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Providing Low Resource High School Students Access to International Travel and Learning Opportunities: A Project Proposal

The Wandering Scholar

Shannon O’Halloran January 2010 Master’s Thesis International Educational Development Boston University


Introduction: The Wandering Scholar

Executive Summary Low-resource students, many of whom are also students of color, are not adequately prepared for their roles as global citizens. The focus on reducing the achievement gap in recent years has often led to a narrowing of school curricula. Teaching "to the test" has become the primary focus at the expense of course content with an international focus. Moreover, many low resource students face an important opportunity gap: a lack access to enriching international opportunities that can prepare them for global roles. International travel opportunities are an ideal venue for developing the foreign-language, intercultural -communication and leadership skills needed to compete in the 21st century. A 2008 American Field Service study of returnees from international travel programs in the 1980s found that, 20-25 years later, participants were more likely to speak a 2nd language, have friends from other cultures, achieve a higher level of education, and encourage their own children to interact with other cultures. Unfortunately, recent census data show that income disparities inhibit participation in these programs, and ultimately the ability to benefit from these gains. In 2007, African American and Hispanic households had the lowest median incomes ($33,916 and $38,679) compared to Caucasians ($54,920). Meanwhile, student travel programs cost upwards of $6,000, making them prohibitively expensive. Indeed according to a 2009 Open Doors study, only 10% of the 262,416 US students who studied abroad in 2007-8 identified as African American or Hispanic. Many factors hinder participation in such programs beyond lack of access to information and financial resources, students may not have passports, may be unable to envision the benefits of travel, or may lack an informed support network throughout the application process. The Wandering Scholar makes international travel opportunities accessible to low resource high school students. It recognizes the multiple factors that keep low-resource students from participating in international travel programs and specifically targets each one. It creates a social network platform for participants to share their travel experiences at every stage, with fellow scholars and the community at large. The program is holistic in its approach: beyond fully funding trips with student travel organizations, the program provides pre-trip preparation for both students and their families and guidance throughout all stages of the program from experienced travelers who volunteer as mentors. Upon return, the scholars share their experiences with their community, and interact, in person and via social media, with an alumni network of fellow scholars. The Wandering Scholar is a supportive framework that expands each scholar’s present options as well as their future academic and professional possibilities. A pilot program will begin in 2010 sending 5 students on trips with Walking Tree Travel, the 1st partner travel organization. Ultimately, the program’s vision is to give low resource U.S. youth a competitive edge in today’s global society while inspiring compassionate attitudes towards local and international issues.

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Introduction: The Wandering Scholar

Table of Contents Executive Summary ................................................................................................................2 Introduction ................................................................................................................................6 Origins of the Issue .....................................................................................................................9 Achievement Gap: Schools Teach to the Test ..........................................................................9 Opportunity Gaps .................................................................................................................. 12 Civic Education ................................................................................................................. 12 Extracurricular Activities ................................................................................................... 13 Summer Learning Gap....................................................................................................... 14 Efforts to Address the Need....................................................................................................... 15 Formal Education Sector ....................................................................................................... 15 Schools with a Global Education Mission .......................................................................... 16 Curricular Reform ............................................................................................................. 18 Teacher Training ............................................................................................................... 20 Nonformal Education Sector ................................................................................................. 22 Intercultural Exchange Programs ....................................................................................... 22 Intercultural Exchange Programs: Impact of Participation ................................................. 32 Intercultural Exchange Programs: Participant Profile ......................................................... 33 Importance of the Issue ............................................................................................................. 36 International Level ................................................................................................................ 38 National Level ....................................................................................................................... 38 Individual and Local Level .................................................................................................... 39 Project Overview ...................................................................................................................... 42 Theory of Change: Youth Development .................................................................................... 45 Youth Development .............................................................................................................. 45 Experiential Learning ........................................................................................................ 47 Mentorship ........................................................................................................................ 50 Leadership development .................................................................................................... 52 Intercultural Awareness Training and Preparation Workshop............................................. 55 Service Learning ............................................................................................................... 58 Youth Development in an International Context .................................................................... 61 Activities................................................................................................................................... 62 Recruitment:.......................................................................................................................... 63 Recruitment of Participants (Mid Fall-Early Winter) ......................................................... 63

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Introduction: The Wandering Scholar

Determining Target Population .......................................................................................... 66 Targeting Schools and Community Organizations ............................................................. 66 Gaining Permission to Recruit in Schools and Community Organizations .......................... 67 Recruitment Session .......................................................................................................... 67 Staying Connected With Potential Recruits........................................................................ 68 Selecting Candidates ......................................................................................................... 68 Recruitment of Mentors ..................................................................................................... 69 Determining Target Population .......................................................................................... 70 Search and Application Process ......................................................................................... 70 Preparation: ........................................................................................................................... 71 Matching Mentors and Mentees ......................................................................................... 71 Informational Family Meeting ........................................................................................... 72 Pre-departure Workshop .................................................................................................... 73 Travel.................................................................................................................................... 82 Monitoring ........................................................................................................................ 82 Student’s Projects .............................................................................................................. 82 Trip Log and Blogging ...................................................................................................... 83 Reflection and Presentation ................................................................................................... 83 Post-trip Workshop and Presentation of Learning ............................................................. 83 Peer to Peer Recruitment ................................................................................................... 84 Required Resources ............................................................................................................... 85 Budget................................................................................................................................... 88 Budget Notes and Funding Sources ................................................................................... 90 Monitoring and Evaluation .................................................................................................... 91 Measuring Impact.................................................................................................................. 96 Project Assumptions .............................................................................................................. 98 Cost Benefit Analysis ............................................................................................................ 99 SWOT Analysis .................................................................................................................. 103 Conclusion .............................................................................................................................. 104 Appendix I .............................................................................................................................. 106 Subsystem Logic Table ....................................................................................................... 107 Subsystem Pert Diagram ..................................................................................................... 108 Gantt Diagram..................................................................................................................... 109 Frequently Asked Questions ................................................................................................ 110

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Appendix II ............................................................................................................................. 112 Appendix III ........................................................................................................................... 118 References .............................................................................................................................. 151

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Section I: Problem Context Introduction There exists an ever-increasing need for educators to build global awareness, promote intercultural understanding, and teach international issues to adolescents in both formal and non-formal educational settings. This stems from the changing demands of society created by the combined effects of the globalization of economies, the increased importance of and reliance on information technology, the international interconnectedness of health and security issues, and the acceleration of international migration (Stewart, 2007). There is an even greater need to provide such educational opportunities to students with low resources including those who come from families of low socio-economic background, attend overcrowded and underfunded public schools, and lack informal exposure to enriching global educational experiences. According to Stewart (2007) in order for U.S. students to be “successful global citizens, workers and leaders” they need to increase their international knowledge, improve their foreign language skills and, “focus on becoming active and engaged citizens in both their local and global environments” (p.11). These skills can be taught through providing global education opportunities (G.E.O.’s) both in school and outside of school, through educational programs or informally at home.

Banks (2008) through differentiating global education (G.E.) from

multicultural education defines G.E. as, The study of cultures, institutions, and interconnectedness of nations outside of the United States. Global education is often confused with multicultural education, which

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deals with educational issues in the United States or within another nation. Global education deals with issues, problems, and developments outside of the United States or outside another nation (p. 134). This definition provides a concise understanding of the basic scope of G.E. but it ignores how what is learned through G.E. can be applied to one’s immediate circumstances and local context.

A definition for global education should not only encompass teachings about

international topics and global relations but should also aim to develop the skills adolescents need for navigation in today’s complex, diverse world and successful interaction with any individual, group or institution that differs from the student, whether at home or abroad. Anthony Jackson (2008), the CEO of the Asia Society, a foundation that “seeks to increase knowledge and enhance dialogue, encourage creative expression, and generate new ideas across the fields of policy, business, education, arts, and culture,” succinctly frames the issue, Two intertwined imperatives face U.S. education today. The first is addressing the problem of persistent underachievement, particularly among minority and low-income students. The second is preparing students for work and civic roles in a globalized environment, where success increasingly requires the ability to compete, connect, and cooperate on an international scale. (p.58) Providing G.E. to low resource students has become increasingly important because students of a low socioeconomic status and minority students, the groups that typically suffer from the inequalities in education, will face double the competition in the future. Nationally, low resource students will continue to compete for professional and educational opportunities with privileged students. These privileged students often have the opportunity to go to schools that

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offer a wide array of language, history and humanities courses with an international focus and take part in after school or summer programs that may focus on international topics. At home, these students often benefit from a parenting philosophy that emphasizes the importance of learning about and questioning the state of world (Gow 2008, Chin & Phillips 2004, and Rothstein 2004). Low resource students, on the other hand, typically attend schools that focus practically all energy on preparing for standardized tests, and cannot afford or are unaware of extracurricular opportunities. Low resource students also have fewer opportunities for international exposure at home, where parents often who do not engage in meaningful conversations about global and intercultural awareness because of low levels of education or lack of time and resources (Pederson 2007, Chin & Phillips 2004, and Rothstein 2008). Due to the globalization of economies, cultures, and the environment, low resource students have to compete for employment, opportunities and resources on an international level. A customer service job at a company such as Dell or Comcast that was once only available to those in the U.S. with access to a landline and English speaking skills can now just as easily be performed by in an international call center. A design for a home, once done by an architect’s assistant in her urban office can now be drawn with a computer program from a rural outpost in Thailand and sent via email to that same architect. Low resource American students are least prepared for this new age of micro-level international competition, and therefore there is a great need and opportunity for change in international education for this population.

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Origins of the Issue Achievement Gap: Schools Teach to the Test Societies have always recognized the importance of teaching privileged students about international affairs and intercultural awareness. These students who attend elite high schools and colleges, come from wealthy families and have social connections and are therefore assumed to be the leaders of tomorrow. In recent years due to the far reaching affects of globalization the need has been intensified and democratized. In public schools where low resource students typically attend these needs have largely been unmet. Curricula of public schools have too often become test-driven to the exclusion of other types of learning as reaction to the accountability stipulations of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act of 2001. This act, a reauthorization of the 1965 Elementary and Secondary Act, aimed to narrow what is a very apparent gap in academic achievement in United States public schools between middle class or white students and minority or students of a low socioeconomic status (Banks 2008). However, the most important measurement for success or failure of schools became yearly improvement on standardized tests in mathematics and reading. Some proponents of the act believe that it has led many schools to face the hard facts about low performance of certain subsets of students. According to Banks (2008), who studied the role of social class in the achievement gap, “the disaggregation of achievement data has helped to focus attention on the academic achievement gap between White students and students of color such as African Americans, Mexican Americans and Native Americans� (p. 6).

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One case study is, the state of Massachusetts, which uses the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS), a standardized test Figure 1 Massachusetts 2006-07 Standardized Test Scores

that tests basic skills in Math and English. This test repeatedly reveals quite plainly important disparities between certain socio-demographic groups in terms of achievement. A report by the Patrick of administration Massachusetts (2008) stated that, “In 2007, for instance, 73 percent of African American students and 67 percent of Latino students passed both math and English exams on their first try, compared to 91 percent of white students

and

students�(Patrick

90

percent

Administration).

of

Asian

Figure

1

visually demonstrates these disparities. Such obvious disparity in achievement between ethnic groups and income levels quickly turned the focus of public education to improving scores.

While this spotlight on basic

the skills and content necessary to excel in an


Origins of the Issue: The Wandering Scholar

academic exam is important, it comes at the price of no longer addressing other aspects of education, thereby doing low resource students a tremendous disservice by not preparing them for a global economy. According to Jackson (2008), “The No Child Left Behind Act’s focus on closing the basicskills achievement gap is only a first step toward the goal of creating equal educational opportunity” (p. 59). The test-based measure of performance that many states require has led schools to make cuts in programs that are not tested in order to give more time to those that are. Pederson (2007) found in a national survey of state assessment directors that, “More than half of the respondents reported that subjects not required to be tested by NCLB receive fewer resources and time in the school day”(p. 290). The American public recognizes the importance of teaching more than just skills and facts needed to pass standardized reading and math tests. A survey among U.S. voters found that 40% of those sampled, “considered global awareness a very important skill, yet only 6% thought schools were doing an adequate job of developing it” (Reimers, 2008). Moreover, Rothstein (2004) found in a study of national surveys about education that, “over two-thirds of Americans said that teaching values was a more important role of public schools than teaching academic subjects; the top rated value was teaching students to solve problems without violence” (p.96). Unfortunately, there is no standardized test to measure the ability of a student to navigate the challenges of this global society such as the challenge of solving problems through negotiation and diplomacy and not force. Therefore many schools and extracurricular educational programs are ignoring the need to implement a curriculum that

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could provide guidance in this new realm.

