Page 1

Issue #1

DISCLAIMER: The sole responsibility for the content of this publication lies with the authors. Its contents do not reflect the opinion of the University Students’ Council of the University of Western Ontario (“USC”). The USC assumes no responsibility or liability for any error, inaccuracy, omission or comment contained in this publication or for any use that may be made of such information by the reader.


C O N T EN T S ISSUE #1, 2013 VOLUME 01, NUMBER 01 THEME: International Relations Front cover photograph by George Osodi

BRIEFING 3 EDITOR’S NOTE 3 Announcement for Theme of Issue 2 8 The forum: opinions from the student body 15 The world review - an introduction Submission guidelines

FEATURES 4 THE EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR WARFARE Khaldon Roukie Can there be an ethical argument for the possession of nuclear weapons, for example, as a conflictdeterrent to prevent future war? 6 US Foreign Policy: Operation Iraqi Freedom Nathaniel Sukhdeo The George W. Bush Administration’s Operation Iraqi Freedom and the concept of “Mission Accomplished”. 10 HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS IN NIGER DELTA Omar Yassine In many cases, business interests are in opposition to human rights and environmental safety. Do alternatives exist in which all three may be satisfied? 12 DOES PRIMARY PRODUCT DEPENDENCY LIMIT OPPORTUNITY FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH? Saif Shah A look into the ways in which the classic economic growth theory adopted by many Sub-Saharan African countries may be limited and end up doing more bad than good to a country’s economy. 14 TREATMENT OF PALESTINIANS IN OCCUPIED PALESTINIAN TERRITORIES Sara Ataya Human rights are the fundamental liberties to which a person is entitled simply for being human. The extent of these rights is debatable. That these rights are violated daily, however, is an unfortunate truth.


THe western Review  October 2013

THE WORLD REVIEW STAFF EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Hasan Seede MANAGING EDITOR Jamie Hu EDITORS Khaldun Roukie Nathaniel Sukhdeo Alice Tan Omar Yassine Filip Zekic SENIOR DESIGN EDITOR Victoria “Tori” Henri DESIGN EDITORS Dennis He Jannel Liu PHOTOGRAPHY Sahar El-Kotob FACULTY ADVISOR Dr. Andrew Sancton (Department of Political Science) CONTACT VISIT: Website under construction. EMAIL:




The entire effort leading to the creation of The World Review as a campus-wide, department-less, entirely student-run academic journal is justified by the fundamental purpose that establishes why we, students and academics, are here at university in the first place: To develop as intellectuals. Such a task cannot be expected to be accomplished without academic discussion. This crucial discourse must be easily accessible to students and must be all-inclusive. Some of the faculties here at Western run publications for their respective departments; however, though wellmade and informative, these publications do not provide a responsive dialogue for the student body. The Gazette does make a significant effort to invite students to join its ranks; however, as a newspaper, it focuses on reporting university and local news rather than providing an outlet for the discussion of academic topics in depth. In early 2013, taking inspiration from similar publications at other universities, a small group of students came together and started laying the foundation for this tremendous project. Today, our roster continues to grow as students realize how integral such a project is to maintaining the universities’ claim to be the best student experience in Canada. The inclusiveness of this project is its most important asset. This journal will greatly benefit from maximum student participation. Western brings talents of all different types to a single campus; we intend to harness this talent to fuel the journal. We encourage submissions of ideas, artwork, photography, and of course articles. The subject of the articles will vary widely, but most should relate to matters of global importance (especially the unique theme announced in advance of each issue). Although theme-related submissions are preferable, we will accept and review all submissions. Additionally, we would also like to invite dedicated students who wish to be part of our team to join us. We currently have positions open in design and editing. This first edition of the journal focuses on the ever important issue of international relations. The theme was decided upon after many students expressed interest in related material. The subject covers topics from international trade and human rights to diplomatic spats and global disputes. These situations heavily influence the lives of countless people across the world today and for that reason are subject to intense scrutiny. Let us know what you’re interested in writing (or reading) about for future issues. For now, enjoy this first issue of The World Review and know that your involvement directly influences the success of this journal. We thank you personally for your contribution. Sincerely, The World Review Team


The next issue’S theme is:

Modern Health

The theme of the upcoming issue is Modern Health. Important subjects include health care delivery in developed nations, modern medical advances, nutrition, and basic rights and access to care around the world. Many students have personal experiences with health care here and abroad that we would love to hear. Please share them with us! Writing about the subject can be very beneficial. Increasing public awareness on the intricacies of Canada’s health care system may lead to well informed decisions when it comes to legislation. Dispelling stigmas and boosting understanding when it comes to mental health may improve the experience of those affected. Almost all of us have been affected by the quality of our society’s healthcare, either personally or through the lives of those we care about. If expressed, these myriad experiences will conjure a wholesome, descriptive picture that recognizes the advantages and flaws of our current system. The choice of modern health as the theme of the second issue of the Review gives some perspective on the global significance of the issue.


THe western Review  October 2013




standing of just how severe the issues at hand are. The morality behind the use of nuclear weapons is rarely questioned, as most people tend to seek an avoidance of mass destruction but that has yet to remove the existence of these weapons. It has been several decades since the construction of the first atomic bomb and the number of WMDs (weapons of mass destruction) has only grown. After the attacks on both Hiroshima and Nagasaki the global powers had come to understand that such armament is next to unnecessary. However once the Iron Curtain had been established and once the sides were picked, both Soviet Russia and the United States of America began


sword keeps another in its sheath”. If George Herbert had been witness to

the nuclear arms race of the twentieth century, would he have been able to stand by these words? Throughout the history of mankind, war and conflict have become critical parts of our nature but it was during the technological boom of the Cold War that we became capable of being the source of our own extinction with a single command. Humanity had finally made the ultimate deal with the Devil and created a weapon that could execute millions in a single moment. The first atomic bomb, used in Hiroshima is a story that we will not soon forget. Physical deformations of the victims, complete destruction of all forms of life within blast, and let us not forget the long term effects that radiation would cause for inhabitants years to come. Human beings had finally created an instrument that could lead to their utter doom and the destruction of both Hiroshima and Nagasaki were merely the first steps on a road of death. We know the stories and we have seen the pictures but do the individuals of the present day truly understand the ramifications of designing weapons of such discord? Perhaps the large use of media and post-apocalyptic fiction has allowed us to become desensitized to the realities of nuclear warfare, but these realities were no more apparent throughout human history than they were during the Cold War. Beginning with the moral issues behind the use of nuclear weapons we will be able to come to an under-

the mass production of nuclear weapons. The results that were once Hiroshima and Nagasaki were soon put aside as the country with more weapons was to be the victor of this Cold War. At this point what excuse was rational to either side? The ef-

