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PHILLY2060 This plan was developed as part of a Master of City Planning studio at the University of Pennsylvania School of Design in Fall 2017. The studio undertook a long-range planning exercise for Philadelphia’s public realm and transportation networks in 2060. It would not have been possible without the support and guidance of Steve Buckley, Scott Page, and Jamie Granger.

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Introduction

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Climate

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Mobility

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Streets

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Public Space

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Conclusion


CLIMATE 16

Key Threats

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Vision

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Methodology

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Strategies

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Vulnerability Analysis

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Focus Areas

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Next Steps


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KEY THREATS WHY 6 FT OF SEA LEVEL RISE? NOAA’s 2017 High Curve projections show four feet of sea level rise by 2060.3 Due to the possibility of a one-to-two foot king tide on top of that, as well as the longer life cycle of building and infrastructure interventions, this plan prepares for six feet of sea level rise.

It is critical that any long-term plan for Philadelphia prepare for the impacts of climate change, which, by 2060, will jeopardize key facilities, threaten vulnerable populations, and overwhelm the city’s aging infrastructure. Philadelphia’s climate is expected to become ‘hotter and wetter’ and the city is already experiencing many of these effects; since 2010, Philadelphia has experienced the snowiest winter, two hottest summers, and two wettest years in the city’s history.1

Rising Seas Even though Philadelphia lies 90 miles inland from the Atlantic Ocean, its location along the tidal Delaware River means that rising seas pose a threat to significant portions of the city. While the actual rate of future sea level rise is unknown, this plan prepares for six feet of sea level rise in Philadelphia by 2060. Even without storm surges, sea level rise will put communities and key facilities at significant risk; with storm surges, entire swaths of the city will be both temporarily and permanently inundated.2

More Frequent and Intense Storms Philadelphia is already dealing with localized flooding from rain events. Rising seas mean that any storm will flood more of the city than it does today. In addition, storms will become more frequent and the intensity of precipitation is expected to increase.4 With more than half of the city’s land covered by impervious surfaces, this will worsen existing flooding issues and threaten to overwhelm the city’s aging water infrastructure.5

Increasing Temperatures Extreme heat is already a leading cause of weather-related mortality in Philadelphia and temperatures are climbing. In 2014, Philadelphia experienced 29 days over 90 degrees, which was ten more than it had in 1990. This is estimated to increase to 58 days per year by 2060 under current emissions scenarios, with the possibility for slower increases under lower emissions scenarios. Not only will heat waves be more frequent, they will also reach higher temperatures and have a longer duration, which poses a significant risk to older residents and people without access to air conditioning.7

Projected Impact of 6 Feet of Sea Level Rise in Philadelphia Projected temperature increases in Philadelphia. Source: Climate Central.

Six feet of sea level rise Plus storm surge from a category one storm Source: NOAA

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URBAN HEAT ISLAND EFFECT Heat islands are created due to the presence of surfaces that retain more heat than natural vegetation.6 Urban heat island effects make certain areas of the city with high levels of impervious surfaces and low tree cover, like North Philadelphia and West Philadelphia, even hotter than the rest of the city.


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PHILLY 2060

Old power lines, bridges, and transit systems represent the city’s aging infrastructure. Source: Thomas Orgren

Aging Infrastructure Philadelphia’s infrastructure will not be able to handle the increased burdens from a changing climate. In the face of more frequent storms with greater intensities of precipitation, as well as increased energy demands due to rising temperatures and changing technologies, Philadelphia needs to fundamentally rethink the city’s underlying infrastructure to increase its capacity and make it more resilient. Philly2060 approaches climate change as an opportunity to improve the lives of Philadelphia’s residents, rather than as a threat to the city’s continued existence. Because there is no one intervention that will mitigate climate impacts such as more higher-heat days, increased precipitation and local flooding, and sea level rise, the city’s response will be a coordinated strategy of interlocking interventions. The science on climate change changes frequently, often for the worse, which means that Philadelphia will be flexible to adapt to new conditions, but will plan for the most extreme scenarios. Since individual behavior changes are a key component to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, climate adaptation and mitigation strategies will not only be visible to the public, but be driven by residents and other local stakeholders.

In 2060, all residents are insulated from and resilient to the impacts of a changing climate due to adaptation and mitigation measures built on natural systems, energy-efficient technologies, and strong communities.