This is especially true in schools that are

underperforming and in desperate need of additional resources through federal funding.

Opportunity Gaps The roots of this issue extend beyond the test-centric academic careers of most low resource students to their family lives and lack of informal learning experiences. Students of a low socioeconomic status and minority students are less exposed to G.E.O.’s through informal education channels than their peers of a higher socioeconomic status.

This problem is

associated with a lack in cultural capital which according to Silva (2006), “identifies culture as an appropriate form of investment that can secure a return, in the form of an accumulating asset bearing on social position. It is transmitted in social upbringing via family and the educational system” (p. 1173). Cultural capital is thus acquired and grown through exposure to stimulating cultural experiences throughout one’s life. A lack of enriching informal educational experiences and subsequent dearth of cultural capital, results in an opportunity gap between privileged students and low resource students.

There are many types of informal educational

opportunities that low resource students miss out on including: civic education, extracurricular engagement and summer learning. Civic Education

Civic education can be defined as lessons and experiences, both actual and simulated, that help students better understand their role as citizens. Civic education plays an important role in global education because in order to understand our roles and responsibilities in an international context as global citizens we must first understand what our rights and duties are

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as national citizens. Kahne (2009), in a research study, found a significant civic education opportunity gap amongst ethnic minorities and low resources students in the United States, “Students in high income classrooms were: twice as likely than students in classrooms with average income levels to report studying how laws are made, twice as likely to report participating in service activities, 1.5 times more likely to report participating in simulations in their social studies classes and 80% more likely to take part in panel discussions or debates” (p. 29). It is important to recognize and address this opportunity gap early in a student’s life because not having the exposure to civic education leads to less political and community participation as children and eventually as adults. A lack of civic participation contributes to disengaged citizenship meaning that low resource undereducated students are less likely to be advocates for their social needs and political interests in the future. Extracurricular Activities

Another form of opportunity gap among United States secondary school students comes in the form of lack of participation in nonformal extracurricular activities. A significant link between low student engagement in extracurricular activities and high school dropout rates was found in a recent study that focused on Mexican American students of low socioeconomic status (Ream and Rumberger, 2008).

The researchers found that peer social

capital can have both positive and negative effects on students’ ability and choice to stay in school. Social capital, as opposed to financial capital, is derived from the social networks within which a person is part of and interacts. Social capital produces both positive and negative effects on a person depending on what type of social network is considered. When students are exposed to positive social situations and surrounded by motivated peers they have a better

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chance of “educational perseverance”.

Ream and Rumberger (2008) suggested that, “By

facilitating resource-rich, school-oriented friendship networks and discouraging entrapment in the social capital downside, student engagement serves both an important social function and an important educational function” (p. 125). The solution is clear: encourage students to participate in extracurricular activities. Unfortunately, students who are at the highest risk of dropping out (students of a low socioeconomic status and minority students), are also the least likely to be involved in extracurricular activities due to lack of options, encouragement, and resources. Summer Learning Gap

Many enriching cultural experiences that add to an accumulation of cultural capital and positive social capital take place during summer months when school is not in session and the daily structure of time is left up to adolescents and their parents (Chin & Phillips 2004). A third type of opportunity gap thus exists: the summer learning gap. According to Chin and Phillips (2004), “Because summertime represents a relatively unconstrained period in which parents and children co-construct their activities, it provides a unique vantage point from which social scientists can examine how families reproduce social inequality” (p. 186). Chin and Phillips (2004) examined the role of social, cultural and child capital, defined as a child’s own resources (i.e. intelligence, imagination, social circle and knowledge of opportunities), in the creation or lack thereof of summers of enriching nonformal educational opportunities. They found that, “the middle class parents tended to be more successful in constructing highly stimulating summers for their children because they tended to have greater financial resources, more flexible jobs, and more knowledge about how to match particular activities to their children’s

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skills and interests” (p. 204). Moreover, Alexander (2007) found that the summer learning gap has long lasting effects, “Since it is low socioeconomic status youth specifically whose out-ofschool learning lags behind, this summer shortfall relative to better-off children contributes to the perpetuation of family advantage and disadvantage across generations” (p. 175). The accumulation of cultural capital does not necessarily entail spending money, although as Gardner (2007) pointed out, “Poor children have fewer opportunities for enriching experiences. Poor people don’t take trips to Europe or Africa; indeed, some rarely leave their neighborhoods” (p. 9).

Being opportunity and culturally rich, however, does require that

parents or guardians be educated about available educational opportunities and have the luxury of both the time to investigate and to partake in them with their children. Rothstein (2004) explored how this type of “free” cultural capital can help improve a student’s achievement, “Explaining events in the broader world to children, in dinner talk, for example, may have as much of an influence on test scores as early reading itself” (p. 21). Of course, for this strategy to be effective parents must be able to be at home during supper time or must know about world events themselves. These are assumptions we cannot make. A lack of enriching conversations and activities that put the world in context for an adolescent, whether at home or in a summer or after school program, leads to lower motivation to learn in the classroom, less engagement in extra activities, and less sense of future direction.

Efforts to Address the Need Formal Education Sector

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In the United States, development strategies are employed across both the formal and nonformal sectors of education to help build global awareness in middle and secondary school aged children. Three strategies to increase global competence in adolescents stand out within the traditional sector of formal education, the “hierarchically structured, chronologically graded educational system running from primary school through the university” (Coombs, 1973, 11). First the creation of schools with explicit missions to build global awareness and increase international competence, second an overhaul of the curriculum through reform or the insertion of special units or courses which focus on global issues into a traditional school curriculum and finally, the training of teachers to encourage the incorporation of global issues and intercultural education within daily lessons and interactions in the classroom. Schools with a Global Education Mission

A historic example of a school with an encompassing and explicit mission to provide G.E.O. is the International Baccalaureate program, founded in 1968 in Geneva, Switzerland by a group of teachers at an international school who wished to create a curriculum to prepare students attending international schools for colleges in different countries. Today, over forty years later, this organization has created, “2,762 schools in 138 countries” for children aged 3 to 19 that seek to, “develop inquiring, knowledgeable and caring young people who help to create a better and more peaceful world through intercultural understanding and respect” (IB website). Another group of schools whose mission is based around global education is the International Studies Schools Network (ISSN). This network is a nationwide group of thirteen charter schools with a student body that is 85% minority and 74% from low-income families. (Jackson 2008)

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According to Jackson (2008), the ISSN schools have a “core mission of developing college-ready globally competent high school graduates” (p.59). The curriculum develops global competence by teaching each academic subject through an international lens and examining international issues from various perspectives such as a science class where, “students examine issues of hunger and food scarcity in the world through the labs that explore the energy value of foods” (Jackson, 2008, p.60). The ISSN schools also put a great emphasis on learning a second language because, according to Jackson, learning a new language “provides a vehicle for helping students understand their behaviors, norms and traditions of everyday life in other cultures”(p. 61). Finally, the schools view the ethno-racial and socioeconomic diversity of their students as one of their key strengths. Exercising this strength, teachers help students and parents understand and reflect on the various cultures present in their immediate communities. Today, independent schools continue to pave the way in terms of teaching about global topics. Independent schools have freedom from many state regulations and the advantage of private funding to explore new and alternative models of education (Gow 2008). Teaching global awareness is one such model. Gow (2008) explored the approaches independent schools have taken towards increasing global competence in students, asserting that, “Teaching for global awareness is hardly a new idea…The impulse to inspire international thinking in young Americans is as old as Theodore Roosevelt, and, in years after the World War II, Eleanor Roosevelt made the rounds of independent schools on behalf of the United Nations.” Among the historic strategies Gow (2008) described were “travel-study programs”, teaching “nonwestern” topics in schools, and facilitating international “service learning” school trips. Some of

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the more innovative strategies Gow found in a review of private school global education programming were the creation of school consortiums that “provide both individual students and entire schools the opportunity to make global connections”, the use of virtual projects such as “the Flat Classroom Project,” and a myriad of keypal opportunities that put schools and students in virtual touch with counterparts in other nations”, and the creation of entire institutes housed on campus that devote their energy to global studies as innovative strategies. There has been a surge in recent years of both charter and private schools with global education missions however these programs remain out of reach for the majority of American adolescents because most cannot afford to attend private schools and do not have access to a charter schools. Curricular Reform

An entire overhaul of every school’s mission to incorporate a G.E. mission is neither practical nor particularly necessary. However, in recent years, the Department’s of Education (D.O.E.) of many states have recognized a need for curricular reform to address new economic and social demands of society. In response to this need, The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) was formed in 2002. This national organization is supported by the U.S. D.O.E., many state D.O.E.s , and multiple private corporations. The mission is to provide states, schools and educators with tools and resources help prepare students for the 21st century.

The

organization believes that to be academically and professionally successful in today’s world students must not only master the core academic subjects (reading or language arts, world languages, arts, mathematics, economics, science, geography, history, government and civics) but also develop certain abilities such as life and career skills, information, media and

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technology skills, and learning and innovation skills. P21 asserts that these skills can be taught through integrating interdisciplinary themes such as global awareness and civic literacy into the core academic subject areas. While P21 has gained many partners and supporters both educational and corporate since it began, it has also received much criticism.

Many educators claim that the

organization’s goals are too lofty and vague, see its implementation in schools as a threat to addressing the basic academic needs to students, and argue that these skills are not new (Silva, 2009). The skeptics have a point and Rotherham and Willingham (2009) agree these skills are not new: “Many U.S. students are taught these skills- those who are fortunate enough to attend highly effective schools or at least encounter great teachers- but it’s a matter of chance rather than deliberate design of our school system (p. 16).” Moreover, since computers have taken over basic mathematical and logical functions, as Silva (2009) pointed out, “Today’s workers in nearly all sectors of the economy must be able to find and analyze information, often coming from multiple sources, and use this information to make decisions and create new ideas. 21 st century skills, then, are not new, just newly important (p. 631).” In response to its critics P21, with the participation of 14 states now writes curricular frameworks and in addition offers standards, assessments and professional development programs for schools and educators interested in promoting these skills in their classrooms. The organization also continues to stress its commitment to integrating these skills into the core subjects thus refuting the claim that skills can only be taught at the expense of content. Another way to incorporate global awareness into a formal educational setting is by dedicating the focus of one particular semester or course to the study of global issues. Doane

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Efforts to Address the Need: The Wandering Scholar (1993) described a 6th grade classroom in a suburban area of Illinois where the teachers decided to try teaching a month long unit on world issues in order to “prepare children to solve tomorrow’s problems” (19). The teachers divided the unit up into the following subsections: brainstorming topics of interest, doing research, performing fieldwork, and creating educational material to inform others about the problem they chose to focus on (Doane 1993). A unit such as this could be used at any age level and could last a month or a year, depending on the desired depth of study. Through this development strategy of learning within a global framework, students gain knowledge of other countries and international issues. They develop critical thinking skills, learn how to problem solve, and learn how to gather research. Most importantly they begin to think about what international topics and issue areas are motivating and inspirational for them. This personal connection to the world helps students learn the importance of empathy which according to Zevin (1993), “provides young people with the chance to see others from their own point of view, to experience different cultures as valid and valuable creations, and to inquire into the ways in which ideas, customs, and inventions move from one tradition to another.” (p. 3) Students who partake in the type of lesson plan described above will be better equipped for and more apt to do well in the jobs of the future most of which will not only desire but require the skill sets and awareness about global affairs that these lessons teach. However, curricular changes to build global competence in students are only as effective as the teachers presenting them. Teacher Training

