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Rebel Mag. By: Jesus Cruz and Thomas Fair

- Haitian Revolution - The Boston Massacre - The Story of Benedict Arnold

Nathanael Greene: Guilford Courthouse


Revolution in Haiti! 1791—1804

R

evolution is in the air. With the American and French revolutions finished, we meet with Toussaint L'ouverture and his rebellion of slaves in the Carribean. The island is St. Dominiques, and it is home to some of the largest amounts of slaves during the time. As the French Revolution went through its course, many people started to realize the true meaning of the Revolution. This brought ideas and questions to the people of St. Dominiques. These ideas and questions sparked the revolution. The leader of the slave rebels is Toussaint L'ouverture, a self taught leader who ran Napoleon's army out of St. Dominiques. One of the key factors for the Haitians is that St. Dominiques is their home ground. With knowledge of the island and the adaption to insects like mosquitos, they were able to

defeat the French. After the Rebels won, St. Dominiques was transformed into the Republic of Haiti. This was the first time a slave revolution ended in the creation of a state.

Toussaint L’Ouverture Toussaint was a brilliant self educated man who believed in equal rights for all. He led the Haitians in their revolution. Napoleon made an offering of peace to end the revolution in Haiti. A few months later, he invited Toussaint to a meeting promising full safe conduct. Toussaint was then arrested by Napoleon's guards and taken back to France. There, Napoleon sent him to a prison in the mountains where he later died. The Haitians carried on their revolution and later won.


By John Peter Zenger

The Zenger Talk Hello, I’m John Peter Zenger, and this is The Zenger Talk. Today, I will be interviewing one of the most controversial men in this war, Benedict Arnold. What did you do before the war, Mr. Arnold? Well, before the war I worked in New England as a merchant operating ships. Before this though, I had served in the militia during the French & Indian War. This gave me some prior battle experience. Anyway, I was working as a merchant, and then the British started to make things hard on me and other merchants. They put new acts in, such as the Sugar Act and Stamp Act. Then, when the war came around, I joined the army just outside Boston. How did you get yourself to become Major General in the U.S. Continental Army? Well, like any rank advancement, I put hard work and bravery into my job. Soon, I was involved in fort take overs, such as Ticonderoga, and defensive holdings, such as Valcour, even though we lost. What kind of trouble did you get in with the U.S. Congress? After my Injury in Saratoga, I started to get passed over for rank advancements, usually because other officers claimed what I did in the war as theirs. Soon, I started to be blamed for issues such as corruption. Finally, after many cases, Congress told me I was in debt to them £1000. What really made you switch sides to the British? Well, I was frustrated and angry at the U.S. Congress, and the British made me a good offer. I was to be paid £360 and in total, I made £6000. What did you do as a new member of the British Army? My job was to hold my position as the command of West Point. When the time came, I was to hand over West Point to the British. The plot was soon foiled when a man was captured carrying the documents of my plan. I soon fled down the Hudson to the British area. This is where I became a Brigadier General and would stay until the war ended in York Town. Where did you go after the war? What did you do there? After the war, I returned to England with my second wife. There, I became a Merchant again with my son. I would remain in England.


Thomas Jefferson a Red Coat? Our expert artist drew what he and many have said Thomas Jefferson has been wearing. His attire is nonother than the uniform of the British Army. Yes I know this may be disturbing, but our hero is being rumored as a traitor. Inside sources have also told us that that Mr. Jefferson and the King have been planning this “Revolution for years�. Though nothing has been confirmed, paintings have never looked so convincing. In fact, its like you can almost see his inner Red Coat by staring into his drawn eyes. So next time you see Mr. Jefferson around, be warned he is dangerous and probably waiting to have his strike on the uprising Revolution. What will you do about this?


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Nathanael Gr of Guilford C By: Thomas Fair


reene: Battle Courthouse


N

athanael Greene took command of the Southern Continental Army in Charlotte, NC on December 2, 1780 after being appointed to General by George Washington on October 5, 1780. He effectively became the second-incommand of the army only behind Commander-inChief, George Washington.

After losing Savannah and Charleston to the British, Greene, a strategist, brought new and different plans to battles for the rebel army. His job was to stop General Cornwallis as he was on his way to Virginia. General Cornwallis Brings Problems

possible to slowly defeat and break up the British Troops. The Execution His strategy would prove to work when Colonel William Campbell and his troops defeated 100% of British forces at the Battle of Kings Mountain. After this, General Daniel Morgan defeated nearly 90% of British forces at the battle of Cowpens. Daniel Morgan would now execute a strategic retreat towards the Salisbury District. He was then joined by Greene at Cowan’s Ford on the Catawba River where they fought a small force of Cornwallis’s troops. Still, Greene’s troops were minimal and had little chance to defeat the mighty Cornwallis. In a majority decision, Greene decided to keep retreating and gather more forces. He then wrote to Patrick Henry requesting about 1500 troops to meet up at the Dan River. Guarding the retreating troops back was Col. Otho Williams and his special light corps.