CLIMATE VISION

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CLIMATE

PHILLY 2060

METHODOLOGY Climate change will have a tangible impact on every aspect of the city. To better understand how to prepare for these impacts in the context of a public realm and transportation plan, this plan identified five typologies that locate the effects of climate change in physical sites: Waterfront Land, Vacant Land, Utilities & Infrastructure, Buildings, and Park Systems. These five typologies represent opportunities for targeted interventions in the city’s built and natural systems that will strengthen citywide resilience. They also serve to focus each of this section’s eight strategies, which are applicable throughout the city and keyed to one or more typology. These interventions will reduce the impacts of climate change while improving overall quality of life for all Philadelphians. Examples of each public space typology. From top: Waterfront land, vacant land, utilities and infrastructure, buildings, park systems.

CLIMATE TYPOLOGIES WATERFRONT LAND Land along the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers can be redesigned to protect key facilities along the waterfront as well as inland areas. Strategies 1

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VACANT LAND Vacant land throughout the city can be strategically repurposed to mitigate heat and flooding, grow food, produce energy, and build community resilience. Strategies 1

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UTILITIES & INFRASTRUCTURE Utilities and infrastructure can be reimagined to reduce carbon emissions, decrease impervious surfaces, and protect the city from flooding. Strategies 1

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BUILDINGS The city can reduce carbon emissions, heat, and stormwater runoff by increasing efficiency in building design and operations, while using rooftop space to produce energy and food. Strategies 1

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PARK SYSTEMS The effective management of open space and the maximization of ecosystem services will be necessary for the city to adapt to new normals caused by heat and flooding. Strategies 1

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STRATEGIES

4: Make Room for the Rivers

Philadelphia will maximize ecosystem services within the city by increasing local tree cover, expanding water retention capacity, and incorporating green and blue infrastructure. The two parts to this strategy involve incorporating these elements into existing parks, rivers, and creeks as well as repurposing streets, vacant land, and building roofs citywide to mitigate heat, flooding, and air quality impacts. Building this integrated network of green and blue systems will reduce the city’s reliance on more conventional infrastructure that could fail during a disaster.

Natural and engineered protective infrastructure along the waterfront can buffer the city from the impacts of sea level rise. Hard flood defenses, such as dams, levees and dikes, are effective at preventing flooding locally, but are expensive to construct, disruptive to ecosystems, and often displace flooding elsewhere. Soft flood defense tactics, such as wetland restoration, floodplain zoning, and absorbent green stormwater infrastructure, focus on reducing the impacts of a flood and tend to be less expensive to build and maintain.10 Philadelphia will use soft strategies wherever possible, however around key infrastructure such as the Port of Philadelphia, Philadelphia International Airport, and the Navy Yard business district, hard flood defenses will eventually be necessary to prevent inundation.

2: Address Legacy of Environmental Degradation

5: Build Community Resilience

As the former “workshop of the world,” Philadelphia is home to many contaminated sites that are the result of industrialization and development.8 Many of these sites will be at risk of flooding under new climate scenarios. The City will create a prioritized list for remediation that assesses both the level of contamination and the potential hazard to residents and wildlife. In extreme cases, such as the currently active oil refinery, ex situ processes to excavate the contaminated source material and move it to a landfill in a less vulnerable location will be used. In less extreme cases, filtration units will be incorporated into infrastructure to prevent impaired water quality due to contaminated runoff.

A vital part of developing long-term resilience is creating a culture that recognizes the severity of climate change impacts and appropriate ways to respond to threats. New and existing open spaces are an ideal site for these exchanges because they can model climate-responsive design and facilitate conversation. Another way to educate and build community is to form a climate change education collaborative, which would bring together diverse organizations that promote environmental education in the city. In addition to facilitating discussion between groups with aligned missions, this organization could develop climate education literature, promote Philadelphia-specific data collection, host a seminar series to connect science researchers and educators, and promote climate action campaigns. Using this dual strategy of physical and intangible spaces will educate people and inspire action.

1: Maximize Urban Ecosystem Services

3: Reduce Heat-absorbing Surfaces 54 percent of land area in Philadelphia is made up of impervious surfaces, which includes streets, sidewalks, parking lots, and buildings.9 When these surfaces are repaired as part of regularly-scheduled maintenance, they will be replaced with more permeable and heat reflective materials. This will combat the heat island effect and decrease runoff by retaining stormwater on site. Repurposing vacant sites, street space, and building roofs for more naturalized uses will amplify these efforts.