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Another strategy that has been used to increase global awareness has been to provide teachers an opportunity to increase their own knowledge of international topics. In Arkansas, , eight school districts inconcert, with the Rockefeller Foundation, started a project called ATLAS. ATLAS sent groups of four teachers to a summer institute that took place at the University of Arkansas and in Guatemala. The mission of the institute was to train the teachers, “to awaken in students a commitment to take global responsibility for the environment” and “to teach them the knowledge and skills they will need to work with their counterparts in other countries” (Stanford, 1990, p. 98). Through seminars that helped teachers explore their personal perspectives on international environmental issues and understand these issues through literature, sociology and art culminating in a two-week long trip to Guatemala, the teachers increased their own global competence. When they first returned to their schools radical changes in the curriculum did not happen as quickly as the institute and ATLAS had hoped for. According to Stanford (1990), one of the directors of the program, “I found most of their initial efforts disappointing at first. We had conducted a model of study of ideas and values of other cultures; what I saw in the schools was a lot of food festivals, costumes (sometimes stereotypes) and flags’” (p. 99). The teachers, however, who understood the narrow mindsets of their students who had never been exposed to such concepts, learned something far more important than just what to teach students about world environmental problems. (Stanford 1990) According to Stanford (1990) they learned that, “for students in remote rural communities, global responsibility has to start with an understanding that cultural difference is not necessarily bad or threatening” (p. 100). Through this model of teacher education the instructor is able to reflect on the topics before

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introducing them to the classroom for the first time. In doing so the teacher is able to truly ‘own’ the material. The lesson will therefore come across as more sincere to the students. Providing time and a venue for this type of reflection and analysis will lead teachers to provide sustainable, culturally appropriate and therefore more influential lessons and learning opportunities for their students. The intention of teacher training programs such as ATLAS is that the teachers can and will bring what they learned at such workshops back into the classroom. Rarely, however, are mechanisms employed by which to monitor whether this is done or to measure the impact of the new teaching style on the students.

Nonformal Education Sector Formal educational institutions are a key place to begin teaching about international issues but they are certainly not the only places where adolescents can gain international understanding.

Nonformal educational programs with G.E.O. opportunities also exist.

According to Etling (1993) nonformal education is, “any intentional and systematic educational enterprise in which content is adapted to the unique needs of the students (or unique situations) in order to maximize learning and minimize other elements which often occupy formal school teachers” (p. 73). An important defining feature of nonformal education is that it takes place outside of the classic school structure. Intercultural Exchange Programs

One of the most historic and well developed forms of nonformal G.E.O. are intercultural exchange programs (I.E.P.). I.E.P.’s offer the opportunity for youth to travel internationally, do

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community service, learn a new language, or a combination of all three. They are an excellent way for students to improve their competency as global citizens.

Case Study: Walking Tree Travel Walking Tree Travel is a for-profit student travel company 1.

The organization sends

high school aged students from the United States to Costa Rica, China, Peru and Guatemala for an educational experience that combines community service, language and cultural immersion, and adventure travel. The company is unique among its counterparts in that the main focus of each trip is the completion of a community development project, chosen in conjunction with the village in which the students stay. Development within the context of this organization takes place on two levels. On an individual level each student develops mentally, intellectually and physically throughout the trip. On a community level, the students help the village in which they are staying complete a community development project. Both the students and the host community benefit from improving their capacities to identify needs, plan projects, employ new acquired skills, and interact with others from distinct linguistic and cultural backgrounds. Walking Tree Travel was formed in 2005 by a group childhood friends from Denver, CO with the mission, "to inspire young adults to become global citizens by taking an active interest in the world around them…by providing unforgettable programs filled with challenging and enriching adventures." (www.walkingtree.org) Each founder spent a significant amount of time

1

The author worked for Walking Tree Travel this past summer in fulfillment of the IEDP field work requirement and to better understand the inner workings of a student travel organization. Walking Tree Travel has agreed to partner with The Wandering Scholar.

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traveling outside of the United States, not only as tourists, but also as fully participative community members. Over these years each came to understand the importance of travel in developing their individual values and worldviews. They believed that other young people from the United States would benefit from having experiences such as theirs, "We have found that our most rewarding travel experiences have been as active members of a community rather than tourists. For this reason, Walking Tree specializes in programs based in communities we know and trust around the world." The founders recognized that the best way to become fully engaged in and to better understand another society is through working together towards a common goal. This is why they decided that a community development project would be the main focus of each trip. The organization started small. In its first year the founders took a group of student volunteers from the Denver, CO area to the village of Buena Vista in Costa Rica for a four-week trip and three week stay in the village. During this inaugural trip they slept at the local school because they had not yet fully established ties with the host community. This pilot trip was a resounding success for the organization, students and host community. The group made lasting relationships with active members of the community during their stay and Walking Tree was asked to return the following year with the offer to host students in the homes of community members. It is to this village, four summers later, I took a group of fifteen students along with two co-leaders to spend three weeks living with community members and working on a development project. Organizational Analysis

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Efforts to Address the Need: The Wandering Scholar

An analysis of Walking Tree as an educational development organization could be done on two levels, macro and micro. At the macro level, one could treat Walking Tree as solely a business and analyze how it increases profits or how organizational decisions are made. A different way to analyze the organization is on a trip-by-trip basis, the micro level. The remainder of this case study will be analyzed at the micro level of the Walking Tree Travel organization. Walking Tree Travel allows for a high level of autonomy and independence on each trip. The company founders recruit students, hire trip leaders, develop initial relationships with host communities and coordinate the basic logistics of travel for each group. Once, however, a group arrives at their destination village, they are on their own. The group's daily schedule, budget allocations and ultimately the outcome of the community service project is in the hands of the group leaders and the students. I will examine how my specific trip, the “Costa Rica Explorers�, made decisions, dealt with funding, defined development on both the individual and community level and interacted with the larger organization of Walking Tree Travel as well as the host community. Our group consisted of 15 adolescent students and three group leaders. As one of the group leaders I was hired for my experience traveling, working and living abroad. Our role was to help guide these adolescents through a foreign country, ensure their safety and facilitate the community development project. Our most important role, however, was to help the students make the most out of their first intercultural experience, define for themselves what it means to be a global citizen, and gain confidence in being a leader. Decision Making

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Efforts to Address the Need: The Wandering Scholar

The style of leadership and decision making on the trip vacillated between participatory decision making and top-down leadership. Walking Tree stresses in its training of leaders that the trip is designed for the students’ educational and personal enrichment and therefore they should be allowed to influence and make decisions as often as possible, “The key to a great summer is creating a sense of community. Each participant is not a tree walking alone, but rather part of a group where everyone is connected and affected. To realize this philosophy, students need to think about their fellow travelers and groups first, rather than themselves. It will take time to create this sentiment, but it’s incredible when it happens. Make sure the students are creating examples and coming to their own conclusions.” (WTT Handbook) An illustrative example of when this style of decision making was utilized took place at the very beginning of the trip during our fist morning in Costa Rica. As the leaders, we wanted to make it clear from the beginning that much of the success of the trip in terms of completing the community development project, using Spanish, making new friends and overall enjoyment depended on the choices of and dynamic created by the students. We then asked them to, as a group, create a visual diagram expressing what attitudes or actions belonged in our group dynamic and which ones they preferred to stay out. While many of the decisions pertaining to group dynamic and choices about what we would do as group during free time were left to the students to make, other types of decisions necessitated a top down approach. This was especially true when it came to ensuring the students’ safety, health and security. Some basic rules such as curfew and prohibition on drinking and the use of drugs were presented to the group as non-negotiable. In an effort to

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Efforts to Address the Need: The Wandering Scholar

alleviate any sense, on the part of the students, of being treated as unequal the group leaders also agreed to follow all rules imposed on the students. Another important decision made for the students by the trip leaders was which family they would stay with while in the village. This decision was best left to the trip leaders because so many factors were involved in choosing which family each student would be paired with and while not an exact science, after a few long days traveling with the group, certain personality traits and obvious needs or quirks came out quite strongly. Walking Tree recognizes the delicate nature of these decisions and during leadership training warned, “While the families have been selected and prepared by the time you arrive, it will be your responsibility as guides to assign students to their host families. When talking this over with your fellow leaders, it’s important to take many factors into consideration, including a student’s gender and age, maturity level, independence from the group, physical stamina (for houses far from the service project), behavior issues and even friendships that have developed within the group.” (WTT Handbook) For the most part students were pleased with the families that we chose for them. This could be partially attributed to our ability to get to know the students well before the matching process took place, but should mostly be attributed to all of the families’ welcoming and accommodating attitudes towards all of the students. For some students, mostly those who were unhappy with their living situation, this top down decision did not sit well. They did not like feeling assessed or judged by the leaders and feared the worst in terms of what we potentially thought about them to put them in living situations that made them unhappy. The most typical question was why a certain student was

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Efforts to Address the Need: The Wandering Scholar

not placed with a family with small children. While almost all of the families had young children or young grandchildren, a few did not. For many of the students the younger host siblings were a wonderful source of entertainment, comfort and language learning opportunity. Students who were not placed with young families quickly caught on to this and felt that perhaps we thought they would not get along well with small children, a thought process that even reduced one student to tears. This was an extremely unfortunate outcome of the matching process and worthy of note for future trips. Some alternative approaches would be to ask the students what type of criteria they believed should be used when making the matching decision, have the students evaluate their own personality traits and use the data to make the match, or simply be more transparent about how decisions for matching students to families were made. In terms of the community development project, decision making was also both participatory and top down depending on the type of decision being made. For example, in choosing what the project would be, the decision making process was participatory. Before we arrived in Costa Rica Walking Tree asked community leaders what project they most needed completed that summer. Walking Tree uses a check list to determine what makes a “winning project�. (WTT Handbook) According to the list the project should: address a need expressed by the community, allow for community participation in work, help the community at large rather than an individual or group of individuals, be completed within the allotted time, and be completed with mostly manual labor rather than expensive equipment. Moreover, before any project begins approval from the municipality must be given.

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Efforts to Address the Need: The Wandering Scholar

Once the project has been decided upon, in our case constructing a tall fence around the playground, materials secured and work underway top down decision making was also employed. Since both the group leaders and the students had little to no experience constructing a wall, digging ditches, or mixing cement we depended heavily on the leadership and knowledge of our local foreman, Pollo. Pollo was an experienced contractor who lived in the closest city. He was paid an hourly wage to guide us through the project. The fact that he spoke no English and had no experience working with international students forced the students to approach him, formulate questions using their developing language skills, and learn through close observation and non-verbal communication. The language and knowledge barrier between the students and Pollo was at times one of the hardest parts of each day. Pollo had trouble slowing down and realizing that the students were highly unskilled and therefore needed extra explanation and practice. Sometimes he would give up on them entirely and simply do a job himself. The students and trip leaders lacked the vocabulary in Spanish of a work site and often did not know how to ask questions or understand what he was asking us to do.