“The morality behind the use of nuclear weapons is rarely questioned”

fects of these weapons were known by the respective governments but neither side would make the first move. The two sides would continue to build the WMDs while using proxy wars as a means of prolonging their conflict, for people had understood that using nuclear weapons meant the destruction of whole civilizations but it did not cease their development. The United Nations has provided sanctions and laws against the use of nuclear weapons but it merely led to the application of nuclear deterrence. Both sides would be on the edge of their seats but it was the Cuban Missile Crisis that led to humanity being as close to its own extinction as we have ever been. The Cold War had almost become a blazing hot one and in this case (contrary to Herbert) both swords were unsheathed but not one would strike, for fear of their own destruction. The result left billions of people in a state of terror which truly led to a global understanding of the reality behind nuclear weapons. However the war eventually ended and the Soviet Union had collapsed, 5

with neither side making the first move.

been identified since 2009 but there are also many that

It was said that the amount of nuclear weapons created

are unaccounted for, which leads to the next question

during the Cold War could have destroyed all life on the

as to where those unaccounted weapons are located. It

earth several times over, thus leading many to question

would not be odd to find that some of the missing WMDs

why the idea to mass produce weapons of such grandeur

have been illegally handled by non-governmental armed

had been attempted in the first place. But with the death

groups. Thus the most dangerous part of the nuclear

of the Cold War came the birth of a new attitude towards

weapons issue is the modern opportunity for nuclear

nuclear weaponry. Many people had come to resent the


creation of these weapons and many demanded their

Human beings are now in an age where almost any

removal. But were the governments that created these

country is capable of arming itself with a nuclear weapon.

weapons willing to remove them after massive amounts

Along with this threat there are some non-governmental

of funds had been invested in the creation of both mili-

organizations that have formed their own military groups

tary bases and nuclear weapons? The first atomic bomb

that are separate from the nations they reside in. Many of

created by the United States had an estimated two billion

these groups are designated as terrorists and some are

dollars spent on its creation and the amount of money put

capable of accessing nuclear weaponry. How then does

into the nuclear arms race far exceeded that and so the re-

the international community control the organizations

ality of the situation became much more fearsome. There

that have access to these weapons without breaking

are an estimated several thousand nuclear arms that have

international law with other nations? Perhaps the use of


THe western Review  October 2013

military proxies is not over even after the Cold War, and

threat and deterrence but if there were the radical pos-

this disallows a nation from controlling whether or not an-

sibility of one being used by an organization or a nation,

other nation (or armed groups within them) arms itself on

what then does that say about the security that every

a nuclear level. Regardless, many of these questions have

nation promises its citizens? If one statement has been

little chance to be answered unanimously by humanity

established unanimously by the international community,

as a whole and thus the cycle of war continues. But not

it is that if all nuclear armed nations will not disarm then

one person should be capable of pulling the trigger on a

every nation is allowed to possess them regardless of the

weapon that could an-

international quarrels.

nihilate the world as it is. Rarely does it seem that a world power is ready and willing to use weapons of this scale and so their nuclear armament remains redundant to their own existence. Nuclear warfare seems to be one of

“But not one person should be capable of pulling the trigger on a weapon that could annihilate the world as it is�

About the Author: Khaldon Roukie Is a 3rd year King’s Student, currently pursuing an Honors Specialization Degree in History. His interest in Philosophy, History, and current events are his motivations for discussing the realities of international conflict. His field of study also allows him to take deeper measures into researching tragedies such as the topic of nuclear warfare.



US Foreign policy:

operation iraqi freedom

US Foreign Policy: Operation Iraqi Freedom

unlike any that the world had seen before. On that day,

On March 19th, 2003, the United States of America com-

over 2,753 civilians were killed in the United States due

menced Operation Iraqi Freedom. In this mission of lib-

to terrorist attacks originating from the Middle East1. It is

eration and democracy, with the goal being to take down

with these events that the West once again took note of

Saddam Hussein’s government, the United States hoped

the affairs taking place in the Middle East, more specifi-

to instill its version of democracy. In this war that has been

cally those in Iraq and Afghanistan. Saddam Hussein’s Iraq

ongoing since 2003, there have been significant improve-

had formally been a key ally of the United States in the

ments within the Iraqi government system and overall de-

conflict against revolutionary Iran2. It was after this con-

mocracy within that state. The effectiveness of the United

flict, however, that tensions heightened with the Persian

States at instilling democracy can be stated as being highly

Gulf War, in 1990. Due to the failed invasion of Kuwait, Iraq

effective when analyzing its military missions and the ac-

had deteriorated its relations with the United States. This

complishments of their agenda. This can be noted through

was only the first of a series of events that would lead to

the decreased acts of terrorism within Iraq, the decreased

a future conflict.

need for US military presence in Iraq, and the economic growth that has occurred within Iraq since 2003.

The Bush Response It was in February of 2002 that President George W. Bush


September 11th, 2001

told the United Nations to either assist the United States

The terrorist attacks against the United States of America

in confronting the danger that Iraq posed to the world,

on September 11th 2001 sparked a war in the Middle East

or to step aside and to not intervene in the military action

THe western Review  October 2013

of the United States. This came only a year after the United

over sovereignty to Prime Minister Iyad Allawi, after

States conducted bombing runs against Iraq, upon which

which in 2005, an election was held in January. Twenty-

“there was little international support” 3. Later that year,

eight days afterwards, at least 114 people were killed in

United Nations weapons inspectors went to Iraq, under a

a suicide bombing in Hilla. 9

UN Resolution, to ensure that Iraq had not built weapons

Heightened Conflict

of mass destruction. It was later determined in coming

Terrorist attacks continued to escalate for the next

months by United States intelligence that Iraq had weap-

two years, with the UN stating that “over 34,000 civil-

ons of mass destruction

ians were killed in Iraq in 2006” alone. 10 It was during

that it might share with alleged terrorist organizations. President Bush made a declaration in March 2003 that “Saddam Hussein and his sons must leave Iraq within 48 hours; their refusal to do so will result in military conflict

“either assist the United States in confronting the danger that Iraq posed to the world, or to step aside and not intervene”

2007 that President Bush announced the deployment of 20,000 more American troops to Iraq to counter the over 3000 military deaths that had occurred, and to counter the surge in terrorism attacks. 11 In February 2007, a bomb in Baghdad killed 130 people, and in March, terrorists detonated three trucks filled with chlorine gas in Fallujah, which injured hundreds. 12 The following month, bombings killed 200 more people, and in August, truck and car bombs killed at least 250 people. 13 After these attacks however, the number of civilian and

to commence at a time

military deaths began to drop due to American troop

of our choosing.” 4

presence, and continued to drop through 2007 to 2010.