Permeable paving, reconstructed wetlands and green rooftops all help to accomplish Strategies 1 - 4. Sources (L to R): Construction Specifier; Zhenya Nalywayko; Flickr user Celia Haven

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6: Increase Local Food Production Increasing local food production will provide greater food security to residents, lower greenhouse gas emissions, and increase local awareness of urban agriculture. Philadelphia is already the primary food distribution hub for the Mid-Atlantic region, which gives it a strong foundation on which to build a more sustainable food system.13 The city also has a robust network of community gardens, which will be protected through zoning and supported by other municipal policies. In addition, the City will allow high-yield urban greenhouse farms on building rooftops and currently vacant land, which will provide economic opportunity in addition to a stable food supply.

EDUCATION COLLABORATIVE The Bay Area Climate Literacy Impact Collaborative in San Francisco was formed in 2014 and includes more than 30 organizations that promote environmental education.11

URBAN AGRICULTURE Countries like England, Germany, and the Netherlands repurpose vacant commercial and industrial buildings in cities as commercial food production facilities.12


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7: Promote Renewable Energy Solutions

The Delaware and Schuylkill River Watersheds

CT PA NY NJ

Climate Strategies in Context

In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and provide a stable supply of energy, Philadelphia needs to produce local sources of renewable energy. The City will take a major step toward reducing carbon emissions by implementing a district heating and cooling system, where hot and cold water is generated in a centralized facility and piped throughout the city. The City will also incentivize the production of renewable energy sources, such as solar power and geothermal energy. Buildings roofs and vacant land will be used to generate solar power by using roofing and siding materials that double as solar panels. The use of geothermal energy to generate heating and cooling will reduce the city’s dependence on natural gas and mitigate its largest source of greenhouse gases with a stable, pollution-free, carbon-neutral source of energy.

8: Cooperate Regionally MD

Climate change is not an issue that can be addressed by the city of Philadelphia in isolation. The City will prioritize regional cooperation wherever possible to enable large-scale coordinated water quality improvements, carbon policies, and flood defenses. A comprehensive system of flood defenses, such as a storm-surge barrier at the mouth of the Delaware River, will be far more effective and equitable than a myriad of municipal-level strategies. An elected governing body, such as a regional water authority board, will be established to coordinate flood defenses and enact regulations. Acting regionally will increase positive impacts, save money, and promote a greater understanding of climate change.

A district heating system powered by renewable energy sources could significantly reduce carbon emissions.

Waterfront Land Vacant Land Utilities and Infrastructure City-Owned Buildings Park Systems Source: NOAA, Open Data Philly

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PHILLY 2060

VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS

Vulnerability Analysis Map

The impacts of climate change will not be evenly distributed throughout the city. Philadelphia’s unique land use patterns, social conditions, and natural resources will determine the type, location, and severity of effects. For example, the area near the confluence of the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers will be deeply impacted by sea level rise because of its low elevation. Extreme heat and flooding conditions will both be worsened by high levels of impervious surfaces. Philadelphia has high levels of poverty and social inequity that will put certain populations without access to adequate resources at greater risk of exposure to both flooding and heat. Six key variables were analyzed to understand which areas of the city are the most vulnerable to climate change: • The area most at risk from sea level rise and storm surge • Areas that were historically wetlands • Areas adjacent to steep slopes that are more susceptible to inundation from runoff • Areas of the city that have especially high concentrations of impervious surfaces • The areas of the city experiencing the greatest heat island effects • Areas with the highest concentrations of poverty This vulnerability analysis shows the highest risk areas of the city that should be the city’s priority in implementing the strategies detailed in this plan, namely North Philadelphia and the confluence of the Schuylkill and Delaware rivers. To illustrate how these strategies could transform these high risk areas, this plan shows two focus areas, one in the Logan neighborhood in North Philadelphia and one along the South Philadelphia waterfront. These focus areas demonstrate how citywide strategies can be implemented to respond to the unique conditions of individual sites.

Flooding along the Schuylkill River damages infrastructure and restricts circulation. Source: Bicycle Coalition.

More Vulnerable

Less Vulnerable Source: NOAA, Open Data Philly

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PHILLY 2060

Remove Transportation Barriers

FOCUS AREAS Logan Triangle TYPOLOGIES This focus area integrates interventions outlined in the Vacant Land, Utilities & Infrastructure, Buildings, and Park Systems typologies. This site stood out in the vulnerability analysis because of the high amount of impervious surface, presence of heat islands, and concentration of poverty in the area.

