as well as expanded enrichment to us all.

Cluster One: Spiritual Foundation Precepts • The Word of God (Jack W. Hayford) • The Blood of the Covenant (Charles Simpson) • The Kingdom of God (Jack W. Hayford) • The Pathway of Praise and Worship (LaMar Boschman and Charles Green) All dynamics related to believing life are rooted in, flow from and are authenticated by The Word of God. Jesus settled this in his own description of the priority of the Scriptures to our life, affirming, “Man shall not live on bread alone, but on every word that comes from the mouth of God” (Mt 4:4). The rise of all truly durable power-­works of the Holy Spirit begin here with vital habits in reading, obeying, feeding upon, studying and making life-­application of the Bible. This growth rises within the redemptive life potential to humankind by one means alone—­The Blood of the Covenant. The grounds for the release of all salvation’s dimensions of promise in Christ are because of the cross where the price of eternal life and kingdom hope was paid. Every believer should understand the history of God’s redemptive requirement of the blood, why Jesus had to die as he did, and how an immeasurable dynamic of spiritual power has been unleashed in the invisible realm through “the blood of the Lamb” (Rev 12:10–­ 11). Central to Jesus’ teaching, preaching and ministry was his introducing and explaining all truth as it related to The Kingdom of God. Relating all life to the realities of God’s

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reign over and rule in the affairs of life, Jesus pointed the way for each of his redeemed to discover kingdom principles by which God’s power may flow in their daily life. Among these principles, none precedes the priority of Praise and Worship as a lifestyle, as an ongoing pattern of humility before God’s throne, and as a key to realizing the dynamic power of God’s visiting presence.

Cluster Two: Prayer Power Precepts • Answering Today’s Prayer Awakening (David Bryant) • Intercession* (A. Joy Dawson) • Advancing in Spiritual Warfare (Dick Eastman) • Living in the Power and Promise of God’s Word (Gerald E. Brooks, Jr., and Roy Hicks, Sr.) • Prophetic Dreams and Visions in the Scriptures (James W. Ryle) All believing life begins with and grows in Prayer, the privilege of coming to God’s throne in simple faith. As faith grows, the prayer ministry of Intercession begins to expand the impact of the believer’s prayer life, and victories are learned through Advancing in Spiritual Warfare. The dynamic of faith increases as the principles of Living in the Power and Promise of God’s Word are realized and responded to with Biblical wisdom and balance. Joined to his Word, God also gives the praying believer the Holy Spirit’s timely Prophetic Dreams and Visions, which are available to all believers (Ac 2:17) and which are always to be measured and judged by the authority of God’s eternal Word.

Cluster Three: Personal Growth Precepts • Growing in Knowing God (Steven Fry) • Christlikeness of Character (Fuchsia Pickett) • Godliness and Moral Purity (Jack W. Hayford, ed., and M. G. “Pat” Robertson) • Growth in Life Enrichment (Kenneth C. Ulmer) Jesus described the relationship of each of his own to himself as a “vine-­branch” relationship (Jn 15). There is a combination truth of his sovereignty and our responsibility—­“remain in me . . . apart from me you can do nothing.” Our role is to grow in an intimate relationship with him: His will is to flow his power and fruitfulness through us. Growing in Knowing God provides devotional insights into the beauty and wonder of the Father himself; Christlikeness of Character develops in each believer as a restored and deepening walk with God increases. Holiness of life in morals and ethics is the natuproduct of the Godliness and Moral ral by-­ Purity of Christ guiding and filling us, and as an

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xiv  I  Kingdom Dynamics

accountable responsiveness is shown to our call to continual Growth in Life Enrichment.

Cluster Four: Spiritual Empowerment Precepts • Holy Spirit Fullness (Scott G. Bauer) • Holy Spirit Gifts and Power (article by Paul Walker) • Prophecy and the Scriptures (Jack W. Hayford) • The Holy Spirit and Restoration (article by James Robison) Holy Spirit Fullness is promised to every redeemed child of God, but the promise must be received (Ac 2:38–­39). This experience is pivotal to New Testament church life being replicated in any era. It was pursued passionately by the early church (note Ac 8 and 19, seeing the discerning instruction Peter, John and Paul gave new converts to receive the fullness of the Holy Spirit). This experience opens the door to Holy Spirit Gifts and Power and calls each Spirit-­filled believer to a responsible balance in Prophecy and the Scriptures. Such spiritually enabled, Biblically balanced living will result in discovering the broad dimensions of The Holy Spirit and Restoration—­witnessing his works of grace and power ongoingly.

Cluster Five: Spiritual Unity Precepts • The Call to Unity in Christ’s Body (Lloyd John Ogilvie) • The Power of Unity Among Believers (Paul A. Cedar) • Human Worth and Divine Destiny (Charles Blake and Jesse Miranda) • The Reconciling Ministry (Bill McCartney and Raleigh B. Washington) True Spirit-­fullness will breed a passion for unity among the Lord’s people. It is Jesus himself who has issued the Call to Unity (Jn 17:11), and his Spirit confirms The Power of Unity wherever that call is answered. In a real sense, this is a revelation of the “new creation” in Christ (2Co 5), which begins by breaking down the walls of pride that reduce human beings holding an appropriate value for the Human Worth and Divine Destiny of all—­especially for those different from them, ethnically, denominationally, culturally, economically, politically, or otherwise. The Reconciling Ministry flows from those who capture Jesus’ vision for the unity of his people bringing the gospel to all humankind (Jn 17:21).

Cluster Six: Spiritual Leadership Precepts • Traits of Spiritual Leadership (Joseph Garlington, Sr., and Jamie Buckingham) • Moving Into and Through Revival (Gerald L. Fry)

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• Serving 21st Century Human Need (Keith W. Phillips) • The Spirit-­Filled Family (Rebecca L. Bauer) • Women in God’s Design (Jane Hansen) • Biblical Women (Barbara Amos and Freda Lindsay) The Scriptures call for a transmission of the Traits of Spiritual Leadership as each new spiritual generation teaches the next (2Ti 2:1–­ 3). This begins in the most practical way, as Family life principles are modeled by leaders and molded in disciples. Further, where faithful pastoral leadership accepts its role, not only will both genders be released into fruitfulness and ministry (see Women in God’s Design and Biblical Women), but the Holy Spirit of the “new and life-­giving way” will constantly renew and revive the church. Moving Into and Through Revival is written by a pastor who gained key lessons from a dramatic visitation among his congregation. Finally, all true revival will issue in caring for the poor, the hungry, the broken and the fallen, as Serving Human Need reflects God’s love to the world around us who have found that love.

Cluster Seven: Spiritual Stewardship Precepts • Seed Faith (Oral Roberts) • God’s Plan for Abundance (Frederick K. C. Price) • Lifestyle Stewardship (G. E. Patterson) • Divine Principles of Money Management (Clark Whitten) Jesus repeatedly taught on faith at both dimensions—­in the spiritual realm and in the material as well. He was never apologetic when speaking about the practical issues of financial stewardship or Lifestyle Stewardship, and his disciples need never be either. Part of the curse of sin is the impact seen in human poverty; and while salvation is a much larger issue than a return to financial health, God’s Word is full of counsel and promise in that regard. Seed Faith is a life principle that incorporates multiple dimensions of life. God’s Abundance is clearly within the Savior’s broad promise of his saving purpose (Jn 10:10). Divine Principles of Money Management call each believer to learn the keys to faithful stewardship so that life-­principles are not violated through habit, ignorance, or disobedience. There is joy in applying these points of spiritual wisdom.

Cluster Eight: Supernatural Ministry Precepts • The Ministry of Divine Healing (Nathaniel M. Van Cleave) • The Ministry of Angels (Beverly “Bam” Crawford and Marilyn Hickey) • Ministering Deliverance from Bondage (Christopher J. Hayward)

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Kingdom Dynamics   I  xv

• Keys to Walking the Path of Miracles in His Service (Paul Crouch) • Power Ministry Through God’s Spirit (Todd Hunter) • Shepherding Amid the Supernatural (Billy Joe Daugherty) The ministry of the supernatural is the heritage of the church according to Jesus’ own 14). To pursue supernatural words (Jn 14:12–­ ministry is not a quest for the sensational, but a quest to allow the Holy Spirit to glorify Jesus by doing his works through his body. Fundamental to the church’s mission is The Ministry of Divine Healing, as well as Ministering Deliverance from Bondage—­seeing the sick made whole and the demonized made free (Mk 16:17). The path of Miracles is the portion of those who pursue God’s call to faith for achievements that transcend human abilities and imagination, and Power Ministry Through God’s Spirit brings such things into being. Leaders will especially appreciate one pastor’s outlining of keys he has found for Shepherding Amid the Supernatural, that is, for leading and feeding the flock in ways that move beyond the miraculous into the ongoing practice of continual growth in the practical realities of daily life and service for Jesus.

Cluster Nine: Global Outreach Precepts Four articles written by broadly experienced leaders in today’s church provide a cluster of focuses on the challenge of ministering the Good News today. • Evangelist Reinhard Bonnke calls us all to become Aflame with Passion for World Evangelism, a passion that has made him the most penetrating evangelist in the world for impacting Third World nations. • Missionary John D. Dawson has led a pathway for Ministering Healing Among the Nations through his insightful, skilled and anointed ability for bringing people of formerly hostile cultures together. He points the way toward reconciliation and representational repentance, thus unlocking the door to nationwide evangelism. • The presence of God sweeping the earth is calling the church to a new dimension of sensitivity to his present work among his ancient people, the Jews. Shira Sorko-­Ram, a Messianic Israeli, writes to help us in Understanding Messianic Jewish Ministry. • How to Lead a Person to the Savior is provided by Brent Price, whose practical role as a week-­to-­week shepherd of his congregation, helping people one-­at-­a-­

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time come to Jesus, is joined to his personal gift as a stimulator of those he leads to Christ, to themselves lead others to the Lord.

Getting Started With Kingdom Dynamics Following is a list of the Kingdom Dynamics chain-­referenced through the Scriptures, along with their shortened titles which appear in capital letters in each Kingdom Dynamics entry and with the reference that opens each chain in the Bible text. The author (or authors) of each Kingdom Dynamics topic is also listed, along with his or her initials, which will appear at the end of each entry. In several cases, individual Kingdom Dynamics entries are the product of collaboration between an author and Jack W. Hayford. In those instances, his initials appear following that entry, though he is not named as a coauthor in this list. • The Word of God (THE WORD OF GOD) Jack W. Hayford (J.W.H.) 2Ti 3:16 • The Blood of the Covenant (THE BLOOD) Charles Simpson (C.S.) Ge 3:21 • The Kingdom of God (FOUNDATIONS OF THE KINGDOM) (TERMINOLOGY OF THE KINGDOM) (THE MESSAGE OF THE KINGDOM) (CHARACTER AND THE KINGDOM) (MINISTRY OF THE KINGDOM) (CONFLICT AND THE KINGDOM) (WORSHIP AND THE KINGDOM) (PROPHECY AND THE KINGDOM) Jack W. Hayford (J.W.H.) Ge 1:1 • The Pathway of Praise and Worship (PRAISE AND WORSHIP) LaMar Boschman and Charles Green (L.B./C.G.) Ge 29:35 • Answering Today’s Prayer Awakening (PRAYER) David Bryant (D.B.) Ge 32:22–­32 • Intercession* (INTERCESSION) A. Joy Dawson (A.J.D.) Isa 41:15 • Advancing in Spiritual Warfare (FAITH’S WARFARE) Dick Eastman (D.E.) Eph 6:10–­18 • Living in the Power and Promise of God’s Word (POWER AND PROMISE OF GOD’S WORD) Gerald E. Brooks, Jr., and Roy Hicks, Sr. (G.B./R.H.) Ge 17:5

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Word Wealth Understanding important key words helps you better understand God’s Word. That is why to-­ understand definitions are detailed, easy-­ included for more than 550 important terms. Each Word Wealth listing is located within the Bible text, near the verse where the featured word appears. English spellings of original Greek and Hebrew words are given, along with helpful insight into the derivation, as well as the Strong’s Concordance numerical listing for each

word. Strong’s numbers in regular type refer to the numbers from the Hebrew dictionary in the back of Strong’s. Strong’s numbers in italicized (slanted) type refer to numbers from the Greek dictionary in the back of Strong’s. In the center column, you will also find cross-­referencing to the locations of related Word Wealth entries. Word Wealth illuminates key passages and expands your overall understanding of Scripture. ACTS 5:39 I 1413 5:17 e f

WORD WEALTH 5:13 regarded, megaluno (meg-al-oo-no); Strong’s #3170: To make great, to enlarge, to magnify, to increase, to make conspicuous, to extol, to show respect, to hold in high esteem. When Ananias and Sapphira were judged, many shrank from associating with the apostles and their services. Despite all this, the public looked at the new Christian worshipers favorably (megaluno).

◊ See WW at 2Pe 2:1. 5:18 g 5:19 h i

5:20 j 68 5:21 k l

6 34, 41;

officers did not find them there. So they went back and reported, 23 “We found the jail securely locked, with the guards standing at the doors; but when we opened them, we found no one inside.” 24 On hearing this report, the captain of the temple guard and the chief priests m were at a loss, wondering what this might

25 Then someone came and said, “Look! The men you put in jail are standing in the temple courts teaching the people.” 26 At that, the captain went with his officers and brought the apostles. They did The Apostles Persecuted not use force, because they feared that the 17 Then the high priest and all his assopeople n would stone them. 27 The apos tles were brought in and ciates, who were members of the ◊party e of the Sadducees, f were filled with jealmade to appear before the Sanhedrin o to ousy. 18 They arrested the apostles and be questioned by the high priest. 28 “We put them in the public jail. g 19 But during gave you strict ◊orders not to teach in this the night an angel h of the Lord opened name,” p he said. “Yet you have filled Jethe doors of the jail i and brought them rusalem with your teaching and are deout. 20 “Go, stand in the temple courts,” termined to make us guilty of this man’s he said, “and tell the people all about this blood.” q 29 Peter and the other apostles replied: new life.” j 21 At daybreak they entered the temple “We must obey God rather than human beings!r 30 The God of our ancestorss raised courts, as they had been told, and began Following is an index providing English word from thetreated; dead t — whom you killed to teach the peothis ple. information about each entry: (1) Jesus (2) Greek or Hebrew transliteration; (3) the where the Wealth byWord hanging him definion a cross. u 31 God ◊exaltWhen the highand priest andScripture his assoreference cition is located. ed him to his own right hand v as Prince ates k arrived, they called together the and Savior w that he might bring Israel to Sanhedrin l — the Word full assem bly of the elWealth Index repentance and ◊forgive their sins. x 32 We ders of Israel — and sent to the jail for the age, ability (capacity, apos power), Mtof28:20 22 But . . are witnesses these things, y and so is tles. koach on arDt riv8:18 ing at the jail,aion the . . . . . . . . . . . . z whom God has given to the Holy Spir it, able, dunamai . . . . . . . . . . .  Jude 24 agree, sumphoneo . . . . . . . . Mt 18:19 5:24 m those who obey him.” abundance (have an), 5:26 n huperbole33 . . . . . 2Co 4:7 this, they were fuall-­surpassing, When they heard o 5:27 KINGDOM perisseuo . . . . . . . . . . . MtDYNAMICS 25:29 p a .and ri ous want ed to put them to death. shadday . . . . . . . Ps 91:1 Almighty, 5:28 NT,31:19 ANGELS. There are q 34 But a Phar i see named Ga ma li el, b a . . .Angels . . .in . the . Ps abundant, rab . . 5:19 mizbeach . . . . . . . . . 2Ki 12:9 altar, more direct references to angels in the NT 36; 3:14, 15; teacher of the law, c who was honored acquitted, dikaioo . . . . . . . Mt 12:37 7:52 than in the OT. Jesus talked about angels tamid Ex 28:30 always, ◊ See . . . . . . . . . . WW at by all the people, stood up in the San . . 26:53; . . . Mk . .13:32; . Heb active, energes . . (Mt Lk 4:12 20:34–36; Jn 1:51); Ac 16:24. r he drin and or dered that the men be put 5:29 pala’ . . Jdg 13:19 amazing thing (did an), s and . . . . . . . Php not only were angels4:8 in attendance at 5:30 admirable, euphemos outside for a little while. 35 Then he adt ambassador, birth, resurrection and ascension, they u presbeuo . . . . . . Eph 6:20 . . . . . . . . .Jn 8:3 adultery, moicheiahis dressed the Sanhedrin: “Men of Israel, 13:29; were active amid the early church’s life.mal’ach . . . . con . . sid . er . .care 2Ch 32:21 angel, fully what you intend to do Advocate (alongside for strength, In Acts, angelic activity: (1) freed apostles 36 Some time ago Theudas to these men. v . . . . . Jnfaith 15:26 guidance), parakletos 5:31 . . . . . . . . . . Mt 4:11 imprisoned for their (see alsoangels, 12:6–7), angelos w appeared, claiming to be somebody, and (2) led Philip to an evangelistic opportu- x about four hundred men ◊rallied to him. nity (8:26), (3) told Cornelius how to find He was killed, all his followers were disPeter in order to hear the gospel (10:3,5), (4) ◊ See WW at persed, and it all came to nothing. 37 After Jas 4:10. struck judgment on wicked Herod (12:23) ◊ See WW at him, Judas the Galilean appeared in the 9:22. and (5) encouraged Paul caught in a killer Heb 5:32 y days of the census d and led a band of peoz storm (27:23). Throughout the NT, believple in revolt. He too was killed, and all his 5:33 a ers are given 7:54 9781401679330_int_00_front matter_niv_nsfl_final.indd 17 instruction on the presence, 12/9/13 AM fore, in 38 There followers were scat tered.11:51 5:34 b


Truth-­In-­Action Truth-­In-­Action is an intensely practical feature showing you ways to apply the Bible’s great truths. Appearing in chart form, this study help summarizes the foundations and teachings of each book, then invites you—­and shows you how—­to act upon the summons the Holy Spirit is issuing in the Word. Climaxing the books (or major divisions of

the books), key “Action” truths are listed in numerical order, with each “Truth” listed, noting those verses that invite the believer’s response. Together these passages are summarized with action words that offer specific steps you can take to let God guide your life—­at work, at home—­at all times.

TRUTH IN ACTION THROUGH ISAIAH

Letting the Life of the Holy Spirit Bring Faith’s Works Alive in You!

TRUTH

ACTION

ISAIAH TEACHES

1Growing in Godliness

Isaiah wrote during a time when God’s people sought empty forms of religion and rituals over a genuine, life-changing relationship with him. Today, God’s people face that same temptation. Rituals alone do not challenge us to change, convict us of sin or require a consistent heart investment to maintain, as does a life-giving relationship with God. Rich traditions and rituals exist within the Christian church, but must be infused with God’s presence, motivated by love and sustained through relationship.

Dynamic 2Cultivating Devotion

TEXT

ISAIAH INVITES

58:1–5

Guard against forms of godliness that have no life. Godliness begins with a heart turned toward God, with a life seeking to be molded into the image of Christ, responding to the conviction of sin and growing in love with the Lord.

58:6–14

Set aside time to fast and pray. Take the time you would normally use to eat to pray instead. Ask God to reveal sin in your life and respond to what he shows you. Ask God to show you how he wants to use you in practical expressions of godliness.

7:14

Recognize that Jesus is God’s sign to us. Born of a virgin, he is Immanuel, God with us (Mt 1:23; Lk 1:27–33).

The book of Isaiah presents a beautiful prophetic picture of 9:2–7 Rejoice for the great light that has come. WorJesus the Messiah, the One who shipIn-­ Jesus as Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Old Testament Truth-­ Action Charts would come to save, redeem and Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. restore people to God. Reading Truth-­ In-­Action through Page Truth-­In-­Action through Page these verses and seeing Jesus in 11:1–10 Seek the “heir to David’s throne,” Jesus the MesGenesis 1 Chronicles . . . .with . . . .the . . Spirit . . . . .of. .the . . Lord . . .521 all of his . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 splendor and majesty, siah. Ask to be filled Exodus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 2 Chronicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .562 compassion and mercy sparks that rested upon .Jesus. within us . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 the God-given desire Leviticus Ezra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 576 40:1, 11 Take comfort, knowing that God, in Christ, has and need to worship. As we Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 come Nehemiah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596 to us with forgiveness and tender mercy. worship Jesus and begin to know Deuteronomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Esther . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607 him for who he is, that spark 53:1–12 Surrender your life to Jesus, the Righteous One. Joshua . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 HeJob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645 becomes a flame of passion and has taken on himself all sin and punishment devotion for Immanuel, God Judges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 (Book One:soPsalms 41) . . . . . . forPsalms your wrongdoing that you1–­ could be for-680 with us. given, healed and Two: madePsalms whole. He is7able Ruth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 Psalms (Book 42–­ 2) . .to. .have .702 on you and make intercession for you 1 Samuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370 compassion Psalms (Book Three: Psalms 73–­89) . . . 716 (Heb 4:14–16; 7:25).

2 Samuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 1:18–445 20 Pursuing Holiness 1 Kings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The recurring theme of sin, 2judgment Kings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483 and restoration is seen

3

throughout the Prophets. Repeatedly in Isaiah we see Israel turn away from God to sin; yet God continually reaches out in every conceivable way in order to bring his people back to himself, restore them and bless them. Like 9781401679330_int_00_front matter_niv_nsfl_final.indd Israel, our sin separates us from

6:1–8

8:19–20 24

Psalms (Book Four: Psalms 90–­106) . . . 731

Reason with the Lord, to him about sin. Psalms (Book Five:talk Psalms 107–­ 150)your . . 760 He is willing and able to completely remove every Proverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 801 trace and stain of sin. Worship God in his holiness. Invite the conviction of the Holy Spirit, confess your sin before God and receive his forgiveness and cleansing. Now ask God to use you. Do not go to or consult mediums, fortune-tellers, or psychics. Go to the living God, and seek his wisdom and counsel. In God and in his Word you

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SECOND PROOFS

JOHN Author

miracles, which serve as “signs.” (3) The ministry of Jesus­revolves around three Early church tradition attributes the Author: Passover festivals, instead of the one Fourth Gospel to John “the disciple The Apostle John cited in the Synoptics. (4) The “I am” whom Jesus­loved” (13:23; 19:26; 20:2; Date: sayings are uniquely Johannine. 21:7,20), who belonged to the “inner About AD 85 circle” of Jesus­’ followers (see Mt 17:1; Content Mk 13:3). According to Christian writ- Theme: John divides the ministry of Jesus­into ers of the second century, John moved Knowing God by two distinct parts: chapters 2–12 give to Ephesus, probably during the Jewish Believing in Jesus­ insight into his public ministry, while Christ War of AD 66–­70, where he continued chapters 1–21 relate his private minishis ministry. For instance, Irenaeus, Key Words: try to his disciples. In 1:1–­18, called the the bishop of Lyons in the latter part Believe, Bear “Prologue,” John deals with the theoof the second century, stated that Witness, Life logical implications of the first coming “John, the disciple of the Lord, who of Jesus­. He shows Jesus­’ preexistent also leaned upon His breast, did himself state with God, his deity and essence, as well as publish a Gospel during his residence in Ephesus his incarnation. in Asia” (Against Heresies 3.1.1). Some scholars suggest that John 19:35 and Christ Revealed 21:24 may reflect another author who faithfully The book presents Jesus­as the only begotten Son collected the apostle’s eyewitness account and tes- of God who became flesh. For John, Jesus­’ humantimonials. However, the bulk of the evidence, both ity meant essentially a twofold mission: (1) As the internal and external, supports John the apostle “Lamb of God” (1:29), he procured the redemption as the author. of mankind. (2) Through his life and ministry he revealed the Father. Christ consistently pointed beDate The same tradition that locates John in Ephesus yond himself to the Father who had sent him and suggests that he wrote his Gospel in the latter part whom he sought to glorify. In fact, the very mirof the first century. In the absence of substantial acles Jesus­performed, which John characterized evidence to the contrary, most scholars accept this as “signs,” bore testimony to the divine mission of the Son of God. As the Son glorified the Father in tradition. ministry and passion, so the Father glorified the Son. But, as John shows, the Son’s glorification Purpose In a broad sense, John wrote to provide the Chris- came at the crucifixion (12:32–­33), not only in tians of the province of Asia (now in Asia Minor) the postresurrection exaltation. By believing that with a fuller understanding of the life and ministry Jesus­is the Christ, the readers of John’s Gospel of Jesus­Christ. More specifically, he wrote to lead become participants in the life Jesus­brought out his readers to a settled faith on the basis of the of death (20:31). words and works of Jesus­, with the result that they The Holy Spirit at Work “may have life in his name” (20:31). Unique to John is the designation of the Holy Spirit as “advocate” or “comforter” (14:16), literally “one John and the Synoptic Gospels While John most likely knew of the other three called alongside.” He is “another advocate,” nameGospel accounts, he chose not to follow their ly, one of the same kind as Jesus­, thereby extendchronological sequence of events as much as a ing the ministry of Jesus­to the end of this age. It topical order. In this case they may have used would be a grave error, however, to understand the common oral and/or literary traditions. The broad Spirit’s purpose merely in terms of one needed in outline is the same, and some particular events predicaments. On the contrary, John demonstrates in Jesus­’ ministry are common to all four books. that the Spirit’s role encompasses every facet of Some of the distinctive differences are: (1) Instead life. In regard to the world outside of Christ, he of the familiar parables, John has lengthy discours- works as the agent who convicts of sin, righteouses. (2) In place of the many miracles and healings ness, and judgment (16:8–­11). The experience of in the Synoptics, John uses seven carefully picked being “born of the Spirit” is descriptive of new

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SECOND PROOFS JOHN INTRODUCTION  I  1359

birth (3:8). Because God in essence is Spirit, those who worship him must do so spiritually, that is, as directed and motivated by the Holy Spirit (4:24). Further, in anticipation of Pentecost, the Spirit becomes the divine enabler for authoritative ministry (20:21–­23). The Holy Spirit also fulfills a definite function in relation to Christ. While the Father sent the Spirit in the name of Christ, the Spirit never draws attention to himself, nor does he speak in his own authority. Instead, his mission is to glorify Jesus­and to declare Christ’s teaching to the disciples (16:14). John reveals the function of the Holy Spirit in continuing the work of Jesus­, leading believers into an understanding of the meanings, implications and imperatives of the Good News, and enabling them to do “greater things” than those done by

Jesus­(14:12). Present-­day believers in Christ may thus view him as their contemporary, not merely as a figure from the distant past.

Personal Application

In seeking to fulfill his purpose as stated in 20:20, 31, John confronts his readers with claims of Jesus­ that demand a personal response. A positive response of faith in “Jesus­ . . . the Messiah, the Son of God” results in “life in his name.” John records the assertion of Jesus­that he came “that they may have life, and have it to the full” (10:10), and he makes it clear that life is not an independent quality unrelated to God or to Christ. The knowledge of “the only true God, and Jesus­Christ” (17:3), which implies fellowship as well as intellectual understanding, is the key to the meaning of eternal life.

OUTLINE OF JOHN Prologue 1:1–­18 I. Jesus­’ public ministry 1:19—­12:50 A. Preparation 1:19–­51 B. Wedding at Cana 2:1–­12 C. Ministry in Jerusalem 2:13—­3:36 D. Jesus­and the Samaritan woman 4:1–­42 E. Healing of the government official’s son 4:43–­54 F. Sabbath healing at the pool of Bethesda 5:1–­15 G. Honoring the Father and the Son 5:16–­29 H. Witnesses to the Son 5:30–­47 I. Ministry in Galilee 6:1–­71 J. Conflict in Jerusalem 7:1—­9:41 K. Jesus­the Good Shepherd 10:1–­42 L. Ministry at Bethany 11:1—­12:11 M. Triumphal entry to Jerusalem 12:12–­19 N. Final rejection: unbelief 12:20–­50

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II. Jesus­’ ministry to the disciples 13:1—­17:26 A. Modeling servanthood 13:1–­20 B. Pronouncements of betrayal and denial 13:21–­38 C. Preparation for Jesus­’ departure 14:1–­31 D. Fruitfulness by abiding 15:1–­17 E. Dealing with rejection 15:18—­16:4 F. Understanding Jesus­’ departure 16:5–­33 G. Jesus­’ prayer for his disciples 17:1–­26 III. Jesus­’ passion and resurrection 18:1—­21:23 A. Jesus­’ arrest 18:1–­14 B. Trial before the high priest 18:15–­27 C. Trial before Pilate 18:28—­19:16 D. Crucifixion and burial 19:17–­42 E. Resurrection and appearances 20:1—­21:23 Epilogue 21:24–­25

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SECOND PROOFS 1360  I  JOHN 1:1

The Word Became Flesh In the be­gin­ning was the ◊Word, a and the Word was with God, b and the Word was God. c 2 He was with God in the be­ gin­ning.  d 3 Through him all t­hings were made; with­out him noth­ing was made that has been made. e 4 In him was ◊life, f and that life was the ­light g of all man­kind. 5 The ­light ­shines in the ◊dark­ness, and the dark­ness has not over­come a it. h 6  There was a man ◊sent from God ­whose name was John. i 7 He came as a wit­ness to ◊tes­ti­fy  j con­cern­ing that ­light, so that t­hrough him all m ­ ight be­lieve. k 8  He him­self was not the ­light; he came only as a wit­ness to the ­light. 9  The true ­light l that ­gives ­light to ev­ ery­one  m was com­ing into the world. 10 He was in the w ­ orld, and t­hough the w ­ orld was made ­through him, n the ­world did not ◊rec­og­nize him. 11 He came to that w ­ hich was his own, but his own did not re­ceive him. 12 Yet to all who did re­ceive him, to ­those who be­lieved  o in his name, p he gave

1

WORD WEALTH 1:5 overcome, katalambano (kat-­al-­am-­ ban-­oh); Strong’s #2638: The word is capable of three interpretations: (1) To seize, lay hold of, overcome. As such, v. 5 could read, “The darkness does not gain control of it.” (2) To perceive, attain, lay hold of with the mind; to apprehend with mental or moral effort. With this meaning the verse could be translated, “The darkness is unreceptive and does not understand it.” (3) To quench, extinguish, snuff out the light by stifling it. “The darkness will never be able to eliminate it.” Light and darkness essentially are antagonistic. The Christian’s joy is in knowing that light is not only greater than darkness but will also outlast the darkness.

1:1 a Rev 19:13 b Jn 17:5; 1Jn 1:2 c Php 2:6 ◊ See WW at Ac 19:20. 1:2 d Ge 1:1 1:3 e 1Co 8:6; Col 1:16; Heb 1:2 1:4 f Jn 5:26; 11:25; 14:6 g Jn 8:12 ◊ See WW at 1Jn 5:20. 1:5 h Jn 3:19 ◊ See WW at Jn 12:46. 1:6 i Mt 3:1 ◊ See WW at Jn 20:21. 1:7 j ver 15, ​19, ​ 32 k ver 12 ◊ See WW at Ac 26:22. 1:9 l 1Jn 2:8 m Isa 49:6 1:10 n Heb 1:2 ◊ See WW at Jn 8:32. 1:12 o ver 7 p 1Jn 3:23

1:12 q Gal 3:26 ◊ See WW at Mk 3:15. 1:13 r Jn 3:6; Jas 1:18; 1Pe 1:23; 1Jn 3:9 1:14 s Gal 4:4; Php 2:7, ​ 8; 1Ti 3:16; Heb 2:14 t Jn 14:6 ◊ See WW at Mt 26:41. ◊ See WW at Jn 2:11. 1:15 u ver 7 v ver 30; Mt 3:11 1:16 w Eph 1:23; Col 1:19 ◊ See WW at Eph 3:19. 1:17 x Jn 7:19 y ver 14 ◊ See WW at Jn 4:24. 1:18 z Ex 33:20; Jn 6:46; Col 1:15; 1Ti 6:16 a Jn 3:16, ​18; 1Jn 4:9

the ◊­right to be­come chil­dren of God q  — ​ 13  chil­dren born not of nat­u­ral de­scent, nor of hu­man de­ci­sion or a hus­band’s will, but born of God. r 14  The Word be­came ◊­flesh  s and made his dwell­ing a­ mong us. We have seen his ◊glo­ry, the glo­ry of the one and only Son, who came from the Fa­ther, full of ­grace and truth. t 15  (John tes­ti­fied  u con­ cern­ing him. He ­cried out, say­ing, “This is the one I spoke about when I said, ‘He who ­comes af­ ter me has sur­passed me be­cause he was be­fore me.’  ”)  v 16 Out of his ◊full­ness  w we have all re­ceived ­grace in ­place of ­grace al­ready giv­en. 17 For the law was giv­en ­through Mo­ses;  x ­grace and ◊­truth came ­through ­Jesus ­Christ.  y 18 No one has ever seen God, z but the one and only Son, who is him­self God and b a is in clos­est re­la­ tion­ship with the Fa­ther, has made him known.