In 2003, when the United States and allied forces invaded

This decrease in terrorist attacks in Iraq can only be ac-

Iraq, they overthrew the Saddam Hussein government in

credited towards the deployment of 20,000 US soldiers

an attempt to instill a new democratic leadership. This initi-

into the Iraq War. It can be noted the direct correlation

ated a conflict for power between several groups in Iraq,

between the time of which the 20,000 Americans arrived

but gave equal opportunity in a democratic process for the

and when the attacks began to decrease in frequency

people of Iraq to be represented. This also led to a surge in

and severity. It is through the American attempt to instill

terrorist attacks against allied forces, of which began with a

democracy, liberation and peace that Iraq has found its

suicide bombing outside the UN headquarters in Baghdad,

domestic affairs settling down.

which killed a UN envoy and 14 other people.5 Another

In November of 2008, the Iraqi Parliament approved a

attack followed soon after, killing 125 people, including the

security pact with the United States, under which all US

Iraqi Shia leader Ayatollah Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim, a

troops were to withdraw from Iraq by the end of 2011.14

man who had opposed the Hussein regime for the dura-

Three months later, in January 2009, Iraq had taken

tion of his life. 6 This attack, in turn, initiated a civil conflict

control of the former US controlled “Green Zone”, and

in Iraq between the Shia and Sunni. Five months follow-

begun a transitional process of foreign troop control

ing this attack, allied forces captured Saddam Hussein in

over to domestic control. Two months following, Presi-

what was known as Operation Red Dawn. 7 This led to

dent Barack Obama announced that the United States

continued terrorist attacks against both religious groups.

would withdraw the majority of its troops by August

The first to follow was that of the bombing in March 2004,

2010, and that up to 50,000 troops would stay until

when “at least 127 people were killed and 448 wounded”

the end of 2011 to advise Iraqi military forces. 15 It was

in Baghdad by suicide bombers. 8 The next to follow was

from that point onwards that the United States initiated

the death of hundreds in the US fight for the Sunni city of

the final transition of power from the Americans to the

Falluja. It was in June 2004 that the United States handed

newly formed Iraq government. In March of 2010, Iraq


held a parliamentary election, and the new government

ernize their equipment,’” which allows them to be less

took office. It was in August 2010 that the United States

dependent on foreign forces, and more resourceful with

called for a withdrawal of the last United States combat

their current military when fighting against Al-Qaeda.19

brigade from Iraq. 16

Overall, the progress over the past ten years has been significant enough that Iraq has become independent

The Post-Bush Solution

in its war against terrorism and no longer requires the

President Obama made the executive decision to call

United States military’s aid. This is evident through the

for the withdrawal of troops from Iraq due to the fact that

withdrawal of all American Combat troops in Iraq under

America had already been there for 7 years, and that it

coordination with the Iraqi Government and the intro-

was time to allow Iraq to handle its domestic affairs. For

duction of civilian contractors.

those involved, the decision to call the troops home was a necessary one for the United States because its role

Iraqi Economic Recovery

had become redundant after it retrained security forces,

Since 2003, Iraq has transitioned from having a poorly

and it had done all that it could with regards to liberating

run, nationalized economy, towards an independent free

Iraq. It was from then on that the world was able to wit-

market, which, in turn, has provided Iraqis with oppor-

ness the developments Iraq had made since the United

tunities they have not witnessed in years since Saddam

States arrived in 2003. The democratic system had evolved

Hussein took office. Iraq has the fourth biggest oil re-

from a broken state with a toppled regime to having two

serves in the world but yet has always had a nationalized

democratic elections in 7 years, upon which both govern-

system until 2003. “Iraq has boosted oil production to

ments worked with the United States to gain more control

3 million barrels a day with the help of international oil

of their countries affairs, and to fight against the threat of

companies. That’s up from the 2.5 million barrels before


“democratic system had evolved from a broken state with a toppled regime to having two democratic elections in 7 years”

the 2003 US-led invasion.” 20 It is noted that this boost in

lack of terrorism response action. The Iraqis have suffered

Fund forecasts Iraq’s economy to grow to $144 billion

almost 122,306 deaths due to the War alone. 17 A new level

this year, which is significant for a country that has been

of terrorism was brought to their ‘doorstep’, of improvised

torn apart by war for the past decade. 21 Iraq has been

explosive devices everywhere. With this kind of threat,

very welcoming of foreign investment, even with inves-

the Iraqis needed the Americans, a military force that

tors being aware that the country is still facing threats

had specialized in responding to such attacks for several

by Al-Qaeda. It was noted that last year alone, “Iraq at-

decades. As of late 2011, there were 763 civilian contrac-

tracted $55.67 billion in foreign investment and other

tors and 157 US military personnel training Iraqi armed

commercial activity, a 40% increase from the previous

personnel. 18 “The aim ‘is to help the Iraqi security forces

year”. 22 This is evidence that Iraq always had potential,

build their capability, build their proficiency, and mod-

but was limited by its government’s choices to national-

Furthermore, it has been a costly burden upon Americans to train Iraqi forces for how to protect their homeland security. Although they did have previous training, a critical flaw in their skills was the


THe western Review  October 2013

production only occurred after the US arrived in Iraq and overthrew Saddam. It is known that oil is not the only source of economic growth for Iraq. Iraq is additionally welcoming foreign investment and entrepreneurs, none of which could have been possible if it were not for the United States liberating it. The streets of Baghdad have changed since 2003; although it has been consistently attacked by terrorists, there has been no lack of determination to rebuild Baghdad, while the Americans ensured the security of Iraqi civilians. The International Monetary

ize its bank and oil. It is recalled through history that the

About the Author:

main reason why Iraq had low success with nationalizing

Nathaniel Sukhdeo, 2nd year, Honours Specialization Po-

their resources is due to sanctions placed on them by

litical Science. My personal experience with United States

several countries and the United Nations.