There have been many proposals to develop a master plan for the vacant Logan Triangle site. However, the community will benefit more from a combination of minimal new development and expanded open space, given the fact that much of this land is not suitable for extensive development and these residents are extremely vulnerable to heat island effects. This proposal combines ecological restoration, educational programming, and transportation interventions to turn Logan Triangle and the surrounding neighborhood into a model of climate-responsive landscape design and climate change literacy. This site illustrates how planning for climate change with social justice in mind represents an opportunity to close a long-standing equity gap in Philadelphia that will benefit all residents. Strategies 1

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Future Land Uses Urban Forest Meadow

Improved Recreation Area

Logan residents have consistently asked for more quality open space and recreation facilities in their neighborhood. While Hunting Park is a great resource, it is largely inaccessible to residents due to the presence of Roosevelt Boulevard, one of the most dangerous streets in Philadelphia. Sinking and capping the boulevard will connect Hunting Park to the new Logan Triangle meadow, maximizing the cooling and air quality benefits of both sites. Similarly, removing West Courtland Street through the Logan Triangle site and West Hunting Park Avenue through the middle of Hunting Park will reduce impervious surface and provide land to create natural systems. Lastly, climate interventions will be extended into the community through a network of green streets. Together, these interventions will reduce the urban heat island effect and drastically transform the cohesion of the neighborhood.

Create New Natural Systems Logan is an ideal location to maximize ecosystem services by enhancing existing natural features and introducing new ones. In the central part of the Logan Triangle site, a naturalized meadow will provide open space for residents and habitat for wildlife while an intermittent pond will collect runoff during heavy rain events. Around the perimeter of Hunting Park, an urban forest will be planted to cool the air, store carbon, and better manage stormwater onsite. Lastly, transforming the abandoned North Penn rightof-way into a linear community garden will provide a local source of food for residents. This combination of interventions will provide numerous benefits for residents by sequestering carbon, managing stormwater, improving air quality, reducing urban heat island effects, and promoting biodiversity.

Intermittent Pond

Encourage Sensitive New Development

New Development

The northernmost and southernmost areas of the Logan Triangle site have the least amount of fill and are a 10-minute walk from the Wyoming station on the Broad Street Line, which make them ideal for new development. The construction of infill residential buildings will provide energy-efficient and affordable housing that also maintains the architectural character of the neighborhood. This proposal also includes building an environmental education center to increase the climate literacy of residents. The center can host programs and organizations such as a climate change education collaborative and a climate ambassador program, which will empower residents to respond to impacts from climate change and will build community resilience.

Points of Interest Capped Highway Green Streets Climate Education Center

A capped highway reconnects a neighborhood to a nearby park. Source: Nat’l Surface Trans. Policy & Revenue Comm.

The Wissahickon urban forest provides ecosystem services to the nearby area. Source: East Falls Local.

An environmental education center in Wilmington, DE Source: Riverfront Wilmington.

Linear Community Garden

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TYPOLOGIES This focus area integrates interventions in all five typologies. This site stood out in the vulnerability analysis because of significant flood threats, high impervious surface cover, and the area’s natural history as wetlands.

Southern Waterfront

Restore Wetlands

This focus area addresses the part of the city most vulnerable to sea level rise at the confluence of the Schuylkill and Delaware rivers in South Philadelphia. This area is home to many of the city’s most vital economic and transportation centers, including the Navy Yard, Philadelphia International Airport, and the Port of Philadelphia. However, much of the land area is currently occupied by industries that will likely have declined significantly by 2060 due to changes in transportation and energy economies, such as car dealerships, parking lots, and petroleum refineries. This proposal applies significant environmental remediation, ecosystem naturalization, and carbon-neutral energy strategies to create a “Green Gateway” along the waterfront that protects the city’s assets and showcases its response to climate change.

While much of this land was originally wetlands, today the John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge near the Philadelphia International Airport is the only remnant of this land type. Remediating land in low-lying areas and restoring it to a naturalized wetland state will create a natural buffer as large as Fairmount Park that will serve as a flood defense, expand wildlife habitat, and provide recreational opportunities for Philadelphia residents.