John the Baptist Denies Being the Messiah 19 Now this was J ­ ohn’s tes­ti­mo­ny when the Jew­ish lead­ers  c b in Je­ru­sa­lem sent ­priests and Le­vites to ask him who he was. 20 He did not fail to con­fess, but con­fessed free­ly, “I am not the Mes­si­ah.” c 21 They a ­ sked him, “Then who are you? Are you Eli­jah?” d He said, “I am not.” “Are you the Proph­et?” e He an­swered, “No.” 22 Fi­nal­ly they said, “Who are you? Give us an an­swer to take back to t­hose who sent us. What do you say a­ bout your­self ?” 23  John re­plied in the w ­ ords of Isa­iah the proph­et, “I am the ­voice of one call­ing in the wil­der­ness,  f ‘Make ­straight the way for the Lord.’ ” d g 1:19 b Jn 2:18; 5:10, ​16; 6:41, ​52 1:20 c Jn 3:28; Lk 3:15, ​16 1:21 d Mt 11:14 e Dt 18:15 1:23 f Mt 3:1 g Isa 40:3

a 5 Or understood    b 18  Some manuscripts but the only Son, who    c 19  The Greek term traditionally translated the Jews (hoi Ioudaioi) refers here and elsewhere in John’s Gospel to those Jewish leaders who opposed Jesus; also in 5:10, 15, 16; 7:1, 11, 13; 9:22; 18:14, 28, 36; 19:7, 12, 31, 38; 20:19.    d 23 Isaiah 40:3   

1:1 In the beginning: An allusion to Genesis 1:1, with the intention of linking Jesus the Word with the God of creation. The event of Jesus’ incarnation, therefore, had cosmic significance. The Word is Jesus Christ, the eternal, ultimate expression of God. In the OT God spoke the world into existence; in the gospel God spoke his final word through the living Word, his Son. The phrase “the Word was God” attributes deity to the Word without defining all of the Godhead as “the Word.” 1:3 John declares that Jesus was the divine agent who was responsible for the entire creation. 1:4–­5 Life and light belong to John’s fundamental vocabulary in describing the essence and mission of the incarnate Word. 1:6–­11 John’s Gospel records various testimonies concerning Christ, showing that faith in him is based upon evidence. The witness of John the Baptist, as well as the other evidence, makes the world’s rejection of Jesus inexcusable. The phrase coming into the world (v. 9) refers to Christ, not to everyone. By his coming he has become the true light to those who believe,

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but he is also that light that, in a general sense, enlightens the human conscience and thereby makes all mankind responsible before God (Ro 1:19–­20). 1:13 The new birth does not come by physical descent, human effort or human volition, but by the power of God. 1:14 Made his dwelling literally means “tabernacled.” The analogy is that of the tabernacle in the wilderness when God pitched his tent among those of the Hebrews and manifested his glory there, so Jesus identified himself with humanity by becoming flesh . . . We have seen his glory. 1:16 The fact that John states that grace comes from his fullness teaches that grace is more than God’s disposition or impersonal favor. It is God meeting us at our point of need in the person of Jesus Christ, including all his power and provision. 1:17 The law: See text and notes on Romans 7:1–­25. 1:18 One and only describes the unique, loving relationship of the Son with the Father. See note on 3:16.

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SECOND PROOFS JOHN 1:39  I  1361

 Now the Phar­i­sees who had been sent  ques­tioned him, “Why then do you bap­ tize if you are not the Mes­si­ah, nor Eli­jah, nor the Proph­et?” 26 “I bap­ tize with a wa­ter,” John re­plied, “but a­ mong you s­tands one you do not know. 27 He is the one who ­comes af­ter me, h the s­ traps of w ­ hose san­dals I am not wor­thy to un­tie.” 28  This all hap­pened at Beth­an ­ y on the oth­er side of the Jor­dan, i ­where John was bap­tiz­ing.

1:27 h ver 15, ​ 30 1:28 i Jn 3:26; 10:40 1:29 j ver 36; Isa 53:7; 1Pe 1:19; Rev 5:6 ◊ See WW at Jn 16:22. 1:30 k ver 15, ​ 27 1:32 l Mt 3:16; Mk 1:10 ◊ See WW at Ro 7:6. 1:33 m Mk 1:4 n Mt 3:11; Mk 1:8 ◊ See WW at Ac 7:33.

24

25

John Testifies About ­Jesus 29  The next day John saw J­ esus com­ ing to­ward him and said, “Look, the Lamb of God, j who ◊­takes away the sin of the ­world! 30 This is the one I m ­ eant when I said, ‘A man who c­ omes af­ter me has sur­ passed me be­cause he was be­fore me.’ k 31 I my­self did not know him, but the rea­son I came bap­tiz­ing with wa­ter was that he ­might be re­vealed to Is­ra­el.” 32 Then John gave this tes­ti­mo­ny: “I saw the ◊Spir­it come down from heav­en as a dove and re­main on him. l 33 And I my­self did not know him, but the one who sent me to bap­tize with wa­ter m told me, ‘The man on whom you see the Spir­it come down and re­main is the one who will bap­ tize with the ◊Holy Spir­it.’  n 34 I have seen

WORD WEALTH 1:29 sin, hamartia (ham-­ar-­tee-­ah); Strong’s #266: Literally, “missing the mark,” failure, offense, taking the wrong course, wrongdoing, sin, guilt. The NT uses the word in a generic sense for concrete wrongdoing (8:34,46; 2Co 11:7; Jas 1:15); as a principle and quality of action (Ro 5:12–­13,20; Heb 3:13); and as a sinful deed (Mt 12:31; Ac 7:60; 1Jn 5:16). and I tes­ti­fy that this is ­God’s Cho­sen One.” bo

1:34 o ver 49; Mt 4:3 1:35 p Mt 3:1 1:36 q ver 29 1:38 r ver 49; Mt 23:7

John’s Disciples Follow ­Jesus 35  The next day John p was ­there ­again with two of his dis­ci­ples. 36 When he saw ­Jesus pass­ing by, he said, “Look, the Lamb of God!” q 37  When the two dis­ci­ples h ­ eard him say this, they fol­lowed J­ esus. 38  Turn­ing ­around, J­esus saw them fol­low­ing and ­asked, “What do you want?” r (which ­ They said, “Rab­ b i”  m eans “Teach­er”), “where are you stay­ing?” 39 “ Come,” he re­ plied, “and you will see.” So they went and saw ­where he was

G58 - Jesus' Baptism and Temptation 26 Or in; also in verses 31 and 33 (twice)    a

BAPTISM AND TEMPTATION

Jesus came from Nazareth in Galilee to be baptized by John the Baptist in the Jordan River. After his temptation in the wilderness around Jericho, Jesus returned to Galilee. ? Exact location questionable

Mediterranean

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Sea

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40 Mi. 40 Km.

GALILEE

Nazareth Scythopolis Aenon? Salim? SAMARIA

JUDEA

Jordan R.

Wi ld of erne Ju de ss a

Jericho Jerusalem

DECAPOLIS

manuscripts is the Son of God.   

b 34 

See Isaiah 42:1; many

1:23 John prepared the way for the Messiah by his call to repentance. The quote from Isaiah depicts preparations made in advance of a king’s visit to a province of his realm. The road is smoothed and leveled. 1:24 The Pharisees: See note on Matthew 16:6. 1:25–­27 All John could do was administer the sign; only the Messiah can bestow that which is signified—­the cleansing, renewing power of the Holy Spirit. 1:29 The sacrificial language of John’s declaration is taken from the OT and points to the universal scope of Christ’s mission. Clearly, this was not an awareness that gradually dawned upon Jesus, but one that shaped his entire earthly ministry from the start. See notes on Leviticus 4:3; 16:8. 1:33 John’s witness was reliable because it came by divine revelation. As the Lamb of God, Jesus justifies us and takes away sin (v. 29); as the baptizer with the Holy Spirit, he fills us and endues us with an enabling power. 1:35–­42 Jesus called his first disciples from among those who also followed John the Baptist. Since only Andrew is named as one of the first two disciples (v. 40), the other was probably John, the author of this Gospel.

PEREA

Bethabara

Dead Sea

Machaerus

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© 1996 Thomas Nelson, Inc.

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SECOND PROOFS 1362  I  JOHN 1:40

stay­ing, and they ­spent that day with him. It was ­about four in the af­ter­noon. 40  An­drew, Si­mon Pe­ter’s broth­er, was one of the two who h ­ eard what John had said and who had fol­lowed ­Jesus. 41 The ­first ­thing An­drew did was to find his broth­er Si­mon and tell him, “We have ­found the Mes­si­ah” (that is, the ­Christ). s 42 And he ­brought him to ­Jesus. ­Jesus ­looked at him and said, “You are Si­mon son of John. You will be ­called t Ce­ phas” (which, when trans­lat­ed, is Pe­ter a ). u

­Jesus Calls Philip and Nathanael 43  The next day ­Jesus de­cid­ed to ­leave for Gal­i­lee. Find­ing Phil­ip,  v he said to him, “Fol­low me.” w 44  Phil­ip, like An­drew and Pe­ter, was from the town of Beth­ sa­ i­ da. x 45  Phil­ip ­found Na­than­a­el  y and told him, “We have ­found the one Mo­ses w ­ rote a­ bout in the Law, z and a­ bout whom the proph­ets also ­wrote  a  — ​­Jesus of Naz­a­reth,  b the son of Jo­ seph.” c 46  “Naz­a­reth! Can any­thing good come from ­there?”  d Na­than­a­el asked. “Come and see,” said Phil­ip. 47  When ­Jesus saw Na­than­a­el ap­proach­ ing, he said of him, “Here tru­ly is an Is­ra­ el­ite e in whom ­there is no de­ceit.” f 48  “How do you know me?” Na­than­a­el asked. ­Jesus an­swered, “I saw you ­while you were ­still un­der the fig tree be­fore Phil­ip ­called you.” 49  T hen Na­t han­a­e l de­c lared, “Rab­b i,  g you are the Son of God; h you are the king of Is­ra­el.”  i 50 ­ J esus said, “You be­l ieve b be­c ause I told you I saw you un­der the fig tree. You will see great­er t­hings than that.” 51  He then add­ed, “Very tru­ly I tell you, c you cwill see ‘heav­en open, j and the an­ gels of God as­cend­ing and de­scend­ing k on’ d the Son of Man.” l

1:41 s Jn 4:25 1:42 t Ge 17:5, ​ 15 u Mt 16:18 1:43 v Mt 10:3; Jn 6:5-7; 12:21, ​ 22; 14:8, ​9 w Mt 4:19 1:44 x Mt 11:21; Jn 12:21 1:45 y Jn 21:2 z Lk 24:27 a Lk 24:27 b Mt 2:23; Mk 1:24 c Lk 3:23 1:46 d Jn 7:41, ​ 42, ​52 1:47 e Ro 9:4, ​6 f Ps 32:2 1:49 g ver 38; Mt 23:7 h ver 34; Mt 4:3 i Mt 2:2; 27:42; Jn 12:13 1:51 j Mt 3:16 k Ge 28:12 l Mt 8:20

2:1 m Jn 4:46; 21:2 n Mt 12:46 2:4 o Jn 19:26 p Mt 8:29 q Mt 26:18; Jn 7:6 2:5 r Ge 41:55 2:6 s Mk 7:3, ​4; Jn 3:25 2:9 t Jn 4:46 ◊ See WW at Jn 8:52. 2:11 u ver 23; Jn 3:2; 4:48; 6:2, ​14, ​26, ​ 30; 12:37; 20:30 v Jn 1:14 w Ex 14:31 ◊ See WW at Rev 16:14. ◊ See WW at Mt 10:1. 2:12 x Mt 4:13 y Mt 12:46 2:13 z Jn 11:55 a Dt 16:1-6; Lk 2:41

­Jesus Changes Water Into Wine On the ­third day a wed­ding took ­place at Cana in Gal­i­lee. m ­Jesus’ moth­er  n was ­there, 2 and ­Jesus and his dis­ci­ples had also been in­vit­ed to the wed­ding. 3 When the wine was gone, ­ Jesus’ moth­er said to him, “They have no more wine.” 4 “Wom­an, e o why do you in­volve me?” p ­Jesus re­plied. “My hour q has not yet come.” 5  His moth­er said to the ser­vants, “Do what­ev­er he ­tells you.”  r 6  Near­ by ­ stood six ­ stone wa­ ter jars, the kind used by the Jews for cer­e­mo­ni­ al wash­ing,  s each hold­ing from twen­ty to thir­ty gal­lons.  f 7 ­ Jesus said to the ser­vants, “Fill the jars with wa­ter”; so they ­filled them to the brim. 8  Then he told them, “Now draw some out and take it to the mas­ter of the ban­ quet.” They did so, 9 and the mas­ter of the ban­quet ◊tast­ed the wa­ter that had been ­turned into wine. t He did not re­al­ize ­where it had come from, t­hough the ser­vants who had ­drawn the wa­ter knew. Then he ­called the bride­groom ­aside 10 and said, “Ev­ery­one b ­ rings out the c­ hoice wine f­ irst and then the cheap­er wine af­ter the g ­ uests have had too much to d ­ rink; but you have ­saved the best till now.” 11  What ­Jesus did here in Cana of Gal­ i­lee was the ­first of the ◊­signs  u ­through ­which he re­vealed his glo­ry; v and his ◊dis­ ci­ples be­lieved in him. w 12 Af­ ter this he went down to Ca­per­na­ um x with his moth­er and broth­ers y and his dis­ci­ples. ­There they s­ tayed for a few days.

2

­Jesus Clears the Temple Courts 13  When it was al­ most time for the Jew­ish Pass­over,  z ­Jesus went up to Je­ru­ sa­lem.  a 14 In the tem­ple ­courts he f­ound peo­ple sell­ing cat­tle, ­sheep and ­doves, and oth­ers sit­ting at ta­bles ex­chang­ing mon­ey.

a 42 

Cephas (Aramaic) and Peter (Greek) both mean rock.    b 50 Or Do you believe . . . ?    c 51 The Greek is plural.    d 51 Gen. 28:12    e 4 The Greek for Woman does not denote any disrespect.    f 6  Or from about 75 to about 115 liters   

1:46 Nathanael is not insulting Nazareth. Rather he knows that Nazareth seems too obscure, and further, is not the prophesied birthplace of the Messiah; so he voices his difficulty in accepting Philip’s assertion. 1:47–­51 Jesus’ supernatural insight into Nathanael’s character convinces this “true Israelite” that he has been confronted by the Son of God, the King of Israel. Even through the facade of Nathanael’s skepticism, Jesus discerned his transparency of spirit. 2:1 Cana in Galilee was located about 8 miles northeast of Nazareth. According to 21:2, Cana was the home of Nathanael. 2:4 The title woman does not convey a lack of respect or affection. It was used in addressing people of rank. Some think Mary wanted Jesus to take this occasion to present himself openly as the Messiah. However, it is not necessary to suppose she meant anything

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more than that Jesus assist her in arranging for the supplying of the wine by natural means, since many believe this was probably a relative’s wedding. 2:5 See section 3 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John. 2:11 As a sign, the miracle was not meant to draw attention to itself; rather, it was intended to demonstrate the power and glory of Jesus. All the miracles related by John testify to the deity of Christ. 2:13–­17 This event took place at the holiest site in Israel and at the most solemn time of the year, when pilgrims thronged Jerusalem. The Synoptic Gospels record a second cleansing of the temple near the end of Jesus’ ministry. Interpreted in the light of the Messianic prophecy of Psalm 69:9 (v. 17), the incident strengthened the conviction of the disciples that Jesus was indeed the Messiah. See note on Matthew 21:12.

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SECOND PROOFS JOHN 3:7  I  1363

WORD WEALTH 2:11 glory, doxa (dox-­ah); Strong’s #1391: Compare “doxology,” “paradox,” “heterodoxy,” and “orthodoxy.” Originally, an opinion or estimation in which one is held. Then the word came to denote the reputation, good standing and esteem given to a person. It progressed to honor or glory given to peoples, nations and individuals. The NT doxa becomes splendor, radiance and majesty centered in Jesus. Here doxa is the majestic, absolute perfection residing in Christ and evidenced by the miracles he performed.  So he made a whip out of c­ ords, and ­ rove all from the tem­ple c­ourts, both d ­sheep and cat­tle; he scat­tered the c­ oins of the mon­ey chang­ers and over­turned ­their ta­bles. 16 To ­those who sold d ­ oves he said, “Get ­these out of here! Stop turn­ing my Fa­ther’s ­house b into a mar­ket!” 17 His dis­ci­ples re­mem­bered that it is writ­ten: ◊“Zeal for your ­house will con­sume me.” ac 18  The Jews then re­ spond­ ed to him, “What sign can you show us to ­prove your au­thor­it­y to do all this?” d 19 ­Jesus an­swered them, “De­stroy this tem­ple, and I will ­raise it ­again in ­three days.” e 20  They re­plied, “It has tak­en for­ty-six ­years to ­build this tem­ple, and you are go­ing to ­raise it in t­hree days?” 21 But the tem­ple he had spo­ken of was his body. f 22  Af­ter he was ­raised from the dead, his dis­ci­ples re­called what he had said. g Then they be­lieved the scrip­ture and the w ­ ords that J­ esus had spo­ken. 23 Now ­while he was in Je­ru­sa­lem at the Pass­over Fes­ti­val,  h many peo­ple saw the ­signs he was per­form­ing and be­lieved in his name. b 24 But ­Jesus ­would not en­trust him­self to them, for he knew all peo­ple. 25  He did not need any tes­ti­mo­ny ­about man­kind, for he knew what was in each per­son.  i

2:16 b Lk 2:49 2:17 c Ps 69:9 ◊ See WW at 2Co 11:2. 2:18 d Mt 12:38 2:19 e Mt 26:61; 27:40; Mk 14:58; 15:29 2:21 f 1Co 6:19 2:22 g Lk 24:58; Jn 12:16; 14:26 2:23 h ver 13 2:25 i Mt 9:4; Jn 6:61, ​64; 13:11

15

a 17 Psalm 69:9    b 23 Or

3:1 j Jn 7:50; 19:39 k Lk 23:13 3:2 l Jn 9:16, ​ 33 m Ac 2:22; 10:38 3:3 n Jn 1:13; 1Pe 1:23 3:5 o Titus 3:5 3:6 p Jn 1:13; 1Co 15:50 ◊ See WW at Ro 7:6.

­Jesus Teaches Nicodemus Now ­there was a Phar­i­ see, a man ­named Nic­o­de­mus  j who was a mem­ ber of the Jew­ish rul­ing coun­cil. k 2 He came to ­Jesus at ­night and said, “Rab­bi, we know that you are a teach­er who has come from God. For no one ­could per­form the ­signs  l you are do­ing if God were not with him.” m 3 ­Jesus re­plied, “Very tru­ly I tell you, no one can see the king­dom of God un­less they are born again. c ” n 4 “How can some­one be born when they are old?” Nic­o­de­mus ­asked. “Sure­ly they can­not en­ter a sec­ond time into ­their moth­er’s womb to be born!” 5 ­Jesus an­swered, “Very tru­ ly I tell you, no one can en­ter the king­dom of God un­ less they are born of wa­ter and the Spir­it. o 6 Flesh g ­ ives b ­ irth to f­lesh, but the ◊Spir­ it d ­gives b ­ irth to spir­it. p 7 You s­ hould not be sur­prised at my say­ing, ‘You e must be

3

KINGDOM DYNAMICS 3:1–­5 New Birth, THE MESSAGE OF THE KINGDOM. Upon repentance, a new order of life opens to the believer in Jesus Christ. Jesus used the figure of “new birth” to dramatically indicate three things: (1) Without new birth, there is no life and no relationship with God (14:6). (2) In new birth, new perspective comes as we “see the kingdom of God” (3:3), God’s Word becomes clear, and the Holy Spirit’s works and wonders are believed and experienced—­faith is alive. (3) Through new birth we are introduced—­ literally we “enter” (v. 5)—­to a new realm, where God’s new kingdom order can be realized (2Co 5:17). New birth is more than simply being “saved.” It is a requalifying experience, opening up the possibilities of our whole being to the supernatural dimension of life and fitting us for a beginning in God’s kingdom order. (Mt 3:1–­2; 4:17/Mt 13:1–­52) J.W.H.

in him    c 3  The Greek for again also means from above; also in verse 7.    d 6 Or but spirit    e 7 The Greek is plural.   

2:20 Herod the Great undertook a massive expansion and beautification of the temple in 20 BC, so it was now about AD 26. 2:23–­25 Jesus’ knowledge of human nature pierces the superficiality of faith in him on account of his miracles. 2:23 The Passover Festival: See text and notes on Exodus 12:1–­ 11. Many . . . believed in his name: Since the “name” represents the person, no qualitative difference exists between this expression and “believes in him” (3:16). 3:1 Nicodemus (“Conqueror of the People”) was an influential and respected member of the Sanhedrin. As a Pharisee, Nicodemus was thoroughly trained in Jewish law and theology; Jesus therefore called him “Israel’s teacher” (3:10). 3:2 Nicodemus may have come to Jesus at night because he was fearful of losing his reputation and position. More likely he was a

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particular example of those mentioned in 2:23; if so, his night visit would indicate a lack of certainty that Jesus was the Messiah himself. 3:3–­4 The Greek word translated again can also be rendered “from above.” Nicodemus clearly understood it in the former sense, whereas Jesus had both meanings in mind. To enter the kingdom of God, one must be born again, not by experiencing a second biological birth but by spiritual birth from above. 3:3 See section 6 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John. 3:5 Water may refer to physical birth. The Hebrews used terms such as “water” and “drop” in describing natural birth, and such an explanation fits the context. However, some see a reference to the faith that is expressed in water baptism (not “for” but “because of” salvation). Spirit refers to the spiritual birth brought about by the renewing and transforming power of the Holy Spirit.

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SECOND PROOFS 1364  I  JOHN 3:8

born ­again.’ 8 The wind ­blows wher­ev­er it pleas­es. You hear its s­ ound, but you can­ not tell ­where it ­comes from or ­where it is go­ing. So it is with ev­ery­one born of the Spir­it.” a 9 “How can this be?” q Nic­o­de­mus asked. 10 “You are Is­ra­el’s teach­er,” r said J ­ esus, “and do you not un­der­stand t­ hese ­things? 11 Very tru­ ly I tell you, we ­speak of what we know, s and we tes­ti­fy to what we have seen, but s­till you peo­ple do not ac­cept our tes­ti­mo­ny. t 12 I have spo­ken to you of earth­ly ­things and you do not be­lieve; how then will you be­lieve if I ­speak of heav­en­ly ­things? 13 No one has ever gone into heav­en u ex­cept the one who came from heav­en v — ​the Son of Man. b 14 Just as Mo­ses ◊lift­ed up the s­ nake in the wil­der­ ness, w so the Son of Man must be lift­ed up, c x 15 that ev­ery­one who be­lieves y may have eter­nal life in him.” d 16  For God so ­loved z the w ­ orld that he gave his one and only Son, that who­ev­ er ◊be­lieves in him s­hall not per­ish but have eter­nal life. a 17 For God did not send his Son into the ­world b to ◊con­demn the ­ orld t­hrough ­world, but to ◊save the w him. c 18 Who­ev­er be­lieves in him is not con­demned,  d but who­ev­er does not be­ lieve ­stands con­demned al­ready be­cause they have not be­lieved in the name of ­God’s one and only Son. e 19 This is the ver­dict: ­Light  f has come into the ­world, but peo­ple ­loved ◊dark­ness in­stead of l ight be­ ­ c ause ­ t heir ­ d eeds were evil.

WORD WEALTH 3:16 loved, agapao (ag-­ah-­pah-­oh); Strong’s #25: Unconditional love, love by choice and by an act of the will. The word denotes unconquerable benevolence and undefeatable goodwill. Agapao will never seek anything but the highest good for fellow mankind. Agapao (the verb) and agape (the noun) are the words for God’s unconditional love. It does not need a chemistry, an affinity or a feeling. Agapao is a word that exclusively belongs to the Christian community. It is a love virtually unknown to writers outside the NT.

3:9 q Jn 6:52, ​ 60 3:10 r Lk 2:46 3:11 s Jn 1:18; 7:16, ​17 t ver 32 3:13 u Pr 30:4; Ac 2:34; Eph 4:8-10 v Jn 6:38, ​42 3:14 w Nu 21:8, ​ 9 x Jn 8:28; 12:32 ◊ See WW at Jas 4:10. 3:15 y ver 16, ​ 36 3:16 z Ro 5:8; Eph 2:4; 1Jn 4:9, ​ 10 a ver 36; Jn 6:29, ​40; 11:25, ​26 ◊ See WW at Ro 10:9. 3:17 b Jn 6:29, ​ 57; 10:36; 11:42; 17:8, ​ 21; 20:21 c Jn 12:47; 1Jn 4:14 ◊ See WW at Jn 18:31. ◊ See WW at Lk 7:50. 3:18 d Jn 5:24 e 1Jn 4:9 3:19 f Jn 1:4; 8:12 ◊ See WW at Lk 11:35.

3:20 g  Eph 5:11, ​ 13 3:22 h Jn 4:2 3:24 i Mt 4:12; 14:3 3:25 j Jn 2:6 3:26 k Mt 23:7 l Jn 1:7 3:28 m Jn 1:20, ​ 23 3:29 n Mt 9:15 o Jn 16:24; 17:13; Php 2:2; 1Jn 1:4; 2Jn 12 3:31 p ver 13 q Jn 8:23; 1Jn 4:5 3:32 r Jn 8:26; 15:15 s ver 11

 Every­one who does evil hates the l­ight, and will not come into the l­ight for fear that t­heir d ­ eeds will be ex­posed. g 21 But who­ever lives by the t­ ruth comes into the ­light, so that it may be seen plain­ly that what they have done has been done in the ­sight of God. 20

John Testifies Again About ­Jesus 22 Af­ter this, ­Jesus and his dis­ci­ples went out into the Ju­de­an coun­try­side, ­where he ­spent some time with them, and bap­tized. h 23 Now John also was bap­ tiz­ing at Ae­non near Sa­lim, be­cause ­there was plen­ty of wa­ter, and peo­ple were com­ing and be­ ing bap­tized. 24 (This was be­fore John was put in pris­on.) i 25  An ar­gu­ment de­vel­oped be­tween some of ­John’s dis­ci­ples and a cer­tain Jew over the mat­ter of cer­e­mo­ni­al wash­ing.  j 26 They came to John and said to him, “Rab­bi,  k that man who was with you on the oth­er side of the Jor­dan — ​the one you tes­ti­fied  l ­about — ​look, he is bap­tiz­ing, and ev­ery­one is go­ing to him.” 27  To this John re­plied, “A per­son can re­ceive only what is giv­en them from heav­en. 28 You your­selves can tes­ti­fy that I said, ‘I am not the Mes­si­ah but am sent ­ahead of him.’ m 29 The ­bride be­longs to the bride­groom.  n The f­riend who at­tends the bride­groom w ­ aits and lis­tens for him, and is full of joy when he h ­ ears the bride­ groom’s ­voice. That joy is mine, and it is now com­plete.  o 30 He must be­come great­ er; I must be­come less.” e 31  The one who ­comes from ­above p is ­above all; the one who is from the e­ arth be­longs to the ­earth, and ­speaks as one from the e­ arth. q The one who c­ omes from heav­en is ­above all. 32 He tes­ti­fies to what he has seen and h ­ eard, r but no one ac­cepts his tes­ti­mo­ny.  s 33  Who­ever has ac­cept­ed it WORD WEALTH 3:21 been done, ergazomai (er-­gad-­zom-­ ahee); Strong’s #2038: Compare “energy.” To work, be busy, accomplish something, carry on a trade, produce things, be engaged in, toil, perform, to do business. Ergazomai is the opposite of idleness, laziness or inactivity.

a 8  The Greek for Spirit is the same as that for wind.    b 13  Some manuscripts Man, who is in heaven    c 14  The Greek d 15  Some interpreters end the quotation with verse 21.    e 30  Some interpreters end the quotation with verse 36.   

3:14 The deliverance from sin described in Numbers 21:4–­9 is a type of the crucifixion. 3:16 The theme of this summary of the gospel is God’s love made manifest in an infinitely glorious manner. One and only can also be translated “unique” and is often used interchangeably with “beloved” or “whom I love” (see Mt 3:17). The remainder of John’s Gospel is

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for lifted up also means exalted.   

given to demonstrating Jesus’ unique relationship to the Father. 3:22 Jesus baptized in water by means of his disciples (see 4:2). 3:29 The friend who attends the bridegroom was John the Baptist himself. His great joy was being privileged, as forerunner, to prepare the people for the heavenly bridegroom.

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SECOND PROOFS JOHN 4:21  I  1365

has cer­ti­fied that God is the one whom God has sent t ­speaks the ­words of God, for God a ­gives the Spir­it u with­out lim­it. 35 The Fa­ther ­loves the Son and has p ­ laced ev­ery­thing in his h ­ ands. v 36 Who­ev­er be­lieves in the Son has eter­nal life, w but who­ev­er re­jects the Son will not see life, for ­God’s w ­ rath re­mains on them. ◊truth­ful. 34 For

­Jesus Talks With a Samaritan Woman Now ­Jesus ­learned that the Phar­i­sees had ­heard that he was gain­ing and bap­tiz­ing more dis­ci­ples than John  x — ​ 2 al­ though in fact it was not ­Jesus who bap­ tized, but his dis­ci­ples. 3 So he left Ju­dea y and went back once more to Gal­i­lee. 4  Now he had to go ­through Sa­mar­ia. 5 So he came to a town in Sa­ mar­ia ­called Sy­char, near the plot of g ­ round Ja­cob had giv­en to his son Jo­seph. z 6  Ja­cob’s well was ­there, and J­ esus, t­ ired as he was from the jour­ney, sat down by the well. It was ­about noon. 7  When a Sa­mar­i­tan wom­an came to draw wa­ter, ­Jesus said to her, “Will you give me a d ­ rink?” 8 (His dis­ci­ples had gone into the town a to buy food.) 9  The Sa­mar­i­tan wom­an said to him, “You are a Jew and I am a Sa­ mar­ i­ tan b wom­an. How can you ask me for a ­drink?” (For Jews do not as­so­ci­ate with Sa­mar­i­tans.  b ) 10 ­Jesus an­swered her, “If you knew the gift of God and who it is that asks you for a ­drink, you ­would have ­asked him and he ­would have giv­en you liv­ing wa­ter.” c 11  “Sir,” the wom­ an said, “you have noth­ing to draw with and the well is deep. W ­ here can you get this liv­ing wa­ ter? 12 Are you great­er than our fa­ther ­ rank Ja­cob, who gave us the well d and d from it him­self, as did also his sons and his live­stock?” 13  ­ J esus an­s wered, “Ev­e ry­o ne who ­drinks this wa­ter will be ­thirsty ­again, 14 but who­ ever d ­ rinks the wa­ter I give them will ◊nev­er ­thirst.  e In­deed, the wa­ter I give them will be­come in them a ­spring of wa­ter  f well­ing up to ◊eter­nal life.” g

4

a 34 Greek

3:33 ◊ See WW at Ro 3:4. 3:34 t ver 17 u Mt 12:18; Lk 4:18; Ac 10:38 3:35 v Mt 28:18; Jn 5:20, ​22; 17:2 3:36 w ver 15; Jn 5:24; 6:47 4:1 x Jn 3:22, ​26 4:3 y Jn 3:22 4:5 z Ge 33:19; 48:22; Jos 24:32 4:8 a ver 5, ​39 4:9 b Mt 10:5; Lk 9:52, ​53 4:10 c Isa 44:3; Jer 2:13; Zec 14:8; Jn 7:37, ​38; Rev 21:6; 22:1, ​17 4:12 d ver 6 4:14 e Jn 6:35 f Jn 7:38 g Mt 25:46 ◊ See WW at Mt 28:20. ◊ See WW at Rev 14:6.

KINGDOM DYNAMICS 4:4–­9 Sensitivity, RECONCILIATION. Jesus’ sense of constraint (“had”) and choice to travel through Samaria (an area shunned by the Jews) demonstrates great intentionality in reaching out with reconciling love. He reaches out with a divine love and a human sensitivity to a woman who was of a different race and whose morals were questionable. This is consistent with Jesus’ frequent “reachings”: Breaking the mold of the traditionally “religious,” he became a “friend” of tax collectors and the generally sinful who were not only loathed by the supposedly “righteous,” but were thought to be unworthy of attention (Lk 5:27–­31). Jesus gave time and energy to relationships, which sometimes meant experiencing pain and loss (Jn 11:35,38). In 4:4–­9, he provides yet another life quality for us to emulate: He calls us to enter intentionally and sensitively into the experiences of other brothers and sisters in Christ, even if they are different from us—­culturally, ethnically or denominationally. (Ru 1:16–17/Mt 20:25–­28) R.W./B.Mc.

4:15 h Jn 6:34 4:19 i Mt 21:11 4:20 j Dt 11:29; Jos 8:33 k Lk 9:53 4:21 l Jn 5:28; 16:2

15 The wom­an said to him, “Sir, give me this wa­ter so that I w ­ on’t get ­thirsty h and have to keep com­ing here to draw wa­ter.” 16  He told her, “Go, call your hus­band and come back.” 17 “I have no hus­band,” she re­plied. ­Jesus said to her, “You are r­ight when you say you have no hus­band. 18 The fact is, you have had five hus­bands, and the man you now have is not your hus­band. What you have just said is q ­ uite true.” 19 “Sir,” the wom­an said, “I can see that you are a proph­et. i 20  Our an­ces­tors wor­ shiped on this moun­tain, j but you Jews ­claim that the ­place ­where we must wor­ ship is in Je­ru­sa­lem.”  k 21 “Wom­an,” ­Jesus re­plied, “be­lieve me, a time is com­ing l when you will wor­ship the Fa­ther nei­ther on this moun­tain nor

he    b 9 Or do not use dishes Samaritans have used   

3:31 John contrasts his own role with that of Jesus, asserting the supremacy of Jesus. 3:32–­36 The testimony of Jesus is truthful and should be accepted as such. He himself is of divine origin; he taught from his own divine experience. He received the Spirit in fullness, with nothing held back, and he alone has universal authority. However, since this enduement of the Holy Spirit is given to the one whom God has sent, 20:21 would suggest a similar unlimited resource of Holy Spirit fullness is available to obedient disciples of his (Jesus). 4:4 The need to go through Samaria was not merely a geographical consideration, but a divine compulsion. 4:5 The exact location of Sychar is uncertain, but it likely was in the vicinity of Shechem. See Genesis 33:18–­19; Joshua 24:32.

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4:9 John inserts an explanatory note about the hostility between the Jews and the Samaritans, who were a mixed race, the result of Assyrians intermarrying with Jews who had stayed behind in the northern territory following Israel’s demise (see 2Ki 17:24–­41). Jews do not associate with Samaritans does not mean Jews did not interact or share commerce (see v. 8) with Samaritans. Rather, Jews did not share eating or drinking vessels with them. 4:13–­14 In them a spring indicates “living water” (v. 10) as a great illustration of regeneration to eternal life. Compare with 7:37–­39. 4:20 This mountain refers to Mount Gerizim, on which the Samaritans built a temple as a rival place of worship, since they were not welcome in the Jerusalem temple (see v. 21). 4:21–­24 See section 2 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John.