Foreign Policy spans my entire life, coming from a family

It is, however, under the worst conditions it has faced,

rooted in North American and British Military, I have be-

that Iraq has been able to prosper due to the assistance

come well versed in how different administrations’ policies

provided by the United States. The United States alone

have affected not only the United States, but their allies

accounted for $6.9 billion of Iraqi foreign investment,

such as Canada, and the rest of the world. My professional

which allowed both governments to develop business

experience roots back to 2010 when I began to get involved

opportunities between Iraq and the United States on a

with the Obama Administration’s “Organizing for Action”.

more advanced level. “A South Korean real estate devel-

Through the program, I have become well versed in updated

oper is in negotiations on a deal potentially worth $35

policies, such as Iraq and Afghanistan, and aid in the lobby-

billion to build 500,000 housing units and related infra-

ing for grassroots organizations, as well as the lobbying of

structure,” with South Korea having already invested $12

the United States Congress in support of President Barack

billion last year.23 Foreign investment leads to prosperous

Obama and the Democratic Party.

domestic investment, and an increase in GDP. Iraq’s central bank governor stated that “We expect Iraq’s GDP in 2015 to jump to $360 billion from $170 billion currently”. 24

This boost in GDP is evidence that Iraq is on a strong

track to recovery, despite its situation and conditions of living. None of this economic prosperity would be possible without the United States instilling a democratic system of government upon Iraq and introducing a new capitalist economy. Over the past 10 years, Iraq has been the center of attention for American forces and controversy, whilst Canadians and other allied forces focused upon Afghanistan. It is with the past 10 years being the main focus that the US was able to concentrate all of its initiatives towards instilling a new democratic state in Iraq. The United States was successful and effective at instilling democracy in Iraq, which is proven through the decrease in terrorism attacks within Iraq, the successful withdrawal of US troops and transition of power to Iraqis, and the significant economic growth that has occurred that is demonstrated through the increased Iraqi GDP. It is evident today that Iraq is moving forward with democracy, despite its constant threats of extremist groups and terrorist cells. Furthermore, Iraq is showing that with some aid, they were always able to prosper in a democratic and free society.

FOOTNOTES 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 AR2007081500426.html 14 15 16,8599,2012130,00.html 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1



Western speaks:

THE WORLD REVIEW FORUM The World Review Forum is an outlet for Western’s students to share their views and opinions about topics of discussion that they are familiar with.

The Prompts: The future of the state of Egypt, which faces a deepening economic crisis and continued civil unrest, more auspicious than it was before the 2011 revolution?

Student Responses: Hasan Seede - “I still feel that despite recent unfortunate events in Egypt, the country is in a better place than it was before the revolution. Civil unrest and economic trouble should be expected during the transition of country to democratic rule after years of dictatorship.”

With over 100,000 dead in a conflict that is turning increasingly sectarian, is there a point at which the price of democracy in Syria becomes too much to pay?

Victoria Henri - “Whistleblowers: I’ve always just assumed that governments were able to see our data anyways. Doesn’t bother me, it’s not like I have something to hide and if it helps catch people who do have something

Whistleblowers, Snowden and Manning, have been called patriots and traitors for exposing the secret actions of their government. The underlying question is: Do governments have a right to privacy?

to hide, then all the better! I don’t agree with whistleblowers. I think that if you’re given a position where you have access to a certain degree of sensitive information, you shouldn’t violate that trust. Your personal opinion on whether or not the general public should know certain information doesn’t make it the correct decision. There’s always going to be a mix of public opinions on whatever the issue, but for certain necessary things that need to be in place for the overall well-being of a nation; telling the public about it may do more harm than good. There’s a whole other discussion there about where you draw the line of what is necessary and what the public should and should not know, but I won’t go into that. So I guess I’m saying: Yes, governments do have a right to privacy because without it they wouldn’t function too well.” Nathan Sukhdeo - “Whistleblowers: Governments are entitled to a certain degree of privacy when it comes to military affairs, but let’s remember the underlying principle of a government. Government is derived from Ancient Greek roots, under which it meant “guide”. In a democratic soci-


THe western Review  October 2013

ety, the citizens vote representatives to their government

fully that will be sooner than later. Whether or not the state

and choose who they want to guide the policy making.

of Egypt is more or less auspicious than it was before the

Nowhere do we rescind our rights to know what is going on.

2011 revolution all depends on how committed the people

People like Manning, Snowden, and Assange are patriots

truly are to the principles that reinforce the imperfect system

merely serving their duty to enlighten the people as to the

that is democracy.”

two faced decisions their governments are making. Is some of it high risk? Yes, but it is also necessary for the public to

Hasan Seede - “Egypt is facing some of the worst times in

know what is going on. All these cables we have seen over

the history of the state. The future is not looking auspicious

the years from Wikileaks and other whistle blowers have

at all. The military, using similar tactics as the security forces

revealed the unethical actions our governments have made

years ago, has plunged the country into turmoil. At the very

and have tried to hide from us. There is a reason why only

least this crisis will leave Egypt divided for decades. It seems

the United States wants to stop Snowden before he reveals

that soon the relatively moderate MB will be banned once

more about the NSA monitoring the EU. Has anyone ever

again as both a political party and grassroots organiza-

noticed that George W Bush is wanted for International War

tion. This will push its numerous followers to more extreme

Crimes, hence why he hasn’t travelled that much... “

views. Media will continue to be strictly controlled by the state and citizens will still be persecuted for speech crimes.