Strategies 1

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Produce Renewable Energy The Philadelphia Energy Solutions oil refinery is unlikely to be productive in 2060 due to decreased demand for fossil fuels. Once the site is remediated, it will be repurposed for renewable energy production. Philadelphia can take advantage of its high groundwater levels to implement a municipal geothermal district heating and cooling system. Newly-created wetlands will also host solar panels, which will supplement the city’s energy needs during periods of peak demand.

A high water channel safely diverts floodwaters away from important infrastructure. Source: Jan Roerink Photography.

Protect From Flooding

New Infrastructure

Future Land Uses

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Wetlands

Residential

Recreational Trails

Energy Generation

Industry

Levees

Growth Areas

Agriculture

High Water Channel

Transportation

Solar Wetlands

While a strategic retreat from the waterfront is necessary in some parts of Philadelphia, the airport, the Navy Yard, and Eastwick are too valuable to relocate. To protect these areas from flood hazards, the city will implement a system of soft and hard flood defenses, such as wetlands and levees. Part of the former oil refinery site will be repurposed as floodable recreational infrastructure, such as a rowing venue that would temporarily detain floodwaters while building on the sport’s long local tradition.

Grow and Distribute Food The city’s economy will still demand space for food distribution and warehousing in 2060, so some industrial land in this area must be preserved for those uses. Vacant land near the existing food distribution center in South Philadelphia will be used for high-yield urban greenhouse agriculture. Reducing the city’s dependence on food imports by growing food locally on an industrial scale will improve food system resilience and increase economic output.

Wetlands serve as flood protection, wildlife habitat, and recreational space. Source: Wikipedia Commons.

Identify Climate Action Partners Potential Geothermal Site

Working with upstream and downstream communities will amplify the city’s investments along the waterfront. By acting in tandem with municipalities in the Schuylkill River watershed to decrease runoff from agriculture and stormwater, the City will improve water quality to make the Schuylkill a recreational asset. In addition, Philadelphia will work with other governments to protect communities along the tidal Delaware River from severe storm surges by creating a regional system of levees as well as a storm surge barrier that can be closed during intense storms. A high-yield urban farm in The Hague, Netherlands. Source: National Geographic.

Floodable Rowing Venue

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GETTING STARTED Outcomes like these are achievable, but they take dedicated resources and a different attitude toward the environment. Philadelphia needs to start taking action now to become more resilient to a changing climate. Five initial steps to get started include:

1

Rezone all community gardens as open space to protect from future development. Philadelphia has a strong existing network of community gardens that promote nutrition and community engagement, but they are at risk due to pressure from development. Zoning these gardens as open space would protect them from this threat and ensure their long-term ability to function as a valuable community resource.

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Conduct a feasibility study for a municipal district heating system. A feasibility analysis should investigate using a municipal district heating system to heat City-owned properties, as well as the potential to offer service to residents. The study should also investigate integrating a district heating component into SEPTA’s proposed natural gas plants to reduce heating costs and carbon-emissions in surrounding neighborhoods.

3

Create a climate change education collaborative. The work of local environmental organizations could be amplified if they shared best practices. Parks and Recreation could serve as the backbone organization, bringing together various climate-focused organizations in Philadelphia to educate people about the science of climate change and how to respond to its impacts.

4

Work with neighboring jurisdictions to form a regional governing body. Philadelphia must work with other municipalities, counties, and states to combat the effects of climate change. One strategy for regional cooperation is to create a regional government that is organized along natural systems. Collaboration will amplify the impact of individual organizations and agencies.

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Launch a system of strategic buyouts along the waterfront for conversion to constructed wetlands. A strong system of natural buffers along the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers will protect from sea level rise and storm surge. The City should proactively acquire land as it becomes available by identifying high-priority sites and working with municipal agencies as well as landowners to negotiate the sale of this land.