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SECOND PROOFS 1366  I  JOHN 4:22

in Je­ru­sa­lem. m 22 You Sa­mar­i­tans wor­ ship what you do not know; n we wor­ship what we do know, for ◊sal­va­tion is from the Jews. o 23 Yet a time is com­ing and has now come p when the true wor­ship­ers will ◊wor­ ship the Fa­ther in the Spir­it q and in ­truth, for they are the kind of wor­ship­ers the Fa­ther ­seeks. 24 God is spir­it, r and his wor­ship­ers must wor­ship in the Spir­it and in truth.” 25 The wom­an said, “I know that Mes­si­ ah” (called ­Christ) s “is com­ing. When he ­comes, he will ex­plain ev­ery­thing to us.” 26  T hen ­J esus de­c lared, “I, the one speak­ing to you — ​I am he.” t

The Disciples Rejoin J­ esus 27  Just then his dis­ci­ples re­turned u and were sur­prised to find him talk­ing with a wom­an. But no one a­ sked, “What do you want?” or “Why are you talk­ing with her?” 28  T hen, ◊leav­ ing her wa­ ter jar, the wom­an went back to the town and said to the peo­ple, 29 “Come, see a man who told me ev­ery­thing I ever did. v ­Could this be the Mes­si­ah?”  w 30 They came out of the town and made t­heir way to­ward him. 31  Mean­while his dis­ci­ples ­urged him, “Rab­bi,  x eat some­thing.” 32  But he said to them, “I have food to eat y that you know noth­ing about.” KINGDOM DYNAMICS 4:23–24 Honest Worship, PRAISE AND WORSHIP. It is the believer’s responsibility to discover how the Lord wants to be worshiped and to explore and cultivate a relationship with him out of which sincere, Holy Spirit-­enabled worship will flow. Jesus instructs it; worship in “the Spirit”—­that is, alive through new birth (Jn 1:12–13; 3:6–7) and aglow with Holy Spirit enablement (1Co 14:15). This is not mechanical, rote or merely human activity but dynamically capacitated spiritual action. “In truth” emphasizes Biblical integrity joined to personal honesty, manifest in a heart of sincerity, a humble manner of transparency and a relational integrity. Meaning and being what we say, as well as being spiritually energized in our worship, opens the way to that worship the Father seeks. (Isa 61:3/Php 3:3) L.B.

4:21 m Mal 1:11; 1Ti 2:8 4:22 n 2Ki 17:2841 o Isa 2:3; Ro 3:1, ​2; 9:4, ​5 ◊ See WW at Lk 19:9. 4:23 p Jn 5:25; 16:32 q Php 3:3 ◊ See WW at Rev 4:10. 4:24 r Php 3:3 4:25 s Mt 1:16 4:26 t Jn 8:24; 9:35‑37 4:27 u ver 8 4:28 ◊ See WW at Mk 1:20. 4:29 v ver 17, ​ 18 w Mt 12:23; Jn 7:26, ​31 4:31 x Mt 23:7 4:32 y Job 23:12; Mt 4:4; Jn 6:27

4:34 z Mt 26:39; Jn 6:38; 17:4; 19:30 a Jn 19:30 ◊ See WW at 1Jn 2:5. 4:35 b Mt 9:37; Lk 10:2 4:36 c Ro 1:13 d Mt 25:46 ◊ See WW at Rev 22:12.

4:21–­24 What matters is not where one worships but the attitude of heart and mind. True worship is not mere form and ceremony but spiritual reality, which is in harmony with the nature of God, who is Spirit. Worship must also be in truth, that is, transparent, sincere and according to Biblical mandates.

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WORD WEALTH 4:24 truth, aletheia (al-­ay-­thi-­ah); Strong’s #225: Derived from negative, a, and lanthano, “to be hidden,” “to escape notice.” (Compare “latent,” “lethargy,” “lethal.”) Aletheia is the opposite of fictitious, feigned, or false. It denotes veracity, reality, sincerity, accuracy, integrity, truthfulness, dependability and propriety. 33 Then his dis­ ci­ples said to each oth­er, “Could some­one have ­brought him food?” 34 “My food,” said J ­ esus, “is to do the will z of him who sent me and to ◊fin­ish his work. a 35 Don’t you have a say­ing, ‘It’s ­still four m ­ onths un­til har­vest’? I tell you, open your eyes and look at the ­fields! They are ripe for har­vest. b 36 Even now the one who r­eaps draws a ◊wage and har­ vests c a crop for eter­nal life, d so that the

KINGDOM DYNAMICS 4:28–29 An Empowered Witness (Woman of Samaria), BIBLICAL WOMEN. Considering (1) the ongoing contempt of Jews for Samaritans (v. 9); (2) the reputation of the woman (v. 18); and (3) the cultural restrictions of male and female interaction (v. 27), this scenario becomes a classic lesson in God’s redemptive action. Jesus’ initiative forgives, restores and empowers a woman, who persuades men to heed a Jewish Messiah! Our Savior’s grace, seen in this woman of Samaria, illustrates how past overt or covert prejudices, beliefs, practices and exposures need not confine or destroy the potential of a person. A transformed woman became a great evangelistic influence as many Samaritans respond to Jesus as Messiah (vv. 29–­30,39–­41). An added lesson of significance is to see the Savior reaching out to those deemed different or indifferent, teaching the value of our affirming the worth of all people. An unnamed Samaritan woman received life-­changing revelation that had eluded many rabbinical scholars (1Co 1:26–­29)—­spiritual insight that propelled to another dimension, perceiving Jesus as “a prophet” (Jn 4:19), and then as “the Messiah” (v. 29). She is a model of how true revelation may translate into a powerful witness. (Lk 1:26–­56/Ac 9:36) B.A.

4:27 The Jews considered it improper for a rabbi to speak to a woman in public. 4:35 The statement concerning four months was probably a proverb signifying that there is no need to rush in performing a task.

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SECOND PROOFS J O H N 5 : 11   I   1 3 6 7

sow­er and the reap­er may be glad to­geth­ er. 37 Thus the say­ing ‘One sows and ◊an­ oth­er ­reaps’ e is true. 38 I sent you to reap what you have not w ­ orked for. Oth­ers have done the hard work, and you have ­reaped the ben­e­fits of ­their la­bor.”

Many Samaritans Believe 39  Many of the Sa­mar­i­tans from that town f be­lieved in him be­cause of the wom­an’s tes­ti­mo­ny, “He told me ev­ery­ thing I ever did.” g 40 So when the Sa­mar­i­ tans came to him, they u ­ rged him to stay with them, and he ­stayed two days. 41 And be­cause of his ­words many more be­came be­liev­ers. 42 They said to the wom­an, “We no lon­ ger be­lieve just be­cause of what you said; now we have h ­ eard for our­selves, and we know that this man real­ly is the Sav­ior of the world.” h ­Jesus Heals an Official’s Son 43  Af­ter the two days i he left for Gal­i­ lee. 44 (Now J­ esus him­self had point­ed out that a proph­et has no hon­or in his own coun­try.)  j 45 When he ar­rived in Gal­il­ee, the Gal­i­le­ans wel­comed him. They had seen all that he had done in Je­ru­sa­lem at the Pass­over Fes­ti­val,  k for they also had been there. 46  Once more he vis­it­ed Cana in Gal­i­ lee, w ­ here he had ­turned the wa­ter into wine. l And ­there was a cer­tain roy­al of­ fi­cial w ­ hose son lay sick at Ca­per­na­um. 47 When this man h ­ eard that ­Jesus had ar­ rived in Gal­i­lee from Ju­dea, m he went to him and b ­ egged him to come and heal his son, who was ­close to death. WORD WEALTH 4:42 Savior, soter (so-­tare); Strong’s #4990: Compare “soteriology,” the doctrine of salvation. From the same root as sodzo, “to save,” and soteria, “salvation.” The word designates a deliverer, preserver, savior, benefactor, rescuer. It is used to describe both God the Father and Jesus the Son.

4:37 e Job 31:8; Mic 6:15 ◊ See WW at Jn 14:16. 4:39 f ver 5 g ver 29 4:42 h Lk 2:11; 1Jn 4:14 4:43 i ver 40 4:44 j Mt 13:57; Lk 4:24 4:45 k Jn 2:23 4:46 l Jn 2:1‑11 4:47 m ver 3, ​54

 “Un­ less you peo­ ple see ­ signs and ­Jesus told him, “you will nev­ er be­lieve.” 49  The roy­al of­fi­cial said, “Sir, come down be­fore my c­ hild dies.” 50 “Go,” ­Jesus re­plied, “your son will live.” The man took J­esus at his word and de­part­ed. 51 While he was s­ till on the way, his ser­vants met him with the news that his boy was liv­ing. 52 When he in­quired as to the time when his son got bet­ter, they said to him, “Yes­ter­day, at one in the af­ ter­noon, the fe­ver left him.” 53 Then the fa­ther re­al­ized that this was the ex­act time at ­which ­Jesus had said to him, “Your son will live.” So he and his ­whole house­hold  o be­lieved. 54  This was the sec­ond sign p ­Jesus per­ formed af­ter com­ing from Ju­dea to Gal­i­lee. 48

◊won­ders,” n

The Healing at the Pool Some time lat­er, ­Jesus went up to Je­ ru­sa­lem for one of the Jew­ish fes­ti­ vals. 2 Now ­there is in Je­ru­sa­lem near the ­Sheep Gate  q a pool, ­which in Ar­a­ma­ic r is ­called Be­thes­da  a and ­which is sur­round­ ed by five cov­ered col­on­nades. 3 Here a ­great num­ber of dis­abled peo­ple used to lie — ​the ­blind, the lame, the par­a­lyzed. [4] b 5  One who was ­there had been an in­val­id for thir­ty-­eight ­years. 6 When J­ esus saw him ly­ing ­there and ­learned that he had been in this con­di­tion for a long time, he ­asked him, “Do you want to get well?” 7  “Sir,” the in­val­id re­plied, “I have no one to help me into the pool when the wa­ter is s­ tirred. ­While I am try­ing to get in, some­one else goes down ­ahead of me.” 8 Then ­ Jesus said to him, “Get up! Pick up your mat and walk.” s 9 At once the man was c­ ured; he p ­ icked up his mat and walked. The day on w ­ hich this took p ­ lace was a Sab­bath,  t 10 and so the Jew­ish lead­ers u said to the man who had been ◊­healed, “It is the Sab­bath; the law for­bids you to car­ry your mat.” v 11  But he re­plied, “The man who made me well said to me, ‘Pick up your mat and walk.’ ”

5

4:48 n Da 4:2, ​ 3; Jn 2:11; Ac 2:43; 14:3; Ro 15:19; 2Co 12:12; Heb 2:4 ◊ See WW at Ac 15:12. 4:53 o Ac 11:14 4:54 p ver 48; Jn 2:11 5:2 q Ne 3:1; 12:39 r Jn 19:13, ​17, ​ 20; 20:16; Ac 21:40; 22:2; 26:14 5:8 s Mt 9:5, ​ 6; Mk 2:11; Lk 5:24 5:9 t Jn 9:14 5:10 u ver 16 v Ne 13:15-22; Jer 17:21; Mt 12:2 ◊ See WW at Mt 12:22.

a 2 

Some manuscripts Bethzatha; other manuscripts Bethsaida    b 3,4  Some manuscripts include here, wholly or in part, paralyzed — ​and they waited for the moving of the waters. 4From time to time an angel of the Lord would come down and stir up the waters. The first one into the pool after each such disturbance would be cured of whatever disease they had.   

4:46–­54 The healing of the royal official’s son not only demonstrates Jesus’ power to heal, but it underscores the principle that he did not regard signs and wonders as ends in themselves. Rather, they were at the very least intended to bring the recipients of the miracle to faith in Christ. 5:1 John did not identify this particular festival, and it is impossible to determine which one it was. If it was the Passover, it introduces an important chronological device helping provide a clearer calendaring of Jesus’ three and one-­half years of ministry.

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5:2 Sheep Gate: Literally, the gate “pertaining to sheep.” Based on a later Christian tradition, the KJV incorrectly rendered it “sheep market.” Bethesda: The Hebrew beth ’eshda literally means “Place of Outpouring,” or “House of Grace.” Today the pool is identified with practical certainty as the double pool at the Church of St. Anne. 5:3–­15 Except for the duration of the man’s illness, John’s emphasis is not as much on the medical details of the case, as on the supernatural cure, its consequences and its testimony to Christ’s life-­giving power.

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SECOND PROOFS 1368  I  JOHN 5:12 12  So they ­asked him, “Who is this fel­ low who told you to pick it up and walk?” 13 The man who was h ­ ealed had no idea who it was, for J­ esus had ­slipped away into the ­crowd that was there. 14  Lat­er ­Jesus ­found him at the tem­ple and said to him, “See, you are well ­again. Stop sin­ning w or some­thing ­worse may hap­pen to you.” 15 The man went away and told the Jew­ish lead­ers x that it was ­Jesus who had made him well.

The Authority of the Son 16  So, be­cause ­Jesus was do­ing ­these ­things on the Sab­bath, the Jew­ish lead­ers be­gan to per­se­cute him. 17 In his de­fense ­Jesus said to them, “My Fa­ther is al­ways at his ◊work y to this very day, and I too am work­ing.” 18 For this rea­son they t­ried all the more to kill him; z not only was he break­ing the Sab­bath, but he was even call­ing God his own Fa­ther, mak­ing him­ self ­equal with God. a 19 ­ Jesus gave them this an­swer: “Very tru­ly I tell you, the Son can do noth­ing by him­self;  b he can do only what he sees his Fa­ther do­ing, be­cause what­ev­er the Fa­ther does the Son also does. 20 For the Fa­ther ◊­loves the Son c and ­shows him all he does. Yes, and he will show him even great­er ◊­works than ­these,  d so that you will be ­amazed. 21 For just as the Fa­ther rais­es the dead and ­gives them life, e even so the Son ­ leased to give it. ­gives life  f to whom he is p 22 More­over, the Fa­ther judg­es no one, but has en­trust­ed all ◊judg­ment to the Son, g WORD WEALTH 5:13 slipped away, ekneuo (ek-­nyoo-­oh); Strong’s #1593: Literally “to bend the head aside.” To shun, avoid, turn aside, withdraw, retire. Used only here in the NT, ekneuo describes Jesus leaving the premises after healing the lame man. Although some believe that Jesus slipped away to escape danger, others believe that he was avoiding audience applause or the crisis precipitated with the religious order by healing a man on the Sabbath. a 39 Or

5:14 w Mk 2:5; Jn 8:11 5:15 x Jn 1:19 5:17 y Jn 9:4; 14:10 ◊ See WW at Jn 3:21. 5:18 z Jn 7:1 a Jn 10:30, ​33; 19:7 5:19 b ver 30; Jn 8:28 5:20 c Jn 3:35 d Jn 14:12 ◊ See WW at Jn 21:15. ◊ See WW at Jn 9:4. 5:21 e Ro 4:17; 8:11 f Jn 11:25 5:22 g ver 27; Jn 9:39; Ac 10:42; 17:31 ◊ See WW at Mt 5:22.

5:23 h Lk 10:16; 1Jn 2:23 5:24 i Jn 3:18 j 1Jn 3:14 5:25 k Jn 4:23 l Jn 8:43, ​47 5:27 m ver 22; Ac 10:42; 17:31 5:28 n Jn 4:21 5:29 o Da 12:2; Mt 25:46 5:30 p ver 19 q Jn 8:16 r Mt 26:39; Jn 4:34; 6:38 ◊ See WW at Mt 1:19. 5:31 s Jn 8:14 5:32 t ver 37; Jn 8:18 5:33 u Jn 1:7 5:34 v 1Jn 5:9 5:35 w 2Pe 1:19 ◊ See WW at Mt 8:2. 5:36 x 1Jn 5:9 y Jn 14:11; 15:24 z Jn 3:17; 10:25 5:37 a Jn 8:18 b Dt 4:12; 1Ti 1:17; Jn 1:18 5:38 c 1Jn 2:14 d Jn 3:17 5:39 e Ro 2:17, ​ 18 f Lk 24:27, ​ 44; Ac 13:27

 that all may hon­or the Son just as they hon­or the Fa­ther. Who­ev­er does not hon­ or the Son does not hon­or the Fa­ther, who sent him. h 24 “Very tru­ ly I tell you, who­ev­er ­hears my word and be­lieves him who sent me has eter­nal life and will not be j­udged i but has ­crossed over from ­death to life. j 25 Very tru­ly I tell you, a time is com­ing and has now come k when the dead will hear l the ­voice of the Son of God and ­those who hear will live. 26 For as the Fa­ther has life in him­self, so he has grant­ed the Son also to have life in him­self. 27 And he has giv­en him au­thor­i­ty to ­judge m be­cause he is the Son of Man. 28 “Do not be a ­ mazed at this, for a time is com­ing n when all who are in ­their ­graves will hear his v ­ oice 29 and come out — ​­those who have done what is good will rise to live, and ­those who have done what is evil will rise to be con­demned. o 30 By my­ self I can do noth­ing; p I ­judge only as I hear, and my judg­ment is ◊just, q for I seek not to ­please my­self but him who sent me. r 23

Testimonies About ­Jesus 31 “If I tes­ ti­fy ­about my­self, my tes­ti­ mo­ny is not true. s 32 There is an­oth­er who tes­ti­fies in my fa­vor, t and I know that his tes­ti­mo­ny ­about me is true. 33 “You have sent to John and he has tes­ti­fied u to the ­truth. 34 Not that I ac­cept hu­man tes­ti­mo­ny; v but I men­tion it that you may be ­saved. 35 John was a lamp that ­burned and gave ­light, w and you ◊­chose for a time to en­joy his light. 36 “I have tes­ti­mo­ny weight­i­er than that of John. x For the ­works that the Fa­ther has giv­en me to fin­ish — ​the very w ­ orks that I am do­ing y  — ​tes­ti­fy that the Fa­ther has sent me. z 37 And the Fa­ther who sent me has him­self tes­ti­fied con­cern­ing me. a You have nev­er ­heard his ­voice nor seen his form, b 38 nor does his word ­dwell in you, c for you do not be­lieve the one he sent. d 39 You ­study a the Scrip­tures e dil­i­ gent­ly be­cause you ­think that in them you have eter­nal life. T ­ hese are the very Scrip­ tures that tes­ti­fy a­ bout me, f 40 yet you refuse to come to me to have life.

Study   

39

5:16–­23 See section 3 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John. 5:16–­18 If Jesus’ healing on the Sabbath evoked the wrath of the Jewish religious leaders, his claim to equality with God earned him their charge of blasphemy and its necessary death sentence. From this point on, Jesus was on a collision course with the authorities. 5:19–­23 Jesus did not act independently of the Father. On the contrary, he understood that, because he and the Father were one, he did only what his Father showed him. Jesus’ authority, then, was

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not usurped, but derived from the Father’s authority. Conversely, one cannot honor the Father apart from honoring the Son. 5:24–­47 Jesus addresses the entire discourse of his relationship to the Father to those who accused him of blasphemy. In the discourse Jesus’ love even for his enemies is made clear, a love which he balances with his role as eschatological Judge (see Rev 20:11–­15). While his desire is for them to be saved (v. 34), their problem is not that they cannot believe but that they are unwilling to accept his offer of life (v. 40).

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SECOND PROOFS JOHN 6:20  I  1369

WORD WEALTH 5:39 Scriptures, graphe (graf-­ay); Strong’s #1124: Compare “graph,” “graphic,” “biography,” “autograph.” A document, anything written, holy writ, the Scriptures. Graphe points to the divine author with the idea that what is written remains forever identified as the living voice of God. While some scholars restrict graphe to the OT writings, 2 Peter 3:16 includes the NT writings.

5:41 g ver 44 5:44 h Ro 2:29 5:45 i Jn 9:28 j Ro 2:17 5:46 k Ge 3:15; Lk 24:27, ​44; Ac 26:22 5:47 l Lk 16:29, ​ 31 6:2 m Jn 2:11 6:3 n ver 15 6:4 o Jn 2:13; 11:55 6:5 p Jn 1:43 6:6 ◊ See WW at Rev 2:10. 6:8 q Jn 1:40

41 “ I do not ac­ cept glo­ ry from hu­ man be­ings, g 42 but I know you. I know that you do not have the love of God in your ­hearts. 43 I have come in my Fa­ther’s name, and you do not ac­cept me; but if some­one else ­comes in his own name, you will ac­cept him. 44 How can you be­lieve ­since you ac­cept glo­ry from one an­oth­er but do not seek the glo­ry that ­comes from the only God a ? h 45 “But do not t ­hink I will ac­cuse you be­fore the Fa­ther. Your ac­cus­er is Mo­ses, i on whom your h ­ opes are set. j 46 If you be­ lieved Mo­ses, you w ­ ould be­lieve me, for he ­wrote ­about me. k 47 But ­since you do not be­lieve what he w ­ rote, how are you go­ing to be­lieve what I say?” l

­Jesus Feeds the Five Thousand Some time af­ter this, ­Jesus ­crossed to the far ­shore of the Sea of Gal­i­lee (that is, the Sea of Ti­be­ri­as), 2 and a ­great ­crowd of peo­ple fol­lowed him be­cause they saw the ­signs  m he had per­formed by heal­ing the sick. 3 Then ­Jesus went up on a moun­ tain­side  n and sat down with his dis­ci­ples. 4  The Jew­ish Pass­over Fes­ti­val  o was near. 5 When ­Jesus ­looked up and saw a ­great ­crowd com­ing to­ward him, he said to ­ read for Phil­ip,  p “Where s­hall we buy b ­these peo­ple to eat?” 6 He ­asked this only to ◊test him, for he al­ready had in mind what he was go­ing to do. 7  Phil­ip an­swered him, “It ­would take more than half a y ­ ear’s wag­es b to buy ­enough b ­ read for each one to have a bite!” 8  An­oth­er of his dis­ci­ples, An­drew, Si­ mon Pe­ter’s broth­er,  q ­spoke up, 9 “Here is

­Jesus Walks on the Water 16  When eve­ ning came, his dis­ ci­ ples went down to the lake, 17 where they got into a boat and set off a­ cross the lake for Ca­per­na­um. By now it was ◊dark, and ­Jesus had not yet ­joined them. 18  A ­strong wind was blow­ing and the wa­ters grew about ­rough. 19 When they had r­owed ­ ­three or ­four ­miles,  c they saw ­Jesus ap­ proach­ing the boat, walk­ing on the wa­ ter; x and they were fright­ened. 20 But he said to them, “It is I; ­don’t be ­afraid.” y

6

a 44 

a boy with five s­mall bar­ley l­oaves and two ­small fish, but how far will they go ­among so many?” r 10 ­ J esus said, “Have the peo­ p le sit down.” ­There was plen­ty of g ­ rass in that ­place, and they sat down (about five thou­ sand men were t­here). 11 ­Jesus then took the ­loaves, gave ­thanks, s and dis­trib­ut­ed to t­ hose who were seat­ed as much as they want­ed. He did the same with the fish. 12 When they had all had e ­ nough to eat, he said to his dis­ci­ples, “Gath­er the piec­es that are ◊left over. Let noth­ing be wast­ed.” 13 So they gath­ered them and ­filled ­twelve bas­kets with the piec­es of the five bar­ley ­loaves left over by t­hose who had eat­en. 14  Af­ter the peo­ple saw the sign t ­Jesus per­formed, they be­gan to say, “Sure­ly this is the Proph­et who is to come into the ­world.”  u 15 ­Jesus, know­ing that they in­ tend­ed to come and ◊make him king v by ­force, with­drew ­again to a moun­tain by him­self.  w

6:9 r 2Ki 4:43 6:11 s ver 23; Mt 14:19 6:12 ◊ See WW at Mt 25:29. 6:14 t Jn 2:11 u Dt 18:15, ​18; Mt 11:3; 21:11 6:15 v Jn 18:36 w Mt 14:23; Mk 6:46 ◊ See WW at 1Th 4:17. 6:17 ◊ See WW at Jn 12:46. 6:19 x Job 9:8 6:20 y Mt 14:27

WORD WEALTH 6:11 gave thanks, eucharisteo (yoo-­khar-­is-­ teh-­oh); Strong’s #2168: From eu, “well,” and charizomai, “to give freely.” To be grateful, to express gratitude, to be thankful. Eleven of the thirty-­nine appearances of the word in the NT refer to partaking of the Lord’s Supper, while twenty-­eight occurrences describe the praise words given to the Godhead. During the second century, Eucharist became the generic term for the Lord’s Supper.

Some early manuscripts the Only One    b 7 Greek take two hundred denarii    c 19 Or about 5 or 6 kilometers   

6:1 John identifies the Sea of Galilee with the name by which it was called when he wrote the Gospel. Tiberias, a city located on the lake’s western shore, was founded about AD 20, so the lake probably was not known by its name during the ministry of Jesus. 6:4 John’s second reference to the Passover Festival, likely a year after the one mentioned in 2:13, does not require Jesus to go to Jerusalem. Rather, in this case it serves as backdrop for the discourse on Jesus as the bread of life (6:41–­58). See note on Exodus 12:1–­11. 6:5–­13 See section 5 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John.

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6:9–­14 Apart from the resurrection, the feeding of the 5,000 is the only miracle recorded in all four Gospels. 6:12–­13 See note on Matthew 14:20. 6:14–­15 The people’s response of Surely this is the Prophet reflects the popular belief that a prophet like Moses, who fed the Israelites with manna, would come into the world to establish an earthly paradise. This sparked their Messianic fervor, and they wanted to install Jesus as their political “bread-­Messiah,” making him king by force. Jesus would have none of it (see Mt 4:1–­4).

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SECOND PROOFS 1 3 70   I   J O H N 6 : 21

 Then they were will­ ing to take him into the boat, and im­me­di­ate­ly the boat ­reached the s­ hore ­where they were head­ ing. 22  The next day the c­rowd that had ­stayed on the op­po­site ­shore of the lake z re­ al­ ized that only one boat had been ­there, and that J­ esus had not en­tered it with his dis­ci­ples, but that they had gone away ­alone.  a 23 Then some ­boats from Ti­ be­ri­as  b land­ed near the ­place ­where the peo­ple had eat­en the ­bread af­ter the Lord had ◊giv­en ­thanks.  c 24 Once the c­ rowd re­ al­ized that nei­ther ­Jesus nor his dis­ci­ples were ­there, they got into the ­boats and went to Ca­per­na­um in ­search of ­Jesus. 21

­Jesus the Bread of Life 25  When they f­ound him on the oth­er side of the lake, they a­ sked him, “Rab­bi, d when did you get here?” 26 ­Jesus an­swered, “Very tru­ly I tell you, you are look­ing for me, e not be­cause you saw the ­signs f I per­formed but be­cause you ate the ­loaves and had your ◊fill. 27 Do not work for food that ­spoils, but for food that en­dures g to eter­nal life, h ­which the Son of Man i will give you. For on him God the Fa­ther has ­placed his seal j of ap­ prov­al.” 28 Then they a ­ sked him, “What must we do to do the ­works God re­quires?” 29 ­Jesus an­swered, “The work of God is this: to be­lieve k in the one he has sent.” l 30 So they ­ asked him, “What sign m then will you give that we may see it and be­ lieve you? n What will you do? 31 Our an­ ces­tors ate the man­na o in the wil­der­ness; as it is writ­ten: ‘He gave them ­bread from heav­en to eat.’ a ” p WORD WEALTH 6:21 immediately, eutheos (yoo-­theh-­oce); Strong’s #2112: From the adjective euthus, “straight.” Speedily, straightway, immediately, directly, presently, suddenly, quickly. The word describes what is happening right now in contrast to what happened before this time. a 31 

6:22 z ver 2  ver 15‑21 6:23 b ver 1 c ver 11 ◊ See WW at Jn 6:11. 6:25 d Mt 23:7 6:26 e ver 24 f ver 30; Jn 2:11 ◊ See WW at Mt 15:33. 6:27 g Isa 55:2 h ver 54; Mt 25:46; Jn 4:14 i Mt 8:20 j Ro 4:11; 1Co 9:2; 2Co 1:22; Eph 1:13; 4:30; 2Ti 2:19; Rev 7:3 6:29 k 1Jn 3:23 l Jn 3:17 6:30 m Jn 2:11 n Mt 12:38 6:31 o Nu 11:79 p Ex 16:4, ​ 15; Ne 9:15; Ps 78:24; 105:40 a

6:33 q ver 50 6:34 r Jn 4:15 6:35 s ver 48, ​ 51 t Jn 4:14 6:37 u ver 39; Jn 17:2, ​6, ​9, ​24 6:38 v Jn 4:34; 5:30 6:39 w Jn 10:28; 17:12; 18:9 x ver 40, ​44, ​54 6:40 y Jn 3:15, ​ 16 6:42 z Lk 4:22 a Jn 7:27, ​28 b ver 38, ​62 6:44 c ver 65; Jer 31:3; Jn 12:32 6:45 d Isa 54:13; Jer 31:33, ​34; Heb 8:10, ​11; 10:16 6:46 e Jn 1:18; 5:37; 7:29 6:48 f ver 35, ​ 51 6:49 g ver 31, ​ 58 6:50 h ver 33 6:51 i Heb 10:10

32 ­ Jesus said to them, “Very tru­ly I tell you, it is not Mo­ses who has giv­en you the ­bread from heav­en, but it is my Fa­ther who ­gives you the true ­bread from heav­ en. 33 For the ­bread of God is the ­bread ­ ives that ­comes down from heav­en q and g life to the world.” 34  “Sir,” they said, “al­ways give us this bread.” r 35  Then ­Jesus de­clared, “I am the b ­ read of life. s Who­ev­er ­comes to me will nev­er go hun­gry, and who­ev­er be­lieves in me will nev­er be ­thirsty. t 36 But as I told you, you have seen me and ­still you do not be­ lieve. 37 All those the Fa­ther ­gives me u will come to me, and who­ev­er ­comes to me I will nev­er ­drive away. 38 For I have come down from heav­en not to do my will but to do the will of him who sent me. v 39 And this is the will of him who sent me, that I ­shall lose none of all ­those he has giv­en me, w but r­aise them up at the last day. x 40 For my Fa­ ther’s will is that ev­ery­one who ­looks to the Son and be­lieves in him ­shall have eter­nal life, y and I will ­raise them up at the last day.” 41 At this the Jews ­there be­gan to grum­ ble ­about him be­cause he said, “I am the bread that came down from heav­ ­ en.” 42  They said, “Is this not ­Jesus, the son of Jo­seph,  z ­whose fa­ther and moth­er we know? a How can he now say, ‘I came down from heav­en’?” b 43 “Stop grum­bling ­among your­selves,” ­Jesus an­swered. 44 “No one can come to me un­less the Fa­ther who sent me ­draws them, c and I will r­ aise them up at the last day. 45 It is writ­ten in the Proph­ets: ‘They will all be ­taught by God.’ b d Ev­ery­one who has ­heard the Fa­ther and ­learned from him ­comes to me. 46 No one has seen the Fa­ther ex­cept the one who is from God; e only he has seen the Fa­ther. 47 Very tru­ly I tell you, the one who be­lieves has eter­nal life. 48 I am the ­bread of life. f 49 Your an­ ces­tors ate the man­na in the wil­der­ness, ­ read that yet they died. g 50 But here is the b ­comes down from heav­en, h ­which any­ one may eat and not die. 51 I am the liv­ing ­bread that came down from heav­en. Who­ ev­er eats this ­bread will live for­ev­er. This ­bread is my f­ lesh, w ­ hich I will give for the life of the world.” i

Exodus 16:4; Neh. 9:15; Psalm 78:24,25    b 45 Isaiah 54:13   

6:16–­21 In contrast to their concept of Jesus as an earthly ruler with limited power, in walking on the water Jesus reveals himself as having supreme authority in all the universe. 6:22–­71 This lengthy section provides us with the most in-­depth NT explanation of the significance of communion and how it is vastly more than a mere ordinance commemorating Jesus’ death. 6:28–­30 The people placed primary emphasis on their works for God and on God’s works for them (signs), whereas with Jesus, singular focus is on believing (that is, trusting) in the One whom God sent.

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6:35 See section 5 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John. 6:48–­51 See section 5 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John. 6:48 This is the first of the seven I am sayings of Jesus, unique to John’s Gospel. There is an unmistakable parallel to God’s covenant name (Yahweh) by which he revealed himself to Moses in Exodus 3:14, “I am who I am.” Jesus makes the pronouncement “I am the bread of life” three times (vv. 35,48,51). He is the “real” heavenly bread, the true life-­sustaining power; anything else, regardless of its religious significance in past or present, is an inadequate substitute.

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SECOND PROOFS J O H N 7 : 4   I   1 3 71

 Then the Jews be­gan to ar­gue sharp­ly ­among them­selves,  j “How can this man give us his ­flesh to eat?” 53 ­ Jesus said to them, “Very tru­ly I tell you, un­less you eat the ­flesh of the Son ­ lood, you have of Man k and ­drink his b no life in you. 54 Who­ev­er eats my ­flesh and d ­ rinks my b ­ lood has eter­nal life, and I will ­raise them up at the last day. l 55 For my ­flesh is real food and my b ­ lood is real ­ rinks ­drink. 56 Who­ev­er eats my f­ lesh and d my ­blood re­mains in me, and I in them. m 57 Just as the liv­ ing Fa­ther sent me n and I live be­cause of the Fa­ther, so the one who ­feeds on me will live be­cause of me. 58 This is the ­bread that came down from heav­ en. Your an­ces­tors ate man­na and died, but who­ev­er ­feeds on this ­bread will live ­ hile teach­ing in for­ev­er.” o 59 He said this w the syn­a­gogue in Ca­per­na­um. 52

6:52 j Jn 7:43; 9:16; 10:19 6:53 k Mt 8:20 6:54 l ver 39 6:56 m Jn 15:47; 1Jn 3:24; 4:15 6:57 n Jn 3:17 6:58 o ver 4951; Jn 3:36 6:60 p ver 66 6:61 q Mt 11:6 6:62 r Mk 16:19; Jn 3:13; 17:5 6:63 s 2Co 3:6

Many Disciples Desert ­Jesus 60  On hear­ing it, many of his dis­ci­ples p said, “This is a hard teach­ing. Who can ac­cept it?” 61  Aware that his dis­ci­ples were grum­ bling a­ bout this, J­ esus said to them, “Does this of­fend you? q 62 Then what if you see the Son of Man as­cend to ­where he was be­fore! r 63 The Spir­it ­gives life; s the ­flesh ­counts for noth­ing. The ­words I have KINGDOM DYNAMICS 6:53–54 Partaking in the Blood, THE BLOOD. Partaking in the covenant blood of Christ is the means of being joined to God and receiving the benefits of his life. Christ is the covenant sacrifice and is God’s provision for our sustenance. When we feed on him through faith, we participate in the divine nature (2Pe 1:4), which is life eternal. Through the Holy Spirit’s work, we receive his life and partake of his promises (Jn 6:63). Those who share in this mystery of relationship with Christ are assured of being raised up at the last day into eternal life. (Mt 26:28/Ro 3:25) C.S. a 63 Or

spo­ken to you — ​they are full of the Spir­it a and life. 64 Yet ­there are some of you who do not be­lieve.” For ­Jesus had ­known t from the be­gin­ning ­which of them did not be­lieve and who w ­ ould be­tray him. 65 He went on to say, “This is why I told you that no one can come to me un­less the Fa­ther has en­abled them.” u 66 From this time many of his dis­ ci­ples v ­turned back and no lon­ger fol­lowed him. 67 “You do not want to ­ leave too, do you?” J­ esus a­ sked the Twelve. w 68  Si­mon Pe­ter an­swered him,  x “Lord, to whom ­shall we go? You have the ­words of eter­nal life. 69 We have come to be­lieve and to know that you are the Holy One of God.” y 70  Then ­Jesus re­plied, “Have I not cho­ sen you, z the ­Twelve? Yet one of you is a dev­il!” a 71 (He ­meant Ju­das, the son of Si­mon Is­car­i­ot, who, t­hough one of the ­Twelve, was lat­er to be­tray him.)