Omar H Yassine - “The future of Egypt is uncertain and

These trends are all but guaranteed. But I fear that this

frightening. Democracy is never perfect and is always going

limited insight is enough to predict an even more destruc-

to flop unless there is trust in the system. The Egyptian peo-

tive path: spiraling violence as the MB refuses to accept a

ple do find it difficult to trust any party or system because

familiar fate and as Egyptians, those that protested against

they have been swindled time and time again. Although

MB’s political domination, realize how terrible it is to leave

Egypt’s democracy will never be perfect, having something

the implementation of the people’s vision of democracy to

is better than nothing and in order for Egypt to reap the

the armed forces.

benefits of democracy, they must respect the principles of democracy and respect how each vote is a small but significant rain drop in the hurricane that is people power. Egypt will find trust in the system only when they have

The military that stood with the people in 2011 has its hands stained with the blood of protestors. These stains do not easily wash out.”

been familiarized with it for a period of time. When the people of Egypt can take the time to respect the system, whether it be grudgingly or not, then they will have a func-

Discussions from Facebook.

tioning democracy without fear of insurrection, and hope13





rights apply to all people, ir-

tions on environmental, and political progress, which is

respective of biological or

due to the interference of foreign powers in their pursuit

ideological creed. The mutual respect between people is

of acquiring oil wealth.

reflected through the existence of human rights, which are

Oil production in the Niger Delta has had severely nega-

held together by duty bearers and rights holders. Holding

tive impacts on the environmental degradation of many

adherence to the values and insights, which human rights

regions. This is exceptionally strenuous on the many in-

rationalizations have to offer, can ensure that the most ba-

habitants of the Niger Delta that subsist off of the land.

sic human rights are met, as well as vast opportunities for

Due to a lack of regulatory capacity, many oil companies

reciprocity between duty bearers and rights holders. The

are free to act irresponsibly in pursuing their objectives.

oil rich lands of the world are breeding grounds for vast

Oil spills and leaks have destroyed farmland, killed wild-

opportunities, wealth, and progress that can assist in not

life, and have posed health risks to the inhabitants of

only procuring, but also greatly enhancing the enjoyment of

the Niger Delta. Oil company Shell has dominated the

basic human rights. Oil is fundamental in the development

region for years, with over 100 oil wells, a petro-chemical

of 21st century infrastructure and industry. However pre-

complex, two oil refineries and seven gas flares which

cious oil may be for those who reap the benefits, the mere

burn constantly, twenty-four hours a day. The water,

presence of oil deposits have been damning for many of the

air and land have been devastated by the oil produc-

indigenous populations of some of the most oil rich nations

tion. Thousands of oil spills have contaminated locations

of the world today. As such, many human rights violations

within Nigeria, disturbing agriculture and civilian lives,

in Nigeria have been indirectly responsible for many limita-

the ramifications of which are difficult to compensate for.


THe western Review  October 2013

Despite Nigeria’s Oil Pipeline Act of 1956, which states

crying and scratching their eyes and other parts of

that adequate compensation must be paid to any and

their bodies, besides becoming feverish.”

all who suffer damage caused by oil operations, the term “adequate compensation” can be vague and subjective.

In an interview, Ikah, a youth of Zarama Nyambiri, said:

The compensation paid by oil companies is not ethical

“The oil is affecting the fishes in the creek, fishing

from social or legal perspectives. Based on the annual

activities are no more and even the cassava our people

rent of agricultural resources as well as the damages to

usually soak in the river (Taylor Creek) for the purposes

forestland, the World Bank has calculated that oil com-

of preparing foofoo were badly affected as the spill

panies pay less than one fifth of the required amount to

took us by surprise. Our only source of drinking has

fully compensate Nigerian citizens. Environmental Rights

been polluted with adverse health conditions as a

Action (ERA), a non-profit organization (NGO) in the Delta,


interviewed some community members on September 4, 2007 after Shell had spilled crude oil in Zarama Nyambiri of the Niger Delta:

In an interview with a student, Jonah Zagunu, from Zarama Nyambiri said: ”Last week when I was ill and went to a clinic in Port Harcourt, I was told that my illness is related to the

In an interview, Mrs. Penninah Ivelive from Zarama Nyambiri said: “This thing (crude oil spill on the Taylor Creek) has pre-

water I drank.” Chief Esau Bekewei, a member of the council of chiefs in the area said:

vented us from eating. Since we do not have water flow-

“As you can see, what else need I say? The spill has

ing in our taps, the river is the only source of water for

affected my people both in health and economic

drinking, cooking, washing and bathing. Since the spill on

terms. Shell should own up to her responsibility and

the creek, we no longer use it as we used to. Our children,

save us further problems”.

who are ignorant, often go to swim in it only to come out


Article 3 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

“Ken Saro-Wiwa was a human rights activist, environ-

asserts that all persons have the right to “life, liberty and

mentalist, and internationally acclaimed author and poet

security of a person”. Companies like Chevron and Shell

who was hanged by the Nigerian military in junta in

threaten the security of millions of indigenous peoples by

November 1995, along with eight other members of the

persistently destroying their environment. The depletion

Ogoni tribe for their activities in opposing the environ-

of resources such as vegetation, soil, clean air and water

mental, economic and social disruption caused by the

is a contributory factor for violence and conflict in Nige-

oil corporation Shell in the Ogoniland in the Niger Delta.

ria. In the Delta, access to sufficient quantities of food is

It was to fight the destruction of their environment by

highly dependent on the environment, and is crucial to

drilling that Ken Saro-Wira formed the Movement for

human security and to the fulfillment of human rights for

the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP) and began his

the people of the Delta. Rights to security and subsistence

non-violent campaign to protest the destruction of the

are two basic human rights that are endangered as a re-

Ogoni people and their lands. He, along with other mem-

sult of the degradation of the Delta, wildlife, vegetation,

bers, was arrested and, despite the international pressure

rivers and arable lands. Interference by foreign powers

from human rights groups and states such as America

in the Delta are in violation of human rights due to the

and the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth, the

limitations that they pose on the environment, in their

military junta judicially executed him.

pursuit of acquiring oil wealth.