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CONCLUSION

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AUTHORS Jake Berman

MCP 2018

Transportation and Infrastructure Planning

S. Jordan Butz

MCP 2018

Land Use and Environmental Planning

Rachel Finfer

MCP 2018

Transportation and Infrastructure Planning

Tim Haney

MCP 2018

Transportation and Infrastructure Planning

Kathleen Hanley

MCP 2018

Urban Design

Nate Klass

MCP 2018

Public and Private Development

Ian Taeyoun Lee

MCP 2017

Public and Private Development

Maureen McQuilkin MCP 2018

Land Use and Environmental Planning

Olivia Mobayed

MCP 2018

Transportation and Infrastructure Planning

Thomas Orgren

MCP 2018

Transportation and Infrastructure Planning

Chloe Ge Qu

MCP 2018

Smart Cities

Sarah Scott

MCP / MSHP 2019

Land Use and Environmental Planning

T. Andrew Simpson MCP 2018

Transportation and Infrastructure Planning

Annie Streetman

MCP 2018

Land Use and Environmental Planning

Aaron Su

MCP / MUSA 2017

Smart Cities

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CONCLUSION

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REFERENCES Climate

Streets

1. Growing Stronger, Toward a Climate-Ready Philadelphia (November 2015) https://beta.phila.gov/media/20160504162056/Growing-Stronger-Toward-a-Climate-Ready-Philadelphia.pdf

19. The Cultural Landscape Foundation https://tclf.org/landscapes/william-penn-philadelphia-plan

2. Growing Stronger, Toward a Climate-Ready Philadelphia (November 2015) https://beta.phila.gov/media/20160504162056/Growing-Stronger-Toward-a-Climate-Ready-Philadelphia.pdf 3. NOAA et al. 2017. http://www.corpsclimate.us/ccaceslcurves.cfm 4. Ibid. 5. Impervious Surfaces, Philadelphia Water Department, Open Data Philly, 2004. 6. Climate Central. “87 Cities, 4 Scenarios and 1 Really Hot Future.” August 7, 2014. http://www.climatecentral.org/news/87-cities-4-scenarios-1-really-hot-future-for-us-17866 7. EPA. Heat Island Effect. https://www.epa.gov/heat-islands 8. The Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia. “Workshop of the World.” http://philadelphiaencyclopedia.org/archive/workshop-of-the-world/ 9. Impervious Surfaces, Philadelphia Water Department, Open Data Philly, 2004. 10. BBC. River Flooding and Management Issues. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/water_rivers/river_flooding_management_rev1.shtml 11. DVRPC. Greater Philadelphia Food System Study. January 2010. https://www.dvrpc.org/reports/09066a.pdf 12. Bay Area Climate Impact Literacy Collaborative. http://bayclic.org/ 13. The Guardian. “Greenhouse in the sky: inside Europe’s biggest urban farm.” April 26, 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2016/apr/27/inside-europes-biggest-urban-farm.

Mobility 14. PennDOT Annual Report of Registrations. http://www.dmv.pa.gov/VEHICLE-SERVICES/Title-Registration/Pages/Annual-Report-of-Registrations-.aspx 15. Budick, Seth. “How SEPTA Funding Works.” 11/26/1007. Plan Philly. http://planphilly.com/articles/2007/11/26/2277 16. National Transit Database. 2014. 17. [APTA] 18. “Internet of Things Global Standards Initiative”. ITU. Retrieved 26 June 2015. https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/gsi/iot/Pages/default.aspx

20. Historical Society of Pennsylvania https://digitalhistory.hsp.org/bnktr/org/philadelphia-rapid-transit-company 21. Comprehensive Plan for the City of Philadelphia - Philadelphia City Government 22. Philadelphia2035 Comprehensive Plan 23. Philadelphia Streets Department http://www philadelphiastreets.com/complete-streets/ 24. City of Philadelphia http://www.visionzerophl.com/ 25. Vision Zero Plan, City of Philadelphia

Public Space 26. Philadelphia City Planning Commission. Comprehensive Plan for the City of Philadelphia. May 1960. 27. City of Philadelphia. “Parks & Recreation Assets”. June 2015. https://www.opendataphilly.org/dataset/parks-and-recreation-assets 28. City of Philadelphia Office of the Mayor. “2016-2017 Philadelphia Resident Survey Unveiled”. October 2017. https://beta.phila.gov/press-releases/mayor/2016-2017-philadelphia-resident-survey-results-unveiled/ 29. City of Philadelphia. “Rebuilding Community Infrastructure”. 2017. http://rebuild.phila/gov/ 30. City of Philadelphia. “Parks & Recreation Assets”. June 2015. https://www.opendataphilly.org/dataset/parks-and-recreation-assets

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UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA CITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING DEPARTMENT FALL 2017

Philly2060 - Climate  

The Climate section from the Philly2060 long-term vision plan for the public realm and transportation systems of Philadelphia.

Philly2060 - Climate  

The Climate section from the Philly2060 long-term vision plan for the public realm and transportation systems of Philadelphia.

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