J­ esus Goes to the Festival of Tabernacles Af­ter this, J­ esus went a­ round in Gal­ i­lee. He did not want b to go ­about in Ju­dea be­cause the Jew­ish lead­ers  b ­there were look­ing for a way to kill him. c 2 But when the Jew­ish Fes­ti­val of Tab­er­na­cles  d was near, 3 ­Jesus’ broth­ers  e said to him, “Leave Gal­i­lee and go to Ju­dea, so that your dis­ci­ples t­here may see the ◊­works you do. 4 No one who w ­ ants to be­come a pub­lic fig­ure acts in se­cret. S ­ ince you

7

6:64 t Jn 2:25 6:65 u ver 37, ​ 44 6:66 v ver 60 6:67 w Mt 10:2 6:68 x Mt 16:16 6:69 y Mk 8:29; Lk 9:20 6:70 z Jn 15:16, ​ 19 a Jn 13:27 7:1 b Jn 1:19 c Jn 5:18 7:2 d Lev 23:34; Dt 16:16 7:3 e Mt 12:46 ◊ See WW at Jn 9:4.

WORD WEALTH 6:68 Lord, kurios (koo-­ree-­oss); Strong’s #2962: Originally, an adjective signifying authority or having power. As a noun the word designates the owner, master, controller, one in authority. In direct address, kurios is a title of respect given to masters, teachers and so on. Kurios in the OT was Yahweh, while in the NT the title is transferred to Jesus.

are Spirit; or are spirit    b 1  Some manuscripts not have authority   

6:49–­59 Jesus carried the argument a step beyond the essential recognition that he is the bread of life. To believe in him means to partake of him. 6:53–­58 See section 2 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John. 6:53 To eat the flesh of Jesus and to drink his blood are to be understood spiritually. The expressions point to the violent sacrificial death he would suffer and the necessity of believers partaking in the benefits of his death by coming to him and believing in him (v. 35). Although we need not see in this the necessity of our partaking of the Eucharist in order to obtain salvation, it does teach the very vital importance of communion in strengthening our souls, bringing healing into our lives and for testifying to our faith. 6:60 The teaching (vv.  35–­58) was hard in that it was

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difficult to accept. 6:71 Iscariot means “Man from Kerioth.” Since Kerioth was in southern Judah, Judas Iscariot appears to have been the only non-­ Galilean disciple. 7:1 John summarizes events that occurred during the six-­month period from April to October. The other Gospel writers give a detailed account (see Mk 7–­9). 7:2 The Festival of Tabernacles, which is celebrated at the end of September and the beginning of October, is a thanksgiving festival. It also commemorates the divine guidance granted to Israel during the nation’s wandering in the wilderness. During the festival the people erect and dwell in temporary shelters made of palm and other tree branches. See text and note on Numbers 29:12–­39.

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SECOND PROOFS 1372  I  JOHN 7:5

are do­ing ­these ­things, show your­self to the ­world.” 5 For even his own broth­ers did not be­lieve in him. f 6  There­fore ­Jesus told them, “My time g is not yet here; for you any time will do. 7 The ­ world can­not hate you, but it ­hates me h be­cause I tes­ti­fy that its w ­ orks are evil. i 8 You go to the fes­ti­val. I am not a go­ ing up to this fes­ti­val, be­cause my time j has not yet ful­ly come.” 9 After he had said this, he s­ tayed in Gal­il­ee. 10  How­ev­er, af­ter his broth­ers had left for the fes­ti­val, he went also, not pub­lic­ ly, but in se­cret. 11 Now at the fes­ti­val the Jew­ish lead­ers were watch­ing for ­Jesus k and ask­ing, “Where is he?” 12  Among the ­crowds ­there was wide­ spread whis­per­ing ­about him. Some said, “He is a good man.” Oth­ers re­plied, “No, he de­ceives the peo­ple.”  l 13 But no one ­would say any­ thing pub­lic­ly a­ bout him for fear of the lead­ers.  m

­Jesus Teaches at the Festival 14  Not un­til half­way ­through the fes­ti­val did ­Jesus go up to the tem­ple c­ ourts and be­gin to ­teach.  n 15 The Jews o ­there were ­amazed and ­asked, “How did this man get such learn­ing p with­out hav­ing been taught?” q 16 ­Jesus an­swered, “My teach­ ing is not my own. It c­ omes from the one who sent me. r 17 Any­one who choos­es to do the will of God will find out s wheth­er my teach­ing ­comes from God or wheth­er I ­speak on my own. 18 Who­ev­er ­speaks on ­their own does so to gain per­son­al glo­ry, t but he who ­seeks the glo­ry of the one who sent him is a man of t­ruth; t­here is noth­ing ­false a­ bout him. 19 Has not Mo­ses giv­en you the law? u Yet not one of you ­keeps the law. Why are you try­ing to kill me?” v 20  “ You are de­m on-pos­s essed,”  w the ­crowd an­swered. “Who is try­ing to kill you?” 21 ­ Jesus said to them, “I did one mir­a­ cle, and you are all ­amazed. 22 Yet, be­cause Mo­ses gave you cir­cum­ci­sion x (though ac­ tu­al­ly it did not come from Mo­ses, but a 8 

7:5 f Mk 3:21 7:6 g Mt 26:18 7:7 h Jn 15:18, ​ 19 i Jn 3:19, ​20 7:8 j ver 6 7:11 k Jn 11:56 7:12 l ver 40, ​ 43 7:13 m Jn 9:22; 12:42; 19:38 7:14 n ver 28; Mt 26:55 7:15 o Jn 1:19 p Ac 26:24 q Mt 13:54 7:16 r Jn 3:11; 14:24 7:17 s Ps 25:14; Jn 8:43 7:18 t Jn 5:41; 8:50, ​54 7:19 u Jn 1:17 v ver 1; Mt 12:14 7:20 w Jn 8:48; 10:20 7:22 x Lev 12:3

7:22 y Ge 17:10‑14 7:24 z Isa 11:3, ​ 4; Jn 8:15 7:26 a ver 48 7:27 b Mt 13:55; Lk 4:22 7:28 c ver 14 d Jn 8:14 e Jn 8:26, ​42 7:29 f Mt 11:27 7:30 g ver 32, ​ 44; Jn 10:39 7:31 h Jn 8:30 i Jn 2:11 7:33 j Jn 13:33; 16:16 k Jn 16:5, ​ 10, ​17, ​28

WORD WEALTH 7:18 false, adikia (ad-­ee-­kee-­ah); Strong’s #93: Derived from a, negative, and the root dike, “right.” Misdeeds, injustice, moral wrongdoing, unjust acts, unrighteousness, iniquity. It is the opposite of truthfulness, faithfulness and rightness. from the pa­tri­archs), y you cir­cum­cise a boy on the Sab­bath. 23 Now if a boy can be cir­cum­cised on the Sab­bath so that the law of Mo­ses may not be bro­ken, why are you an­gry with me for heal­ing a m ­ an’s ­whole body on the Sab­bath? 24 Stop judg­ ing by mere ap­ pear­ anc­ es, but in­ stead ­judge cor­rect­ly.” z

Division Over Who ­Jesus Is 25  At that ­point some of the peo­ple of Je­ru­sa­lem be­gan to ask, “Isn’t this the man they are try­ing to kill? 26 Here he is, speak­ing pub­lic­ly, and they are not say­ing a word to him. Have the au­thor­i­ties a real­ly con­clud­ed that he is the Mes­si­ah? 27 But we know w ­ here this man is from; b when the Mes­si­ah c­omes, no one will know ­where he is from.” 28 Then J ­ esus, ­still teach­ing in the tem­ ple ­courts,  c ­cried out, “Yes, you know me, and you know w ­ here I am from. d I am not here on my own au­thor­i­ty, but he who sent me is true. e You do not know him, 29 but I know him f be­cause I am from him and he sent me.” 30 At this they ­tried to ­seize him, but no one laid a hand on him, g be­cause his hour had not yet come. 31 Still, many in the ­crowd be­lieved in him. h They said, “When the Mes­si­ah ­comes, will he per­form more ­signs  i than this man?” 32  The Phar­i­sees ­heard the ­crowd whis­ per­ing such t­hings a­ bout him. Then the ­chief ­priests and the Phar­i­sees sent tem­ple ­guards to ar­rest him. 33 ­Jesus said, “I am with you for only a ­short time, j and then I am go­ing to the one who sent me. k 34 You will look for me,

Some manuscripts not yet   

7:5 After the resurrection of Jesus, his brothers were among the believers (see Ac 1:14). 7:15 Learning refers not to the basic ability of reading and writing but to Jesus’ knowledge and understanding of the Scriptures. Their puzzlement was over Jesus’ extraordinary knowledge without having been taught at one of the prestigious and official rabbinic schools of Shammai and Hillel. 7:17–­18 See section 3 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John. 7:17 The teachings and claims of Jesus will be accepted by those who are intent on doing God’s will. 7:21 The one miracle refers to the healing of the cripple at the

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pool of Bethesda, the only miracle Jesus had performed in Jerusalem (5:1–­15; see v. 23). 7:24 See section 1 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John. 7:27 The people were puzzled because they knew facts about the background of Jesus, whereas they supposed the coming of the Messiah to be shrouded in secrecy. 7:35 Where our people live scattered refers to Jews scattered throughout the Greek world. Later the term also denoted the Christians scattered abroad (1Pe 1:1). The Jews’ ignorance was only heightened by their supposition that Jesus was surely not going to preach to the Jews but to the Gentiles instead.

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SECOND PROOFS J O H N 8 : 11    I   1 3 7 3

but you will not find me; and ­where I am, you can­not come.” l 35 The Jews said to one an­oth­er, “Where does this man in­tend to go that we can­not find him? Will he go w ­ here our peo­ple ­ reeks, n and live scat­tered  m ­among the G ­teach the ­Greeks? 36 What did he mean when he said, ‘You will look for me, but you will not find me,’ and ‘Where I am, you can­not come’?” 37  On the last and great­est day of the fes­ti­val,  o ­Jesus s­tood and said in a loud ­voice, “Let any­one who is ­thirsty come to me and ­drink. p 38 Who­ev­er be­lieves in me, as Scrip­ture has said, q riv­ers of liv­ing wa­ter r will flow from with­in them.” a s 39 By this he ­meant the Spir­it, t whom ­those who be­lieved in him were lat­er to re­ceive. u Up to that time the Spir­it had not been giv­en, ­since ­Jesus had not yet been glo­ri­fied. v 40  On hear­ing his ­words, some of the peo­ ple said, “Sure­ ly this man is the ◊Proph­et.”  w 41 Oth­ers said, “He is the Mes­si­ah.” Still oth­ers a­ sked, “How can the Mes­si­ ah come from Gal­i­lee? x 42 Does not Scrip­ ture say that the Mes­si­ah will come from Da­vid’s de­scen­dants  y and from Beth­le­ ­ here Da­ vid l­ived?” hem, z the town w 43  Thus the peo­ple were di­vid­ed a be­cause of ­Jesus. 44 Some want­ed to ­seize him, but no one laid a hand on him. b

Unbelief of the Jewish Leaders 45  Fi­nal­ly the tem­ple ­guards went back to the ­chief ­priests and the Phar­i­sees, who ­asked them, “Why ­didn’t you ­bring him in?” 46 “No one ever s ­ poke the way this man does,” c the ­guards re­plied. 47  “You mean he has de­ ceived you also?” d the Phar­i­sees re­tort­ed. 48 “Have any of the rul­ers or of the Phar­i­sees be­ lieved in him? e 49 No! But this mob that ­knows noth­ing of the law — ​­there is a ­curse on them.” 50  Nic­o­de­mus,  f who had gone to ­ Jesus ear­li­er and who was one of t­heir own num­ber, ­asked, 51 “Does our law con­demn a man with­out ­first hear­ing him to find out what he has been do­ing?” a 37,38 Or

7:34 l Jn 8:21; 13:33 7:35 m Jas 1:1 n Jn 12:20; 1Pe 1:1 7:37 o Lev 23:36 p Isa 55:1; Rev 22:17 7:38 q Isa 58:11 r Jn 4:10 s Jn 4:14 7:39 t Joel 2:28; Ac 2:17, ​33 u Jn 20:22 v Jn 12:23; 13:31, ​32 7:40 w Mt 21:11; Jn 1:21 ◊ See WW at Mt 2:5. 7:41 x ver 52; Jn 1:46 7:42 y Mt 1:1 z Mic 5:2; Mt 2:5, ​6; Lk 2:4 7:43 a Jn 9:16; 10:19 7:44 b ver 30 7:46 c Mt 7:28 7:47 d ver 12 7:48 e Jn 12:42 7:50 f Jn 3:1; 19:39

7:52 g ver 41 8:1 h Mt 21:1 8:2 i ver 20; Mt 26:55 8:4 ◊ See WW at Jn 1:5. 8:5 j Lev 20:10; Dt 22:22 8:6 k Mt 22:15, ​ 18 l Mt 12:10 ◊ See WW at Rev 2:10. 8:7 m Dt 17:7 n Ro 2:1, ​22 8:11 o Jn 3:17 p Jn 5:14

 They re­plied, “Are you from Gal­i­lee, too? Look into it, and you will find that a proph­et does nowt come out of Gal­i­lee.” g 52

[The earliest manuscripts and many other ancient witnesses do not have John 7:53 — ​ 8:11. A few manuscripts include these verses, wholly or in part, after John 7:36, John 21:25, Luke 21:38 or Luke 24:53.]

8

Then they all went home, 1 but ­Jesus went to the ­Mount of Ol­ives. h 2 At dawn he ap­ peared ­again in the tem­ple ­courts, ­where all the peo­ple gath­ered ­around him, and he sat down to t­each them. i 3 The teach­ers of the law and the Phar­i­sees b­ rought in a wom­an ­caught in adul­tery. They made her ­stand be­fore the g­ roup 4 and said to J­ esus, “Teach­er, this wom­an was ◊­caught in the act of adul­tery. 5 In the Law Mo­ses com­mand­ed us to ­stone such wom­en. j Now what do you say?” 6 They were ◊us­ ing this ques­tion as a trap, k in or­der to have a ba­sis for ac­cus­ing him. l But ­Jesus bent down and start­ed to ­write on the ­ground with his fin­ger. 7 When they kept on ques­tion­ing him, he straight­ened up and said to them, “Let any one of you who is with­out sin be the ­first to t­hrow a s­ tone m at her.” n 8 ­Again he ­stooped down and ­wrote on the ground. 9 At this, t ­hose who h ­ eard be­gan to go away one at a time, the old­er ones f­irst, un­til only ­Jesus was left, with the wom­an ­still stand­ing ­there. 10 ­Jesus straight­ened up and ­asked her, “Wom­an, ­where are they? Has no one con­ demned you?” 11 “No one, sir,” she said. “Then nei­ther do I con­demn you,” o ­Jesus de­ clared. “Go now and ­leave your life of sin.” p 53 

WORD WEALTH 8:3 adultery, moicheia (moy-­ khi-­ah); Strong’s #3430: Unlawful sexual intercourse, illicit connection with a married person, marital infidelity. Moicheia is incompatible with the harmonious laws of family life in God’s kingdom; and since it violates God’s original purpose in marriage, it is under God’s judgment.

me. And let anyone drink 38who believes in me.” As Scripture has said, “Out of him (or them) will flow rivers of living water.”   

7:37–­39 Each day during the Festival of Tabernacles a joyous celebration was observed in which the priests brought water (symbolic of the water supplied from the rock in Exodus 17) to the temple from the pool of Siloam in a golden pitcher. During the procession the people recited Isaiah 12:3. The water was poured out on the altar as an offering to God, while the people shouted and sang. Jesus was the fulfillment of all that the ceremony typified (see 1Co 10:4). 7:38 Those who are satisfied by Jesus will themselves become channels of spiritual refreshment for others. The figure of rivers contrasts with “a spring” (4:14), illustrating the difference between one’s new birth and one’s experience of the overflowing fullness of the Spirit-­filled life.

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7:39 John interprets the words of Jesus to refer to the pouring out of the Holy Spirit that was still to come. The Holy Spirit existed from all eternity, but was not yet present in the sense indicated. Soon the fullness of the Spirit would be a blessing that all of God’s people could experience (see Ac 2:33 and notes on Ac 2:4; 1Co 12:13). 7:40 The Prophet refers to the promise of Deuteronomy 18:15, 18. See note on 6:14–­15. 7:53—­8:11 That this passage was part of the original text of John’s Gospel is disputed. However, there is little doubt that the incident actually occurred. The motive of the Pharisees was not passion for holiness but a desire to entrap Jesus in a dilemma (v. 6).

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SECOND PROOFS 1374  I  JOHN 8:12

Dispute Over ­Jesus’ Testimony 12  When ­Jesus ­spoke ­again to the peo­ ple, he said, “I am q the ­light of the ­world. r Who­ev­er fol­lows me will nev­er walk in ◊dark­ness, but will have the ­light of life.” s 13  The Phar­i­sees chal­lenged him, “Here you are, ap­pear­ing as your own wit­ness; your tes­ti­mo­ny is not val­id.”  t 14 ­Jesus an­swered, “Even if I tes­ ti­fy on my own be­half, my tes­ti­mo­ny is val­id, for I know w ­ here I came from and w ­ here I am go­ing. u But you have no idea ­where I come from v or ­where I am go­ing. 15 You ­judge by hu­man stan­dards; w I pass judg­ ment on no one. x 16 But if I do j­udge, my de­ci­sions are true, be­cause I am not ­alone. I ­stand with the Fa­ther, who sent me. y 17 In your own Law it is writ­ten that the tes­ti­ mo­ny of two wit­ness­es is true. z 18 I am one who tes­ti­fies for my­self; my oth­er wit­ness is the Fa­ther, who sent me.” a 19 Then they ­ asked him, “Where is your fa­ther?” “You do not know me or my Fa­ther,” b ­Jesus re­plied. “If you knew me, you ­would know my Fa­ther also.” c 20  He ­spoke ­these ­words ­while teach­ing  d in the tem­ ple ­courts near the ­place ­where the of­fer­ings were put. e Yet no one ­seized him, be­cause his hour had not yet come. f Dispute Over Who ­Jesus Is 21  Once more ­Jesus said to them, “I am go­ing away, and you will look for me, and you will die g in your sin. W ­ here I go, you can­not come.” h 22 This made the Jews ask, “Will he kill him­self ? Is that why he says, ‘Where I go, you can­not come’?” 23  But he con­tin­ued, “You are from be­ low; I am from ­above. You are of this ­world; I am not of this w ­ orld. i 24 I told you that you w ­ ould die in your sins; if you do not be­lieve that I am he, j you will in­deed die in your sins.” 25 “Who are you?” they asked. “Just what I have been tell­ing you from the be­gin­ning,” ­Jesus re­plied. 26 “I have much to say in judg­ment of you. But he who sent me is trust­wor­thy, k and what I have h ­ eard from him I tell the world.” l

8:12 q Jn 6:35 r Jn 1:4; 12:35 s Pr 4:18; Mt 5:14 ◊ See WW at Jn 12:46. 8:13 t Jn 5:31 8:14 u Jn 13:3; 16:28 v Jn 7:28; 9:29 8:15 w Jn 7:24 x Jn 3:17 8:16 y Jn 5:30 8:17 z Dt 17:6; Mt 18:16 8:18 a Jn 5:37 8:19 b Jn 16:3 c Jn 14:7; 1Jn 2:23 8:20 d Mt 26:55 e Mk 12:41 f Mt 26:18; Jn 7:30 8:21 g Eze 3:18 h Jn 7:34; 13:33 8:23 i Jn 3:31; 17:14 8:24 j Jn 4:26; 13:19 8:26 k Jn 7:28 l Jn 3:32; 15:15

8:28 m Jn 3:14; 5:19; 12:32 ◊ See WW at Jn 8:32. 8:29 n ver 16; Jn 16:32 o Jn 4:34; 5:30; 6:38 8:30 p Jn 7:31 8:31 q Jn 15:7; 2Jn 9 8:32 r Ro 8:2; Jas 2:12 ◊ See WW at Ro 8:2. 8:33 s ver 37, ​ 39; Mt 3:9 8:34 t Ro 6:16; 2Pe 2:19 8:35 u Gal 4:30 8:36 ◊ See WW at Ro 8:2. ◊ See WW at Rev 6:15. 8:37 v ver 39, ​40 8:38 w Jn 5:19, ​ 30; 14:10, ​24 8:39 x ver 37; Ro 9:7; Gal 3:7

27 They did not un­ der­stand that he was tell­ing them ­about his Fa­ther. 28  So ­Jesus said, “When you have lift­ed up a the Son of Man, m then you will ◊know that I am he and that I do noth­ing on my own but ­speak just what the Fa­ther has ­taught me. 29 The one who sent me is with me; he has not left me a­ lone, n for I al­ways do what pleas­es him.” o 30 Even as he ­spoke, many be­lieved in him. p

Dispute Over Whose Children ­Jesus’ Opponents Are 31  To the Jews who had be­lieved him, ­Jesus said, “If you hold to my teach­ing, q you are real­ly my dis­ci­ples. 32 Then you will know the t­ ruth, and the t­ ruth will ◊set you free.” r 33  They an­swered him, “We are Abra­ ham’s de­scen­dants  s and have nev­er been ­slaves of any­one. How can you say that we ­shall be set free?” 34 ­Jesus re­plied, “Very tru­ ly I tell you, ev­ ery­ one who sins is a s­lave to sin. t 35 Now a ­ slave has no per­ma­nent ­place in the fam­i­ly, but a son be­longs to it for­ ev­er.  u 36 So if the Son ◊sets you free, you will be ◊free in­deed. 37 I know that you are Abra­ham’s de­scen­dants. Yet you are look­ing for a way to kill me, v be­cause you have no room for my word. 38 I am tell­ing you what I have seen in the Fa­ther’s pres­ ence, w and you are do­ing what you have ­heard from your fa­ther. b ” 39  “Abra­ham is our fa­ther,” they an­ swered. “If you were Abra­ham’s chil­dren,” x said ­Jesus, “then you ­would c do what Abra­ ham did. 40 As it is, you are look­ing for a WORD WEALTH 8:32 know, ginosko (ghin-­oce-­koe); Strong’s #1097: Compare “prognosis,” “gnomic,” “gnomon,” “gnostic.” To perceive, understand, recognize, gain knowledge, realize, come to know. Ginosko is the knowledge that has an inception, a progress and an attainment. It is the recognition of truth by personal experience.

a 28 

The Greek for lifted up also means exalted.    b 38 Or presence. Therefore do what you have heard from the Father.    c 39  Some early manuscripts “If you are Abraham’s children,” said Jesus, “then   

8:12 See section 5 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John. 8:12 The light of the world: The second of Jesus’ self-­disclosing declarations in John, presupposing that the world is in darkness apart from him. 8:13–­20 The Pharisees objected that the witness of Jesus was true because he spoke for himself, whereas two witnesses were necessary. Jesus reported that the Father added his testimony both by the written Word and by the works Jesus did. 8:29 For Jesus, doing the will of the Father was not an occasional

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choice in times of crucial decisions. Rather, the Father’s constant presence in his life signals that there never was a moment when he did not do the Father’s will. See text and note on 5:19–­23. 8:31–­59 The claim of the people to be descendants of Abraham was futile, because their deeds evidenced a lack of any moral relationship to him. If they were truly children of God, they would reverence the Son of God. Instead, their reaction against Jesus only revealed the sobering fact that the devil was their father. It is not ethnic or family pedigree that makes one acceptable to God but honoring God by believing in and loving Jesus Christ.

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SECOND PROOFS JOHN 9:6  I  1375

way to kill me, a man who has told you the t­ ruth that I h ­ eard from God. y Abra­ham did not do such t­hings. 41 You are do­ing the ­works of your own fa­ther.” z “We are not ◊il­le­git­i­mate chil­dren,” they pro­test­ed. “The only Fa­ther we have is God him­self.” a 42 ­Jesus said to them, “If God were your Fa­ther, you ­would love me, b for I have come here from God. c I have not come on my own; d God sent me. e 43 Why is my lan­ guage not c­ lear to you? Be­cause you are un­able to hear what I say. 44 You be­long to your fa­ther, the dev­il, f and you want to car­ry out your fa­ther’s de­sires. g He was a mur­der­er from the be­gin­ning, not hold­ ing to the t­ruth, for t­here is no t­ruth in him. When he lies, he ­speaks his na­tive lan­guage, for he is a liar and the fa­ther of lies. h 45 Yet be­cause I tell the ­truth, i you do not be­lieve me! 46 Can any of you ­prove me ­guilty of sin? If I am tell­ing the ­truth, why d ­ on’t you be­lieve me? 47 Who­ev­er be­ longs to God h ­ ears what God says. j The rea­son you do not hear is that you do not be­long to God.”

­Jesus’ Claims About Himself 48  The Jews an­swered him, “Aren’t we ­right in say­ing that you are a Sa­mar­i­tan k and de­mon-pos­sessed?”  l 49 “I am not pos­ sessed by a de­mon,” said ­Jesus, “but I hon­or my Fa­ther and you dis­hon­or me. 50 I am not seek­ing glo­ ry for my­self; m but ­there is one who ­seeks it, and he is the ­judge. 51 Very tru­ly I tell you, who­ev­er ­obeys my word will nev­er see death.” n 52  At this they ex­ claimed, “Now we know that you are de­ mon-pos­ sessed! Abra­ham died and so did the proph­ets, yet you say that who­ev­er ­obeys your word will nev­er ­taste ­death. 53 Are you great­er than our fa­ther Abra­ham? o He died, and so did the proph­ets. Who do you ­think you are?” 54 ­Jesus re­plied, “If I glo­ri­fy my­self, p my glo­ry ­means noth­ing. My Fa­ther, whom you ­claim as your God, is the one who glo­ri­fies me. q 55 Though you do not know him, r I know him. s If I said I did not, I

8:40 y ver 26 8:41 z ver 38, ​ 44 a Isa 63:16; 64:8 ◊ See WW at Mt 15:19. 8:42 b 1Jn 5:1 c Jn 16:27; 17:8 d Jn 7:28 e Jn 3:17 8:44 f 1Jn 3:8 g ver 38, ​41 h Ge 3:4 8:45 i Jn 18:37 8:47 j Jn 18:37; 1Jn 4:6 8:48 k Mt 10:5 l ver 52; Jn 7:20 8:50 m ver 54; Jn 5:41 8:51 n Jn 11:26 8:53 o Jn 4:12 8:54 p ver 50 q Jn 16:14; 17:1, ​5 8:55 r ver 19 s Jn 7:28, ​29

WORD WEALTH 8:52 taste, geuomai (ghyoo-­om-­ahee); Strong’s #1089: Compare “gusto” and “disgust.” To eat, partake of, feel, experience. Geuomai is used both naturally and metaphorically, especially to describe the personal experience of death, whether Christ’s (Heb 2:9) or the believer’s (Mt 16:28; Jn 8:52). ­ ould be a liar like you, but I do know w him and obey his word. t 56 Your fa­ther Abra­ham u re­joiced at the ­thought of see­ ing my day; he saw it v and was glad.” 57 “You are not yet fif­ty ­years old,” they said to him, “and you have seen Abra­ ham!” 58 “ Very tru­ ly I tell you,” J­esus an­ swered, “be­fore Abra­ham was born, w I am!” x 59 At this, they ­picked up ­stones to ­stone him,  y but ­Jesus hid him­self, z slip­ ping away from the tem­ple grounds.

­Jesus Heals a Man Born Blind As he went a­ long, he saw a man b ­ lind from ­birth. 2  His dis­ci­ples ­asked him, “Rab­bi,  a who ­sinned, b this man c or his par­ents,  d that he was born blind?” 3 “ Nei­ ther this man nor his par­ ents ­sinned,” said ­Jesus, “but this hap­pened so that the ­works of God ­might be ◊dis­played in him. e 4 As long as it is day, f we must do the ­works of him who sent me. ­Night is com­ing, when no one can work. 5 While I am in the ­world, I am the ­light of the world.” g 6  After say­ ing this, he spit h on the ­ground, made some mud with the sa­li­va,

9

8:55 t Jn 15:10 8:56 u ver 37, ​ 39 v Mt 13:17; Heb 11:13 8:58 w Jn 1:2; 17:5, ​24 x Ex 3:14 8:59 y Lev 24:16; Jn 10:31; 11:8 z Jn 12:36 9:2 a Mt 23:7 b ver 34; Lk 13:2; Ac 28:4 c Eze 18:20 d Ex 20:5; Job 21:19 9:3 e Jn 11:4 ◊ See WW at Col 3:4. 9:4 f Jn 11:9; 12:35 9:5 g Jn 1:4; 8:12; 12:46 9:6 h Mk 7:33; 8:23

WORD WEALTH 9:4 works, ergon (er-­gon); Strong’s #2041: Compare “energy” and “urge.” Toil, occupation, enterprise, deed, task, accomplishment, employment, performance, work, labor, course of action. The miraculous accomplishments and deeds of Jesus are works of God implying power and might.

8:48 The association of Jesus with the Samaritans is their way of who say Jesus never claimed to be very God incarnate. saying he is not a true Jew, in either doctrine or practice. Demon-­ 9:1–­12 Assuming that an individual case of suffering was due possessed: See note on Matthew 12:31–­32. to specific sin, the disciples inquired into the cause of the man’s 8:58 Before Abraham was born: The verb indicates that Abra- blindness. Jesus, however, notes that beyond the tragedy of huham’s life had a specific beginning. This stands in sharp contrast man defects, which result in a general way from man’s fall and to Jesus’ self-­claim, “I am.” In other words, he was without the consequent entry of sin, sickness, affliction and death into the beginning—­the ever-­present One. world, God’s merciful and sovereign grace is available. 8:59 The claim of Jesus to be eternal was a claim to be divine. Thus, 9:1–­7 See section 5 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John. in the eyes of the Jews he was guilty of blasphemy, a sin punishable by stoning. This and related passages in this Gospel are devastat- 9:4 Day signifies Jesus’ Messianic ministry, and night refers to ingly powerful in refuting the presumptuous notions of skeptics the crucifixion.

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SECOND PROOFS 1376  I  JOHN 9:7

and put it on the ­man’s eyes. 7 “Go,” he told him, “wash in the Pool of Si­lo­am” i (this word ­means “Sent”). So the man went and ­washed, and came home see­ing. j 8 His neigh­ bors and t­hose who had for­ mer­ly seen him beg­ging a­ sked, “Isn’t this the same man who used to sit and beg?” k 9 Some c ­ laimed that he was. Oth­ers said, “No, he only ­looks like him.” But he him­self in­sist­ed, “I am the man.” 10  “How then were your eyes o ­ pened?” they asked. 11  He re­plied, “The man they call ­Jesus made some mud and put it on my eyes. He told me to go to Si­lo­am and wash. So I went and w ­ ashed, and then I ­could see.” l 12 “Where is this man?” they a ­ sked him. “I d ­ on’t know,” he said.