The key to overcoming these

misunderstandings was patience, laughter and constant reminders to the students to keep asking questions and to Pollo to give specific jobs and training to the students. Funding Travel expenses, meals, accommodation, admission to tourist attractions and transportation were all funded through the fees paid by families to send their children on the trip. The trip leaders were given a $2,500 budget to spend on additional group meals and activities. The host families provided accommodation and three meals a day to the students

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Efforts to Address the Need: The Wandering Scholar

and were compensated with a small weekly stipend. Walking Tree wrestles with the decision of how much to pay families for hosting students. They do not want to make hosting students a major source of income for the families because they want families to actually value the less tangible benefits of hosting an international visitor. They also do not want students and families to be on unequal footing, if the families are paid a large amount of money they may feel obligated to give the student special treatment. On the other hand, the villages where Walking Tree groups stay are humble and there are few extra resources; a situation that tempts the organization to want to compensate above and beyond the local cost of housing a student. To strike a balance Walking Tree pays each family slightly more, in local currency, than the cost of feeding and housing a student. Money is delivered to the families once students are settled in by the group leaders, who also use the visits as away to check in with the family about how the transition is going for both them and their new household member. Funding of the community development project comes from three sources: a portion of the fee paid by the students to participate in the program, charitable donations, and the local community government. According to Walking Tree this balance, “allows us to know that the project is something that the village really wants and needs, as opposed to something they are accepting because it is free.� (WTT Handbook 2009) The project, at first glance, did not seem particularly impactful from an outsider’s perspective and many of the participants questioned its importance, wishing to make a difference. It became quickly clear, however, that the reason for needing a fence, while not obvious to outsiders, was a sound one. Buena Vista depends mostly on the dairy industry cows are abundant. Oftentimes the cows go astray and end up depositing feces in the playground. This is both unpleasant and potentially a health concern as

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Efforts to Address the Need: The Wandering Scholar

children could inadvertently come into contact with harmful bacteria while playing. Walking Tree contends that even though the community has far less resources than the student’s families or the organization itself, it is important that the community have a certain amount of financial stake in the success of the project. Organizational Climate and Philosophy The prevailing climate of the organization is nonformal. While the organization is a forprofit business the founders take great pride in their mission to better the world through introducing young people to the power of experiential travel and international service learning. The definition of power, in terms of the business, may at times be their ability to attract more students and turn a profit. At the level of each individual trip, however, power is defined as experiential and social. Power resides in the ability to communicate effectively across cultural and language barriers, lose the security blanket of the familiar, and understand the importance of striking a balance between adventure and safety; hard work and pleasure; and helping a community and learning from a community. The organization is driven by two types of development: that of the individual participants and that of the local community in which the group stays and works. These two forms of development are interrelated and mutually reinforce each other.

On the trip,

participants grow as independent, globally aware and compassionate individuals. They gain language, work, time management and intercultural communication skills through their experience in the village working and living, as well as their experience interacting with and supporting each other.

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Efforts to Address the Need: The Wandering Scholar

Local community members, through hosting international visitors, also make gains in developing their ability to communicate across cultures. The host families- parents and children alike, learn about other parts of the world and act as teachers of their languages, livelihood and local history. Finally, the host community is empowered through identifying a locally needed project, organizing funding and resource procurement, and supporting its completion through generously opening their homes to students, who have the luxury of time and boundless energy to complete the project. Walking Tree stresses two important overarching philosophies to its trip leaders during training. First, is the importance of emphasizing to the students the concept of intercultural understanding through the motto, “not bad, but different.” (WTT Handbook 2009) They warn that, “Students are going to be faced with many different scenarios that are foreign to them and make them uncomfortable. Prepare them for this and stress the importance of maintaining an open mind…Encourage them to relish these differences.” (WTT Handbook 2009) The second is to remind the students that the purpose of the trip, especially the service learning component, is to learn from the community, “not to make them better and then leave”. (WTT Handbook 2009) Overall, the organizational philosophy is one of embracing the power of new experiences to change an individual, and potentially an entire community, for the better. Intercultural Exchange Programs: Impact of Participation

It was found in a long-term impact study of people who participated in I.E.P.’s during high school that twenty years later the participants demonstrated significant differences in lifestyle and career choices as compared to their peers who did not. (Hansel, 2008) I.E.P. participants were more likely to be fluent in a second language, to have friends and job

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Efforts to Address the Need: The Wandering Scholar

contacts from/with other cultures, and to encourage their children to interact with people from other cultures. The study also found that these participants tended to achieve a higher level of education than their peers (Hansel, 2008). Anderson et al. (2006) measured the effects of short term study abroad programs on levels of intercultural sensitivity, defined, “as an individual’s reaction to people from other cultures, which can predetermine that individual’s ability to work successfully with those people (p. 460). Through the research study they found that even a study abroad program that does not require use of a foreign language can have positive results in terms of increase in intercultural sensitivity (p. 467). I.E.P.’s offer a unique chance for participants to discover and develop their identity as members of a group, representatives of the United States, and citizens of the world. Bellamy and Weinberg (2006) found that the success of such programs “occurs within a student, when she realizes that she can see the world from a different cultural viewpoint. This is true global citizenship” (p. 20). Unfortunately, due to the high cost of programs and a lack of promotion in public school systems, these opportunities often only attract those of a high socioeconomic status. This is because they have both the funds and the access to information to participate. Intercultural Exchange Programs: Participant Profile

Recent census data show how income disparities can inhibit participation. In 2007, black and Hispanic households had the lowest median incomes ($33,916 and $38,679) compared to whites ($54,920). Meanwhile, student travel programs cost upwards of $6,000, making them prohibitively expensive. Little research has been done on the profile of participants in intercultural exchanges programs for adolescents. Research has been done at the university level in terms of examining the diversity or lack of diversity of study abroad participants

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Efforts to Address the Need: The Wandering Scholar

(Norton 2008, Open Doors 2008). When considering the average income of African American and Hispanics household it is no wonder that according to a 2009 Open Doors study, only 10% of the 262,416 US students who studied abroad in 2007-8 identified as African American or Hispanic. Moreover, Norton (2008) who studied statistics from 2005 and found minority students accounted for 32% of the entire undergraduate population but only 17% of the 223,534 students who studied abroad in 2005 were minority students (Norton, 2008). As a result, many of the career opportunities that build on these early experiences – such as Fulbright and Rhodes scholarships, Peace Corps and Foreign Service assignments, and international development jobs – will remain out of reach. This has implications for low resource students and the nation as a whole, which can benefit from a more economically- and racially-diverse, and therefore more culturally compassionate, international profile. The Benjamin Gilman International Scholars program provides scholarships to college students who are qualified for Pell Grants, a federal grant program for low income college students, and who are also interested in participating in a study abroad program during their college career. Comparing, as seen in Figure 2, the overall average profile of students who study abroad during college to those who received a Gilman scholarship shows how much impact a financial barrier can have on minority students’, who are often in a lower income bracket as evidenced by the U.S. census income data, ability to study abroad.

34


Figure 2 Profile of Study Abroad Participants

Comparison of Gilman Scholars' Profile and National Profile 100% 82% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

40% 14% 4%

1% 16% 6% 1%

14% 6% 10%1%

0% 5%

Gilman Scholarship National Data Gilman Scholarship

National Data


One example of a program that is currently working with low resource youth to develop global citizenry is The International Youth Leadership Institute. This organization provides scholarships, leadership development training, and international study opportunities specifically for urban Black and Latino students. Wilcox (1998) studied the role of this program in forming identity and found that, “While respondents cited all program components as important to their education, they saw overseas study as particularly significant because it promotes cross-cultural exchange which in turn leads Fellows to new understandings about themselves and about others” (p. 2). The International Youth Leadership Institute is an excellent example of a program that sees the two-fold importance of increasing low resource students’ knowledge of international issues. It is limiting, however, in its focus on only Black and Latino students who live in New York City. This program is certainly notable in its approach but more programs need to be created that can address other sectors of American youth who face disadvantage and educational inequality. All of these G.E.O.’s both school based and nonformal show the vast variety of choices educators, parents, students and educational policy makers have when it comes to thinking about teaching international topics. While these nonformal and formal development strategies are a great start, they are only reaching a select few. The students who whether by luck or through social network connections become involved in these programs are getting a leg up on the majority of U.S. high school students.

Importance of the Issue


Importance of the Issue: The Wandering Scholar

Globalization affects everyone, whether the effects are positive or negative depends on whether one is prepared to meet the challenges and educated to know how to take advantage of the positive aspects of globalization. According to Friedman (2005) we are currently living in the era of Globalization 3.0 which, “not only differs from the previous eras in how it is shrinking and flattening the world and in how it is empowering individuals…Globalization 3.0 makes it possible for so many more people to plug and play, and you are going to see every color of the human rainbow take part” (p. 11). In response to this new competitive form of globalization, we need to prepare our youth, especially those who already experience disadvantage at the national level. One way to prepare our youth is to first recognize that nothing is constant or predictable and that in this age of globalization power dynamics, technologies and markets change more rapidly than ever.

Rather than teach adolescents how to use the newest

technology or memorize the periodic table of elements we should give them the skills of research, negotiation and problem analysis. According to Schumacher (1973) we need to give children more than “know-how” (Schumacher 1973). We must also provide them with a “toolbox of powerful ideas” and strategies with which to understand, participate in and make sense of the interconnectedness of the world (Schumacher 1973). Today’s public education system that often teaches only to tests is a form of teaching a selective know-how. If we continue to adhere to this philosophy of teaching, students will be left with many facts but will not understand how to use those facts to their advantage. Schumacher charges us with a greater challenge (1973), “Our task-and the task of all education- is to understand the present world, the world in which we live and make our choices” (p. 107). A first step towards meeting

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Importance of the Issue: The Wandering Scholar

this challenge is to recognize the lack of programs and curricula directed at low resource students that focus on more than just teaching basic facts.

International Level Adolescents growing up and learning in this era of globalization need to develop as citizens not only of their own country, but also as citizens of the world through developing, “a delicate balance of cultural, national, regional and global identifications and allegiances” (Banks, 2008, p.28). So many problems that we face as individual people and countries, such as lack of employment, environmental degradation, terrorism, overpopulation and disease are actually issues that we share with the rest of the world (Hugonneir 2008). Finding solutions to these problems depends on the cooperation of many peoples, cultures, countries and opinions. In a world where international non-profits, international terrorist groups, and individual people have filled the vacuum created by many nations’ neglect to resolve domestic issues, it is essential that we educate our youth to understand how they fit in to this new division of power and labor. According to Hugonneir (2007), “not only countries should be accountable; all citizens of the world have a share of responsibility. This means we are no longer citizens of our respective countries; we are also citizens of the world for which we have social and economic responsibility” (p. 151). For students to take on these social and economic responsibilities they need to have both basic knowledge about other countries’ languages and cultures as well as the be prepared with skills to apply this knowledge to make positive changes.

National Level

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Importance of the Issue: The Wandering Scholar

At a national level, global education also serves an important function. It is no mystery to the American public that globalization plays and will continue to play a huge role in our lives and the lives of our children. According to a national survey conducted by the American Council of Education (2001), “The public recognizes the importance of international knowledge and skills, and views them as essential to successful competition in today’s global environments-even more important for success in the future” (p. 41). Despite the public’s awareness of this need Suarez-Orozco (2007) found that, “Throughout the world most schools tend to share a general orientation toward an earlier era of social organization: the early industrial moment of mass production, with the promise of lifelong jobs, in the context of bounded and homogenous nation-states” (p.7). For reasons of national security and economic success, public schools in the United States must focus on educating all adolescents for the new challenges of this age. According to a policy brief written by Levine (2005), “To meet future workforce needs and provide equal opportunities for disadvantaged and minority students, our schools need to expose all students- not just those from affluent families- to international content earlier in their education” (p. 3). The era of homogeneous nation-states and life long careers referred to by Suarez-Orozco (2007) is long gone and if the United States hopes to continue acting as a major player on an international stage then it must adapt its education style to fit the new system.

Individual and Local Level Finally, building global awareness and increasing the knowledge about international issues of low resource secondary students has important implications at the local and individual level of each adolescent’s life. Noddings (2005) suggests that teaching for global citizenship

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Importance of the Issue: The Wandering Scholar

should include not just teaching about the interconnectedness of economies, cultures, environmental issues and human movement, but also lessons about peace, social justice, diversity and conflict resolution because, “Peace and global citizenship are entwined…peace may be a precondition for global citizenship, but teaching for global citizenship may also help to promote peace” (p. 17). Adolescents, especially those of a low socioeconomic status or ethnic minority often face issues of intolerance towards diversity in the form of domestic or school bullying, violence and discrimination. Global education can be a framework through which skills such as “perspective-taking” and injustice identification and solution creation are taught and developed (Carlsson-Paige & Lantieri 2005). Banks (2008) warns that, A society that has sharp divisions between the rich and the poor, and between Whites and people of color, is not a stable one. It contains stresses and tensions that can lead to societal upheaval and racial polarization and conflict. Thus, education for the 21 st century must not only help students to become literate and reflective citizens who can participate productively in the workforce, but it must also teach them to care about other people in their communities and to take personal, social and civic action to create a more humane and just society (p. 97). Through working with these issues on a larger scale, children can take the lessons and solutions they have learned and apply them to their own communities. It is essential that we provide global education opportunities to low resource adolescents in the United States whether through formal, nonformal or informal education strategies. Teaching about global awareness and international issues in combination with

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Importance of the Issue: The Wandering Scholar

developing problem solving and critical thinking skills will produce active, productive, and empathic citizens. Most importantly, the students themselves will benefit from this approach because lessons ought to be more dynamic, practical, and applicable to their current lives and their futures as competitors on the global playing field.