In 2005, ten years following the execution of Ken SaroWiwa, Shell returned to Ogoni and secured 112 oil wells that it had abandoned in 1993. Shell is accused of having unwritten ‘divide and rule’ policies to control its loNigeria has an army with an estimated 94,000 soldiers

cal opponents. Shell, Chevron and other oil companies

that are highly corrupt and have been used by the oil

have a history of paying large sums of money to groups

companies to secure oil installations. In 1993, Shell was

that would not otherwise comply with them. In doing so,

forced to halt all of its oil productions in Ogoni. This was

Shell enforced its oil extraction despite what locals might

credited to the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni

have to say on the issue. Another incident whereby an oil

(MOSOP). Writer and activist Ken Saro-Wiwa, who mobi-

company restricted the political freedom of protestors

lized 300,000 people in a peaceful protest for environ-

and locals of the Delta is the 1998 attack on the people

mental and social justice, had led MOSOP. Shell responded

demonstrating at Chevron’s Parabe platform. Chevron

to this by funding and encouraging the Nigerian military

called on the military and the mobile police to respond

in crimes against humanity and human rights violations.

to a demonstration of approximately 100 community

An excerpt from Michael Goodhart’s book recounts the

protesters that occupied the Parabe platform. The se-

fate of Ken Saro-Wiwa:

curity forces allegedly shot four of the protesters, killing two. The implications of these accounts by Chevron and


THe western Review  October 2013

Shell is that they have systematically violated the human

oil, the oil markets in Saudi Arabia, Nigeria, and Libya are

rights of people by restricting their personal freedom,

slowly beginning to dwindle. Iraq, Iran, Nigeria and Libya

and recognition as members of the human community.

are currently among the top oil producing countries in

By disallowing the people from the Delta to have a voice,

the world. The size of Canada’s economic output will be

and by disregarding the cries of protestors, who call out

nearly $800 billion by as early as 2020 from the Albertan

of fear of their own personal security and equality, these

oil sands alone. A lot of the wealth that comes from the

transnational corporations (TNCs) are restricting the free-

oil sands will travel well outside Alberta’s borders. Inter-

dom and political engagement of members of the human

national intrigue in Albertan Oil benefits the global com-


munity by empowering investors from around the world

The conclusion can be drawn that many human rights

in being socially conscious investors. More renewable

violations in Nigeria are the direct result of the limitations

sources of energy and cleaner oil extraction methods are

on economic, environmental, and political progress, which

being developed within Canada, and the Albertan oil is

are the result of foreign powers in the Niger Delta in their

relatively one of the cleanest methods of oil extraction

pursuit of acquiring oil wealth. The aggressiveness and

that is not sullied with socially abhorrent dictatorships

militarized control of the indigene by Shell among many

or human rights abuses. The Alberta oil industry has

other oil companies has violated human rights by weaken-

become the country’s number one employer of First Na-

ing infrastructure, degrading the environment and delib-

tions people and is beginning to settle environmental

erately imposing severe political limitations on indigenous

and other social qualms that most anti-oil sands activ-

populations. Unprecedented environmental impairments

ists have had concerns about. Rather than empowering

that have devastated the lives of innumerable industries

dictators and their cronies and funding the tanks and

and families within Nigeria have been a consequential ele-

weapons that they use to oppress their own people by

ment of foreign oil endeavours. Many indigenous people

investing in foreign oil, global interest in Canadian oil can

endure threats for their victimless crime of living and sub-

displace and weaken foreign regimes. Albertan oil sands

sisting within nations that have substantial oil deposits. Oil

are capable of assuring, not only economic increase but

is a natural resource that fuels capitalism and motivates

also the advancement of social justice, both inside and

foreign countries to control such resources at the expense

outside Canada. The Albertan oil sands are drilling for

of human rights. In the hopes of controlling resources, for-

something more precious than just oil barrels. It could

eign powers seek oil resources irresponsibly, lessening the

be digging up a tool for international annexation of

human capacity for subsistence and promoting instability

dictators and their dark political agendas. The Alberta

in oil rich countries. A solution to the subversion of human

oil sands are not just about economic growth for one

rights by foreign oil interests could be Thomas Pogge’s

province or one country; they are about advancing the

institutional model of human rights, which entails that in-

values of social justice and human rights that NGOs and

dividuals have a negative duty not to uphold institutions

responsible nations of the world so passionately believe

that contribute to the under fulfillment of human rights


globally. However, a less laissez-faire approach that is still conducive with Thomas Pogge’s model of human rights,

About the Author:

is depriving the foreign oil initiatives by supporting more

Hailing from the forest city, Omar Yassine is in his 4th

ethical oil industries that can displace oil barrels.

year at Western, studying Accounting and Political Science. He is the Vice President of Social Outreach on the Western


MSA Executive Team. He has spent three summers working

Could Alberta’s oil industry become a global tool for

for companies in the Albertan oil industry, and has had

bringing the annexation of dictatorial regimes that are sup-

first had accounts of how drilling for Canadian oil has em-

ported by the dark political agendas of TNCs to fruition?

powered aboriginals as well as many Canadians from the

With foreign interests seeking comradeships in Canadian

Atlantic to the Pacific. 17


Primary Product Dependency:

The more, the merrier!


visualize a country, which we’ll refer to as

demand, sounds like the obvious option to go with. But

Country X. Its unstable economy heav-

if countries fail to take advantage of that option, then pri-

ily relies on exports as the dominant means of generating

mary product dependency limits opportunities for growth

revenue and sustaining a somewhat positive gross domes-

and development. Ignoring the fact that these countries

tic product growth. Let’s go on and say that the only good

would need to improve the other components of aggre-

Country X is exporting is a primary product such as some

gate demand and being solely reliant on a primary com-

agricultural good.

modity for exports brings about various issues.

It does not sound too appealing but this fabricated coun-

One of the biggest issues with primary product

try’s situation is what many low income developing countries

dependency is world market price fluctuations. Any nega-

in the Sub-Saharan Africa region go through, as a majority

tive demand or supply side shock would result in a price

of them are home to such primary resources. Since these

change that would be harmful. This is especially true in

goods hold a high demand, it results in the commodity be-

the short-run, due to the inelasticity of supply of primary

coming the backbone for the country’s economy. Tracy L.

commodities. Brian R. Farmer explained this in his book,

Cousin proved this point in her article, Ethiopia Coffee and

The Question of Dependency and Economic Develop-

Trade, saying “Ethiopia’s primary source of income is the

ment: A Quantitative Analysis, that “a world market glut

trade of coffee and they rely on it heavily”.

of the one product, which makes up a large percentage

Sure, if one’s economy is lacking in all other compo-

of a state’s exports, may send the state’s economy into a

nents of aggregate demand, then selling something one

downward spiral due to low prices and a fall in exports

grows in one’s backyard, which happens to hold large world

despite the capacity of the state to increase product on a


THe western Review  October 2013

steady basis”.

This leads to another major issue being that prima-

ry products like metals, oil and gas are finite resources. Therefore, there is always a potential risk that when these

national copper prices by “improving their industry and services sector and expanding exports to more goods like cotton and sugar”.