The Pharisees Investigate the Healing 13  They ­brought to the Phar­i­sees the man who had been b ­ lind. 14 Now the day on ­which J­ esus had made the mud and ­opened the m ­ an’s eyes was a Sab­bath. m 15  There­fore the Phar­i­sees also ­asked him how he had re­ceived his s­ight. n “He put mud on my eyes,” the man re­plied, “and I ­washed, and now I see.” 16 Some of the Phar­i­sees said, “This man is not from God, for he does not keep the Sab­bath.”  o But oth­ers ­asked, “How can a ◊sin­ner per­form such ­signs?” So they were di­vid­ ed. p 17  Then they ­turned ­again to the ­blind man, “What have you to say a­ bout him? It was your eyes he opened.” The man re­plied, “He is a proph­et.” q 18 They r ­still did not be­lieve that he had been ­blind and had re­ceived his s­ ight un­ til they sent for the m ­ an’s par­ents. 19 “Is this your son?” they ­asked. “Is this the one you say was born ­blind? How is it that now he can see?” 20 “We know he is our son,” the par­ents an­swered, “and we know he was born ­blind. 21 But how he can see now, or who ­opened his eyes, we ­don’t know. Ask him. He is of age; he will s­peak for him­self.” 22 His par­ ents said this be­cause they were ­afraid of the Jew­ish lead­ers, s who al­ready had de­cid­ed that any­one who ac­knowl­ edged that J­ esus was the Mes­si­ah w ­ ould be put out t of the syn­a­gogue. u 23 That was a 38,39 

9:7 i ver 11; 2Ki 5:10; Lk 13:4 j Isa 35:5; Jn 11:37 9:8 k Ac 3:2, ​10 9:11 l ver 7 9:14 m Jn 5:9 9:15 n ver 10 9:16 o Mt 12:2 p Jn 6:52; 7:43; 10:19 ◊ See WW at Jas 5:20. 9:17 q Mt 21:11 9:18 r Jn 1:19 9:22 s Jn 7:13 t ver 34; Lk 6:22 u Jn 12:42; 16:2

9:23 v ver 21 9:24 w Jos 7:19 x ver 16 9:27 y ver 15 9:28 z Jn 5:45 9:29 a Jn 8:14 9:31 b Ge 18:23-32; Ps 34:15, ​16; 66:18; 145:19, ​ 20; Pr 15:29; Isa 1:15; 59:1, ​ 2; Jn 15:7; Jas 5:16-18; 1Jn 5:14, ​15 9:33 c ver 16; Jn 3:2 9:34 d ver 2 e ver 22, ​35; Isa 66:5 9:36 f Ro 10:14 9:37 g Jn 4:26 9:38 h Mt 28:9 9:39 i Jn 5:22 j Jn 3:19 k Lk 4:18 l Mt 13:13 9:40 m Ro 2:19 9:41 n  Jn 15:22, ​ 24

why his par­ents said, “He is of age; ask him.” v 24  A sec­ond time they sum­moned the man who had been ­blind. “Give glo­ry to God by tell­ing the ­truth,” w they said. “We know this man is a sin­ner.” x 25 He re­plied, “Wheth­er he is a sin­ner or not, I d ­ on’t know. One t­hing I do know. I was ­blind but now I see!” 26  Then they ­asked him, “What did he do to you? How did he open your eyes?” 27  He an­swered, “I have told you al­ ready y and you did not lis­ten. Why do you want to hear it ­again? Do you want to be­come his dis­ci­ples too?” 28  Then they ­hurled in­sults at him and said, “You are this fel­low’s dis­ci­ple! We are dis­ci­ples of Mo­ses!  z 29 We know that God ­spoke to Mo­ses, but as for this fel­ low, we ­don’t even know ­where he ­comes from.” a 30  The man an­swered, “Now that is re­ mark­ able! You ­ don’t know ­ where he ­comes from, yet he ­opened my eyes. 31 We know that God does not lis­ten to sin­ners. He lis­tens to the god­ly per­son who does ­ eard of his will. b 32 No­body has ever h open­ing the eyes of a man born b ­ lind. 33 If this man were not from God, c he ­could do noth­ing.” 34  To this they re­ p lied, “You were ­steeped in sin at b ­ irth; d how dare you lec­ ture us!” And they t­hrew him out. e

Spiritual Blindness 35 ­Jesus h ­ eard that they had t­ hrown him out, and when he ­found him, he said, “Do you be­lieve in the Son of Man?” 36 “Who is he, sir?” the man ­asked. “Tell me so that I may be­lieve in him.” f 37 ­Jesus said, “You have now seen him; in fact, he is the one speak­ing with you.” g 38  Then the man said, “Lord, I be­lieve,” and he wor­shiped him. h 39 ­Jesus said,  a “For judg­ment i I have come into this w ­ orld, j so that the ­blind will see k and ­those who see will be­come blind.” l 40  Some Phar­is­ees who were with him ­heard him say this and ­asked, “What? Are we ­blind too?” m 41 ­Jesus said, “If you were b ­ lind, you ­would not be ­guilty of sin; but now that you ­claim you can see, your ­guilt re­ mains. n

Some early manuscripts do not have Then the man said . . . 39Jesus said.   

9:13 The perverse reasoning of the Pharisees placed them in a dilemma from which the only escape was to disprove the miracle that had been performed. They argued that no miracle could have occurred because it was the Sabbath, and God would never violate the law of rest by healing a person. However, the fact that a man born blind now had perfect sight refuted their theory. Thus, they must either deny the facts or confess the divine nature of Jesus.

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The logic of the healed man was simple and irrefutable (vv. 30–­33). Unable to deny the man’s testimony, the religious authorities took the cowardly way out and excommunicated him. 9:35–­41 Jesus moved the discussion from physical blindness to spiritual blindness. To believe in Jesus means to see spiritually, whereas those who do not believe in him remain blind.

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SECOND PROOFS JOHN 10:20  I  1377

The Good Shepherd and His Sheep “Very tru­ly I tell you Phar­i­sees, any­ one who does not en­ ter the ­sheep pen by the gate, but ­climbs in by some oth­er way, is a ­thief and a rob­ber. 2 The one who en­ ters by the gate is the shep­herd of the s­ heep. o 3 The gate­keep­er ­opens the gate for him, and the ­sheep lis­ ten to his v ­ oice. p He ­calls his own s­ heep by name and l­eads them out. 4 When he has ­brought out all his own, he goes on ­ahead of them, and his s­ heep ◊fol­low him be­cause they know his v ­ oice. 5 But they will nev­er fol­low a strang­er; in fact, they will run away from him be­cause they do not rec­og­nize a strang­er’s ­voice.” 6 ­Jesus used this fig­ure of ­speech, q but the Phar­i­ sees did not un­der­stand what he was tell­ ing them. 7  There­fore ­Jesus said ­again, “Very tru­ly I tell you, I am the gate for the ­sheep. 8 All who have come be­fore me r are t­hieves and rob­bers, but the ­sheep have not lis­ tened to them. 9 I am the gate; who­ev­er en­ters t­hrough me will be s­aved. a They will come in and go out, and find pas­ture. 10 The ­ thief ­comes only to ­steal and kill and de­stroy; I have come that they may have life, and have it to the full. 11  “I am the good shep­herd. s The ◊good shep­herd lays down his ◊life for the ­sheep. t 12 The h ­ ired hand is not the shep­herd and does not own the ­sheep. So when he sees the wolf com­ing, he aban­dons the s­ heep and runs away. u Then the wolf ◊at­tacks the f­lock and scat­ters it. 13 The man runs away be­cause he is a h ­ ired hand and c­ ares noth­ing for the sheep.

10

WORD WEALTH 10:2 shepherd, poimen (poy-­ mane); Strong’s #4166: A herdsman, sheepherder; one who tends, leads, guides, cherishes, feeds and protects a flock. The NT uses the word for a Christian pastor to whose care and leadership others will commit themselves (Eph 4:11). The term is applied metaphorically to Christ (Jn 10:11,14,16; Heb 13:20; 1Pe 2:25). a 9 Or

10:2 o ver 11, ​ 14 10:3 p ver 4, ​5, ​ 14, ​16, ​27 10:4 ◊ See WW at Jn 13:36. 10:6 q Jn 16:25 10:8 r Jer 23:1, ​2 10:11 s ver 14; Isa 40:11; Eze 34:11-16, ​ 23; Heb 13:20; 1Pe 5:4; Rev 7:17 t Jn 15:13; 1Jn 3:16 ◊ See WW at Mt 13:48. ◊ See WW at Lk 21:19. 10:12 u Zec 11:16, ​17 ◊ See WW at 1Th 4:17.

10:14 v ver 11 w ver 27 ◊ See WW at Jn 10:2. 10:15 x Mt 11:27 10:16 y Isa 56:8 z Jn 11:52; Eph 2:11-19 a Eze 37:24; 1Pe 2:25 10:17 b ver 11, ​ 15, ​18 10:18 c Mt 26:53 d Jn 15:10; Php 2:8; Heb 5:8 10:19 e Jn 7:43; 9:16 10:20 f Jn 7:20 g Mk 3:21

WORD WEALTH 10:10 to the full, perissos (per-­is-­soss); Strong’s #4053: Superabundance, excessive, overflowing, surplus, over and above, more than enough, profuse, extraordinary, above the ordinary, more than sufficient. 14 “I am the good ◊shep­herd;  v I know my ­sheep  w and my s­heep know me — ​15 just as the Fa­ther ­knows me and I know the Fa­ther x — ​and I lay down my life for the ­sheep. 16 I have oth­er ­sheep y that are not of this ­sheep pen. I must b ­ ring them also. They too will lis­ten to my v ­ oice, and ­there ­shall be one ­flock z and one shep­ herd. a 17 The rea­son my Fa­ther ­loves me is that I lay down my life b — ​only to take it up ­again. 18 No one ­takes it from me, but I lay it down of my own ac­cord. c I have au­thor­i­ty to lay it down and au­thor­i­ty to take it up ­again. This com­mand I re­ceived from my Fa­ther.” d 19 The Jews who ­heard ­these ­words were ­again di­vid­ed.  e 20 Many of them said, “He is de­mon-pos­sessed  f and rav­ing mad. g Why lis­ten to him?”

KINGDOM DYNAMICS 10:10 The Full Life, GOD’S ABUNDANCE. God’s covenant to us is a covenant for abundant life. From the very beginning of time, Scripture shows us that God wanted us to be happy and prosperous. In Genesis, we are told that God made everything and declared it to be good. Then he gave this beautiful, plentiful earth to Adam; Adam was given dominion over all of it (Ge 1:28). God’s plan from the beginning was for mankind to be enriched and to have a prosperous, abundant life. Here Jesus declares his intention to recover and restore to mankind what was the Father’s intent and to break and block the devil’s intent to hinder our receiving it. (Php 4:12–13/Ge 12:1–­3) F.K.C.P.

kept safe   

10:1–­21 The discourse of Jesus as the Good Shepherd must be read in the context of 9:35–­41, as 10:21 clearly indicates. Not only were the Pharisees blind, they were also false shepherds, described in vv. 5 and 8 as strangers and thieves. 10:7–­18 See section 5 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John. 10:7–­9 Jesus’ third I am pronouncement depicts him as the gate for the sheep. The imagery contrasts Jesus’ protection of the sheep in the fold with the usurpers, the false prophets of OT times and the false messiahs of more recent times. Entering the sheepfold through Jesus is a saving action and provides the sheep with abundant life and provision. The phrase come in and go out (v. 9) does not mean that one can vacillate about being

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in Christ one moment and outside of him the next. The picture is one of security and safety in Christ as the gate to the sheep’s daily comings and goings. 10:11–­14 Jesus’ fourth I am pronouncement declares him to be the good shepherd, whose genuine concern for his sheep is in stark contrast to the conduct of a hired hand, whose only interest is self-­preservation. 10:15 The intimate relationship of the Father and the Son provides the model for the relationship of the Shepherd and his sheep. 10:16 The reference to other sheep anticipates the mission to the Gentiles after Pentecost and their full incorporation into the one church of the Lord Jesus Christ.

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SECOND PROOFS 1378  I  JOHN 10:21 21  But oth­ers said, “These are not the say­ings of a man pos­sessed by a de­mon. h Can a de­mon open the eyes of the blind?” i

Further Conflict Over J­ esus’ Claims 22  Then came the Fes­ti­val of Ded­i­ca­tion  a at Je­ru­sa­lem. It was win­ter, 23  and ­Jesus was in the tem­ple c­ ourts walk­ing in Sol­o­ mon’s Col­on­nade.  j 24 The Jews k who were ­there gath­ered ­around him, say­ing, “How long will you keep us in sus­pense? If you are the Mes­si­ah, tell us plain­ly.” l 25 ­Jesus an­swered, “I did tell you, m but you do not be­lieve. The w ­ orks I do in my Fa­ther’s name tes­ti­fy ­about me, n 26 but you do not be­lieve be­cause you are not my ­sheep. o 27 My s­heep lis­ten to my ­voice; I know them, p and they fol­low me. q 28 I give them eter­nal life, and they ­shall nev­er per­ish; no one will s­ natch them out of my hand. r 29 My Fa­ther, who has giv­en them to me, s is great­er than all b; t no one can ◊­snatch them out of my Fa­ther’s hand. 30 I and the Fa­ther are one.” u 31  Again his Jew­ish op­po­nents ­picked up ­stones to ­stone him, v 32 but ­Jesus said to them, “I have s­hown you many good ­works from the Fa­ther. For ­which of ­these do you s­ tone me?” 33 “We are not ston­ing you for any good work,” they re­plied, “but for blas­phe­my, be­cause you, a mere man, c­laim to be God.” w 34 ­Jesus an­swered them, “Is it not writ­ ten in your Law, x ‘I have said you are “gods” ’ c ? y 35 If he ­called them ‘gods,’ to whom the word of God came — ​and Scrip­ ture can­not be set a­ side — ​36 what ­about the one whom the Fa­ther set ­apart z as his very own a and sent into the w ­ orld? b Why then do you ac­cuse me of blas­phe­my be­ cause I said, ‘I am G ­ od’s Son’? c 37 Do not be­lieve me un­less I do the ­works of my Fa­ther. d 38 But if I do them, even t­hough you do not be­lieve me, be­lieve the ­works, that you may know and un­der­stand that the Fa­ther is in me, and I in the Fa­ther.” e a 22 That

10:21 h Mt 4:24 i Ex 4:11; Jn 9:32, ​33 10:23 j Ac 3:11; 5:12 10:24 k Jn 1:19 l Jn 16:25, ​29 10:25 m Jn 8:58 n Jn 5:36 10:26 o Jn 8:47 10:27 p ver 14 q ver 4 10:28 r Jn 6:39 10:29 s Jn 17:2, ​ 6, ​24 t Jn 14:28 ◊ See WW at 1Th 4:17 10:30 u Jn 17:21‑23 10:31 v Jn 8:59 10:33 w Lev 24:16; Jn 5:18 10:34 x Jn 8:17; Ro 3:19 y Ps 82:6 10:36 z Jer 1:5 a Jn 6:69 b Jn 3:17 c Jn 5:17, ​18 10:37 d ver 25; Jn 15:24 10:38 e Jn 14:10, ​11, ​ 20; 17:21

WORD WEALTH 10:36 set apart, hagiadzo (hag-­ee-­ad-­zoe); Strong’s #37: Compare “hagiography” and “Hagiographa.” To hallow, set apart, dedicate, consecrate, separate, sanctify, make holy. Hagiadzo as a state of holiness is opposite of koinon, common or unclean. In the OT things, places and ceremonies were named hagiadzo. In the NT the word describes a manifestation of life produced by the indwelling Holy Spirit. Because his Father set Him apart, Jesus is appropriately called the Holy One of God (6:69).  Again they t­ried to s­eize him, f but he es­caped ­their grasp.  g 40 Then ­ Jesus went back a­ cross the Jor­ dan h to the p ­ lace w ­ here John had been bap­ tiz­ ing in the ear­ ly days. There he ­stayed, 41 and many peo­ple came to him. They said, “Though John nev­er per­formed a sign, i all that John said ­about this man was true.” j 42 And in that ­place many be­ lieved in ­Jesus. k 39

The Death of Lazarus Now a man n ­ amed Laz­ar­ us was sick. He was from Beth­a­ny, l the vil­lage of Mary and her sis­ter Mar­tha. m 2 (This Mary, ­whose broth­er Laz­a­rus now lay sick, was the same one who p ­ oured per­fume on the Lord and w ­ iped his feet with her hair.) n 3  So the sis­ters sent word to J­ esus, “Lord, the one you ◊love o is sick.” 4  When he h ­ eard this, J­ esus said, “This sick­ness will not end in ­death. No, it is for ­God’s glo­ry p so that G ­ od’s Son may be glo­ri­fied ­through it.” 5  Now ­Jesus ­loved Mar­tha and her sis­ter and Laz­a­rus. 6 So when he ­heard that Laz­a­rus was sick, he ­stayed w ­ here he was two more days, 7 and then he said to his dis­ci­ples, “Let us go back to Ju­dea.” q 8  “But Rab­bi,”  r they said, “a ­ short ­while ago the Jews ­there ­tried to ­stone you, s and yet you are go­ing back?”

11 10:39 f Jn 7:30 g Lk 4:30; Jn 8:59 10:40 h Jn 1:28 10:41 i Jn 2:11; 3:30 j Jn 1:26, ​ 27, ​30, ​34 10:42 k Jn 7:31 11:1 l Mt 21:17 m Lk 10:38 11:2 n Mk 14:3; Lk 7:38; Jn 12:3 11:3 o ver 5, ​36 ◊ See WW at Jn 21:15 11:4 p ver 40; Jn 9:3 11:7 q Jn 10:40 11:8 r Mt 23:7 s Jn 8:59; 10:31

is, Hanukkah    b 29  Many early manuscripts What my Father has given me is greater than all    c 34 Psalm 82:6   

10:22 The Festival of Dedication, known today as Hanukkah, had its origin in the liberation and rededication of the temple under the Maccabeans in 165 BC, after it had been desecrated by the Seleucid king Antiochus Epiphanes. 10:28–­29 The security of the sheep lies in the power of the Shepherd and his relationship to the Father. 10:34–­35 You are “gods”: The reference, taken from Psalm 82:6, does not attribute deity to the judges to whom it refers, but was a title of commendation, noting the God-­given capacities of human life and will—­the fruit of being made “in his image.” This is clearly seen in the appositional clause, “You are all sons of the Most High” (Ps 82:6). Jesus’ use here is as an argument from the lesser to the greater, not as a designation of his people. In other words, if God himself called the Jews “gods” at that time, as verified by their own Scriptures, how much more was Jesus now justified in

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calling himself the Son of God, as verified by his works, which were the Father’s? 10:37–­38 See section 4 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John. 11:1–­44 See section 5 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John. 11:1 Bethany was located about 2 miles east of Jerusalem. During the final week before the crucifixion, Jesus spent considerable time there with his friends Lazarus, Mary and Martha. 11:4 Another example of divine sovereignty amid human suffering, and demonstrating God’s purposes and grace through Jesus’ responses. See notes on 9:1–­12; Romans 9:6–­24. 11:6 Jesus’ delay of two days underscores what he had taught consistently, namely, that his marching orders came exclusively from his Father. Neither the need of his closest friends nor the fury of his enemies determined his actions.

11/26/13 12:33 PM


SECOND PROOFS J O H N 11 : 4 0   I   1 3 7 9

 ­Jesus an­swered, “Are ­there not ­twelve ­ ours of day­light? Any­one who walks in h the day­time will not stum­ble, for they see by this w ­ orld’s ­light. t 10 It is when a per­son walks at n ­ ight that they stum­ble, for they have no light.” 11 Af­ ter he had said this, he went on to tell them, “Our ­friend u Laz­a­rus has fall­ en ­asleep; v but I am go­ing t­here to wake him up.” 12  His dis­ ci­ ples re­ plied, “Lord, if he ­sleeps, he will get bet­ter.” 13 ­Jesus had been speak­ing of his d ­ eath, but his dis­ci­ ples ­thought he ­meant nat­u­ral sleep. w 14  So then he told them plain­ly, “Laz­a­ rus is dead, 15 and for your sake I am glad I was not ­there, so that you may be­lieve. But let us go to him.” 16  Then Thom­as  x (also ­ known as Did­y­ mus a ) said to the rest of the dis­ci­ples, “Let us also go, that we may die with him.” 9

­Jesus Comforts the Sisters of Lazarus 17 On his ar­riv­al, J ­ esus ­found that Laz­a­ rus had al­ready been in the tomb for four days. y 18  Now Beth­a­ny  z was less than two ­miles  b from Je­ru­sa­lem, 19 and many Jews had come to Mar­tha and Mary to com­fort them in the loss of ­their broth­er. a 20 When Mar­tha h ­ eard that ­Jesus was com­ing, she went out to meet him, but Mary ­stayed at home. b 21  “Lord,” Mar­tha said to J­ esus, “if you had been here, my broth­er ­would not have died. c 22 But I know that even now God will give you what­ev­er you ask.” d 23 ­ Jesus said to her, “Your broth­er will rise again.” 24 Mar­tha an­swered, “I know he will rise ­again in the res­ur­rec­tion  e at the last day.” 25 ­ Jesus said to her, “I am the res­ur­rec­ tion and the life. f The one who be­lieves in me will live, even ­though they die; 26 and WORD WEALTH 11:11 friend, philos (fee-­loss); Strong’s #5384: Compare “philosophy,” “philology,” “philharmonic.” An adjective used as a noun, denoting a loved one, beloved, affectionate friend. The verb is phileo, which describes a love of emotion and friendship. Philos thus has a congeniality about it. a 16 

11:9 t Jn 9:4; 12:35 11:11 u ver 3 v Ac 7:60 11:13 w Mt 9:24 11:16 x Mt 10:3; Jn 14:5; 20:24-28; 21:2; Ac 1:13 11:17 y ver 6, ​ 39 11:18 z ver 1 11:19 a ver 31; Job 2:11 11:20 b Lk 10:38‑42 11:21 c ver 32, ​ 37 11:22 d ver 41, ​ 42; Jn 9:31 11:24 e Da 12:2; Jn 5:28, ​29; Ac 24:15 11:25 f Jn 1:4

11:27 g Lk 2:11 h Mt 16:16 i Jn 6:14 11:28 j Mt 26:18; Jn 13:13 11:29 ◊ See WW at Rev 22:20. 11:30 k ver 20 11:31 l ver 19 11:32 m ver 21 11:33 n ver 38 o Jn 12:27 ◊ See WW at Jn 11:38. 11:35 p Lk 19:41 11:36 q ver 3 11:37 r Jn 9:6, ​7 s ver 21, ​32 11:38 t ver 33 u Mt 27:60; Lk 24:2; Jn 20:1 11:39 v ver 17

who­ev­er ­lives by be­liev­ing in me will nev­er die. Do you be­lieve this?” 27 “Yes, Lord,” she re­plied, “I be­lieve that you are the Mes­si­ah, g the Son of God, h who is to come into the world.” i 28 Af­ter she had said this, she went back and ­called her sis­ter Mary a­ side. “The Teach­er  j is here,” she said, “and is ask­ ing for you.” 29 When Mary h ­ eard this, she got up ◊quick­ly and went to him. 30 Now ­Jesus had not yet en­tered the vil­lage, but was ­still at the ­place ­where Mar­tha had met him. k 31 When the Jews who had been with Mary in the ­house, com­fort­ing her, l no­ticed how quick­ly she got up and went out, they fol­lowed her, sup­pos­ing she was go­ing to the tomb to m ­ ourn there. 32  When Mary ­reached the ­place ­where ­Jesus was and saw him, she fell at his feet and said, “Lord, if you had been here, my broth­er w ­ ould not have died.” m 33 When J ­ esus saw her weep­ing, and the Jews who had come a­ long with her also weep­ing, he was ◊deep­ly ­moved  n in spir­ it and trou­bled. o 34 “Where have you laid him?” he asked. “Come and see, Lord,” they re­plied. 35 ­Jesus wept.  p 36  Then the Jews said, “See how he ­loved him!”  q 37 But some of them said, “Could not he who o ­ pened the eyes of the b ­ lind man r have kept this man from dy­ing?” s

­Jesus Raises Lazarus From the Dead 38 ­ Jesus, once more deep­ly ­moved, t came to the tomb. It was a cave with a ­stone laid a­ cross the en­trance. u 39 “Take away the s­ tone,” he said. “But, Lord,” said Mar­tha, the sis­ter of the dead man, “by this time t­ here is a bad odor, for he has been t­here four days.” v 40  Then ­Jesus said, “Did I not tell you WORD WEALTH 11:38 deeply moved, embrimaomai (em-­ brim-­ah-­om-­ahee); Strong’s #1690: Derived from en, “in,” and brime, “strength.” The word is used to express anger (Mk 14:5), to indicate a speaking or acting with deep feeling (Jn 11:33,38) and for stern admonishment (Mt 9:30; Mk 1:43).

Thomas (Aramaic) and Didymus (Greek) both mean twin.    b 18 Or about 3 kilometers   

11:25 The fifth I am pronouncement declares Jesus to be the resurrection and the life. 11:38–­44 The raising of Lazarus was not a resurrection from which followed endless physical life. That was reserved for the Father to initiate in his own Son’s resurrection, thereby inaugurating a new

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order of life to which all those in Christ are still looking forward in hope. Jesus restored Lazarus to physical life, which would cease at his subsequent death. As with all others who have died in Christ, Lazarus awaits the bodily resurrection promised to all who are Christ’s people.

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SECOND PROOFS 1 3 8 0   I   J O H N 11 : 4 1

that if you be­lieve, w you will see the glo­ry of God?” x 41  So they took away the s­tone. Then ­Jesus ­looked up  y and said, “Fa­ther, z I ­thank you that you have ­heard me. 42 I knew that you al­ways hear me, but I said this for the ben­e­fit of the peo­ple stand­ ing here, a that they may be­lieve that you sent me.” b 43 When he had said this, J ­ esus ­called in a loud ­voice, “Laz­a­rus, come out!” c 44 The dead man came out, his h ­ ands and feet ­wrapped with ­strips of lin­en, d and a c­ loth ­around his face. e ­Jesus said to them, “Take off the g ­ rave ­clothes and let him go.”

The Plot to Kill J­ esus 45 There­ fore many of the Jews who had come to vis­it Mary, f and had seen what ­Jesus did,  g be­lieved in him. h 46 But some of them went to the Phar­i­sees and told them what J­esus had done. 47 Then the ­chief ­priests and the Phar­i­sees  i ­called a meet­ing  j of the San­he­drin. k “What are we ac­com­plish­ing?” they ­asked. “Here is this man per­form­ing many ­signs.  l 48 If we let him go on like this, ev­ ery­one will be­lieve in him, and then the Ro­mans will come and take away both our tem­ple and our na­tion.” 49 Then one of them, n ­ amed Ca­ia­phas, m who was high p ­ riest that year, n ­spoke up, “You know noth­ing at all! 50 You do not re­al­ize that it is bet­ter for you that one man die for the peo­ple than that the ­whole na­tion per­ish.”  o 51 He did not say this on his own, but as high ­priest that year he proph­e­sied that ­Jesus ­would die for the Jew­ish na­tion, 52  and not only for that na­tion but also for the scat­tered chil­dren of God, to b ­ ring them to­geth­er and make them one. p 53 So from that day on they plot­ted to take his life. q 54  T here­f ore ­J esus no lon­g er ­m oved ­about pub­lic­ly ­among the peo­ple of Ju­ dea. r In­stead he with­drew to a re­gion near the wil­der­ness, to a vil­lage c­ alled Ephra­ im, ­where he ­stayed with his dis­ci­ples. 55  When it was al­ most time for the a 3 Or

11:40 w ver 2325 x ver 4 11:41 y Jn 17:1 z Mt 11:25 11:42 a Jn 12:30 b Jn 3:17 11:43 c Lk 7:14 11:44 d Jn 19:40 e Jn 20:7 11:45 f ver 19 g Jn 2:23 h Ex 14:31; Jn 7:31 11:47 i ver 57 j Mt 26:3 k Mt 5:22 l Jn 2:11 11:49 m Mt 26:3 n ver 51; Jn 18:13, ​14 11:50 o Jn 18:14 11:52 p Isa 49:6; Jn 10:16 11:53 q Mt 12:14 11:54 r Jn 7:1

11:55 s Ex 12:13, ​23, ​ 27; Mt 26:1, ​ 2; Mk 14:1; Jn 13:1 t 2Ch 30:17, ​18 11:56 u Jn 7:11 12:1 v Jn 11:55 w Mt 21:17 12:2 x Lk 10:38‑42 12:3 y Mk 14:3 z Jn 11:2 12:4 a Mt 10:4 12:6 b Jn 13:29 12:7 c Jn 19:40 12:8 d Dt 15:11 12:9 e Jn 11:43, ​ 44 12:11 f ver 17, ​ 18; Jn 11:45 g Jn 7:31

Jew­ish Pass­over,  s many went up from the coun­try to Je­ru­sa­lem for ­their cer­e­mo­ni­ al cleans­ing  t be­fore the Pass­over. 56 They kept look­ing for J­ esus, u and as they s­ tood in the tem­ple c­ ourts they a­ sked one an­ oth­er, “What do you t­hink? ­Isn’t he com­ ing to the fes­ti­val at all?” 57 But the ­chief ­priests and the Phar­i­sees had giv­en or­ders that any­one who f­ound out w ­ here ­Jesus was ­should re­port it so that they ­might ar­rest him.

­Jesus Anointed at Bethany Six days be­fore the Pass­over, v ­Jesus came to Beth­a­ny,  w ­where Laz­a­rus ­lived, whom ­Jesus had ­raised from the dead. 2 Here a din­ner was giv­en in ­Jesus’ hon­or. Mar­tha ­served,  x ­while Laz­a­rus was ­among ­those re­clin­ing at the ta­ble with him. 3 Then Mary took a­ bout a pint a of pure nard, an ex­pen­sive per­fume; y she ­poured it on ­Jesus’ feet and ­wiped his feet with her hair. z And the ­house was ­filled with the fra­grance of the per­fume. 4  But one of his dis­ci­ples, Ju­das Is­car­i­ot, who was lat­er to be­tray him, a ob­ject­ed, 5  “Why w ­ asn’t this per­fume sold and the mon­ey giv­en to the poor? It was ­worth a ­year’s wag­es.  b ” 6 He did not say this be­ cause he ­cared ­about the poor but be­cause he was a t­hief; as keep­er of the mon­ey bag, b he used to help him­self to what was put into it. 7 “Leave her ­ alone,” ­Jesus re­plied. “It was in­tend­ed that she s­hould save this per­fume for the day of my buri­al. c 8 You will al­ways have the poor a­ mong you, c d but you will not al­ways have me.” 9  Mean­ while a ­ large ­ crowd of Jews ­found out that J­ esus was t­here and came, not only be­cause of him but also to see Laz­a­rus, whom he had r­aised from the dead. e 10 So the c­ hief p ­ riests made ­plans to kill Laz­a­rus as well, 11 for on ac­count of him f many of the Jews were go­ing over to ­Jesus and be­liev­ing in him. g

12

­Jesus Comes to Jerusalem as King 12  The next day the ­great ­crowd that had come for the fes­ti­val h ­ eard that ­Jesus was on his way to Je­ru­sa­lem. 13 They took

about 0.5 liter    b 5 Greek three hundred denarii    c 8 See Deut. 15:11.   

11:40 See section 4 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John. 11:49 Caiaphas was high priest during AD 18–­36. 11:55 This is at least the third Passover John mentions and undoubtedly supports the claim that Jesus’ ministry covered approximately three years. See note on 5:1. 12:2–­8 See section 2 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John. 12:3 Pure nard: A valuable and fragrant ointment derived from the dried roots of the herbal plant called nard. By the first century AD, it was already being imported from its native India in alabaster boxes. Because of its costliness, pure nard was used only for very special occasions.

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12:8 Jesus did not belittle the poor, and his statement must be read against Judas’s reprimand of Mary’s extravagant devotion. Judas’s apparent concern for the poor, however, was only pretense. The disciples were to serve the disadvantaged, but in this case Mary practiced her servanthood on Jesus while he was still with them. 12:12–­18 The pilgrims who had come to Jerusalem for Passover had heard about Jesus’ raising of Lazarus and were convinced that Jesus was indeed the Messiah (v. 18). So they accompanied him into the city, shouting praises to God and singing the words of Psalm 118:25–­26. Their euphoria, however, was at fever pitch because they expected their Messianic hopes to be fulfilled along nationalistic lines. See notes on Matthew 21:1–­11.

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SECOND PROOFS JOHN 12:29  I  1381

palm branch­es and went out to meet him, shout­ing, “Hosanna! a ” ◊“Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!” b h

“Blessed is the king of Israel!” i  ­Jesus ­found a ­young don­key and sat on it, as it is writ­ten:

14

15 “Do not be afraid, Daughter Zion; see, your king is coming, seated on a donkey’s colt.” c j

12:13 h Ps 118:25, ​26 i Jn 1:49 ◊ See WW at Lk 6:28. 12:15 j Zec 9:9 12:16 k Mk 9:32 l Jn 2:22; 7:39; 14:26 12:17 m Jn 11:42 12:18 n ver 11 12:19 o Jn 11:47, ​48 12:20 p Jn 7:35; Ac 11:20 12:21 q Mt 11:21; Jn 1:44

16  At ­first his dis­ci­ples did not un­der­ stand all this. k Only af­ter J­ esus was glo­ ri­fied  l did they re­al­ize that t­hese t­hings had been writ­ten a­ bout him and that ­these ­things had been done to him. 17  Now the ­crowd that was with him m when he ­called Laz­a­rus from the tomb and ­raised him from the dead con­tin­ ued to s­pread the word. 18  Many peo­ple, be­cause they had ­heard that he had per­ formed this sign, n went out to meet him. 19  So the Phar­i­sees said to one an­oth­er, “See, this is get­ting us no­where. Look how the ­whole ­world has gone af­ter him!” o

­Jesus Predicts His Death 20 Now ­there were some ­Greeks p ­among ­those who went up to wor­ship at the fes­ti­ val. 21 They came to Phil­ip, who was from Beth­sa­i­da q in Gal­i­lee, with a re­quest. “Sir,” they said, “we ­would like to see J­ esus.” 22 Phil­ip went to tell An­drew; An­drew and Phil­ip in turn told ­Jesus. WORD WEALTH 12:13 name, onoma (on-­om-­ah); Strong’s #3686: Compare “anonymous,” “synonym,” “onomatology.” In general, the word signifies the name or term by which a person or thing is called (Mt 10:2; Mk 3:16; Lk 1:63). However, it was quite common both in Hebrew and Hellenistic Greek to use onoma for all that the name implies, such as rank or authority (Mt 7:22; Jn 14:13; Ac 3:6; 4:7), character (Lk 1:49; 11:2; Ac 26:9), reputation (Mk 6:14; Lk 6:22), representative (Mt 7:22; Mk 9:37). Occasionally, onoma is synonymous for an individual, a person (Ac 1:15; Rev 3:4; 11:13). a 13 

12:23 r Jn 13:32; 17:1 12:24 s 1Co 15:36 12:25 t Mt 10:39; Mk 8:35; Lk 14:26 12:26 u Jn 14:3; 17:24; 2Co 5:8; 1Th 4:17 12:27 v Mt 26:38, ​ 39; Jn 11:33, ​ 38; 13:21 w Mt 11:25 x ver 23 ◊ See WW at Lk 24:38. ◊ See WW at Lk 7:50. 12:28 y Mt 3:17

 ­Jesus re­plied, “The hour has come for the Son of Man to be glo­ri­fied. r 24 Very tru­ly I tell you, un­less a ker­nel of w ­ heat ­falls to the g ­ round and dies, s it re­mains only a sin­gle seed. But if it dies, it pro­ duc­es many ­seeds. 25 Any­one who loves ­their life will lose it, ­while any­one who hates t­heir life in this w ­ orld will keep it t 26 for eter­nal life.  Who­ev­er ­serves me must fol­low me; and ­where I am, my ser­vant also will be. u My Fa­ther will hon­or the one who s­ erves me. 27 “Now my soul is ◊trou­bled,  v and what ­shall I say? ‘Fa­ther, w ◊save me from this hour’? x No, it was for this very rea­son I came to this hour. 28 Fa­ther, glo­ri­fy your name!” Then a ­voice came from heav­en, y “I have glo­ri­fied it, and will glo­ri­fy it a­ gain.” 29  The c­ rowd that was t­here and h ­ eard it 23

KINGDOM DYNAMICS 12:23–­26 Servant, LEADER TRAITS. Of the several NT words translated “service,” diakoneo most characterizes personal service. In this text, Jesus calls for (1) willingness to die for him, (2) willingness to follow him, and (3) willingness to serve him, as he speaks very personally: “serves me,” “follow me,” “my servant.” While the idea of “servant-­leadership” is a popular and significant concept, a more pivotal and first-­ essential idea is the “servant-­ follower.” What personal service has qualified a leader? In both the OT and NT, authentic ministry presupposes a leader has a record of personal service to someone: servanthood is the time-­tested entrance prerequisite for trustworthy ministry. Since God’s Word seems to reveal such service as the basis for any advancement in leadership, we are wise to be cautious if such credentials are not found in a rising leader today. Examples: (1) Moses serves Jethro, caring for his flock (Ex 3:1). (2) Joshua serves Moses as his assistant (24:13; Jos 1:1). (3) Elisha succeeds Elijah, having become known as one who poured “water on the hands of Elijah” (2Ki 3:11). (4) David is Saul’s servant and armorbearer before replacing him as king (1Sa 16:21; 17:32). (2Co 10:8/1Co 4:1–2) J.G.