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Project Overview: The Wandering Scholar

Section II: Project Proposal Project Overview I propose a project that will bring intercultural exchange programs financially, intellectually and mentally within reach of motivated low resource high school students in the United States. The mission of the project, from here on referred to as The Wandering Scholar, is to make international travel and learning opportunities accessible to high school students who otherwise would not be able to afford them and who often may not be aware that such opportunities exist. By taking a holistic approach to putting students on the path to global citizenship, the project will:       

work with schools, mentoring programs, and other organizations to identify potential scholars match students with travel & learning opportunities through established travel companies provide financial assistance and budget planning assist in preparing passport connect scholars with travel mentors organize pre-departure workshops, and create formal opportunities for scholars to share their experiences before, during, and after their journeys The Wandering Scholar will begin as a yearlong pilot program with the intent to expand

in terms of geographic scope, services provided, and number of students reached in future years. The project will operate as a nonprofit organization and work in conjunction with Walking Tree Travel, a student travel company. Walking Tree Travel has agreed to offer trips to the participants “at cost”. In its first year of operation the project will recruit applicants who are interested in attending a Walking Tree Travel summer program in 2010 but would normally be unable to enroll due to a lack of financial resources. Ultimately from this pool five students

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Project Overview: The Wandering Scholar

will be selected through an application process.

The application will include a student

interview, essays, recommendation from an adult mentor and proof of financial need. These five students will be assigned to Walking Tree trips of their choice in the summer of 2010. Before departure students and their families will be given pre-departure counseling which will include: help with passport application, guidance about what to expect during a first international trip away from home, and intercultural awareness training so as to make the most of their experience.

Before the trip each student will be assigned a mentor who will

periodically check-in with the student, as well as the student’s family to provide guidance and inspiration before, during and after the trip. Each participant will also be asked to record their travel experience through a media of their choice, a decision which is made before departure with the guidance of their mentor. Upon return students will be brought together with their mentors, families, and the public to present their learning and discuss how they can take what they have learned and bring it back to their own lives and communities. As a means of project evaluation each student will be interviewed pre and post-trip, as well as a year later, to see if the experience has affected their life choices, school performance and ideas for their future.

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Project Overview: The Wandering Scholar

Mission Hierarchy

9

To give all U.S. youth a competitive yet internationally compassionate edge in today’s global society.

8

To develop 21st Century Skills of low resource youth through improving access to and knowledge about international travel and learning opportunities.

7

To scale up the pilot program through publicizing the pilot group’s experiences to a nationwide scholarship and mentoring program.

6

To implement a pilot international travel and learning scholarship and mentoring program that guides and documents the selected group of student’s experience.

5

To select five motivated and qualified students through an application process.

4

To recruit a pool of low resource students who are interested in participating in an international intercultural exchange program.

3

To raise and apply for public and private funds to increase awareness, through a fundraising and public education campaign, of the existing opportunities many low resource high schools students miss to participate in international travel and learning programs.

2

To plan, create and incorporate a 501 c3 nonprofit organization.

1

To research the root cause of the problem and develop project mission and goals.

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Theory of Change: Youth Development: The Wandering Scholar

Theory of Change: Youth Development Youth Development The Wandering Scholar approaches the concept of development and change through a focus on youth development.

As Hamilton, Hamilton and Pittman (2004) assert in their

handbook on youth development practitioners youth development is important for the future of each individual youth participant as well as society at large because, “Optimal development in youth enables individuals to lead a healthy, satisfying and productive life, as youth and later as adults, because they gain the competence to earn a living, to engage in civic activities, to nurture others, and to participate in social relations and cultural activities� (p. 3). Adolescents have multiple, varied and ever-changing emotions, at one moment, in the classroom, distracted or inquisitive; the next, on the field, focused leaders or clumsy teammates; and in conversation, naive or deeply concerned citizens. Likewise, the concept of youth development covers a wide array of contexts, goals and challenges.

As with other forms of development, youth

development is best considered a process rather than a singular event or outcome and in the tradition of participatory development, as part of this process the youth, themselves, give direction and input to the development program in question (Delgado 2002; Hamilton, Hamilton and Pittman 2004). An attempt to find a general definition for youth development yields numerous results. In "New Frontiers For Youth Development in the 21st Century", Delgado (2002) compiled a vast variety of definitions created by youth development agencies, practitioners and youth themselves.

Youth development agencies typically stressed the role of the community or, as

in the case of the National Youth Development Information Center, the importance of

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Theory of Change: Youth Development: The Wandering Scholar

preparing for active participation in society, “ A process which prepares young people to meet the challenges of adolescence and adulthood through coordinated , progressive series of activities and experiences which help them become socially, morally, emotionally, physically and cognitively competent (p. 37).” Practitioners such as Joi Smith of Big Sisters on the other hand, because they are part of more specific programs, typically focus edon a key element of the process such as the importance of having fun or forming bonds with adult role models, “We are giving young people the opportunity to participate in something that is good, positive, and fun…Sometimes our challenge can be helping volunteer mentors know that taking time out of their lives to see kids on a regular basis does not mean spending money. They are impacting kids just by caring about them (p. 40).” Finally youth that Delgado surveyed often focused on the sense of place and security provided by youth development programs, “Youth development provides me with something constructive to do and keeps me away from the trouble in my family and community (p.46).”

This brief overview of the multiple definitions of youth

development reveals the diverse perspectives of stakeholders involved in the process. What ties them together is the desire to provide organized, positive and enjoyable experiences for youth. Another way to understand youth development is to examine the basic components that should be part of any youth development program, whether it is based in an afterschool arts program or summer outdoor adventure camp. Delgado (2002) suggested that any youth development project should incorporate nine key principles summarized as follows: community capacity building, meaningful decision making, social diversity, partnerships with community organizations, transformative experiences, fun, service learning, practical lifelong skills and an

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Theory of Change: Youth Development: The Wandering Scholar

integration of all the aforementioned elements in each activity to as great of a degree as possible (Delgado, 164). Incorporation of all of these principles into a single activity may seem like a tall order but it is a good starting place to ensure that a project is as dynamic, relevant and transformational as possible. Within the context of youth development programs The Wandering Scholar specifically incorporates five core elements, Figure 3:     

experiential education mentorship intercultural awareness training service learning leadership development

Experiential Learning

Mentorship

Leadership Development Youth Development

Service Learning

Intercultural Awareness

Experiential Learning

The experiential education movement finds its roots in the educational traditions of Lewin, Dewey and Piaget, all three who stressed the importance of experience in learning. (Kolb, 1984) One of the main tenants of experiential education is that much like youth

Figure 3 Program Components

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Theory of Change: Youth Development: The Wandering Scholar

development, “learning is best conceived as a process, not in terms of outcomes” (Kolb, 1984, p. 26). As opposed to other theories of education such as the behavioralist theory which focus on the need to transfer certain core ideas and concepts, experiential learning theories stress that learning is a process, “whereby concepts are derived from and continuously modified by experience” (Kolb, p. 26). However experience alone, it should be noted, does not constitute learning.

Experience must be coupled with reflection on the concrete activities of each

experience and thoughtful connection-making to other ideas and past experience. This should be followed by actions-presumably leading to another experience.

Kolb (1984) envisions

experiential learning a four phase cyclical process: concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, active experimentation. International travel and learning programs are ideal venues for experiential education. The act of traveling, whether for pleasure or educational purposes is, or perhaps ideally, at the core, experiential. Traveling to a new place stimulates all the physical senses, even in the most generic moments of a trip. One tastes the difference of the flavors used in cooking a typical breakfast, smells new flowers or odors of pollution, sees the difference in a home’s architecture and layout, feels a change of climate and hears a casual greeting in a new language. It could be argued that even within one’s home country or city, especially in places as socially and culturally diverse as the United States or New York City, these types of stimulating experiences can be had. Travel however, especially extended international travel, entails more than just encountering the unknown. Spending an extended period of time in a foreign place takes the traveler outside of their comfort zone. The traveler knows that at the end of the day they cannot easily go home and eat a bowl of familiar cereal or turn on the TV and find their

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Theory of Change: Youth Development: The Wandering Scholar

favorite program. In order to survive, to be entertained, to make connections they must adapt to their new circumstances and fully experience their immediate surroundings. This ability to adapt, which is fostered through the experiential learning method and necessitated by travel, is a highly valuable skill within today’s society where technology is changing and upgrading, power dynamics are shifting, and jobs become obsolete while others are still waiting to created. Just as the job market calls for adaptability and creativity, a successful travel experience requires a certain amount of flexibility, problem solving and budgeting. In recent years a focus has been placed on the educational and professional development potential of long term independent travel by travel and tourism researchers. Backpacking and backpacker are popular terms often used to describe long term independent traveling or travelers. A study conducted by Pearce and Foster (2006) of self-reported educational gains found that the backpackers surveyed felt that their travel experiences aided in the development and improvement of multiple skills that would be useful in their future professional endeavors. Backpackers were defined as young adults (over 90% of the backpackers surveyed were under the age of 30) who travel for 4 weeks or more at a time, opt for low cost accommodations, are not part of an organized group, value interacting with travelers and locals during their trip, and prefer participating in informal rather than organized travel activities (Pearce and Foster, 2006). This study’s demographic sample and their travel activities differ slightly from the target population and activities of The Wandering Scholar primarily because participants in The Wandering Scholar program attend organized trips and are adolescents rather than young adults. Beyond this distinction, however, the two groups and their travel style share many similar characteristics most notably participation in informal activities in the

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destination country, intense interaction with others, financial budgeting, and participation in local community activities. The following skills and traits were reported as acquired or improved through travel by the backpackers surveyed (Pearce and Foster, 2006, p. 1289):     

improved communication skills (84.7%) being open minded (84.1%) self confidence (79.3%) decision making (79%) management of financial resources (67.2%)

While these educational and professional development gains through travel are striking it should be noted that travel does not equal educational gain. The researchers qualified that for educational gains and skills development to come as a result of travel (i.e. experiential learning), certain factors for fostering experiential learning must be present such as, “internal motivation, self-initiated activity, involvement in the experience and the experience of novelty and opportunities to reflect on the experience with others” (p. 1287).

The other key

components of The Wandering Scholar program: mentorship, leadership development, intercultural awareness training and service learning engender this type of environment; thus ensuring for each student that before, during and after the trip experiential learning takes place. Mentorship

Adults play an important role in the facilitation of youth development programs. An emphasis on the importance of adults in the process of youth development is seen in the definition provided by Baines and Selta (1999) who define it as, " an ongoing process in which young people are engaged in building skills, attitudes, knowledge, and experiences they feel

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prepare them for the present and the future. The youth development process is smoothed and youth development outcomes enhanced when adults work with young people to help them set and monitor their course and work with youth and each other to ensure that their course options are plentiful, positive, and varied" (Delgado, p. 36, 2002). While adults typically function as administrators and managers, keeping programs funded and managing legal and logistical matters, others perform the important function of mentors. In its most basic sense mentoring is the act of a youth or a novice participating in a relationship with an influential adult or more experienced person. (Delgado, 2002, p. 225). Hamilton et al. (2004), in a discussion of the benefits of mentoring, added that mentoring, “involves building a youth’s social capital by linking him or her to other individuals and to groups and organizations…Getting to know personally adults who are neither parents nor formal teachers is clearly an advantage for youth who are in the stage of thinking about themselves as the adults they will become” (p. 163).