Another excellent example that demonstrates that

resources are used up, the economy will lose its main ex-

primary product dependency does not limit opportunity,

port revenue. One could argue that the likelihood of this

if utilized properly, is Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia’s 2013

risk depends on whether the primary resources being ex-

economy profile said that “the petroleum sector accounts

ported is renewable, but there is still a time lag involved

for over 90% of their export earnings and 55% of GDP”.

with supply since it takes time for certain resources to

But this did not result in the country focusing all their re-

develop, and hence it is inelastic in the short-run.

sources on oil. There have been enormous investments

A final major issue to discuss is thatinvesting heav-

into infrastructure, social services and other development

ily into the primary products sector and failing to do the

plans that have allowed Saudi Arabia to experience stron-

same in areas in need of development puts a develop-

ger growth.

ing country in a bad situation. Many of these countries’

In my opinion, exporting primary products is not the

governments act upon Hirschman’s theory of unbal-

problem, especially if a country has a comparative ad-

anced growth, so their attention is focused on growing

vantage, as long as

the only sector doing well for them, being the primary

they utilize their ad-

which continued a 30-year decline in output due to

“exporting primary vantage. Any revenue products is not the generated from exporting primary prod- problem, especially ucts should be used if a country has to grow other sectors a comparative or improve developmental issues within advantage, as long the country so that as they utilize it may prosper and see more sustainable their advantage” growth. Diversifica-

lack of investment. From this, we can see that Zambia

tion is the key.

product sector in most cases. Thus, in the long-run, the more serious developmental issues being ignored, such as poor infrastructure, will have huge negative effects.

To put things in perspective, we can see these

theoretical issues occur in a real-life example through the Zambian economy.

Based on the information provided by Pearson’s

world countries profile on Zambia, the Zambian economy is known for their copper mining industry. But in 1998, output of copper had fallen to an all-time low

invested into their leading sector, as the theory of unbal-

As Professor Noam Chomsky put it when I spoke to him

anced growth suggested, which brought about some

via email regarding the topic, “I can’t think of a case of a

growth. But failing to invest in other areas meant there

country that is developed keeping to primary product

was nothing for the Zambian economy to fall back on

dependency. An interesting example is the U.S. When

when its copper mining industry declined.

the colonies were liberated, they received advice from

Once Zambia realized this, changes were made

the greatest of economists of the day, Adam Smith. Pretty

accordingly that helped the economy greatly. An article

much today’s Washington consensus: Keep to your com-

about the future prospects of Zambia from the Lusaka

parative advantage, produce primary products for export

Times written in 2011 reported that “copper mining is

and import superior manufactured goods”.

still central to the economic prospects for Zambia”. After what we discussed, does this not sound surprising?

About the Author:

But the article went on to say that Zambia made efforts

An international student from Bahrain, Syed Saif Hamid

to reduce the growing concerns that their economy is

Shah is a 2nd year Social Sciences student at Western major-

not diversified enough to cope with a collapse in inter-

ing in economics. 19

F E A T URES The treatment of palestinians/israeli arAbs:

in israel and the occupied territories


is the term used to

their religion. Being Israeli and belonging to the Jewish

describe the separa-

faith classifies as a category which separates Palestinians

tion between ethnic groups where the group enforcing

who are classified as ‘Israeli-Arabs’ on their passports. This

apartheid, Israel, uses different means to regulate the lives of

separation between the two groups of people excludes

Palestinians. According to Israeli professor Uri Davis, he de-

Palestinians living in Israel, because an Israeli identity is

scribed the situation of apartheid as a political system that

associated with being Jewish. This separation over Jew-

is regulated as law through the acts of parliament. These

ish nationality is recognized by the Committee on Social,

inhumane acts against the Palestinians are revealed through

Economic and Cultural Rights as institutional discrimina-

economic, social and political means. Internationally recog-

tion, but what exactly is being done to combat this form

nized document such as the Rome Statute (International

of discrimination?

Criminal Court) categorizes the crimes of apartheid as a

Palestinians living inside the OPT have been subjected

crime against humanity. Through the systematic oppression

to this form of institutional discrimination since the Nakba

of the Palestinians living in occupied Palestine, the West

or “Catastrophe” in 1948, when Israel acquired its inde-

Bank and the Gaza strip, it is clear that the racial injustices

pendence through occupying the Palestinian land. After

are committed with the intention to maintain inequality and

expelling 750,000 refugees and destroying Palestinian

a horrid situation for these Palestinian inhabitants.

villages, Israeli claimed its ‘independence’ at the expense

The Palestinians living inside Israel are treated with a

of the Palestinians. Referring back to the Rome Statute,

number of racial discriminations in comparison with their

the acts of forcibly transferring Palestinians out of their

Jewish-Israeli counterparts. Throughout Israel, domestic

homes and deporting them are classified under one of

discriminatory laws are applied to which people of Jewish

the inhumane acts of apartheid.

nationality benefit greatly from land use, immigration laws

The Palestinians that ended up staying inside Israel were

and natural resources of the country. Particularly with land

subjugated to specific laws and regulations and this was

use, the United Nations says that with the administrative

heavily controlled from 1948 until 1966. The treatment of

procedures laid out by the State of Israel, Palestinians living

Palestinians who stayed behind is difficult to compare to

inside the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT) are “alien

the situations incurred by those who fled Israel to seek

persons”. This means that they are not allowed to build or

refuge in neighbouring countries; as both groups of Pales-

rent large parts of land that the government has allocated

tinians encountered extreme challenges being displaced.

for ‘land use’. The specific plots of land allocated by the Gov-

These Palestinians that remained were treated with strict

ernment of Israel for land use are only allowed for use by the

laws such as regulated curfews and required permits to

Jewish Israeli citizens. Palestinians living inside the OPT have

drive on specific roads. For example, the Palestinians who

the Israeli citizenship; however, they are separated based on

were expelled in 1948, laws such as the Absentee Prop-


THe western Review  October 2013

erty Law of 1950 prevented these Palestinians from having

Israel is bound to these international documents. The

the right to their lands, property and citizenship in Israel.

settlements pose a number of threats to Palestinians

This means that these Palestinians cannot even return to

such as the diminishment of their hopes for a two state

their own country – who does the right of return apply

solution with the growth of these settlements.