A Hebrew expression meaning “Save!” which became an exclamation of praise    b 13 Psalm 118:25,26    c 15 Zech. 9:9   

12:19 The ironic statement that the whole world was going after Jesus, spoken by the frustrated Pharisees, contrasts his success with their failure. 12:20–­36 Jesus redefined his impending death. The sufferings of Jesus, and particularly his death, were the Father’s profoundest

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occasion to glorify him. From the perspective of John, Jesus was not glorified in his resurrection and ascension as much as already in his sacrificial death on the cross. In v. 32 and its commentary in v. 33, we see that the cross is at the heart of the church’s mission and message, which draws all peoples to Jesus.

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SECOND PROOFS 1382  I  JOHN 12:30

said it had thun­dered; oth­ers said an an­ gel had spo­ken to him. 30 ­Jesus said, “This ­ voice was for your ben­e­fit, z not mine. 31 Now is the time for judg­ment on this ­world; a now the p ­ rince of this ­world b will be driv­en out. 32 And I, when I am ◊lift­ed up a from the ­earth, c will draw all peo­ple to my­self.” d 33 He said this to show the kind of ­death he was go­ing to die. e 34 The ­ crowd s­ poke up, “We have h ­ eard from the Law that the Mes­si­ah will re­main for­ev­er,  f so how can you say, ‘The Son of Man g must be lift­ed up’? h Who is this ‘Son of Man’?” 35 Then ­Jesus told them, “You are go­ing to have the l­ight i just a lit­tle w ­ hile lon­ ger. Walk w ­ hile you have the l­ight, j be­fore ◊dark­ness ◊over­takes you. k Who­ever walks in the dark does not know w ­ here they are go­ing. 36 Be­lieve in the l­ight w ­ hile you have the ­light, so that you may be­come chil­dren of ­light.” l When he had fin­ished speak­ing, J­ esus left and hid him­self from them. m

Belief and Unbelief Among the Jews 37  Even af­ter ­Jesus had per­formed so many ­signs  n in ­their pres­ence, they ­still ­would not be­lieve in him. 38 This was to ful­fill the word of Isa­iah the proph­et:

12:30 z Jn 11:42 12:31 a Jn 16:11 b Jn 14:30; 16:11; 2Co 4:4; Eph 2:2; 1Jn 4:4 12:32 c ver 34; Jn 3:14; 8:28 d Jn 6:44 ◊ See WW at Jas 4:10. 12:33 e Jn 18:32 12:34 f Ps 110:4; Isa 9:7; Eze 37:25; Da 7:14 g Mt 8:20 h Jn 3:14 12:35 i ver 46 j Eph 5:8 k 1Jn 2:11 ◊ See WW at Jn 12:46. ◊ See WW at Jn 1:5. 12:36 l Lk 16:8 m Jn 8:59 12:37 n Jn 2:11 12:38 o Isa 53:1; Ro 10:16 12:40 p Isa 6:10; Mt 13:13, ​15 ◊ See WW at Mk 8:17. 12:41 q Isa 6:14 r Lk 24:27 12:42 s ver 11; Jn 7:48 t Jn 7:13 u Jn 9:22 12:43 v Jn 5:44

“Lord, who has believed our message and to whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed?” b o 39 For this rea­son they ­could not be­lieve, be­cause, as Isa­iah says else­where:

40 “He has blinded their eyes and ◊hardened their hearts, so they can neither see with their eyes, nor understand with their hearts, nor turn — ​and I would heal them.” cp  Isa­iah said this be­cause he saw ­Jesus’ glo­ry  q and s­ poke ­about him. r 42  Yet at the same time many even ­among the lead­ers be­lieved in him. s But be­cause of the Phar­i­sees  t they ­would not open­ly ac­knowl­edge ­their ­faith for fear they w ­ ould be put out of the syn­a­gogue; u 43 for they ­ loved hu­man p ­ raise more than ­praise from ­God.  v 44  T hen ­ J esus ­ c ried out, “Who­e ver

41

a 32 

12:44 w Mt 10:40; Jn 5:24 12:45 x Jn 14:9 12:46 y Jn 1:4; 3:19; 8:12; 9:5 12:47 z Jn 3:17 12:48 a Jn 5:45 12:49 b Jn 14:31 13:1 c Jn 11:55 d Jn 12:23 e Jn 16:28 13:3 f Mt 28:18 g Jn 8:42; 16:27, ​28, ​30

be­lieves in me does not be­lieve in me only, but in the one who sent me. w 45 The one who looks at me is see­ing the one who sent me. x 46 I have come into the ­world as a ­light, y so that no one who be­ lieves in me s­ hould stay in dark­ness. 47 “If any­ one h ­ ears my w ­ ords but does not keep them, I do not ­judge that per­son. For I did not come to j­udge the w ­ orld, but to save the w ­ orld. z 48 There is a j­udge for the one who re­jects me and does not ac­cept my w ­ ords; the very w ­ ords I have spo­ken will con­demn them a at the last day. 49 For I did not s­ peak on my own, but the Fa­ther who sent me com­mand­ed me b to say all that I have spo­ken. 50 I know that his com­mand ­leads to eter­nal life. So what­ev­er I say is just what the Fa­ther has told me to say.”

­Jesus Washes His Disciples’ Feet It was just be­fore the Pass­over Fes­ ti­val.  c ­Jesus knew that the hour ­ orld and had come d for him to l­eave this w go to the Fa­ther. e Hav­ing ­loved his own who were in the w ­ orld, he l­oved them to the end. 2  The eve­ning meal was in prog­ress, and the dev­il had al­ready prompt­ed Ju­ das, the son of Si­mon Is­car­io ­ t, to be­tray ­Jesus. 3 ­Jesus knew that the Fa­ther had put all t­hings un­der his pow­er, f and that he had come from God g and was re­turn­ing to God; 4 so he got up from the meal, took off his out­er cloth­ing, and ­wrapped a tow­el ­around his ­waist. 5 Af­ter that, he ­poured wa­ter into a ba­sin and be­gan to wash his

13

WORD WEALTH 12:46 darkness, scotia (skot-­ ee-­ah); Strong’s #4653: Darkness, gloom, evil, sin, obscurity, night, ignorance, moral depravity. The NT especially uses the word in a metaphorical sense of ignorance of divine truth, man’s sinful nature, total absence of light and a lack of spiritual perception. Light equals happiness. Scotia equals unhappiness. Scotia as spiritual darkness basically describes everything earthly or demonic that is at enmity with God.

The Greek for lifted up also means exalted.    b 38 Isaiah 53:1    c 40 Isaiah 6:10   

12:31 The cross dethroned Satan’s uncontested rulership in the world, further “binding” him (see text and note on Mt 12:25–­29 and Kingdom Dynamics on Col 2:13–­15). 12:32 See section 1 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John. 12:37–­50 Apart from the trial of Jesus, these were the Master’s last words addressed to a public broader than the circle of his disciples. There is a sense of finality ringing from these words—­a last

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appeal, as it were. 12:38–­40 See note on Mark 4:12. 13:2 Whether or not the evening meal was the Last Supper or the Passover meal described by the other Gospels is immaterial to John’s emphasis on the lesson Jesus taught in the washing of the disciples’ feet. 13:5 Usually a servant performed the menial task of washing the

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SECOND PROOFS JOHN 13:35  I  1383

dis­ci­ples’ feet,  dry­ing them with the tow­ el that was ­wrapped a­ round him. 6  He came to Si­mon Pe­ter, who said to him, “Lord, are you go­ing to wash my feet?” 7 ­Jesus re­plied, “You do not re­al­ize now what I am do­ing, but lat­er you will un­ der­stand.” i 8 “No,” said Pe­ter, “you ­shall nev­er wash my feet.” ­Jesus an­swered, “Un­less I wash you, you have no part with me.” 9 “Then, Lord,” Si­mon Pe­ter re­plied, “not just my feet but my h ­ ands and my head as well!” 10 ­Jesus an­swered, “Those who have had a bath need only to wash ­their feet; ­their ­whole body is c­ lean. And you are c­ lean, j ­though not ev­ery one of you.” 11 For he knew who was go­ing to be­tray him, and that was why he said not ev­ery one was clean. 12  When he had fin­ished wash­ing ­their feet, he put on his ­clothes and re­turned to his ­place. “Do you un­der­stand what I have done for you?” he ­asked them. 13 “You call me ‘Teach­er’ k and ‘Lord,’ l and right­ly so, for that is what I am. 14 Now that I, your Lord and Teach­er, have ­washed your feet, you also s­ hould wash one an­oth­er’s feet. m 15 I have set you an ex­am­ple that you s­hould do as I have done for you. n 16 Very tru­ly I tell you, no ser­vant is great­ er than his mas­ter, o nor is ◊a mes­sen­ger great­er than the one who sent him. 17 Now that you know t­hese t­hings, you will be ­blessed if you do them. p h

­Jesus Predicts His Betrayal 18 “I am not re­ fer­ring to all of you; q I know ­those I have cho­sen. r But this is to ful­fill this pas­sage of Scrip­ture: ‘He who ­shared my ­bread s has ­turned a t ­against me.’ b u 19 “I am tell­ ing you now be­fore it hap­ pens, so that when it does hap­pen you will be­lieve v that I am who I am. w 20 Very a 18 Greek

13:5 h Lk 7:44 13:7 i ver 12 13:10 j Jn 15:3 13:13 k Jn 11:28 l Lk 6:46; 1Co 12:3; Php 2:11 13:14 m 1Pe 5:5 13:15 n Mt 11:29 13:16 o Mt 10:24; Lk 6:40; Jn 15:20 ◊ See WW at 1Co 12:28. 13:17 p Mt 7:24, ​ 25; Lk 11:28; Jas 1:25 13:18 q ver 10 r Jn 15:16, ​ 19 s Mt 26:23 t Jn 6:70 u Ps 41:9 13:19 v Jn 14:29; 16:4 w Jn 8:24

13:20 x Mt 10:40; Lk 10:16 13:21 y Jn 12:27 z Mt 26:21 13:23 a Jn 19:26; 20:2; 21:7, ​20 13:25 b Jn 21:20 13:27 c Lk 22:3 13:29 d Jn 12:6 13:30 e Lk 22:53 13:31 f Jn 7:39 g Jn 14:13; 17:4; 1Pe 4:11 13:32 h Jn 17:1 13:33 i Jn 7:33, ​34 13:34 j 1Jn 2:711; 3:11 k Lev 19:18; 1Th 4:9; 1Pe 1:22 l Jn 15:12; Eph 5:2; 1Jn 4:10, ​11 ◊ See WW at 2Co 5:17. 13:35 m 1Jn 3:14; 4:20 ◊ See WW at Ro 5:5.

tru­ly I tell you, who­ev­er ac­cepts any­one I send ac­cepts me; and who­ev­er ac­cepts me ac­cepts the one who sent me.” x 21  Af­ ter he had said this, J­esus was trou­bled in spir­it  y and tes­ti­fied, “Very tru­ ly I tell you, one of you is go­ing to be­ tray me.” z 22 His dis­ci­ples ­stared at one an­oth­er, at a loss to know w ­ hich of them he m ­ eant. 23  One of them, the dis­ci­ple whom J­ esus ­loved,  a was re­clin­ing next to him. 24 Si­ mon Pe­ter mo­tioned to this dis­ci­ple and said, “Ask him ­which one he means.” 25 Lean­ ing back ­against J­ esus, he ­asked him, “Lord, who is it?” b 26 ­ J esus an­s wered, “It is the one to whom I will give this p ­ iece of b ­ read when I have d ­ ipped it in the dish.” Then, dip­ ping the p ­ iece of b ­ read, he gave it to Ju­ das, the son of Si­mon Is­car­i­ot. 27 As soon as Ju­das took the b ­ read, Sa­tan en­tered into him. c So ­Jesus told him, “What you are a­ bout to do, do quick­ly.” 28 But no one at the meal un­der­stood why J­ esus said this to him. 29 Since Ju­ das had ­ charge of the mon­ey,  d some ­thought ­Jesus was tell­ing him to buy what was need­ed for the fes­ ti­val, or to give some­thing to the poor. 30  As soon as Ju­das had tak­en the b ­ read, he went out. And it was night. e

­Jesus Predicts Peter’s Denial 31 When he was gone, J ­ esus said, “Now the Son of Man is glo­ri­fied f and God is glo­ri­fied in him. g 32 If God is glo­ri­fied in him, c God will glo­ri­fy the Son in him­self, h and will glo­ri­fy him at once. 33 “My chil­dren, I will be with you only a lit­tle lon­ger. You will look for me, and just as I told the Jews, so I tell you now: ­Where I am go­ing, you can­not come. i 34 “A ◊new com­mand  j I give you: Love one an­oth­er.  k As I have l­oved you, so you must love one an­oth­er. l 35 By this ev­ery­ one will know that you are my dis­ci­ples, if you ◊love one an­oth­er.” m

has lifted up his heel    b 18 Psalm 41:9    c 32  Many early manuscripts do not have If God is glorified in him.   

guests’ feet, but since no servant was present and no one else assumed the role, Jesus used the occasion to teach a lesson in humility and selfless service. 13:10 The disciples of Christ already enjoyed a special relationship to him. Therefore, what is needed is not another “bath” but cleansing from defilement contracted along the way. Not every one refers to Judas. 13:13–­17 Jesus was probably not seeking to institute a literal practice to be observed continually in the church, although some feel this to be the case. But he shows great concern that the meaning of true servanthood be well understood, that no one deem it beneath his dignity to perform the most menial of tasks for others. Ultimately, servanthood is a disposition of the heart and spirit, which expresses itself in concrete actions. 13:23 Although this disciple is not named, there is no reason to

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doubt that it was John. 13:25–­26 The context implies a private dialogue between John and Jesus, unheard by the others. 13:27 Satan entered does not mean Judas became demon-­ possessed. It means rather that he came under Satan’s direct and unmitigated influence. 13:30 The statement that it was night has not only a literal meaning but a symbolic/theological meaning as well. To leave the fellowship of Jesus is to exchange the light for inevitable darkness. 13:34–­35 Jesus picked up the theme of vv. 13–­17, but now speaks of it as the new command to love one another. It is new because it presents a new standard—­the love of Jesus. The servantlike, selfless love that Christians display toward one another witnesses to the world that they are true disciples. See text and note on Matthew 22:34–­40.

11/26/13 12:33 PM


SECOND PROOFS 1384  I  JOHN 13:36

KINGDOM DYNAMICS 13:34 Love As We Are Loved, CALL TO UNITY. The issue of unity is love—­Christ’s love for us and our willingness to love others as the Lord loved us. Christ’s new commandment here presses us beyond our natural, human inclinations to the need for Christ’s inspiration. Christ’s love for us is not dependent on a quality in us that makes us lovable. He loves because he is love regardless of our strengths or weaknesses. That thought may be humbling to some who want to be chosen, called and cherished because of their human credentials of talent, personality or achievement. Christ’s love is not motivated by any of these human qualities, but it is grace-­ motivated. If we are to love in his way, we will have to take seriously that in 14:14 we are told we must ask for it, and in v. 16 we learn that the Holy Spirit must give us the power. In a world of quid pro quo, bartered manipulation and facsimiles of love based on symbiosis, unity is not possible without Christ’s commandment and our willingness to receive his love for others.

13:36 n ver 33; Jn 14:2 o Jn 21:18, ​19; 2Pe 1:14 13:38 p Jn 18:27 14:1 q ver 27 ◊ See WW at Rev 2:23. ◊ See WW at Lk 24:38.

told you that I am go­ing ­there r to pre­pare a ­place for you? 3 And if I go and ◊pre­pare a ­place for you, I will come back and take you to be with me that you also may be ­where I am. s 4 You know the way to the ­place ­where I am go­ing.”

(Mt 5:9/Jn 17:1–­26) L.O. 36 Si­ mon Pe­ter ­asked him, “Lord, ­where are you go­ing?” ­Jesus re­plied, “Where I am go­ing, you can­not fol­low now, n but you will fol­low lat­er.” o 37  Pe­ter a­ sked, “Lord, why ­can’t I fol­ low you now? I will lay down my life for you.” 38  Then ­Jesus an­swered, “Will you real­ ly lay down your life for me? Very tru­ly I tell you, be­fore the roost­er ­crows, you will dis­own me ­three times! p

­Jesus Comforts His Disciples “Do not let your ◊­hearts be ◊trou­ bled. q You be­lieve in God a; be­lieve also in me. 2 My Fa­ther’s ­house has m ­ any rooms; if that were not so, ­would I have

14 a 1 Or

WORD WEALTH 13:36 follow, akoloutheo (ak-­ol-­oo-­theh-­ oh); Strong’s #190: To accompany, go along with, go the same way with, follow one who precedes. A is in union with, and keluethos is a road. Akoloutheo is being on the same roadway with someone. Since the word was used for soldiers, servants and pupils, it can easily be transferred to the life of the Christian. In 78 Gospel occurrences it is used 77 times of following Christ. Metaphorically, it is used for discipleship (Mt 9:9; Mk 9:38).

14:2 r Jn 13:33, ​ 36 14:3 s Jn 12:26 ◊ See WW at Rev 21:2. 14:5 t Jn 11:16 14:6 u Jn 10:9 v Jn 11:25 14:7 w Jn 8:19 14:9 x Jn 12:45; Col 1:15; Heb 1:3 ◊ See WW at Ac 1:7. 14:10 y Jn 10:38 z Jn 5:19 14:11 a Jn 5:36; 10:38

­Jesus the Way to the Father 5  Thom­as  t said to him, “Lord, we d ­ on’t know ­where you are go­ing, so how can we know the way?” 6 ­Jesus an­swered, “I am the way u and the ­truth and the life. v No one ­comes to the Fa­ther ex­cept ­through me. 7 If you real­ly know me, you will know b my Fa­ ther as well. w From now on, you do know him and have seen him.” 8 Phil­ ip said, “Lord, show us the Fa­ther and that will be ­enough for us.” 9 ­Jesus an­swered: “Don’t you know me, Phil­ip, even af­ter I have been ­among you such a long ◊time? Any­one who has seen me has seen the Fa­ther. x How can you say, ‘Show us the Fa­ther’? 10 Don’t you be­lieve that I am in the Fa­ther, and that the Fa­ ther is in me? y The ­words I say to you I do not ­speak on my own au­thor­i­ty. z Rath­er, it is the Fa­ther, liv­ing in me, who is do­ing his work. 11 Be­lieve me when I say that I am in the Fa­ther and the Fa­ther is in me; or at ­least be­lieve on the ev­i­dence of the ­works them­selves. a 12 Very tru­ly I tell you,

Believe in God    b 7  Some manuscripts If you really knew me, you would know   

13:36–­38 Peter completely missed the main point of Jesus’ statement and was preoccupied instead with his departure and where he was going. But behind the overt question were likely the feelings of loss and abandonment. Life without the physical presence of Jesus was unthinkable for Peter. 14:1–­4 In 13:36 Jesus responded to Peter’s question individually; now he answers the same question for all the disciples. 14:2 Rooms literally means “dwelling places,” conveying the idea that there is ample space in heaven for all who come to Jesus as Savior. 14:6–­7 See section 4 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John. 14:6 See section 5 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John. 14:6 The sixth I am pronouncement is threefold, with the last two

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expressions explaining the sense in which Jesus is the way . . . to the Father. He is the truth about God and the very life of God. As such, he reveals truth to us and gives life to us. 14:12–­14 See section 4 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John. 14:12 The promise is not that disciples of Jesus will perform works that are greater in value or significance than his. Rather they are greater in scope and number, in these respects: (1) Because he was crucified, Jesus’ earthly ministry was limited to only a few years, but after the resurrection and Pentecost, his ministry was and continues to be multiplied through Spirit-­empowered believers. (2) Our works include the preaching of the gospel, resulting in the blessings of justification, reconciliation and the gift of the Holy Spirit coming to humankind—­all post-­resurrection manifestations of Christ’s reign (see 5:20).

11/26/13 12:33 PM


SECOND PROOFS JOHN 14:29  I  1385

KINGDOM DYNAMICS 14:12–13 Expect “Greater Things,” PATHWAY OF MIRACLES. A vital key to walking in the pathway of God’s miracles is to stay available to the implications of Jesus’ words here. When blessing comes in your work, service or ministry, it is tempting to accept that this is “all” God has for you—­to find it easy to stop and rest, rather than keeping your hand to the plow (Lk 9:62). Instead, refuse to allow the blessings of God’s grace on your work to lead you to think that he may not be ready to do even more in your life. He does not call you to attempt to produce more, but to ask and believe him for more—­ for greater works he has in store for us to receive and, by his grace, achieve for his kingdom’s purposes and glory. Keep your heart set and ready for the next advance for his kingdom!

14:12 b Mt 21:21 c Lk 10:17 14:13 d Mt 7:7 ◊ See WW at Mt 7:7. 14:15 e ver 21, ​ 23; Jn 15:10; 1Jn 5:3 14:16 f Jn 15:26; 16:7 ◊ See WW at Ac 20:35. ◊ See WW at Jn 15:26.

(Isa 2:17/ Mt 6:33*) P.C.

who­ever be­lieves b in me will do the ­works I have been do­ing, c and they will do even great­er ­things than ­these, be­cause I am go­ing to the Fa­ther. 13 And I will do what­ ev­er you ◊ask d in my name, so that the Fa­ther may be glo­ri­fied in the Son. 14 You may ask me for any­thing in my name, and I will do it.

­Jesus Promises the Holy Spirit 15 “If you love me, keep my com­mands. e 16 And I will ask the Fa­ ther, and he will ◊give you an­oth­er ◊ad­vo­cate f to help you and be with you for­ev­er — ​17 the Spir­it of WORD WEALTH 14:16 another, allos (al-­loss); Strong’s #243: One besides, another of the same kind. The word shows similarities but diversities of operation and ministries. Jesus’ use of allos for sending another Comforter equals “one besides me and in addition to me but one just like me. He will do in my absence what I would do if I were physically present with you.” The Spirit’s coming assures continuity with what Jesus did and taught. a 17 

14:17 g Jn 15:26; 16:13; 1Jn 4:6 h 1Co 2:14 14:18 i ver 3, ​ 28 14:19 j Jn 7:33, ​ 34; 16:16 k Jn 6:57 14:20 l Jn 10:38 14:21 m 1Jn 5:3 n 1Jn 2:5 14:22 o Lk 6:16; Ac 1:13 p Ac 10:41 ◊ See WW at Jn 14:21. 14:23 q ver 15 r 1Jn 2:24; Rev 3:20 14:24 s Jn 7:16 14:26 t Jn 15:26; 16:7 u Ac 2:33 v Jn 16:13; 1Jn 2:20, ​27 w Jn 2:22 ◊ See WW at Jn 15:26. 14:27 x Jn 16:33; Php 4:7; Col 3:15 ◊ See WW at Lk 1:79. 14:28 y  ver 2-4, ​ 18 z Jn 5:18 a Jn 10:29; Php 2:6

­truth.  The w ­ orld can­not ac­cept him, h be­ cause it nei­ther sees him nor k­ nows him. But you know him, for he l­ives with you and will be a in you. 18 I will not l­eave you as or­phans; I will come to you. i 19 Be­fore long, the ­world will not see me any­more, but you will see me. j Be­cause I live, you also will live. k 20 On that day you will re­ al­ize that I am in my Fa­ther, l and you are in me, and I am in you. 21 Who­ev­er has my com­mands and k ­ eeps them is the one who ­loves me. m The one who l­oves me will be ­loved by my Fa­ther, n and I too will love them and show my­self to them.” 22  Then Ju­das  o (not Ju­das Is­car­i­ot) said, “But, Lord, why do you in­tend to ◊show your­self to us and not to the world?” p 23 ­Jesus re­plied, “Any­ one who ­loves me will obey my teach­ing. q My Fa­ther will love them, and we will come to them and make our home with them. r 24 Any­one who does not love me will not obey my teach­ing. ­These ­words you hear are not my own; they be­long to the Fa­ther who sent me. s 25 “All this I have spo­ken w ­ hile s­ till with you. 26 But the ◊Ad­vo­cate, t the Holy Spir­it, whom the Fa­ther will send in my name, u will ­teach you all t­hings v and will re­mind you of ev­ery­thing I have said to you. w 27 ◊Peace I l­eave with you; my p ­ eace I give you. x I do not give to you as the w ­ orld ­gives. Do not let your ­hearts be trou­bled and do not be afraid. 28 “ You ­ heard me say, ‘I am go­ ing away and I am com­ing back to you.’ y If you ­loved me, you w ­ ould be glad that I am go­ing to the Fa­ther, z for the Fa­ther is great­er than I. a 29 I have told you now g

WORD WEALTH 14:21 show, emphanidzo (em-­fan-­id-­zoe); Strong’s #1718: A combination of en, “in,” and phaino, “to cause to shine,” thus, to appear, come to view, reveal, exhibit, make visible, present oneself to the sight of another, be conspicuous. In v. 21, emphanidzo is the self-­revelation of Jesus to believers. A secondary meaning of the word is to declare, make known (Ac 23:15,22; 24:1; 25:2,15).

Some early manuscripts and is   

14:13 Prayer offered in the name of Jesus is in accord with his revealed nature and purpose and has the full weight of his authority behind it. 14:15–­24 See section 3 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John. 14:15 The verb keep is not imperative, but future (“you will keep”). Those who love Christ will prove their devotion by their obedience.

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14:18 Jesus refers to his coming in the person of the Holy Spirit (see 16:16). 14:21 Loving Jesus Christ finds its most comprehensive expression in obeying Jesus’ commands, which are also the Father’s commands. A Christianity satisfied with less may be convenient, but is too cheap to be Biblical. 14:25–­26 See section 6 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John.

11/26/13 12:33 PM


SECOND PROOFS 1386  I  JOHN 14:30

KINGDOM DYNAMICS 14:21 Loving God’s Word As Jesus’ Fol­ lower, THE WORD OF GOD. Jesus completely aligned his life and will with the Father’s (8:29), which indicates his total allegiance to the Father’s Word and commandments. He also said he disapproved of any attitude that would reduce respect for or teach less than full obedience to the entirety of God’s revealed Word (Mt 5:17–­ 19). Thus, in this text, when he explicitly links his disciples’ love for him as Savior with their will to keep his commandments, we conclude Jesus’ clear intent: If we love him, we will love his Father’s Word, also. In John 5:39 our Lord declares that the knowledge of the Scriptures is the pathway to knowing him well. Further, upon his resurrection, he unveiled the fullness of his own person as revealed in the OT (Lk 24:27). These texts cluster to teach us: To follow Christ, to know him, and to grow in insight as people walking with the resurrected Lord, a basic and continuing requirement is a steadfast commitment to hearing, heeding and studying the Bible. (1Co 3:1–­5/Jas 1:23-­25) J.W.H.

be­fore it hap­pens, so that when it does hap­pen you will be­lieve. b 30 I will not say much more to you, for the ­prince of this ­world c is com­ing. He has no hold over me, 31 but he c­ omes so that the ­world may ­learn that I love the Fa­ther and do ex­act­ ly what my Fa­ther has com­mand­ed me. d “Come now; let us leave.

The Vine and the Branches “I am the true vine, e and my Fa­ther is the gar­den­er. 2 He cuts off ev­ery ­branch in me that b ­ ears no ­fruit, ­while ev­ ery ­branch that does bear ­fruit he ­prunes a so that it will be even more fruit­ful. 3 You are al­ready c­ lean be­cause of the word I

15 a 2 

14:29 b Jn 13:19; 16:4 14:30 c Jn 12:31 14:31 d Jn 10:18; 12:49 15:1 e Isa 5:1‑7

15:3 f Jn 13:10; 17:17; Eph 5:26 15:4 g Jn 6:56; 1Jn 2:6 15:5 h ver 16 15:6 i ver 2 15:7 j Mt 7:7 15:8 k Mt 5:16 l Jn 8:31 15:9 m Jn 17:23, ​ 24, ​26 15:10 n Jn 14:15 15:11 o Jn 17:13 15:12 p Jn 13:34 15:13 q Jn 10:11; Ro 5:7, ​8 ◊ See WW at Jn 11:11. 15:14 r Lk 12:4 s Mt 12:50 15:15 t Jn 8:26 15:16 u Jn 6:70; 13:18 15:17 v ver 12 15:18 w 1Jn 3:13 15:19 x ver 16 y Jn 17:14 ◊ See WW at Jn 21:15.

have spo­ken to you. f 4 Re­main in me, as I also re­main in you. g No ­branch can bear ­fruit by it­self; it must re­main in the vine. Nei­ther can you bear ­fruit un­less you re­ main in me. 5 “I am the vine; you are the branch­ es. If you re­main in me and I in you, you will bear much ­fruit; h ­apart from me you can do noth­ing. 6 If you do not re­main in me, you are like a ­branch that is ­thrown away and with­ers; such branch­es are ­picked up, ­thrown into the fire and ­burned. i 7 If you re­main in me and my w ­ ords re­main in you, ask what­ev­er you wish, and it will be done for you. j 8 This is to my Fa­ther’s glo­ry, k that you bear much f­ ruit, show­ing your­selves to be my dis­ci­ples. l 9 “As the Fa­ther has ­loved me, m so have I ­loved you. Now re­main in my love. 10 If you keep my com­mands, n you will re­main in my love, just as I have kept my Fa­ther’s com­mands and re­main in his love. 11 I have told you this so that my joy may be in you and that your joy may be com­plete. o 12 My com­ mand is this: Love each oth­er as I have l­oved you. p 13 Great­er love has no one than this: to lay down o ­ ne’s life for ­one’s ◊­friends. q 14 You are my f­riends r if you do what I com­mand. s 15 I no lon­ger call you ser­vants, be­cause a ser­vant does not know his mas­ter’s busi­ness. In­stead, I have c­ alled you f­riends, for ev­ery­thing that I ­learned from my Fa­ther I have made ­known to you. t 16 You did not ­choose me, but I ­chose you and ap­point­ed you u so that you m ­ ight go and bear f­ruit — ​­fruit that will last — ​and so that what­ev­er you ask in my name the Fa­ther will give you. 17 This is my com­mand: Love each oth­er. v

The World Hates the Disciples 18 “If the w ­ orld h ­ ates you, w keep in mind that it hat­ed me ­first. 19 If you be­longed to the ­world, it w ­ ould ◊love you as its own. As it is, you do not be­long to the ­world, but I have cho­sen you x out of the ­world. That is why the ­world ­hates you. y

The Greek for he prunes also means he cleans.   

14:26 The ministry of the Holy Spirit is predominantly Christ-­ oriented, a part of which is to teach and remind the disciples of what Jesus taught in person. The Spirit, then, is never self-­serving. One way he teaches us is through gifts of teachings (see text and notes on Ro 12:7–­8; Eph 4:8,11). 14:28–­29 Losing the physical presence of Jesus through his death was a necessary condition of his spiritual return. 14:30 Satan, the prince of this world (see note on 1Jn 5:19), had no foothold in the life of Jesus and no authority over him. 15:1–­8 See sections 2 and 5 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John. 15:1–­8 The fruit that the heavenly gardener looks for in his people is Christlikeness (see Gal 5:22–­23). In order to be productive, a branch must submit to pruning, that is, to the beneficent discipline of the Father (v. 2; see Heb 12:10) and must maintain an abiding union with the vine (vv. 4–­5). 15:1 This seventh I am and the last self-­designation in this Gospel

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is repeated in v. 5, describing the relationship between Jesus and his disciples. Its background is Isaiah 5:1–­7, where Israel is compared to a vineyard under God’s loving care. But unlike Israel, Jesus is the true [real or genuine] vine. 15:2 The fruitless branch, which does not abide in the vine (v. 6), is destroyed. The immediate reference was probably to Judas, but the idea applies to all pseudo-­believers (see Mt 15:13). 15:7–­11 When we abide in Christ, our prayers are effective (v. 7), we glorify God in our fruitbearing (v. 8), we demonstrate our discipleship (vv. 8–­10), and our joy becomes full through experiencing Christ’s own joy within us (v. 11). 15:9–­14 See section 1 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John. 15:15 The servant-­master and son-­father terminology describes the believer’s relationship to Christ and to the Father quite vividly. But none is quite as profound as when Jesus called his disciples friends, because it speaks of mutuality and love.

11/26/13 12:33 PM


SECOND PROOFS JOHN 16:13  I  1387

KINGDOM DYNAMICS 15:11 Completeness of Joy, CHRISTLIKENESS. Jesus points the way to joy, a divine quality of character that is possessed and given only by God. It is rooted in relationship with the Holy Spirit, not in earthly or material things. Christlike joy is seen in the description of his, “for the joy set before him he endured the cross, scorning its shame, and sat down at the right hand of the throne of God” (Heb 12:2). Joy is derived from the confidence that the price of dying to our will holds the inevitable certainty of eventually realizing the triumph of his. For Jesus, bringing sons and daughters into fellowship with the Father was his delight, though the cross was the means to that eventual joy (2:10). This very trait was prophesied of Messiah: “After he has suffered, he will see the light of life and be satisfied” (Isa 53:11). Thus, the Savior’s “food” (that is, his fulfillment) was to do the will of God and accomplish his work (Jn 4:34).