Mentors have more life experience and are therefore paired with a mentee who is

looking for similar experiences because, "they have a long-term perspective that draws the protégé in to the larger, systemic awareness crucial to the ability to see oneself not only in relation to work and profession, but to the society and the global commons as a whole” (p. 45). This experience sharing aspect of mentoring is a key focus for The Wandering Scholar, as understanding one's position in relation to the world is the foundation of global competence. An important facet of mentorship that is not always evident is that both the youth and the mentor should benefit from the relationship (Delgado, 2002). People can be motivated to devote their time and resources for many reasons. Boatman has created a list of motivation factors which run the gamut from basic physical need to self interest and shame. In the case of

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The Wandering Scholar mentorship program potential mentors may be motivated to volunteer for a number of reasons beyond the classic motivational factor, a “need to do good”. For example, they may volunteer in order to feel “affiliation” with like-minded travelers and concerned global citizens or “relevance” in the life of someone outside of their daily circle of friends, family and coworkers or even a out of a desire for “social approval”. Recognizing and highlighting in recruitment material the aspects of the mentor relationship that benefit not only the youth but also the mentors themselves is an important step towards getting adults to be interested in volunteering. Leadership development

Leadership development plays an integral role in the youth development process. Linden and Fertman (1998) define leaders as, “individuals (both adults and adolescents) who think for themselves, communicate their thoughts and feelings to others, and help others understand and act on their own beliefs; they influence others in an ethical and socially responsible way” (Delgado, 2002, p.228). This broad definition of leadership suggests that just as concepts for what makes a good leader abound, there also exist many ways to approach the process of leadership development.

The Wandering Scholar approaches leadership

development both directly, through the development and use of public speaking and presentation skills, and indirectly, through the experience gained during the trip itself. Through the pre and post-trip workshops participants develop strategies to record and reflect on their experiences while abroad in a fashion that appeals to their personal interests and aspirations. For example, a student who is interested in anthropology may decide to keep a journal in the style of field notes and ethnographic notations whereas a student who is

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interested in biology may chose to do detailed sketches and observations of local domestic and wild animals encountered during the trip. The participants then, with the advice and coaching of their mentors and peers, prepare a presentation of learning for program stakeholders, including donors, families, local politicians and their peers. Delgado (2002) asserts that giving presentations to a community is an excellent way to develop leadership skills because, "The lessons learned in carrying this out- for example, organizing and delivering a persuasive argument-will be invaluable in other social domains, particularly school" (p.228). A presentation of what the participant learned and experienced while traveling not only has the potential to enhance the participant's leadership abilities. It also serves as a way for the traveler to bring the unique experiences of a new place back home and demonstrate what was learned while away. Parks Daloz et al. (1996) frame international experiential travel as a pilgrimage, “In contrast to a journey, which could be unending, a pilgrimage requires both venturing and returning. A good pilgrimage leads to discovering and transformation, but it isn't complete until you have returned home and told your story. "Home" is where someone hears and cares about that story, helps you sort out what you have seen, heard, and done- whether it be a triumph, a defeat, a high adventure, or a wash� (p. 38). In addition to a formal presentation of learning for stakeholders, participants are also required to schedule a dedicated presentation to their school community. This talk includes much of the information shared during the presentation of learning and serves as a way for participants to inform their peers of the travel and learning opportunities that exist and recruit them to be potential participants for the following year’s group of Wandering Scholars. In this way,

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participants become more than just passive recipients of a scholarship opportunity. They become active ambassadors for The Wandering Scholar program and the international community to which hosted them over the summer. The act of travel has a potential to develop and enhance leadership skills. Travel can produce a greater sense of independence and self efficacy as a desire to understand perspectives other than one’s own. A study by Park Daloz et al. (1996) of 100 “perseverant leaders devoted to the public good” found that 72% had traveled significantly during their adolescence (p. 38). It is important to note the difference between travel and tourism, when considering this assertion, since many people have experience in touring destinations such as Disney World or The Big Apple which do not necessarily lead to any significant leadership or educational enhancement. Hunt (2000) a historical researcher who studied the positive relationship between early travel (between the ages of 11-29) and leadership in the lives of three major leaders in American history, John Quincy Adams, Frederick Douglass and Jane Addams draws this distinction, “Travel is different from tourism; it is genuine engagement with languages, cultures, and norms different than one’s own upbringing. Unlike tourism that endeavors to enclave the traveler into a cocoon of comfort and familiarity, travel entails vulnerability, growth, and encounters that occasion adaptation” (p. 95). Hunt contends that gaining the trust of followers is what distinguishes an effective leader. Furthermore, people tend to trust others who have pushed themselves outside of their comfort zones and can therefore understand other's perspectives, abilities that travel engenders (p. 95). In regard to the lives of the three people studied Hunt found that, "Developmentally, all three persons more than "grew up;" each developed a vision for a life of service and each

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achieved focus, direction and purpose for their lives. They had come to see themselves and their participation in the world with new eyes” (Hunt, 2000, p.106).

Through a close

examination of primary documents such as letters and personal memoirs written by Adams, Douglas and Addams, Hunt draws the conclusion that significant travel experiences at a young age can: increase self confidence, improve language skills, heighten cross-cultural awareness, provide networking opportunities and enhance willingness to take risks (p. 106). Intercultural Awareness Training and Preparation Workshop

Many I.E.P.’s claim in their marketing material and web sites that participation in their programs will enhance a participant’s ability and interest in understanding and appreciating cultures other than their own. For example Walking Tree Travel claims on its web site that its, “programs incorporate cultural and language immersion, community service, and adventure to enable young people to see themselves, another culture, and the world in a new and exciting light” ( Walking Tree Travel website). The Experiment in International Living website similarly states, “Through homestays, adventure travel, experiential learning, and language immersion, you build leadership and communication skills, gain essential international experience, increase your self-confidence, and enhance global awareness.” The experience of leaving one’s country and traveling outside of one’s comfort zone certainly can develop intercultural competence, especially in those who are predisposed to being receptive to new experiences.

For

adolescents, however, who have potentially never left their own state or even city, an experience such as the ones provided by Walking Tree may lead to culture shock, alienation and home sickness rather than the desired positive outcome.

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The goal of the pre-departure and post trip workshops, therefore, is to intellectually and emotionally prepare the participants in The Wandering Scholar program for their first extended stay in a foreign country. The workshops take place over a series of seven sessions, six in preparation for the trip and one upon return. Each session has a unique theme titled as follows:       

Introduction to Workshop and Theories of Culture What are Human Rights? Geography and Globalization Are you a global citizen? Facing Culture Shock and Avoiding Culture Clash Preparing for Your Experience Abroad Reflection and Action (upon return)

The structure and content of the workshop is based on a multicultural social action framework that focuses on developing intercultural competence. According to Banks (2001) this form of social action framework seeks to, “educate students for social criticism and social change and to teach them decision-making skills. To empower students and help them acquire political efficacy, the school must help them become reflective social critics and skilled participants in social change” (p. 236). The intercultural competency development component of the workshop follows the steps, Figure 4, of intercultural understanding outlined by Fennes and Hapgood and summarized by Hill (2007): awareness, understanding, acceptance and respect, appreciation and valuing, and intercultural competence (p. 260).

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awareness

understanding

acceptance and respect

appreciating and valuing

intercultural competence

Figure 4 Spectrum of Intercultural Competency (Fennes and Hapgood)

The combination of a multicultural social action approach with intercultural competency development gives students a tool box of communication and leadership skills that help to make their international experience more than just a novel trip to the unknown. With the skills gained in the workshop students are be able to make the most of their experience and bring lessons learned to their communities. In recent years there has been debate about the difference between multicultural education and global education. Multicultural education and global education are not mutually exclusive concepts. Hill (2007) argued that multicultural education and global education are not only compatible but also interrelated because they each place importance on the skill of intercultural communication: “The skills of intercultural understanding are similar whether we are addressing cultural differences within or across nations but traditionally they stem from two different types of education: multicultural, aimed at national students and immigrants, international, aimed initially at students around the world in international schools (but increasingly found in ‘internationally minded’ national schools)” (p. 254). Hill (2007) developed a Venn diagram, Figure 5,that demonstrates the tradition position of multicultural education within the auspices of national education. He proposed that global

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education and national education overlap significantly in their goals and that a great portion of this overlap is intersected by multicultural education, “particularly in the area of intercultural understanding: respect for other, awareness of rights and responsibilities, understanding different cultural points of view, and language learning” (Hill, 2007, p. 256).

National

Multicul tural

Global

Figure 5 Intersection of Educational Approaches

age and interaction with any individual, group or institution that differs from the student, whether at home or abroad. Service Learning

The service learning component of The Wandering Scholar program takes place during the participant’s trip. Walking Tree Travel, the first official partner of The Wandering Scholar, places great emphasis on the importance of international community service.

Each trip,

whether 2 weeks or a month in length, spends more than half of their time working on a community service project. While students may be motivated to sign up for the trip for reasons beyond an interest in service learning or a need to fulfill a school service requirement (i.e. improving language skills, seeing a new place, making friends, adventure, or improving one’s college application), once on the trip the service learning component is the driving force.

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Service learning can be defined along two spectrums, type of service and how service is contextualized. Along the “type of service” spectrum, some practitioners include “standard service” such as tutoring and picking up trash whereas other may only include ‘social cause services’, programs that define a community issues, investigate its root causes and chooses an activity to perform amongst a number of possible solutions (Hamilton, 2004). Hamilton (2004) argues that while both types of service activities have potential to benefit the participants, the benefits of social cause service run deeper because it, “has the potential to affect civic development as measured by a concern for social issues, future intentions about unconventional civic activities, and future intended service” (p. 158). Along the spectrum of how service is contextualized, some practitioners argue that any form of voluntary service such as working in a soup kitchen with your family or participating in a blood drive, should be included n the definition of service learning. Others contend that this sort of one time spontaneous service is better described as traditional community service and that, “Service learning, on the other hand, includes service activities that are integrated into the curriculum and purposefully organized to follow academic content, standards, and learning objectives” (Schmidt, 2007). Regardless of what position along the two spectrums is taken the benefits of service learning both to the practitioner and the beneficiaries of the work are numerous. Hamilton (2004) suggests that an adolescent’s participation in service learning helps them develop technical, social, and personal competencies (p. 152). Technical competencies are those skills learned through service, such as how to use a computer system, operate a mechanical device or understand a technical document, that directly help a student in future employment and academic endeavors. Social and personal competencies, such as setting and

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achieving individual goals or managing a team of peers, not only contribute to the participant’s future professional success but also to their general success as individual in an increasingly complex society (Hamilton, 2004). Beyond development of these competencies Hamilton finds, through condensing recent research on the benefits of service learning, six domains of positive change for participants: improved self confidence, increased self and world understanding, greater sense of social responsibility, a piqued interest in future careers, continued value of service, and decreased feelings of “stress, alienation, isolation, and discipline problems” (p. 158-59). These general benefits are complemented by the specific quantitative findings of a research study by Schmidt (2007) that surveyed a nationally representative pool of 4,306 high school students. The study found that participation in service activity is associated with a 12% increase in student grades, a 15% decrease in behavior problems, and a 16% increase in civic knowledge” (p. 133). There is of course no guarantee that students participating in I.E.P.’s will benefit in any significant way from taking part in the community development project. They may complain each day, resent that they have to work, shy away from learning new skills and reject any meaning that could come out of the experience. The trip leaders are expected to help guide the students through the service learning experience, but they are also in charge of many other aspects of the trip and may not have time to fully engage each student in making the most of the experience. To that end the other complimentary components of The Wandering Scholars youth development theory help participants contextualize the service learning component both before the trip through the mentoring program and pre-departure intercultural awareness

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workshop and afterwards through the post trip reflection and presentations of learning to both project stakeholders and their individual school communities.

Youth Development in an International Context Each component of The Wandering Scholar’s youth development theory, on its own, has the potential to make positive changes in the current life and future possibilities of any adolescent. The depth of change is only heightened for youth from a low resource background who may never have been exposed to such opportunities.

Each program component

contributes to the process of developing an adolescent’s compassion for others, interest in future careers, ability to network and make connections with others, and in general engender a sense of self confidence and purpose. All of the components of the program have domestic, local counterpart programs such as 4-H (experiential education) or Big Brothers and Sisters (mentorship). The international lens through which The Wandering Scholar’s five integrated program components: experiential learning through travel, mentorship, leadership development, intercultural awareness training and international service learning are presented create an organized, supportive and transformational of global education experience for the participant. The positive impact of the program will in the short term benefit the program participants but in the long term will benefit any community, local or global, to which Wandering Scholar participants contribute.