to exactly? The line seems to be blurry, as the indigenous

The construction of the wall in the West Bank, also re-

population is denied from returning to its own land. As a

ferred to as the “security fence”, which does not actu-

result, this gives Israeli citizens the automatic possession

ally constitute a fence but rather a permanent fixture,

of lands that once belonged to Palestinians.

is extremely problematic for a number of reasons. The

Outside the so-called “Israeli” territories, the Palestinians

construction of this wall began in 2003 and has taken

living in the West Bank and the Gaza strip do not have it any

up Palestinian land to build it for the ‘security’ of Israelis,

easier than those Palestinians living inside Israel. They face

which is not a valid justification. If a state wants to protect

restrictions in every aspect, such as what goes in and out

its own citizens, it should be able to do so on its own land

via air, land and sea. Looking at the West Bank, also referred

and not on another. The apartheid wall has separated

to as the Swiss-cheese model, for the Israeli settlements

families and destroyed farm plots for farmers, which in

that take up Palestinian land which resembles the cheese

return affects Palestine’s struggling economy. The wall

model; The West Bank has Israeli presence throughout the

causes many implications, but they all have one common

entire region. This is evident through checkpoints, house

theme and this is that they make the lives of Palestinians

raids and other forms of Israeli control. Checkpoints pose

residing in the region difficult.

a daily threat to the life of a Palestinian, mainly because

The Gaza strip, a piece of land close to the Egyptian bor-

passing through a checkpoint can take hours and people

der, has been under a blockade for a number of years. The

can get refused for crossing in some cases. The treatment

Palestinians in Gaza live under conditions that are worse

at checkpoints is inhumane for a number of reasons, mainly

than those in the West Bank, mainly due to the extreme

because the needs of the Palestinians are disregarded.

shortage of water, food and medical supplies. Anything

Palestinian women are refused to pass a checkpoint to

that enters or exits Gaza is controlled by Israelis, and this

seek medical attention, and as a result there have been a

of course does not allow the adequate supplies to pass

number of women delivering at the checkpoints. In addi-

through. This restriction destroys the Palestinian popu-

tion, people that need to go to work or see family members

lation because they are not provided with the means to

are prevented through the checkpoints because of the

proposer and grow.

extremely long waiting times.

Evidently, Palestinians or “Israeli Arabs” living inside Is-

Checkpoints are not the only means of controlling the

raeli territories as well as those in the West Bank and the

lives of Palestinians, as another issue is associated with

Gaza strip similarly suffer in their daily lives. Their means

the right of return to those Palestinians that left in 1948.

may be slightly different, but they all have their basic

To return back to the West Bank or the Gaza strip, the Law

human rights violated, which in return do not give them

of Return of 1950 applies to all Palestinians in the world.

their full capacity. Compared with their Jewish neighbors,

It states that every Jew, wherever he may be, the right to

Palestinians do suffer more in terms of nutrition, water,

come to Israel as an oleh (a Jew immigration to Israel) and

education and economy. These restrictions imposed by

become an Israeli citizen. This violates international law as

Israel are meant to weaken the Palestinian resistance, but

Palestinians are denied this right, and this is a violation of

this in return inspires many Palestinians in the region and

their human rights.

abroad to stand in solidarity and speak out against these

Another issue associated with the ill-treatment of Pales-

forms of oppression.

tinians in the West Bank is the illegal settlements that take up Palestinian land. In 1967, Israel built 121 settlements

About the Author:

and since then this number has grown drastically. United

Sara Ataya is a 4th year undergraduate student with Hon-

Nations resolution 242, as well as UDHR Article 13, all state

ours Specialization in Political Science. Her interests are in

that the settlements built in the West Bank are illegal, and

human rights and international law issues. 21


The World Review:

an introduction and submission guidelines

About Us The World Review is a student-run publication at The University of Western Ontario, currently funded by student-led initiatives. Contributors to the journal may include Western (and its affiliates’) students as well as faculty and specialists in the fields that we cover. The editorial team is comprised of a student-led editorial board and a professor advisor. Created in early 2013, The World Review is a monthly published student journal that features various topics of interest from a wide range of academic subjects. Specific topics per issue may be International, National, Social, Business, and Science-related. The size of the journal depends on the articles received by the journal from students, professors, and editors. The World Review features overlooked topics concerning international relations and various perspectives on more commonly discussed globally-important affairs. It brings to light social, business, science, and creative topics by exploring trends occurring in the modern age. Each issue, the Review encourages article submissions on a different themed topic to explore a multitude of important fields. The topic will be announced in the prior issue. Despite encouraged focus on the theme, articles will be accepted on any academic topic. The Review differs from traditional news publications in that its intended focus is on analysis rather than delivering news or commentary. The journal is a forum for academic debate and insightful exploration of relevant topics. It presents scholarly content in appropriate format and writing style. The targeted audience of the Review is academic and recreational readers who wish to understand sundry intellectual issues.


THe western Review  October 2013

Contribute! Submissions are to be made by e-mail to: Layout: The layout of each issue is consistent in some ways yet innovative in others. Since each new issue features a different theme, unique sections are introduced in order to provide an exciting and uniform experience for readers. Similar articles are grouped together and introduced as part of a subtopic. Articles independent of the theme are sorted in a broader, more generic way. The Correspondence section welcomes letters to the editor in response to content published in the previous issue. Responses may range from short commentaexpressing approval or dissent with a specific piece to longer articles that complement, further explore, or dispute the original piece or subject. This commentary should briefly summarize the original piece and state the point of admiration or contention. Responses should be at least 250 words in length with a maximum of 1500 words.

Submission Guidelines The World Review invites students to submit their own academic articles to our journal e-mail: theworldreview.uwo@gmail. com. In articles and editorials, all citations must be in-text citations; no footnotes. This means that there cannot be a works cited or list of sources at the end. These submissions are preferable. Submissions with different citation methods (MLA, Chicago, and APA) will be reviewed as well since most research papers contain a works cited. Editors will contact the authors to ensure that citation is proper and follows one of the standard formats. Authors are requested to include a brief author biography with their submission, consisting of: Name, Academic Year, and Faculty/Major along with any personal or professional experience relating to the content of the article. The author should also state the topic of their article in the subject of the email.

If you are a student-run club or organization at Western University and would like to promote or advertise (e.g. an event) using the back cover of The World Review, please contact:

The World Review - Issue 1  

Issue 1 of The World Review (Theme: International Relations)

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you