15:20 z Jn 13:16 a 2Ti 3:12 ◊ See WW at Rev 19:5. 15:21 b Mt 10:22 c Jn 16:3 15:22 d Jn 9:41; Ro 1:20 15:24 e Jn 5:36 15:25 f Ps 35:19; 69:4 15:26 g Jn 14:16 h Jn 14:26 i Jn 14:17 j 1Jn 5:7

 Re­mem­ber what I told you: ‘A ◊ser­vant is not great­er than his mas­ter.’ a z If they per­se­cut­ed me, they will per­se­cute you also. a If they ­obeyed my teach­ing, they will obey ­yours also. 21 They will t­ reat you this way be­cause of my name, b for they do not know the one who sent me. c 22 If I had not come and spo­ken to them, they ­would not be ­guilty of sin; but now they have no ex­cuse for ­their sin. d 23 Who­ever hates me hates my Fa­ther as well. 24 If I had not done a­ mong them the w ­ orks no ­ ould not be g ­ uilty of one else did, e they w sin. As it is, they have seen, and yet they have hat­ed both me and my Fa­ther. 25 But this is to ful­fill what is writ­ten in ­their Law: ‘They hat­ed me with­out rea­son.’ b f

The Work of the Holy Spirit 26 “When the Ad­vo­cate g ­ comes, whom I will send to you from the Fa­ther h — ​the Spir­it of ­truth i who goes out from the Fa­ ther  — ​he will tes­ti­fy ­about me. j 27 And you a 20 John

also must tes­ti­fy, k for you have been with me from the be­gin­ning. l “All this m I have told you so that you will not ◊fall away. n 2 They will put you out of the syn­a­gogue; o in fact, the time is com­ing when any­one who kills you will ­think they are of­fer­ing a ser­vice to God. p 3 They will do such ­things be­ cause they have not ­known the Fa­ther or me. q 4 I have told you this, so that when ­their time ­comes you will re­mem­ber r that I ­warned you a­ bout them. I did not tell you this from the be­gin­ning be­cause I was with you, 5 but now I am go­ing to him who sent me. s None of you asks me, ‘Where are you go­ing?’ t 6 Rath­er, you are ­filled with ­grief be­cause I have said t­hese ­things. 7 But very tru­ly I tell you, it is for your good that I am go­ing away. Un­less I go away, the ◊Ad­vo­cate  u will not come to you; but if I go, I will send him to you. v 8 When he ­ comes, he will ­prove the ­world to be in the ­wrong ­about ◊sin and righ­ teous­ness and ◊judg­ment: 9 about sin, w be­ cause peo­ple do not be­lieve in me; 10 about righ­teous­ness, x be­cause I am go­ing to the Fa­ther, ­where you can see me no lon­ger; 11 and a ­ bout judg­ment, be­cause the ­prince of this w ­ orld y now s­ tands con­demned. 12 “I have much more to say to you, more than you can now bear. z 13 But when he, the Spir­it of t­ruth, a ­comes, he will ­guide you into all the ­truth. b He will not ­speak on his own; he will ­speak only what

16

(Mt 9:36/Isa 9:6) F.P. 20

WORD WEALTH 15:26 Advocate, parakletos (par-­ak-­lay-­ toss); Strong’s #3875: From para, “beside,” and kaleo, “to call,” hence, called to one’s side. The word signifies an intercessor, comforter, helper, advocate, counselor. In non-Biblical literature parakletos had the technical meaning of an attorney who appears in court in another’s behalf. The Holy Spirit leads believers to a greater apprehension of gospel truths. In addition to general help and guidance, he gives the strength to endure the hostility of the world system.

15:27 k Lk 24:48; 1Jn 1:2; 4:14 l Lk 1:2 16:1 m Jn 15:18-27 n Mt 11:6 ◊ See WW at Mt 11:6. 16:2 o Jn 9:22 p Isa 66:5; Ac 26:9, ​10; Rev 6:9 16:3 q Jn 15:21; 17:25; 1Jn 3:1 16:4 r Jn 13:19 16:5 s Jn 7:33 t Jn 13:36; 14:5 16:7 u  Jn 14:16, ​ 26; 15:26 v Jn 7:39 ◊ See WW at Jn 15:26. 16:8 ◊ See WW at Jn 1:29. ◊ See WW at Mt 5:22. 16:9 w Jn 15:22 16:10 x Ac 3:14; 7:52; 1Pe 3:18 16:11 y Jn 12:31 16:12 z Mk 4:33 16:13 a Jn 14:17 b Jn 14:26

13:16    b 25 Psalms 35:19; 69:4   

15:18–­25 Godless secular society is hostile toward Christ and his followers, simply because Christian standards are in opposition to the world’s system. 15:26 Another of the Christ-­oriented functions of the Spirit is to witness about him. That witness will be authentic because God’s Spirit is the Spirit of truth. 15:27 In response to the antagonism of the world, believers testify concerning Christ through the power of the Spirit. 16:7 The loss of the bodily presence of Jesus will be more than compensated by the coming of the Holy Spirit. 16:8–­11 See section 6 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John.

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16:8–­11 The ministry of the Spirit to unbelievers is that of conviction. Specifically, he uses their unbelief to prove the gravity of sin (v. 9), the triumphant work of Christ to prove the availability of righteousness (v. 10) and the defeat of Satan to prove the solemn certainty of judgment (v. 11). 16:12–­15 See section 6 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John. 16:12–­13 Earlier, Jesus promised the apostles that the Spirit would remind them of his teachings (14:26). Now he promises them that the Spirit will guide them into further truth, which they could not bear at that time. Both promises were fulfilled in the writing of the NT. The Holy Spirit also fulfills that work in granting believers today an understanding of that truth (see 1Co 2:14–­15; Eph 1:17–­18).

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SECOND PROOFS 1388  I  JOHN 16:14

he ­hears, and he will tell you what is yet to come. 14 He will glo­ri­fy me be­cause it is from me that he will re­ceive what he will make ­known to you. 15 All that be­longs to the Fa­ther is mine. c That is why I said the Spir­it will re­ceive from me what he will make ­known to you.”

16:15 c Jn 17:10 16:16 d Jn 7:33 e Jn 14:18‑24 16:17 f ver 16 g ver 5 16:20 h Lk 23:27 i Jn 20:20

The Disciples’ Grief Will Turn to Joy 16 ­ Jesus went on to say, “In a lit­ tle ­while d you will see me no more, and then af­ter a lit­tle ­while you will see me.” e 17  At this, some of his dis­ci­ples said to one an­oth­er, “What does he mean by say­ ing, ‘In a lit­tle w ­ hile you will see me no more, and then af­ter a lit­tle ­while you will see me,’ f and ‘Be­cause I am go­ing to the Fa­ther’?” g 18 They kept ask­ing, “What does he mean by ‘a lit­tle ­while’? We ­don’t un­ der­stand what he is say­ing.” 19 ­ Jesus saw that they want­ed to ask him ­about this, so he said to them, “Are you ask­ing one an­oth­er what I ­meant when I said, ‘In a lit­tle ­while you will see me no more, and then af­ter a lit­tle ­while you will see me’? 20 Very tru­ly I tell you, you will weep and ­mourn h ­while the ­world re­joic­es. You will g ­ rieve, but your ­grief will turn to joy. i 21 A wom­an giv­ing KINGDOM DYNAMICS 16:14–15 Relaying the Ministry of Jesus, GOD’S POWER MINISTRY. Jesus’ life and character demonstrate how to minister to others as the Holy Spirit enables us: (1) Have a righteousness that goes beyond and is deeper than traditional religion (see Mt 5:1—­7:29, especially 5:20). (2) Teach the things Jesus taught, in the way he taught them, always staying in tune with the Father (Jn 5:19; 6:38; 7:16; 8:28). (3) Do the things he did in the manner in which he did them. Jesus treated people with dignity (Lk 7:36–­50), was motivated by compassion (Mt 9:35–­38), and never did anything to selfishly draw attention to himself (8:4) or to perform based on others’ agendas (16:1–­ 4). (4) Work with Jesus to see all nations (groups of people) become his followers (28:19–20). (1Co 12:1–­11/Ac 9:32–­35) T.H.

16:21 j Isa 26:17; 1Th 5:3 16:22 k ver 6 l ver 16 ◊ See WW at Rev 2:23. 16:23 m Mt 7:7; Jn 15:16 ◊ See WW at Mt 7:7. 16:24 n Jn 3:29; 15:11 16:25 o Mt 13:34; Jn 10:6 p ver 2 16:26 q ver 23, ​ 24 16:27 r Jn 14:21, ​23 16:28 s Jn 13:3 16:29 t ver 25 16:32 u ver 2, ​ 25 v Mt 26:31 w Jn 8:16, ​29

16:14 The Spirit’s ministry is not only directed to believers and to the world, but also to Christ. What the Spirit teaches he draws from and conveys in the authority of Christ, and glorifies Christ in all that he does. True ministry in the Holy Spirit never serves a private agenda. Rather, working in us and through us, he never exalts himself, but he continually glorifies Christ who glorifies the Father. 16:16 The first little while speaks of the remaining hours before the crucifixion, while the second reference is to the coming of the

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­ irth to a c­ hild has pain j be­cause her time b has come; but when her baby is born she for­gets the an­guish be­cause of her joy that a c­ hild is born into the w ­ orld. 22 So with you: Now is your time of g ­ rief, k but I will see you ­again l and ◊you will re­joice, and no one will take away your joy. 23 In that day you will no lon­ger ◊ask me any­ thing. Very tru­ly I tell you, my Fa­ther will give you what­ev­er you ask in my name. m 24 Un­ til now you have not ­asked for any­ thing in my name. Ask and you will re­ ceive, and your joy will be com­plete. n 25 “Though I have been speak­ ing fig­u­ ra­tive­ly, o a time is com­ing p when I will no lon­ger use this kind of lan­guage but will tell you plain­ly ­about my Fa­ther. 26 In that day you will ask in my name. q I am not say­ing that I will ask the Fa­ther on your be­half. 27 No, the Fa­ther him­self ­loves you be­cause you have l­oved me r and have be­lieved that I came from God. 28 I came from the Fa­ther and en­tered the w ­ orld; now I am leav­ing the w ­ orld and go­ing back to the Fa­ther.” s 29  Then ­Jesus’ dis­ci­ples said, “Now you are speak­ing clear­ly and with­out fig­ures of ­speech.  t 30 Now we can see that you know all ­things and that you do not even need to have any­one ask you ques­tions. This ­makes us be­lieve that you came from God.” 31 “ Do you now be­ lieve?” J­esus re­ plied. 32 “A time is com­ing u and in fact has come when you will be scat­tered, v each to your own home. You will ­leave me all ­alone. Yet I am not a­ lone, for my Fa­ther is with me. w 33 “I have told you ­ these ­things, so that WORD WEALTH 16:22 take, airo (ahee-­roe); Strong’s #142: To bear away, take away, carry off, lift from the ground, remove and take up. The verb is quite common in the NT and in addition to a literal use, it is used of Christ’s taking away sin (1:29; 1Jn 3:5), of believers’ putting aside negative attitudes (Eph 4:31) and taking up a cross (Mt 16:24), and of the Devil’s snatching away the word of God from hearers.

Holy Spirit, which afforded a more intimate fellowship with Christ than an earthly acquaintance (see 14:18; 16:7). 16:20–­22 Their temporary grief at the separation caused by his death will be lost in the joy of a spiritual reunion. 16:23–­28 The Holy Spirit will increase their knowledge of spiritual things and will enhance their prayer life. See note on Romans 8:26. 16:24 See section 4 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John.

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SECOND PROOFS J O H N 1 7 : 11   I   1 3 8 9

WORD WEALTH 16:33 trouble, thlipsis (thlip-­sis); Strong’s #2347: Pressure, oppression, stress, anguish, tribulation, adversity, affliction, crushing, squashing, squeezing, distress. Imagine placing your hand on a stack of loose items and manually compressing them. That is thlipsis, putting a lot of pressure on that which is free and unfettered. Thlipsis is like spiritual bench-­pressing. The word is used of crushing grapes or olives in a press.

16:33 x Jn 14:27 y Jn 15:18-21 z Ro 8:37; 1Jn 4:4 17:1 a Jn 11:41 b Jn 12:23; 13:31, ​32

­Jesus Prays for His Disciples 6 “I have re­ vealed you a i to ­those whom you gave me j out of the ­world. They were ­yours; you gave them to me and they have ­obeyed your word. 7 Now they know that ev­ery­thing you have giv­en me ­comes from you. 8 For I gave them the ­words you gave me k and they ac­cept­ed them. They knew with cer­tain­ty that I came from you, l and they be­lieved that you sent me. m 9 I pray for them. n I am not pray­ ing for the w ­ orld, but for ­those you have giv­en me, for they are ­yours. 10 All I have is y ­ ours, and all you have is mine. o And glo­ry has come to me ­through them. 11 I will re­main in the ­world no lon­ger, but they are s­till in the ­world, p and I am com­ing to you. q Holy Fa­ther, pro­tect them by

in me you may have ­peace. x In this ­world you will have trou­ble. y But take ­heart! I have over­come z the world.”

­Jesus Prays to Be Glorified Af­ter ­Jesus said this, he ­looked to­ ward heav­en  a and prayed:

17

“Fa­ther, the hour has come. Glo­ri­fy your Son, that your Son may glo­ri­fy you. b 2 For you grant­ed him au­thor­i­ty KINGDOM DYNAMICS 17:1–­26 The Miracle of Oneness, CALL TO UNITY. Unity is Christ’s miracle of oneness. In this chapter, we hear his prayer for the same oneness for his disciples that he has with the Father. He and the Father share the same purpose, plan and power. Christ often reminds us that he came not to do his own will but to do the Father’s will (Mk 14:36; Jn 6:38). Likewise, our unity is dependent on sharing the priority of seeking and doing the Lord’s will. His desire for us is to reach those who do not know him so that they, too, may become one with us and others who have accepted him as Lord of their lives (Jn 17:21). The equation of oneness is profound, and yet, very simple: One plus one plus one equals one—­Christ, ourselves and another equals oneness. It is Christ in our brother or sister who reaches out to the Christ in us. We are united in and through him. It is a miracle of the indwelling Christ. (Jn 13:34/1Co 13:1–­13) L.O. a 6 Greek

over all peo­ple that he ­might give eter­nal life to all ­those you have giv­en him. c 3 Now this is eter­nal life: that they know you, the only true God, and J­esus C ­ hrist, whom you have sent. d 4 I have ­brought you glo­ ry e on e­ arth by ◊fin­ish­ing the work you gave me to do. f 5 And now, Fa­ ther, glo­ri­fy me in your pres­ence with the glo­ry I had with you g be­fore the ­world be­gan. h

17:2 c ver 6, ​9, ​ 24; Da 7:14; Jn 6:37, ​39 17:3 d ver 8, ​ 18, ​21, ​23, ​25; Jn 3:17 17:4 e Jn 13:31 f Jn 4:34 ◊ See WW at 1Jn 2:5. 17:5 g Php 2:6 h Jn 1:2 17:6 i ver 26 j ver 2; Jn 6:37, ​ 39 17:8 k ver 14, ​ 26 l Jn 16:27 m ver 3, ​18, ​21, ​ 23, ​25; Jn 3:17 17:9 n Lk 22:32 17:10 o Jn 16:15 17:11 p Jn 13:1 q Jn 7:33

KINGDOM DYNAMICS 17:4 Ultimate Purpose of Revival, REVIVAL. To glorify God the Father on earth was Jesus’ express purpose. To prepare for and live in revival, it is imperative that we possess this same desire to glorify God. He will not share his glory with another (Isa 42:8); but to and through those who are consumed with a passion to know God and give all the glory to him, he will manifest the glory of his person, his power and his presence. Glorifying God is the Holy Spirit’s intent in revival (Jn 16:14). As churches are revived and cities transformed by the mighty workings of the Holy Spirit, all the glory will be given back to the Father. (Lk 15:11–­24/Ac 17:6) G.F.

your name   

16:33 Even in the midst of persecution there is joyful peace in the desire is to glorify the Father. To glorify him is to make him known. certainty of Christ’s victory. See note on Romans 8:17. Jesus would soon be manifested as the Savior of the world through his atoning death. Believers in him will know God and thus possess 17:1–­26 This chapter, rather than Matthew 6:9–­13, might more eternal life. properly be called “the Lord’s Prayer.” The prayer contains a threefold petition—­that he may be glorified (vv. 1–­5), that the apostles 17:6–­19 Although he does not pray that his immediate disciples may be sanctified (vv. 6–­19) and that the church may be unified may be removed from the world, he does pray that they will be protected from the world’s evil through the Father’s name (vv. 6–­ (vv. 20–­26). 16). He also prays that they might be sanctified, that is, set apart 17:1–­5 The petition of Jesus for himself is not selfish, since his for the ministry of truth (vv. 17–­19).

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SECOND PROOFS 1390  I  JOHN 17:12

KINGDOM DYNAMICS 17:4–­ 26 Growth in Glorifying God, GROWTH. Jesus’ use of “glory” transcends the word’s use as commonly expressed. Describing the glory of and his glorifying of God (Greek doxazo¯ ), he means to make known; to make or leave a favorable impression or opinion. Jesus’ life clearly did that: he glorified the Father, displaying on earth the splendor of a wondrously favorable impression of the Father. When humankind saw Jesus, we saw the Father (14:9). But further, Jesus explains how he glorified God: “by finishing the work” the Father gave him to do. To glorify God, then, is to complete an assignment—­to do those things he has called, chosen, appointed and anointed us to do.

17:11 r ver 2123 s Jn 10:30 17:12 t Jn 6:39 u Jn 6:70 17:13 v Jn 3:29 17:14 w Jn 15:19 x Jn 8:23 17:15 y Mt 5:37 17:16 z ver 14 17:17 a Jn 15:3 ◊ See WW at Jn 10:36. 17:18 b ver 3, ​ 8, ​21, ​23, ​25 c Jn 20:21

(1Ti 3:16/1Pe 5:8) K.U.

the pow­er of a your name, the name you gave me, so that they may be one r as we are one. s 12 While I was with them, I pro­tect­ed them and kept them safe by b that name you gave me. None has been lost t ex­cept the one ­doomed to de­struc­tion u so that Scrip­ture ­would be ful­filled. 13 “I am com­ ing to you now, but I say ­these t­hings w ­ hile I am s­till in the ­world, so that they may have the full mea­sure of my joy v with­in them. 14 I have giv­ en them your word and the ­world has hat­ed them, w for they are not of the ­world any more than I am of the ­world. x 15 My ­prayer is not that you take them out of the world but that you pro­ ­ tect them from the evil one. y 16 They are not of the ­world, even as I am not of it. z 17 ◊Sanc­ti­fy them by c the ­ truth; your word is t­ ruth. a 18 As you sent me into the ­world, b I have sent them into the ­world. c 19 For them I sanc­ti­fy my­self, that they too may be tru­ly sanc­ti­fied.

­Jesus Prays for All Believers 20 “ My ­ prayer is not for them ­alone. I pray also for ­those who will be­lieve in me ­through ­their mes­sage, a 11 Or

21 that all of them may be one, Fa­ ther, just as you are in me and I am in you. d May they also be in us so that the ­world may be­lieve that you have sent me. e 22 I have giv­en them the glo­ry that you gave me, that they may be one as we are one f — ​ 23 I in them and you in me — ​so that they may be b ­ rought to com­plete uni­ty. Then the ­world will know that you sent me g and have ­loved them h even as you have l­oved me. 24 “Fa­ ther, I want t­hose you have giv­en me to be with me ­where I am, i and to see my glo­ry, j the glo­ry you have giv­en me be­cause you l­oved me be­fore the cre­a­tion of the world. k 25 “Righ­teous Fa­ther, ­though the ­world does not know you, l I know you, and they know that you have sent me. m 26 I have made you d ­known to them, n and will con­tin­ue to make you ­known in or­der that the love you have for me may be in them o and that I my­self may be in them.”

­Jesus Arrested When he had fin­ ished pray­ ing, ­Jesus left with his dis­ci­ples and ­crossed the Kid­ron Val­ley.  p On the oth­er side ­there was a gar­den, q and he and his dis­ci­ples went into it.  r 2  Now Ju­das, who be­trayed him, knew the ­place, be­cause ­Jesus had of­ten met ­there with his dis­ci­ples.  s 3 So Ju­das came to the gar­den, guid­ing t a de­tach­ment of sol­diers and some of­fi­cials from the c­ hief ­priests and the Phar­i­sees.  u They were car­ ry­ing torch­es, lan­terns and weap­ons. 4 ­ Jesus, know­ing all that was go­ing to hap­pen to him, v went out and ­asked them, “Who is it you want?” w 5  “­Jesus of Naz­a­reth,” they re­plied. “I am he,” ­Jesus said. (And Ju­das the trai­tor was stand­ing ­there with them.) 6  When ­Jesus said, “I am he,” they drew back and fell to the ground. 7  Again he a­ sked them, “Who is it you want?” x “­Jesus of Naz­a­reth,” they said. 8 ­Jesus an­swered, “I told you that I am he. If you are look­ing for me, then let

18 17:21 d Jn 10:38 e ver 3, ​8, ​18, ​23, ​ 25; Jn 3:17 17:22 f Jn 14:20 17:23 g Jn 3:17 h Jn 16:27 17:24 i Jn 12:26 j Jn 1:14 k ver 5; Mt 25:34 17:25 l Jn 15:21; 16:3 m ver 3, ​8, ​18, ​ 21, ​23; Jn 3:17; 7:29; 16:27 17:26 n ver 6 o Jn 15:9 18:1 p 2Sa 15:23 q ver 26 r Mt 26:36 18:2 s Lk 21:37; 22:39 18:3 t Ac 1:16 u ver 12 18:4 v Jn 6:64; 13:1, ​11 w ver 7 18:7 x ver 4

Father, keep them faithful to    b 12 Or kept them faithful to    c 17 Or them to live in accordance with    d 26 Greek your name   

17:20–­26 In his final petition Jesus prays for the unity of all believers of subsequent generations. The oneness he requests is not an organizational but a spiritual unity, which, will be visibly manifested in the life of the church and will bear witness to the divine mission of Christ. The church’s unity will reach its consummation in heaven (vv. 24–­26).

winter, runs along the eastern side of Jerusalem, past the Garden of Gethsemane and the Mount of Olives. One coming from Jerusalem had to cross the Kidron to reach Gethsemane. 18:5–­6 I am he: On the surface these words simply identified Jesus in terms of his Galilean hometown. Just as the other “I am” sayings in John, however, this one also revealed Jesus as God. This 17:20–­23 See section 1 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John. explains the impact of his words on the troops, who are involuntarily smitten by this momentary unleashing of his inherent 18:1 The Kidron Valley, often dry in summer but rain-­swollen in power as God.

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SECOND PROOFS JOHN 18:35  I  1391

t­ hese men go.”   This hap­pened so that the ­words he had spo­ken w ­ ould be ful­filled: “I have not lost one of t­ hose you gave me.” a y 10  Then Si­mon Pe­ter, who had a ­sword, drew it and s­truck the high ­priest’s ser­ vant, cut­ting off his r­ight ear. (The ser­ vant’s name was Mal­chus.) 11 ­Jesus com­mand­ed Pe­ter, “Put your ­sword away! ­Shall I not d ­ rink the cup z the Fa­ther has giv­en me?” 12 Then the de­ tach­ment of sol­diers with its com­mand­er and the Jew­ish of­fi­cials  a ar­rest­ed ­Jesus. They ­bound him 13 and ­brought him ­first to An­nas, who was the fa­ther-in-law of Ca­ia­phas,  b the high ­priest that year. 14 Ca­ia­phas was the one who had ad­vised the Jew­ish lead­ers that it ­would be good if one man died for the peo­ple.  c 9

Peter’s First Denial 15  S i­m on Pe­t er and an­o th­e r dis­c i­p le were fol­low­ing J­esus. Be­cause this dis­ ci­ple was ­known to the high ­priest, d he went with ­Jesus into the high ­priest’s court­yard,  e 16 but Pe­ter had to wait out­ side at the door. The oth­er dis­ci­ple, who was ­known to the high ­priest, came back, ­spoke to the ser­vant girl on duty t­here and ­brought Pe­ter in. 17 “You a ­ ren’t one of this ­man’s dis­ci­ples too, are you?” she ­asked Pe­ter. He re­plied, “I am not.” f 18 It was cold, and the ser­ vants and of­ fi­cials ­stood a­ round a fire g they had made to keep warm. Pe­ter also was stand­ing with them, warm­ing him­self. h The High Priest Questions J­ esus 19 Mean­while, the high p ­ riest ques­tioned ­Jesus a­ bout his dis­ci­ples and his teach­ing. 20 “I have spo­ken ◊open­ly to the ­world,” ­Jesus re­plied. “I al­ways t­aught in syn­a­ gogues i or at the tem­ple, j ­where all the Jews come to­geth­er. I said noth­ing in se­ cret. k 21 Why ques­tion me? Ask t­hose who ­heard me. Sure­ly they know what I said.” 22 When ­Jesus said this, one of the of­fi­ cials l near­by s­ lapped him in the face. m “Is this the way you an­swer the high ­priest?” he de­mand­ed. 23 “If I said some­thing ­wrong,” J ­ esus re­ plied, “tes­ti­fy as to what is ­wrong. But if I ­spoke the ­truth, why did you ­strike a 9 John

18:9 y Jn 17:12 18:11 z Mt 20:22 18:12 a ver 3 18:13 b ver 24; Mt 26:3 18:14 c Jn 11:49‑51 18:15 d Mt 26:3 e Mt 26:58; Mk 14:54; Lk 22:54 18:17 f ver 25 18:18 g Jn 21:9 h Mk 14:54, ​67 18:20 i Mt 4:23 j Mt 26:55 k Jn 7:26 ◊ See WW at Ac 4:31. 18:22 l ver 3 m Mt 16:21; Jn 19:3

18:23 n Mt 5:39; Ac 23:2‑5 18:24 o ver 13; Mt 26:3 18:25 p ver 18 q ver 17 18:26 r ver 10 s ver 1 18:27 t Jn 13:38 18:28 u Mt 27:2; Mk 15:1; Lk 23:1 v ver 33; Jn 19:9 w Jn 11:55 18:30 ◊ See WW at Lk 23:25. 18:32 x Mt 20:19; 26:2; Jn 3:14; 8:28; 12:32, ​33 18:33 y ver 28, ​ 29; Jn 19:9 z Lk 23:3; Mt 2:2

me?”   Then An­nas sent him ­bound to Ca­ia­phas  o the high priest. n 24

Peter’s Second and Third Denials 25  M ean­w hile, Si­m on Pe­t er was ­s till stand­ing ­there warm­ing him­self.  p So they ­asked him, “You a­ ren’t one of his dis­ci­ples too, are you?” He de­nied it, say­ing, “I am not.” q 26  One of the high ­priest’s ser­vants, a rel­a­tive of the man ­whose ear Pe­ter had cut off, r chal­lenged him, “Didn’t I see you with him in the gar­den?” s 27  Again Pe­ter de­nied it, and at that mo­ment a roost­er be­gan to crow. t ­Jesus Before Pilate 28  Then the Jew­ish lead­ers took ­Jesus from Ca­ia­phas to the pal­ace of the Ro­man gov­er­nor.  u By now it was ear­ly morn­ing, and to ­avoid cer­e­mo­ni­al un­clean­ness they did not en­ter the pal­ace, v be­cause they want­ed to be able to eat the Pass­over. w 29  So Pi­late came out to them and a­ sked, “What charg­es are you bring­ing ­against this man?” 30  “If he were not a crim­in ­ al,” they re­ plied, “we ­would not have ◊hand­ed him over to you.” 31 Pi­ late said, “Take him your­selves and ­judge him by your own law.” “But we have no ­right to ex­e­cute any­ one,” they ob­ject­ed. 32 This took p ­ lace to ful­fill what ­Jesus had said a­ bout the kind of d ­ eath he was go­ing to die. x 33 Pi­ late then went back in­side the pal­ ace, y sum­moned J­esus and a­sked him, “Are you the king of the Jews?” z 34 “Is that your own idea,” ­Jesus ­asked, “or did oth­ers talk to you a­ bout me?” 35  “Am  I a Jew?” Pi­late re­plied. “Your own peo­ple and c­ hief ­priests hand­ed you over to me. What is it you have done?” WORD WEALTH 18:31 judge, krino (kree-­no); Strong’s #2919: Compare “criterion” and “critic.” To separate, decide, examine, question, select, choose, resolve, make an opinion, determine, decide favorably or unfavorably, pronounce judgment.

6:39   

18:13 Although Caiaphas was high priest at the time of the arrest of Jesus, Annas, the ex-­high priest, exercised greater influence and authority. 18:15 The other disciple has traditionally been identified as John, the writer of this Gospel, who preferred not to divulge his name (see 13:23; 19:25–­27). 18:19 In a trial it was illegal for the accused to be interrogated, lest he incriminate himself. Guilt must be established by witnesses.

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18:22 The Jews again violated their own law in striking Jesus. 18:28 The Praetorium was the residence of the Roman procurator, in this case, Pilate. During the main Jewish festivals, the Roman governor would reside in Jerusalem in order to forestall any possible uprising. While plotting murder, the religious authorities were careful not to defile themselves ceremonially. 18:32 If the Jews had been allowed to carry out the death penalty, Jesus would have been stoned.

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SECOND PROOFS 1392  I  JOHN 18:36 36 ­Jesus said, “My king­dom a is not of this ­world. If it were, my ser­vants ­would ­fight to pre­vent my ar­rest by the Jew­ish lead­ers. b But now my king­dom is from an­oth­er place.” c

18:36 a Mt 3:2 b Mt 26:53 c Lk 17:21; Jn 6:15

WORD WEALTH 18:36 world, kosmos (kos-­moss); Strong’s #2889: Compare “cosmic,” “cosmogony,” “cosmopolitan.” Originally, kosmos was orderly arrangement, decor, adorning, beauty, symmetry and the regularity of the world order. Kosmos later focused on “the Earth” (contrasted with heaven) and the secular world. Often in the NT the word describes a world system alienated from and opposed to God, lying in the power of the Evil One.

KINGDOM DYNAMICS 18:36 John’s Writings, TERMINOLOGY OF THE KINGDOM. John is the only Gospel writer who records these words of Jesus: “My kingdom is not of this world.” Near the end of the first century, when John was writing his Gospel, Christians were often assailed with the accusation that their goals were not spiritual, but political. The Roman Empire was being filled with reborn citizens of a heavenly kingdom, but their “kingdom of God” terminology could be misunderstood. Thus, John adopts the phrase “eternal life,” as much to show the new quality of life Jesus Christ has brought as to describe its quantity. The idea of “eternal life” describes a divine dimension of life available to mankind, as well as a destined duration of “everlasting” endlessness. The words “eternal life” occur 15 times in John’s writings, “the kingdom of God” only 6. Some have thought John’s relatively infrequent use of “kingdom of God” suggested this message application was confined only to the time of Jesus’ ministry and the birth of “the church age.” Notwithstanding the fact that the birth of the church did introduce a new era in human history, the message of “the good news of God” was not changed. For example, see the thrust of its being taught/preached throughout Acts (20:25; 28:23,30–31). (Mt 19:23–24/Col 1:27–28) J.W.H.

37 “You are a king, then!” said Pi­late. ­Jesus an­swered, “You say that I am a king. In fact, the rea­son I was born and came into the w ­ orld is to tes­ti­fy to the ­truth. d Ev­ery­one on the side of ­truth lis­ tens to me.” e 38 “What is ­truth?” re­tort­ed Pi­late. With this he went out ­again to the Jews gath­ ered t­here and said, “I find no ba­sis for a ­charge ­against him.  f 39 But it is your cus­ tom for me to re­lease to you one pris­on­er at the time of the Pass­over. Do you want me to re­lease ‘the king of the Jews’?” 40  They shout­ed back, “No, not him! Give us Bar­ab­bas!” Now Bar­ab­bas had tak­en part in an up­ris­ing. g

­Jesus Sentenced to Be Crucified Then Pi­late took ­Jesus and had him ­flogged.  h 2 The sol­diers twist­ed to­ geth­er a ­crown of ­thorns and put it on his head. They c­ lothed him in a pur­ple robe 3  and went up to him ­again and ­again, say­ing, “Hail, king of the Jews!” i And they ­slapped him in the face. j 4  Once more Pi­late came out and said to the Jews gath­ered there, “Look, I am bring­ing him out k to you to let you know that I find no ba­sis for a ­charge ­against him.” l 5 When J­ esus came out wear­ing the ­crown of ­thorns and the pur­ple robe, m Pi­ late said to them, “Here is the man!” 6  As soon as the ­chief ­priests and ­their of­fi­cials saw him, they shout­ed, “Cru­ci­fy! Cru­ci­fy!” But Pi­late an­swered, “You take him and cru­ci­fy him.  n As for me, I find no ba­sis for a ­charge a­ gainst him.” o 7 The Jew­ ish lead­ers in­sist­ed, “We have a law, and ac­cord­ing to that law he must die, p be­cause he ­claimed to be the Son of God.” q 8  When Pi­late ­heard this, he was even more ­afraid, 9 and he went back in­side the pal­ace.  r “Where do you come from?” he ­asked J­ esus, but J­ esus gave him no an­ swer. s 10 “Do you refuse to s­ peak to me?” Pi­late said. “Don’t you re­al­ize I have pow­ er ei­ther to free you or to cru­ci­fy you?” 11 ­Jesus an­swered, “You ­ would have no pow­er over me if it were not giv­en to you from ­above. t There­fore the one who hand­ ed me over to you u is ­guilty of a great­er sin.” 12 From then on, Pi­late ­tried to set J ­ esus

19

18:37 d Jn 3:32 e Jn 8:47; 1Jn 4:6 18:38 f Lk 23:4; Jn 19:4, ​6 18:40 g Ac 3:14 19:1 h Dt 25:3; Isa 50:6; 53:5; Mt 27:26 19:3 i Mt 27:29 j Jn 18:22 19:4 k Jn 18:38 l ver 6; Lk 23:4 19:5 m ver 2 19:6 n Ac 3:13 o ver 4; Lk 23:4 19:7 p Lev 24:16 q Mt 26:63-66; Jn 5:18; 10:33 19:9 r Jn 18:33 s Mk 14:61 19:11 t Ro 13:1 u Jn 18:28-30; Ac 3:13

18:33–­38 The dialogue between Pilate and Jesus clarifies the true nature of the Lord’s kingship and emphasizes its abiding relevance. 18:36 See section 1 of Truth-­In-­Action at the end of John. 19:5 Here is the Man was not meant as a title of honor but was a mingling of pity and scorn. Pilate regarded the claims of Jesus as more fit for ridicule than for serious legal action.