Cornwallis was heading North, and on the way he would attempt to gather many of the Loyalists in The Retreat to Dan River Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. With his Col. Williams was to harass the large but slow moving new, fresh troops, he would try to overwhelm the British Army. Thus, Nathanael Greene could make it battered Virginia army. General Greene was under great stress when going up against the smart General Cornwallis and his mighty army. His army was rag tagged and small. It did not have the needed equipment and was already tired from previous battles. He would need a new strategy, one that almost expanded small armies, and had a great effect on the larger more formal armies. The Strategy The small, broken army would need to split up in order to have a chance of beating Cornwallis. This way Cornwallis would need to divide his army making it

to Dan River and meet up with the 1500 troops. If Greene could get there first, he could move all of the boats so that the British would never be able to cross.


The Battle of Guilford Court House Nathanael and his now grown army re-crossed the Dan River to pursue Cornwallis. On March 15, 1781, the British met the Continental Army at the Guilford County Courthouse at midday. The first engagement occurred four miles from the courthouse, with Harry Lee’s (Light Horse Larry Lee: Father of Gen. Robert E. Lee, General of the Confederate Army) Dragoons. The British sent reinforcements forward, and Lee ordered a retreat to the main body of Greene’s Army. Greene had set up his army into three lines. The first line consisted of North Carolina Militia. In the second line, he placed Virginia Militia with two 6 lbs. Cannons. His third line consisted of his regulars from Virginia Regiment, Delaware Infantry, and the 1st and 2nd Maryland Regiments. The third line was his best line. The British rushed forward but were soon halted by the 1st line who rested on a picket fence to aim precisely at the British. The 1st line to the west fled back through the woods. While the British forced themselves through the first two lines, they suffered significant losses. When Lt. Macleod arrived, he ordered two British cannons to fire directly on the Dragoons, but when doing this, he was also firing on his own men.

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An American Defeat, but a Strategic British Loss Though the British won the Battle, they lost almost 25% of their troops, but Nathanael Greene and his army had done what they needed to do. Cornwallis and the British would then march on to Yorktown where General George Washington would defeat them.

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Honest Abe too much! we are tired of being used by Britain! we want to become independent so that we don’t have to pay stupid taxes on things just for their profit! We no longer want to be connected to the corrupt! We have been under their power for too Dear Abraham, long and we need to My name is distance our selves Johnathan, I am con- from them before fused on why we are we become influat war with the red- enced any more by coats? Why are we them going against the founders of the colonies? Why don't we Dear Mary, Hey Mary thank help them? you for your quesDear Johnathan, tion, I have kids of We are at war my own but are both because we have boys. I think that been pushed around Dear Abraham, Hey Abraham, my name is Mary I am a local house wife with two kids. My son is 12 and he currently goes to school, my daughter is 10 and stays home to help me, she has become more and more interested in “Why she doesn't go to school?”. I have thought about letting her go but I’m not sure I if I should. I need your help with deciding.

every one should get an education if they want it, your Daughter is interested in education so I say let her be educated. It doesn't seem fair if you don't let her do what one of your kids is doing because of their gender.


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Letter To The Editor

Rebel Magazine March, 1770

Dear Rebel Magazine Editor, I have been reading Rebel Magazine for a long time now and I have enjoyed the content your magazine includes. I just wanted to give my feedback on one piece of content I think deserves more coverage on. This event happened in your earliest spring edition of the magazine and seemed to be rushed by the way it was carelessly written. The early spring edition of the magazine was published March, 7, 1770, two days after the tragic incident that happened here in Boston. The article was named The Boston Massacre because of the events that transpired that day. Great Britain was the start to this conflict that caused mistrust between the colonial people and the British. Britain tried passing the Townshend Acts which would raise taxes on glass, paint, oil, lead, and tea. Colonial people where enraged and protested. March, 5, 1770 was the day People went in front of the Customs Office in Boston Massachusetts and started to throw objects and insult the soldiers, as a result 5 people died after British soldiers fired into a crowed of people. This event was said to have been the start of these conflicts that will surely cause a war between the colonies and the British. I think that Britain should be blamed for the conflicts between the people of the colonies and their own soldiers. There were crowds of people outraged by the acts that the soldiers took, as a result the governor arrested the soldiers and now they are awaiting trial. Two of the soldiers were found guilty and the rest were acquitted. We need to watch what the British are doing because they are not to be trusted after the action they took on the people of the colonies. Sincerely, Adam Johnson


Puzzle of the Month People and Events of the Revolutionary Period

ACROSS 3 Declared independence from the British by the American Colonists 5 A rifle loaded from the Barrel and usually contained a lead ball for ammunition 8 Author of the Declaration of Independence 9 General of the British army, defeated in Yorktown 10 Required that many printed materials in the colonies be produced on stamped paper produced in London, carrying an embossed revenue stamp 12 General of the Southern Continental Army that would hold up General Cornwallis 13 English King who was ruler during the American Revolutionary War

DOWN 1 Protest against the British new tax laws for the colonists that included dumping British Tea into the Boston Harbor 2 General of the Continental Army 4 Leader of the Haitian Rebellion on the island of St. Dominiques 6 Island of slaves owned by the French that would become Haiti after the Revolution 7 Killing of Civilian Protestors in Boston by the British Army 11 Firing Mechanism that uses a shard of flint igniting a pan of black powder to trigger the firing


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By Thomas Fair and Jesus Cruz

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