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Section III: Program Activities Activities The Wandering Scholar program activities are organized in a 4 phase cycle, Figure 6:    

Recruitment Preparation Travel Reflection and Presentation

Recruitment and Selection

Monitoring Evaluation Fundraising

Reflection

Preparation

Monitoring Evaluation Fundraising

Travel and Monitoring

Figure 6 Program Activities

As demonstrated by Figure 6 the end of the cycle, reflection and presentation, leads into the beginning of the next cycle which is recruitment of a new group of participants. The arrows around the outside show that monitoring, evaluation and fundraising are ongoing project activities which take place throughout each phase of the project. In the first phase schools and community organizations, such as after school enrichment programs serving low resource students are targeted to recruit scholars. After an application

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and selection process, scholars are matched with volunteer travel mentors who guide them through the program. In preparation for each trip, scholars and their mentors attend an informational meeting with their families, complete a country profile on their destination and take part in a pre-departure workshop with fellow scholars. During the trip, scholars complete an in-country project of their choice, keep a daily journal, update a travel blog and provide updates via email and phone to their mentor. Scholars attend a post trip symposium- the capstone being a presentation of their project to program stakeholders- as a way to reflect and bring what they learned while traveling back to their community. The four phases, contribute to the process of developing an adolescent’s compassion for others, interest in future careers, ability to network and make connections with others, and engender a commitment to global responsibility.

Recruitment: The recruitment phase is divided into recruitment of participants and recruitment of travel mentors. In future years, recruitment of additional travel organization partners will also take place. For the pilot program Walking Tree Travel serves as the sole travel organization partner. Recruitment of Participants (Mid Fall-Early Winter)

Successful recruitment and selection of qualified participants in The Wandering Scholar pilot program is arguably the single most important activity of the program. Without a group of motivated and interested students the program simply cannot function. As identified in the problem context there are a number of potential barriers standing between low resource students and international travel and learning experiences beyond a lack of financial resources

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to afford the trip. Before even considering how a low resource student would pay for the trip, one must consider how the student would even know that such summer travel opportunities exist. Case Study of a Student Travel Organization Recruitment Strategy: Travel organizations such as Walking Tree Travel recruit participants through their website, word of mouth, and school visits. Walking Tree Travel has developed a highly dynamic website and social media strategy as a way to recruit potential trip participants. The web site includes professional photos and short film clips of students’ travels from previous summers, blogs written by each group during their trip as well as a general blog written by the directors of the organizations about topics pertaining to experiential travel and the countries visited by Walking Tree groups. They also have created a group page on the social networking site Facebook and post all of the promotional film clips to the video sharing site YouTube. Using social media is an effective strategy to attract and stay in touch with students who are actively seeking an international travel experience. The sites are dynamic, exciting and informative. The problem is only people who know the Walking Tree Travel name know to go to their sites. A question is then raised, how do people find out about the Walking Tree name? Word of mouth is one way. Friends, extended family, neighbors, schoolmates and acquaintances of previous Walking Tree participants hear of the program through conversations and networking. Parents boast to other parents or their coworkers about their child doing community service in another country. Participants share their experience of battling white rapids with friends and classmates. Grandparents show off pictures of their grandchild trekking through the wilderness of another country to their acquaintances. Clearly, word of mouth is an excellent strategy for

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recruitment. It costs nothing to the organization and people tend to trust the recommendations of their peers. The downside is that information about the program tends to only stay within a certain network of people. A lawyer parent speaks to their lawyer coworker, a student who attends a private school speaks to their private school classmates, and grandparents who live in a golf club retirement community speak to their friends next door. It becomes quite easy to understand how only the most proactive low resource student, who is not by happenstance part of one of these networks, could possibly find out about such an opportunity. The third and final way travel organization such as Walking Tree recruit students is through school visits. Since Walking Tree Travel operates as a for profit business staff typically visit schools where they know they will have a good chance of securing a number of spots on their trips, in other words where they will gain the most profit. The type of school that yields the highest number of trip participants is just the type where low resource students, by definition, would not be likely to attend, private schools and public schools in wealthy wellfunded school districts. This is not to say that students who come from a low resource background never attend such schools. Many private schools offer financial aid or scholarships and many wealthy communities have less financially secure communities within them. These students already have a leg up on other low resource students who were not, for example, academically or athletically exceptional enough to receive a scholarship to a private school. As a way of addressing the access to information issues revealed through this case study, The Wandering Scholar recruitment strategy includes direct outreach to schools and community programs where low resource students attend.

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Activities: The Wandering Scholar Determining Target Population

A first step in recruitment is determining who is to be recruited. The Wandering Scholar program seeks to provide scholarships and support to low resource high school students. The general target population is any matriculating sophomore, junior or senior who demonstrates financial need. Financial need is demonstrated quantitatively through income tax information of guardians as well as qualitatively through a descriptive personal statement of need. The tax information coupled with a description of household size serves as a general baseline cutoff, much like how standardized tests serve as a cutoff for further consideration of an application to higher education programs. Moreover, the personal statement of need provides deeper insight into the specific circumstances of each applicant. Targeting Schools and Community Organizations

A contact list of all public high schools and community organizations that serve low resource students in the New England region, The Wandering Scholar pilot program’s regional focus, is compiled as a first step in determining which schools to target in the recruitment campaign. Two indicators will determine from that list which specific schools are targeted: a high percentage of low resource students and few global educational opportunities available to students. The percentage of low resource students are based on available economic indicators of the school population such as number of students who receive free or reduced lunch. As there are a range of global education opportunities that a public school can offer including Model UN, school language trips, special curricular units with a focus on international issues, and elective classes with an international focus, a spreadsheet with all types of global education opportunities that could potentially be offered at a public school is generated and schools on

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the list are contacted to find out if: they offer any of the opportunities on the list; how often; at what cost; and to what type of student. A database of community organizations that target low resource students for participation will also be compiled. Sample organizations include Upward Bound, the Boys and Girls Club and other after school tutoring and enrichment programs. Gaining Permission to Recruit in Schools and Community Organizations

Once a list of target schools and community organizations is generated a general letter of appeal is sent to the administrators outlining the goals of the scholarship program and the topics that are covered during the recruitment meeting. Once permission is granted, a time and date for a visit to each school or organization is set-up. In conjunction with each school and organization, The Wandering Scholar founders, who serve as the recruitment team for the first year, determine a meeting location as well as an estimated number of students who will be in attendance. Informational posters with time, date, location and web site for each school and organization are posted on bulletin boards and, when available, the web site. Recruitment Session

The recruitment session includes a discussion with the students to generate ideas about the benefits of studying abroad, a description of the trips to which students can apply for scholarships, a description of the preparation workshop and presentation of learning, and a final discussion to generate ideas on how participation in The Wandering Scholar program opens up future employment, education and life possibilities. As study abroad has become an integral aspect of the higher education experience the recruitment material highlights how participation in the scholarship program helps with college competiveness and preparedness.

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Recruitment materials also include a “Top Ten� reasons for participating using the words and ideas of a focus group of high school students who have studied abroad. As a way to help students visualize what type of activities they would do during their trip the recruitment video created and used by the pilot program’s travel partner Walking Tree Travel is also shown. Once the session has concluded a sign up list and evaluation questionnaire are issued for students to fill out. Responses on the evaluation questionnaire are reviewed immediately to make suggested changes to the presentation for future recruitment sessions. Staying Connected With Potential Recruits

Innovations in social media and web technology make communication between potential participants and youth development programs such as The Wandering Scholar more affordable, instant, and far reaching than traditional means of communication. A website and a social networking page for the program instantly update potential participants about program events and news. These sites serve as a way for potential participants to keep in touch with The Wandering Scholar recruiters, ask questions and connect with other interested students. Selecting Candidates

From the pool of students who after the recruitment sessions at various schools choose to apply, ten candidates are chosen to interview. Criteria for selection is based on a general application form, a form demonstrating the financial need of the family which includes a statement of financial circumstances, a personal statement about why they are interested in The Wandering Scholar program, two creative essays about travel, a personal recommendation from a non-family member of choice. The first round of candidates is picked by a selection

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committee formed by the founders of The Wandering Scholar. Committee members are made up of local community members who are leaders and active participants in education and community development programs. These members also serve as board members of the Wandering Scholar program. Incentives for participation in the form of publicity, networking opportunities and recognition are provided in the invitation to be part of the board and selection committee, since what makes the desired members attractive is what also makes them busy professionals. Committee members review applications that have been selected by The Wandering Scholar staff and determined to qualify as low resource applicants. Each member selects their top ten choices. Selection criteria are established by the selection committee from which a general quantifiable evaluation rubric is generated. From the top ten selections of each member of the selection committee a final pool of interviewees is determined. The five final candidates and two alternates are chosen based on their performance in the interview, which assesses their ability to articulate their desire to participate and level of maturity, as well as their average scores from the evaluation forms filled out by the selection committee. The selected students sign an agreement of participation contract. As a way to ensure that five students participant, if one or more of the five candidates decide not to accept the scholarship then one of the alternate candidates is notified. Recruitment of Mentors

The Wandering Scholar mentors, in addition to serving as role models of global citizens, assist the participants and their family through the process of preparing and planning for the

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trip, attend and participate in the pre and post trip workshops, and help the participants create a strategy for recording, presenting and utilizing the experiences gained during their trip. Determining Target Population

The target populations for mentor recruitment are professionals with an active interest in travel, foreign languages and making and maintaining meaningful connections with youth, international communities and their members. Search and Application Process

The search and application process for qualified volunteer mentors assesses the potential mentors’: depth of international experience, past experience and motivations for working with youth, ability to commit time to the relationship, and depth of personal interest in the program goals. A description of the mentor position is posted on free online volunteer databases such as CARE and Idealist.org as well as The Wandering Scholar founders’ social networking sites. All applications are carefully evaluated by The Wandering Scholar board and phone interviews are held with applicants whose qualifications match those stated above. During the phone interview there is a discussion of: time requirements, the importance of being reliable and the applicants’ ability to keep commitment is assessed. A background check, including checking three personal references and criminal record check, is done for candidates that accept the offer to be a mentor. To ensure commitment to the volunteer position a participation contract with position responsibilities and project time commitment is also sent to each candidate to be signed and returned.

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There is no guarantee that the target population: successful, internationally competent adults have an interest in volunteering with The Wandering Scholar. They may not see the potential personal and professional benefits of working for a scholarship and mentor program. Therefore benefits of participation as well as incentives in terms of public recognition and networking opportunities with other mentors are highlighted in the position’s description. An evaluation of the program is also issued to each mentor asking in particular how they think the program benefitted them. This information will be used in a future year’s publicity and recruitment.