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19:6 Crucifixion was the most hideous Roman method of execution, reserved only for slaves and criminals. The victim generally was nailed or tied to a crossbeam which was then mounted to an upright wooden pole. Crucifixion was despised and therefore not practiced by the Jews. Their disgust with this form of punishment is evident in Deuteronomy 21:23: “Anyone who is hung on a pole is under God’s curse.”

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SECOND PROOFS JOHN 19:37  I  1393

free, but the Jew­ish lead­ers kept shout­ ing, “If you let this man go, you are no ◊­ friend of Cae­sar. Any­one who ­claims to be a king v op­pos­es Cae­sar.” 13  When Pi­late h ­ eard this, he b ­ rought ­Jesus out and sat down on the ◊­judge’s seat w at a p ­ lace k ­ nown as the S ­ tone Pave­ ment (which in Ar­a­ma­ic  x is Gab­ba­tha). 14  It was the day of Prep­a­ra­tion y of the Pass­over; it was ­about noon. z “Here is your king,” a Pi­late said to the Jews. 15  But they shout­ed, “Take him away! Take him away! Cru­ci­fy him!” “Shall I cru­ ci­ fy your king?” Pi­ late asked. “We have no king but Cae­sar,” the ­chief ­priests an­swered. 16  Fi­nal­ly Pi­late hand­ed him over to them to be cru­ci­fied. b

19:12 v Lk 23:2 ◊ See WW at Jn 11:11. 19:13 w Mt 27:19 x Jn 5:2 ◊ See WW at Mt 27:19. 19:14 y Mt 27:62 z Mk 15:25 a ver 19, ​21 19:16 b Mt 27:26; Mk 15:15; Lk 23:25 19:17 c Ge 22:6; Lk 14:27; 23:26 d Lk 23:33 e Jn 5:2 19:18 f Lk 23:32 19:19 g Mk 1:24 h ver 14, ​21 19:20 i Heb 13:12 ◊ See WW at Mk 13:14. 19:21 j ver 14

The Crucifixion of ­Jesus So the sol­diers took c­ harge of J­esus. 17  Car­ry­ing his own ­cross,  c he went out to the ­place of the ­Skull d (which in Ar­a­ma­ic  e is ­called Gol­go­tha). 18  There they cru­ci­fied him, and with him two oth­ers f — ​one on each side and ­Jesus in the mid­dle. 19 Pi­ late had a no­tice pre­pared and fas­ tened to the c­ ross. It read: j­esus of naz­ ar ­ eth, g the king of the jews. h 20 Many of the Jews ◊read this sign, for the p ­ lace ­where J­ esus was cru­ci­fied was near the city, i and the sign was writ­ten in Ar­a­ma­ ic, Lat­in and ­Greek. 21 The ­chief ­priests of the Jews pro­test­ed to Pi­late, “Do not ­write ‘The King of the Jews,’ but that this man ­claimed to be king of the Jews.” j 22  Pi­late an­swered, “What I have writ­ ten, I have writ­ten.” 23  W hen the sol­d iers cru­c i­f ied ­J esus, they took his ­clothes, di­vid­ing them into four s­hares, one for each of them, with the un­der­gar­ment re­main­ing. This gar­ ment was seam­less, wo­ven in one ­piece from top to bot­tom. 24 “Let’s not tear it,” they said to one an­ oth­er. “Let’s de­cide by lot who will get it.”

19:24 k ver 28, ​ 36, ​37; Mt 1:22  Ps 22:18 19:25 m Mt 27:55, ​ 56; Mk 15:40, ​ 41; Lk 23:49 n Mt 12:46 o Lk 24:18 19:26 p Mt 12:46 q Jn 13:23 19:28 r ver 30; Jn 13:1 s ver 24, ​ 36, ​37 19:29 t Ps 69:21 19:30 u Lk 12:50; Jn 17:4 19:31 v ver 14, ​ 42 w Dt 21:23; Jos 8:29; 10:26, ​27 19:32 x ver 18 19:34 y Zec 12:10 z 1Jn 5:6, ​8 19:35 a Lk 24:48 b Jn 15:27; 21:24 19:36 c ver 24, ​ 28, ​37; Mt 1:22 d Ex 12:46; Nu 9:12; Ps 34:20 ◊ See WW at Ro 16:20.

a 24 Psalm 22:18    b 26 

l

This hap­pened that the scrip­ture ­might be ful­filled  k that said, “They divided my clothes among them and cast lots for my garment.” a l So this is what the sol­diers did. 25  Near the ­cross m of J­esus ­stood his moth­er,  n his moth­er’s sis­ter, Mary the wife of Clo­pas, and Mary Mag­da­lene. o 26 When ­Jesus saw his moth­er p ­there, and the dis­ ci­ple whom he ­loved q stand­ing near­by, he said to her, “Wom­an, b here is your son,” 27 and to the dis­ci­ple, “Here is your moth­ er.” From that time on, this dis­ci­ple took her into his home.

The Death of ­Jesus 28  Lat­er, know­ing that ev­ery­thing had now been fin­ished, r and so that Scrip­ ture ­would be ful­filled, s ­Jesus said, “I am ­thirsty.” 29 A jar of wine vin­egar t was ­there, so they ­soaked a ­sponge in it, put the ­sponge on a s­ talk of the hys­sop ­plant, and lift­ed it to ­Jesus’ lips. 30 When he had re­ceived the d ­ rink, J­ esus said, “It is fin­ ished.” u With that, he ­bowed his head and gave up his spir­it. 31  Now it was the day of Prep­a­ra­tion, v and the next day was to be a spe­cial Sab­bath. Be­cause the Jew­ish lead­ers did not want the bod­ies left on the cross­es w dur­ing the Sab­bath, they ­asked Pi­late to have the legs bro­ken and the bod­ies tak­en down. 32 The sol­diers there­fore came and ­broke the legs of the f­irst man who had been cru­ci­fied with J­ esus, and then t­hose of the oth­er. x 33 But when they came to ­Jesus and ­found that he was al­ready dead, they did not ­break his legs. 34  In­stead, one of the sol­diers ­pierced y ­Jesus’ side with a ­spear, bring­ing a sud­den flow of b ­ lood and wa­ter.  z 35 The man who saw it a has giv­en tes­ti­mo­ny, and his tes­ti­mo­ny is true. b He ­knows that he ­tells the ­truth, and he tes­ti­fies so that you also may be­ lieve. 36 These ­things hap­pened so that the scrip­ture ­would be ful­filled:  c “Not one of his b ­ ones will be ◊bro­ken,”  c d 37 and, as

The Greek for Woman does not denote any disrespect.    c 36  Exodus 12:46; Num. 9:12; Psalm 34:20    d 37 Zech. 12:10   

19:13 The Stone Pavement, also called Gabbatha (“an elevated place”), was a raised platform upon which Pilate sat in judgment. Archaeologists identify it with an excavated Roman pavement that formed the courtyard of the Tower of Antonia. 19:14 Day of Preparation was the day immediately prior to a particular festival, the Passover in this case. Since all religious festivals began on the Sabbath, the day of Preparation was Friday. 19:17 The victim was forced to carry only the crossbeam to the place of execution. 19:19–­22 It was customary to place the charge for crucifixion over the victim’s cross. One would suspect a charge of sedition. Pilate’s bitter irony achieved a measure of revenge against those who had entrapped him into a condemnation of Jesus.

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19:25–­27 To the very last, Jesus’ earthly life demonstrated the priority he placed on love and concern in relationships. 19:30 It is finished: The Greek tense indicates that the work of redemption has been completed once for all and its results are abiding continuously. 19:31–­33 Jewish law dictated that the bodies of executed criminals be removed from sight before sunset (Dt 21:23). When the legs were broken, the victims could no longer ease the strain on their arms and chests, causing a greater constriction in their chests, which hastened death. 19:34–­37 Whether or not the blood and water may be joint symbols of redemption and evidences of the humanity of Jesus (see 1Jn 5:6–­8), John sees the piercing of Jesus’ side as a fulfillment of prophecy.

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SECOND PROOFS 1394  I  JOHN 19:38

WORD WEALTH 19:35 testimony, marturia (mar-­too-­ree-­ ah); Strong’s #3141: Compare “martyr.” Witness, historical attestation, evidence, judicial or general certification. The word describes a testimony based on what one has seen, heard or knows. The English word “martyr” comes from the Greek root, with the implication that a witness is willing to die for his belief.

19:37 e Zec 12:10; Rev 1:7 ◊ See WW at Ac 4:12. 19:39 f Jn 3:1; 7:50 19:40 g Lk 24:12; Jn 11:44; 20:5, ​ 7 h Mt 26:12 19:41 ◊ See WW at 2Co 5:17. 19:42 i ver 14, ​ 31 j ver 20, ​41

◊an­ oth­er

scrip­ture says, “They will look on the one they have pierced.” d e

The Burial of ­Jesus 38  Lat­er, Jo­seph of Ar­i­ma­thea ­asked Pi­ late for the body of ­Jesus. Now Jo­seph was a dis­ci­ple of J­ esus, but se­cret­ly be­ cause he f­eared the Jew­ish lead­ers. With Pi­late’s per­mis­sion, he came and took the body away. 39  He was ac­com­pa­nied by Nic­o­de­mus,  f the man who ear­li­er had vis­ it­ed ­Jesus at ­night. Nic­o­de­mus ­brought a mix­ture of m ­ yrrh and al­oes, a­ bout sev­en­ ty-five ­pounds.  a 40 Tak­ing ­Jesus’ body, the two of them ­wrapped it, with the spic­ es, in s­ trips of lin­en. g This was in ac­cor­ dance with Jew­ish buri­al cus­toms. h 41 At the ­place ­where ­Jesus was cru­ci­fied, ­there was a gar­den, and in the gar­den a ◊new tomb, in ­which no one had ever been laid. 42 Be­ cause it was the Jew­ish day of Prep­ a­ra­tion  i and ­since the tomb was near­by, j they laid J­ esus there. a 39 Or

20:1 k ver 18; Jn 19:25 l Mt 27:60, ​66 ◊ See WW at Jn 12:46. 20:2 m Jn 13:23 n ver 13 ◊ See WW at Jn 21:15. 20:3 o Lk 24:12 20:5 p ver 11 q Jn 19:40 20:6 ◊ See WW at Jn 20:14. 20:7 r Jn 11:44 20:8 s ver 4 20:9 t Mt 22:29; Jn 2:22 u Lk 24:26, ​46 ◊ See WW at Jn 5:39. 20:11 v ver 5 20:12 w Mt 28:2, ​ 3; Mk 16:5; Lk 24:4; Ac 5:19 ◊ See WW at Mt 4:11.

The Empty Tomb Ear­ly on the ­first day of the week, ­while it was ­still ◊dark, Mary Mag­ da­lene  k went to the tomb and saw that the ­stone had been re­moved from the en­ trance. l 2 So she came run­ning to Si­mon Pe­ter and the oth­er dis­ci­ple, the one ­Jesus ◊­loved,  m and said, “They have tak­ en the Lord out of the tomb, and we ­don’t know ­where they have put him!” n 3 So Pe­ ter and the oth­er dis­ci­ple start­ed for the tomb. o 4 Both were run­ning, but the oth­er dis­ci­ple out­ran Pe­ter and ­reached the tomb ­first. 5 He bent over and ­looked in p at the ­strips of lin­en q ly­ing ­there but did not go in. 6 Then Si­mon Pe­ter came ­along be­hind him and went ­straight into the tomb. He ◊saw the ­strips of lin­en ly­ing ­there, 7 as well as the ­cloth that had been ­wrapped ­around ­Jesus’ head.  r The ­cloth was ­still ly­ing in its p ­ lace, sep­a­rate from the lin­en. 8  Fi­nal­ly the oth­er dis­ci­ple, who had ­reached the tomb ­first, s also went in­ side. He saw and be­lieved. 9 (They ­still did not un­der­stand from ◊Scrip­ture  t that ­Jesus had to rise from the dead.) u 10 Then the dis­ci­ples went back to w ­ here they were stay­ing.

20

­Jesus Appears to Mary Magdalene 11  Now Mary ­stood out­side the tomb cry­ing. As she wept, she bent over to look into the tomb v 12 and saw two ◊an­ gels in w ­ hite, w seat­ed ­where ­Jesus’ body had been, one at the head and the oth­er at the foot.

about 34 kilograms   

THE DEATH OF JESUS (19:42)

The world viewed Jesus’ death as a scandal and as foolishness (1Co 1:18–25). The church ­understood his death as fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy. Aspect of Jesus’ Death

Old Testament Reference

In obedience to his Father (18:11)

Psalm 40:8

Announced by himself (18:32; see 3:14)

Numbers 21:8–9

In the place of his people (18:14)

Isaiah 53:4–6

With evildoers (19:18)

Isaiah 53:12

In innocence (19:6)

Isaiah 53:9

Crucified (19:18)

Psalm 22:16

Buried in a rich man’s tomb (19:38–42)

Isaiah 53:9

19:38–­39 Both Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus were ranged, but still retained the shape they had when they covered the members of the Sanhedrin and had apparently become covert body, the upper layer having fallen on the lower from the weight disciples of Jesus. of the spices, and the head wrapping separated from the rest by the length of the neck. Apparently the body had simply passed 20:1–­10 The first day of the week: The resurrection distin- through the burial shroud. guishes Christianity from all other religions. In commemoration and celebration of this event, Christians gather on Sunday to worship 20:2 The other disciple was John, the writer of this Gospel. the resurrected Lord. The graveclothes were not unwound or disar- 20:12 See note on Luke 24:4.

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SECOND PROOFS JOHN 20:26  I  1395

 They a­ sked her, “Wom­an, why are you cry­ing?”  x “They have tak­en my Lord away,” she said, “and I ­don’t know ­where they have put him.” y 14 At this, she ­turned ­around and saw ­Jesus stand­ing ­there,  z but she did not re­al­ize that it was ­Jesus. a 15  He a­ sked her, “Wom­an, why are you cry­ing? b Who is it you are look­ing for?” Think­ing he was the gar­den­er, she said, “Sir, if you have car­ried him away, tell me ­where you have put him, and I will get him.” 16 ­Jesus said to her, “Mary.” She ­turned to­ward him and c­ ried out ­ eans in Ar­a­ma­ic,  c “Rab­bo­ni!”  d (which m “Teach­er”). 17 ­Jesus said, “Do not hold on to me, for I have not yet as­cend­ed to the Fa­ther. Go in­stead to my broth­ers e and tell them, ‘I am as­cend­ing to my Fa­ther f and your Fa­ ther, to my God and your God.’ ” 18  Mary Mag­da­lene  g went to the dis­ ci­ples  h with the news: “I have seen the Lord!” And she told them that he had said ­these t­hings to her. 13

20:13 x ver 15 y ver 2 20:14 z Mt 28:9; Mk 16:9 a Lk 24:16; Jn 21:4 20:15 b ver 13 20:16 c Jn 5:2 d Mt 23:7 20:17 e Mt 28:10 f Jn 7:33 20:18 g ver 1 h Lk 24:10, ​ 22, ​23 20:19 i Jn 7:13 j Jn 14:27 k ver 21, ​26; Lk 24:36‑39 ◊ See WW at 1Jn 4:18. 20:20 l Lk 24:39, ​ 40; Jn 19:34 m Jn 16:20, ​22 ◊ See WW at Mt 10:1. 20:21 n ver 19 o Jn 3:17 p Mt 28:19; Jn 17:18 20:22 q Jn 7:39; Ac 2:38; 8:15-17; 19:2; Gal 3:2 ◊ See WW at Ac 7:33.

­Jesus Appears to His Disciples 19 On the eve­ning of that f ­ irst day of the week, when the dis­ci­ples were to­geth­er, with the d ­ oors l­ocked for ◊fear of the Jew­ ish lead­ers,  i ­Jesus came and s­ tood a­ mong them and said, “Peace j be with you!” k 20  Af­ter he said this, he s­ howed them his ­hands and side. l The ◊dis­ci­ples were over­ joyed m when they saw the Lord. 21 Again J ­ esus said, “Peace be with you! n As the Fa­ther has sent me, o I am send­ing you.” p 22 And with that he ­breathed on them and said, “Re­ceive the ◊Holy Spir­it. q WORD WEALTH 20:14 saw, theoreo (theh-­oh-­reh-­oh); Strong’s #2334: Compare “theater,” “theory,” “theoretical.” To behold, view attentively, perceive, look with a prolonged and continuous gaze. Theoreo conveys looking with a purpose, with interest and with close scrutiny. a 24 

20:23 r Mt 16:19; 18:18 20:24 s Jn 11:16 20:25 t ver 20 u Mk 16:11

WORD WEALTH 20:21 sent, apostello (ap-­os-­tel-­low); Strong’s #649: Compare “apostolic.” To commission, set apart for a special service, send a message by someone, send out with a mission to fulfill, equip and dispatch one with the full backing and authority of the sender.  If you for­give any­one’s sins, ­their sins are for­giv­en; if you do not for­give them, they are not for­giv­en.” r

23

­Jesus Appears to Thomas 24  Now Thom­as  s (also ­ known as Did­y­ mus a ), one of the ­Twelve, was not with the dis­ci­ples when J­ esus came. 25 So the oth­er dis­ci­ples told him, “We have seen the Lord!” But he said to them, “Un­less I see the nail ­marks in his ­hands and put my fin­ger ­where the ­nails were, and put my hand into his side, t I will not be­lieve.” u 26 A week lat­ er his dis­ci­ples were in the KINGDOM DYNAMICS 20:22 The Holy Spirit and the New Birth, HOLY SPIRIT FULLNESS. Jesus’ words “Receive the Holy Spirit” help to set in context two different works of the Holy Spirit in a believer’s life. First, here on Easter night, the disciples do, in fact, “receive the Holy Spirit” as “the Spirit who gives life” (Ro 8:2). Jesus’ word is direct and unequivocal: “Receive”; and in doing so, the disciples are “born again” (Jn 3:3) by the Holy Spirit’s regenerating work in them (Ro 8:11–­17). This passage parallels the breath of the Father on Adam in the first creation, as Jesus breathes on them and the “new creation” is begun (2Co 5:17). Second, however, on Pentecost the work of God’s Spirit as the Spirit of power (Isa 11:2, “might”) is to enable Jesus’ disciples for ministry—­witness and service—­ to fulfill their mission to the world. (Lk 24:49/Ac 1:5–­8) S.G.B.

Thomas (Aramaic) and Didymus (Greek) both mean twin.   

20:17–­18 Do not hold on to me reinforces the now changed condition that is to exist between Master and disciple, a condition which Jesus tells Mary will be fully inaugurated with the ascension. There is no justification for the carnal presumption asserted by sinful minds that some amorous feelings existed between Mary Magdalene and Jesus. There is neither any evidence that she had been a prostitute (only that she had experienced a great deliverance, Luke 8:2), nor that her age was even approximate to Jesus’ age. Her companying with a group of older women argues otherwise, John 19:25.

20:20 The appearance of the risen Christ dispelled the fears of the disciples. They were convinced that he was the same Jesus who had been crucified a few days earlier, as the scars in his hands and side showed. 20:21–­23 The commissioning of the disciples to the mission of Christ is what made them “apostles,” or “sent-­forth ones.” The empowerment for such mission comes through the Holy Spirit, poured out upon all believers at Pentecost. See note on 3:32–­36. 20:22 Breathed: The allusion to Genesis 2:7 is unmistakable. Now Jesus breathed life into his own. Some interpret the state20:19 Closed doors were not a barrier to the risen Lord (see v. 26). ment Receive the Holy Spirit as symbolic and as anticipating

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SECOND PROOFS 1396  I  JOHN 20:27

­ ouse ­again, and Thom­as was with them. h ­Though the ­doors were ­locked, ­Jesus came and s­ tood ­among them and said, “Peace v be with you!” w 27 Then he said to Thom­ as, “Put your fin­ger here; see my ­hands. ­Reach out your hand and put it into my side. Stop doubt­ing and be­lieve.” x 28  Thom­as said to him, “My Lord and my God!” 29  Then ­Jesus told him, “Be­cause you have seen me, you have be­ l ieved; y ◊­blessed are ­those who have not seen and yet have be­lieved.” z

The Purpose of John’s Gospel 30 ­Jesus per­formed many oth­er ◊­signs  a in the pres­ence of his dis­ci­ples, w ­ hich are not re­cord­ed in this book. b 31  But ­these are writ­ten that you may be­lieve a c that ­Jesus is the ◊Mes­si­ah, the Son of God, d and that by be­liev­ing you may have life in his name. e ­Jesus and the Miraculous Catch of Fish Af­ter­ward ­Jesus ap­peared ­again to his dis­ci­ples,  f by the Sea of Gal­i­ lee. b g It hap­pened this way: 2  Si­mon Pe­ter, ­ nown as Did­y­mus c ), Na­ Thom­as  h (also k than­a­el  i from Cana in Gal­i­lee, j the sons of Zeb­e­dee,  k and two oth­er dis­ci­ples were to­geth­er. 3 “I’m go­ing out to fish,” Si­mon Pe­ter told them, and they said, “We’ll go with you.” So they went out and got into the boat, but that ­night they ­caught noth­ ing. l 4  Ear­ly in the morn­ing, J­ esus s­ tood on the ­shore, but the dis­ci­ples did not re­al­ize that it was J­ esus. m 5  He ­ c alled out to them, “Friends, ­haven’t you any fish?” “No,” they an­swered. 6 He said, “Throw your net on the r ­ight side of the boat and you will find some.” When they did, they were un­able to haul the net in be­cause of the ­large num­ber of fish. n 7  Then the dis­ci­ple whom ­Jesus l­oved o said to Pe­ter, “It is the Lord!” As soon as Si­mon Pe­ter ­heard him say, “It is the Lord,” he w ­ rapped his out­er gar­ment a­ round him (for he had tak­en it off) and ­jumped into

20:26 v Jn 14:27 w ver 21 20:27 x ver 25; Lk 24:40 20:29 y Jn 3:15 z 1Pe 1:8 ◊ See WW at Mt 5:3. 20:30 a Jn 2:11 b Jn 21:25 ◊ See WW at Rev 16:14. 20:31 c Jn 3:15; 19:35 d Mt 4:3 e Mt 25:46 ◊ See WW at 2Ti 4:1. 21:1 f Jn 20:19, ​ 26 g Jn 6:1 21:2 h Jn 11:16 i Jn 1:45 j Jn 2:1 k Mt 4:21 21:3 l Lk 5:5 21:4 m Lk 24:16; Jn 20:14 21:6 n Lk 5:4‑7 21:7 o Jn 13:23

­Jesus Reinstates Peter 15 When they had fin­ished eat­ing, J ­ esus said to Si­mon Pe­ter, “Si­mon son of John, do you love me more than these?” “Yes, Lord,” he said, “you know that I love you.” t ­Jesus said, “Feed my ◊lambs.” u 16 Again ­Jesus said, “Si­mon son of John, do you love me?” He an­swered, “Yes, Lord, you know that I love you.” ­Jesus said, “Take care of my sheep.” v 17 The ­third time he said to him, “Si­mon son of John, do you love me?” Pe­ter was hurt be­cause J­ esus a­ sked him the t­hird time, “Do you love me?” w He

21

a 31 Or

the wa­ter. 8  The oth­er dis­ci­ples fol­lowed in the boat, tow­ing the net full of fish, for they were not far from s­ hore, ­about a hun­dred ­yards.  d 9 When they land­ed, they saw a fire p of burn­ing ­coals ­there with fish on it, q and some bread. 10 ­ Jesus said to them, “Bring some of the fish you have just caught.” 11 So Si­ mon Pe­ter ­climbed back into the boat and ­dragged the net ­ashore. It was full of ­large fish, 153, but even with so many the net was not torn. 12 ­Jesus said to them, “Come and have break­fast.” None of the dis­ci­ ples ­dared ask him, “Who are you?” They knew it was the Lord. 13 ­Jesus came, took the ­bread and gave it to them, and did the same with the fish. r 14 This was now the ­third time ­Jesus ap­peared to his dis­ci­ples s af­ter he was r­ aised from the dead.

21:9 p Jn 18:18 q ver 10, ​13 21:13 r ver 9 21:14 s Jn 20:19, ​26 21:15 t Mt 26:33, ​ 35; Jn 13:37 u Lk 12:32 ◊ See WW at Rev 6:1. 21:16 v Mt 2:6; Ac 20:28; 1Pe 5:2, ​3 21:17 w Jn 13:38

WORD WEALTH 21:15 love, phileo (fill-­ eh-­oh); Strong’s #5368: Compare “philharmonic,” “philosophy,” “philology.” To be fond of, care for affectionately, cherish, take pleasure in, have personal attachment for. Jesus asked Peter twice if he had agape love. Peter answered with phileo, which at that moment was all he had to give. Later, when the Holy Spirit imparted to him the fuller understanding of agape love, Peter used the agape/agapao words nine times in his writings.

may continue to believe    b 1 Greek Tiberias    c 2  Thomas (Aramaic) and Didymus (Greek) both mean twin.    d 8 Or about 90 meters   

20:30–­31 John states both his method and his purpose in writing. 21:1–­14 The appearances of the risen Christ in chapter 20 took place in the vicinity of Jerusalem. But this one was in Galilee, where the disciples had returned to their secular occupation as fishermen. The miraculous catch of fish and breakfast with their Master convinced them of who he was, and yet left them too awed to spoil 20:23 The disciples are to preach both the way of salvation and with words the wonder of his presence and actions. the way of damnation explaining how sinners can be forgiven and 21:15–­19 After his threefold denial of Jesus, Peter needed special the danger of rejecting the gospel. Whether or not the hearers’ sins attention. In his reply to Jesus’ threefold question Do you love me? are forgiven depends on their acceptance or rejection of Christ. Peter uses a less emphatic word, not daring to claim a complete Pentecost. Others understand the Greek to denote immediacy in the sense of “receive right now,” and view the day of the Lord’s resurrection as marking the transition from the terms of the Old Covenant to those of the New Covenant. The old creation began with the breath of God; now the new creation begins with the breath of God the Son.

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SECOND PROOFS JOHN 21:25  I  1397 ◊“Lord,

you know all ­things;  you said, know that I love you.” ­Jesus said, “Feed my ­sheep. y 18 Very tru­ly I tell you, when you were youn­ger you ­dressed your­self and went w ­ here you want­ed; but when you are old you will ­stretch out your ­hands, and some­one else will d ­ ress you and lead you w ­ here you do not want to go.” 19 ­Jesus said this to in­di­cate the kind of d ­ eath z by ­which Pe­ter ­would glo­ri­fy God.  a Then he said to him, “Fol­low me!” 20 Pe­ter ­turned and saw that the dis­ci­ple whom ­Jesus ­loved  b was fol­low­ing them. (This was the one who had l­eaned back ­against ­Jesus at the sup­per and had said, “Lord, who is go­ing to be­tray you?”) c x

21:17 x Jn 16:30 y ver 16 ◊ See WW at Jn 6:68. 21:19 z Jn 12:33; 18:32 a 2Pe 1:14 21:20 b ver 7; Jn 13:23 c Jn 13:25 21:22 d Mt 16:27; 1Co 4:5; Rev 2:25 e ver 19 21:23 f Ac 1:16 21:24 g Jn 15:27 h Jn 19:35 ◊ See WW at Ac 26:22. ◊ See WW at Jn 19:35. 21:25 i Jn 20:30 ◊ See WW at Jn 18:36.

devotion. In the third form of the question, Jesus uses the same word for love that Peter had used, inquiring if Peter even had the affection that he claimed. Peter can only appeal to the Lord’s divine knowledge as proof of his sincerity. The ultimate call for Peter to follow his Master epitomizes the Lord’s threefold commission for

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 When Pe­ter saw him, he a­ sked, “Lord, what ­about him?” 22 ­Jesus an­swered, “If I want him to re­ main ­alive un­til I re­turn, d what is that to you? You must fol­low me.” e 23  Be­cause of this, the ru­mor s­ pread a­ mong the be­liev­ ­ ould not die. But ers f that this dis­ci­ple w ­Jesus did not say that he ­would not die; he only said, “If I want him to re­main ­alive un­til I re­turn, what is that to you?” 24  This is the dis­ci­ple who ◊tes­ti­fies to ­these ­things  g and who ­wrote them down. We know that his ◊tes­ti­mo­ny is true.  h 25 ­ Jesus did many oth­er ­things as well. i If ev­ery one of them were writ­ten down, I sup­pose that even the ­whole ◊­world ­would not have room for the ­books that ­would be writ­ten. 21

him to be a shepherd to the sheep. 21:20–­23 The emphasis does not rest on the rather mysterious reference to the fate of the beloved disciple but on the individualization of the call to discipleship. The specifics may vary from one individual to another, but the demand for obedience is the same.

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SECOND PROOFS

TRUTH IN ACTION THROUGH JOHN

Letting the Life of the Holy Spirit Bring Faith’s Works Alive in You!

TRUTH

1

JOHN TEACHES

Growing in Godliness

To the NT disciple, godly living is living in, through and for Jesus. Godliness includes these three elements: love, obedience and unity. By living godly lives, we learn to see things as God does and adopt his Word as our only standard.

ACTION TEXT

Judge spiritual things by spiritual standards, not by appearance.

12:32

Exalt Jesus in your life and service to draw men to him.

15:9–­14

Recognize that love obeys Jesus and lays down its life for others.

17:20–­23

Commit yourself to the unity of the church.

18:36

Dynamic 2Cultivating Devotion

John’s Gospel introduces the Holy Spirit as the key to a truly dynamic devotion to God. It anticipates the outpouring of the Holy Spirit who will become the very energy of the believer’s devotional life. The Holy Spirit will maximize prayer and worship, minister through the Lord’s Supper and enable believers to continually draw their lives from Jesus Christ himself.

3Pursuing Holiness

Obeying Jesus is evidence that we love him and are his disciples. Our obedience is vital to holy living. The Holy Spirit teaches us and gives us understanding of the Scriptures, enabling us to obey the Lord.

4The Walk of Faith

A key word in John’s Gospel is “believe.” Faith is important to our understanding of Scripture and to the Spirit’s activity in our lives. Faith, like love, evidences itself in obedience. Faith approaches God boldly to receive from him.

JOHN INVITES

7:24

Practice Christian citizenship, but realize that the world system is often opposed to God’s kingdom.

4:21–­24

Worship God frequently, with your spiritual language as well as your understanding.

6:53–­58

Draw on Jesus’ life and healing while partaking of his body and blood in the Lord’s Supper.

12:2–­8

Do not allow your ministry for Jesus to distract you from your more important ministry to him.

15:1–­8

Reject independence from God. Nurture an increasingly deepened relationship with Jesus Christ.

2:5

Practice instant obedience to God and his Word.

5:16–­23

Follow Jesus’ example in Scripture, knowing that he did only what he saw the Father doing.

7:17–18

Determine to obey the Lord. Align your will with his will.

14:15–­24

Know that you show your love for Jesus by obeying him. Diligently keep God’s Word, and steadfastly abide in his presence.

10:37–38

Believe in the miracles of Jesus.

11:40

Understand that the glory of God is revealed to those who believe.

14:6–7

Recognize that Jesus is the only way to God. Know Jesus to know God.

14:12–­14 16:24

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Pray for and expect the “greater things” ministry of the church. Do not neglect to ask the Father for those things you need to live and do his work.

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SECOND PROOFS TRUTH JOHN TEACHES

the Christ-­in-­You 5Living Life

The Gospel of John is uniquely structured around seven “I am” sayings. Most of these sayings are linked to a miracle that brings further revelation of that truth through the manifestation of the Spirit. We are to know Jesus in spirit and in truth. To walk in faith we must know the truth of who Jesus is and experience by the Spirit the reality of that truth. It is vital that our faith be more than just head knowledge, but that our hearts and lives are affected by that truth. Faith is not static but dynamic.

for Growth in 6Guidelines the Spirit

John’s Gospel introduces the Holy Spirit’s role in spiritual growth. The new birth and the baptism with the Holy Spirit endow the believer with the life and gifts of the Holy Spirit, including the ability to pray in Spirit power. The Holy Spirit is our teacher, helper, advocate and guide. He is our source of true spiritual understanding. He lifts up Jesus and builds up believers, enabling them to live the Christian life.

ACTION TEXT

JOHN INVITES

6:5–­13, 35, 48–­51

Feed on Jesus, the bread of life. Do this practically through regularly celebrating communion and reading the Word of God.

8:12; 9:1–­7

Follow Jesus who is the light of the world; in him is the light of life. The light of Jesus brings sight to both the spiritually and physically blind. Do the works of Jesus while there is still opportunity.

10:7–­18

By faith enter into abundant life through Jesus, who is the gate. Understand that only through Jesus will you find eternal life, because Jesus, the Good Shepherd, gave his life for you.

11:1–­44

Believe in Jesus who is the resurrection and the life. The raising of Lazarus from the dead was a demonstration of the glory of God and showed Jesus’ power over death. We no longer need to fear death because Jesus has overcome it and offers us eternal life (Heb 2:14–15).

14:6

Come to the Father through Jesus. Jesus is the way to God that you have sought. He is the truth for which you have searched. He is the life for which you have longed.

15:1–­8

Abide in Jesus, the true vine. Remain in him, staying continually present with him. Then you will experience growth, maturity and productivity for the kingdom of God.

3:3

Understand that perceiving the kingdom of God and entering it are impossible without spiritual rebirth.

14:25–26

Understand that the Holy Spirit enables God’s people to understand and live by the truth.

16:8–­11

Ask the Holy Spirit to bring conviction to people’s hearts. Understand that is one of his primary ministries.

16:12–­15

Understand that knowing the truth of God’s Word is made possible by the Holy Spirit.

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New Spirit-Filled Life Bible (NIV)  

This outstanding resource offers a fresh look at the Scriptures and the work of the Holy Spirit. Jack Hayford, founding pastor of The Churc...

New Spirit-Filled Life Bible (NIV)  

This outstanding resource offers a fresh look at the Scriptures and the work of the Holy Spirit. Jack Hayford, founding pastor of The Churc...

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