Preparation: Matching Mentors and Mentees

Successfully matching mentors and mentees is a delicate process. There is much debate about whether mentors and mentees should be matched based on ethno-racial or gender categories. Delgado (2007) argued that a mentor relationship based on “similar sociodemographic background” tends to have a stronger influence on both parties. However Hamilton and Hamilton (2004) contended that since two people of the same ethno-racial background do not always share the same life experiences matching mentors and mentees based on a shared background is, “more likely to perpetuate stereotypes than to overcome them” and illustrated their point by referencing a study of Big Brothers/Big Sisters which, “found no effect for race of mentor on the behavior of young people” (p. 13). The Wandering Scholar mentors, adults who have a passion for international learning through travel, and mentees are matched based on their personal interests and goals. For example a student who

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is interested in going on a trip to China is matched with a mentor who has traveled to China, speaks Chinese, or whose work has a focus on working with China. A survey is administered to both the mentors and participants. The survey for mentors collects specific data such as past travel experience, foreign language knowledge, subjects studied in college and beyond, professional focus and personal hobbies and interests. The mentee survey, along with asking about current interests and activities, addresses questions similar to the mentor survey through asking what mentees hope to do in the future. Match announcements, along with description of the mentor and mentee are sent to participants and mentors before the first official meeting. There is no guarantee, of course, that participants and their mentors will get along based on selected match criteria. To help both the mentor and mentee understand why they were matched, matching criteria is transparent. Also The Wandering Scholar checks in periodically with both mentor and mentee through personal and phone conversations to ensure that the match is appropriate. Finally, to help with future matching processes an evaluation tool to evaluate experience of mentors and participants is also administered. Informational Family Meeting

Once participants have been selected and matched with a mentor an informational meeting is held for mentors, participants and the participant’s guardians. This meeting addresses concerns of participants and their parents about trip preparation, budgeting for spending money, travel safety and tips for ensuring the emotional wellbeing of the participant during their trip. The meeting also serves as a way for mentors and mentees to meet each other in person for the first time and for The Wandering Scholar founders to introduce

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themselves to participants’ families. Finally, the meeting outlines the process of applying for a U.S. passport. For the majority of the participants the trip will be their first time leaving the country and therefore they presumably do not have passports. Applications are distributed and the process of filling them out begins on site at the meeting. Attendance at the meeting is required of all participants. Therefore, every effort is made to make attending the meeting as convenient as possible for everyone. Before choosing a meeting date, a survey is sent to all participants, guardians and mentors to evaluate which dates work best, the date along with an alternative rain check date are announced at least a month in advance and a travel stipend is available for those who cannot afford to get to the central meeting location on their own. If a participant or family member simply cannot make the proposed meeting times a web conference option is also available as a last resort. After the meeting, mentors will check in on mentees and their parents periodically to find out how the passport application process is going and to make sure any questions or concerns about travel are addressed. Mentors will also help mentees research information about the country to which they will travel and begin to think about how they will record their travel experiences. Before the pre-departure workshop each participant will submit a country research report and proposal including resources needed to record their experience. Pre-departure Workshop

The preparation workshop is a two day commitment for mentors and participants taking place over a weekend once school is out of session but before participants leave for their trip. In addition to informal time for participants to get acquainted with each other there are six formal sessions spread out over the two days. The six sessions:

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Activities: The Wandering Scholar      

Introduction to Workshop and Theories of Culture: Understanding Yourself and Others What are Human Rights? Where in the world are you going? Are you a global citizen? Facing Culture Shock and Avoiding Culture Clash Preparing for Your Experience Abroad

all incorporate teachings based on a multicultural social action framework as well as intercultural communication theories. Sessions number one, three, four and six are directed towards development of intercultural communication skills, whereas sessions two and five are oriented to a social action framework. The two concepts work well together because the awareness raising component of social action can be practiced in the first step of the intercultural competency spectrum designed by Fennes and Hapgood (1997) as depicted in Figure 4. Several other theories from multicultural education are used throughout the workshop including invisible and visible cultures; outsiders and insiders; and cultural borders versus cultural boundaries. The first step towards intercultural competency, according to Fennes and Hapgood (1997), is “awareness”; awareness of one’s own cultural traits, traditions, and idiosyncrasies and those of others. To help build intercultural awareness students are introduced the idea of visible cultures (the conspicuous traits and habits people exhibit) and invisible cultures (the less conspicuous attitudes and emotional reactions). Not being recognizing that differences in reaction and comportment are often cultural can lead to misunderstandings and conflict because according to Erickson (2001), “when we meet other people whose invisible cultural assumptions and patterns for action differ from those we have learned and expect implicitly, we usually do not recognize what they are doing as cultural in origin. Rather we see them as rude or uncooperative. We may apply clinical labels to other people- without realizing that we

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are experiencing culture rather than nature”(p. 39). One cannot reach the step of “understanding” without first being aware of our underlying differences. The first session, Introduction to Workshop and Theories of Culture: Understanding Yourself and Others is aided by the discussion of visible and invisible cultures. The lesson plans for this session, including expected learning outcomes, links to academic standards, key terms and ideas, facilitating strategies and evaluations follow. The entire workshop curriculum can be found in appendix III.

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76

Sample Lesson Plan: LEARNING OUTCOMES

Participants will be able to:  Identify cultures participant is a part of  Invent own operational definition of culture  List cultures participant is aware of  Differentiate between visible and invisible culture  Demonstrate how people have different responses to situations due to invisible culture.

Lesson 1 Lesson: What does culture mean to you? Introduction of Workshop Goals

LINKS TO ACADEMIC STANDARDS

English and Language Arts- discussion skills and presentation skills Foreign Language- cultural connections and communication development

Teaching Strategies Introduction of Workshop Goals  Explain that workshop aims to prepare participants for their first trip to another country and culture.  Point out that although packing the right things is important it is also important to mentally prepare yourself for a trip so that you get the most out

KEY TERMS AND IDEAS Key terms: Culture Invisible culture Visible culture Key Ideas: Other ways of defining culture: Rural/urban Regional Social class Education level Age/generation Fashion Occupation Political Nationality

Reflection and Evidence of Learning Evidence of learning:  Discussion of examples of different cultures  Ability to explain and give examples of visible and invisible cultures that participant is a


Activities: The Wandering Scholar

 

Warm-up/Energizer Musical Chairs

of the experience. Explain that throughout workshop participants will reflect on who they are and where they fit into the world. Explain that it is not a typical academic course with lectures and notes. Remind participants that course is for them and the quality of the activities and discussion will be determined by them and their input.

Learning Outcomes:  Participants will get to know each other Overview: Arrange chairs in a close circle and ask children to sit down. Stand in the middle of the circle and explain that you are going to state your name and make a statement about yourself. When you do, everyone for whom that statement is also true must change chairs. (e.g. “I am X and am lefthanded,” “I am X and I have a cat” or “I am X and I dislike eating ___”). Try to get a chair for yourself. The person left without a chair then makes a similar statement about herself or himself. Continue until most children have had a chance to introduce themselves in this way. (Adapted from a Compasito Activity see Reference page) Lay out general group guidelines (Beverly Tatum). Remind participants of guidelines at the beginning of every group.  Honor each other’s confidentiality  Treat each other with mutual respect  Speak from your own experience  Direct comments and questions to

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 

part of Active participation in discussion Presentation of Learning


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each other Use first names when responding to or directing a comment

Introduction of Topic 

 

Thinking and Writing Exercise: Guided Practice 

  

Ask group for participants to reflect on individually: o What cultures are you a part of? o How many can you list? Discuss answers in pairs Write list on board Reflect on opening activity, where any of the characteristics you listed cultural traits?

Find out prior knowledge:  Introduce yourself and give a few examples of cultures you belong to  Ask group for participants to reflect on individually: o What cultures are you a part of? o How many can you list?

Group Experiential Activity : Many Solutions

Explain that the term culture is defined in many ways and that people belong to many cultures simultaneously Define as small groups: culture, visible, invisible Compare definition as group and come up with final definition

Introduction of Activity Explain that one’s cultural traits and habits both visible and invisible often become more pronounced during difficult situations.

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Overview: Groups role play various cultural reactions to stressful situations. Learning Outcomes:  Participants put themselves in other people’s cultural shoes  Participants will demonstrate that there are many ways to react to one situation  Participant recognize their cultural identities by physically and verbally demonstrating their traits and stereotypes Theme: Manifestation of Invisible Culture Groups Size: 3-4 Type of Activity: Role Play Instructions 1. Entire group brainstorms scenarios in which a person’s patience would be put to the test by another and list on board. Example: Mother is waiting up for child to come home; Waiter messes up order for the 2nd time. 2. Group is divided and groups select a scenario to act out. 3. Using list developed at beginning of session of various cultures each group chooses three to act out. How would someone from that culture reaction in this situation. 4. Groups practice skits and then perform for group. 5. Group is asked to guess which culture each participant is enacting 6. After skits are performed group reflects on cultures performed

Reminder: Some participants may not feel comfortable acting in public. Suggest that they perform the “lights, camera, action” directing role but ask that they participate in the reflection part of the activity.

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Groups practice skits and then perform for group. Group is asked to guess which culture each participant is enacting After skits are performed group reflects on cultures performed: 1. Would you have done it differently? 2. Was the culture portrayed fairly? 3. What stereotypes did you come across? 4. Did acting out other cultures make you feel uncomfortable? 5. Did you see a cultural characteristic that you or a family member possesses acted out?


Activities: The Wandering Scholar

To examine their own cultures and those of others in depth, participants must first accept the fact that cultural differences do indeed exist and are meaningful. This can be problematic for adolescents who have been educated in traditional American public schools according to Pedelty (2001) because, “For U.S. Students, thinking about people as “others” threatens deeplyheld beliefs that we are, in fact, free thinking, acultural beings who take each person on his or her own merits” (p. 29). Students may feel uncomfortable at first with discussions that force them to visualize themselves as cultural beings and, “Rather than examine the cultural bases of their thinking, therefore, many students prefer to deny any sort of “cultural anchoring” (Pavis 1996:10) and thus are controlled that much more by it” (Pedelty, 2001, p. 30). The physiological journey from ethnocentrism to intercultural competency can also be complicated by the existence of cultural borders. According to Erickson (2001), “cultural boundaries are characteristics of all human societies, traditional as well as modern. A border is a social construct that is political in origin. Across a border power is exercised as in the political border between two nations” (p. 40). The concept of a border implies political division and power differentials whereas a boundary is simply a line that exists but can be crossed. Erickson suggested that cultural conflict arises not because we realize there are differences between people but because we conceptualize these differences as borders rather than boundaries. The social action framework is used to help students develop the skills to become educated critics of society and to then take those criticisms and come up with appropriate ideas for social change. For this to be successful students must understand their rights, and the rights of others, as human beings. Reimers (2009) proposed that students who are introduced to human

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rights will be able to use these guidelines, “as a moral compass to help negotiate differences in this flat world” (p. 13). A human rights based education not only aids students in dealing with diversity and differences abroad. Relationships and, “the social norms that govern those interactions”, with other students, teachers and the community at large are improved when approached with the values upheld by the Universal Declaration of Human rights (Reimers, 2009, p. 13) Participants are also introduced to the theory of multiple citizenships. Once participants begin to understand and interact with the concept of universal human rights they will see that the idea of citizenship must be broadened to include global citizenship in order to protect and promote these rights internationally. According to Banks (2008), “National boundaries are also becoming more porous because of international human rights…these rights are specified for individuals regardless of the nation-state in which they live and whether they are citizens of a nation or not” (p. 132). Understanding one’s role as a global citizen and as a citizen of one’s community and nation is not sufficient. Banks (2008) suggests that a concept of transformative education be taught in which citizens, “take action to promote social justice even when their actions violate, challenge, or dismantle existing laws, conventions, or structures” (p. 136). This type of education helps, “students to develop reflective cultural, national, regional, and global identifications and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote social justice in communities, nations and the world” (Banks, 2008, p. 137). Participants emerge from the workshop with a toolbox of intercultural communication skills that help guide them through their first international experience. Theories from multicultural education such as invisible and visible cultures, cultural otherness and cultural

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borders versus boundaries will guide discussions and activities. They are also empowered through a social action framework that stresses the importance of universal human rights and transformative citizenship. This framework focusing on reflection and action will encourage them to take the lessons they have learned throughout the workshop and experience abroad and apply them to their current circumstances. Participants will become cultural diplomats who will promote social justice and intercultural competence immediately on their trip and upon return within their schools, communities, and beyond.

Travel Monitoring

During the trip each participant is on their own, equipped with the lessons learned through the workshop, and guidance of their mentors, to make the most of their experience. Mentors check in with their mentees as well the trip leaders periodically during the trip via email. Mentors also contact the participant’s guardians to see how things are going on their end and discuss the participant’s progress. Student’s Projects

Beyond full participation in the activities organized by the trip leaders, which vary from trip to trip, The Wandering Scholar participants also take time out of each day to reflect on their experience and record their thoughts. Each participant does this in a different way. With the guidance of their mentor they choose a method before leaving for the trip. Methods vary as greatly as the interests and imaginations of the participants but could include: photograph, videography, short stories, sketching, interviewing or collage-making. During the final session of the pre-departure workshop the participants will share their proposed method with the

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other participants and receive and learn to operate any resources they might need such as a camera or voice recorder. Trip Log and Blogging

In addition to individual projects each participant is asked to keep a written log of their trip. When possible the participant posts portions of the written log onto a blog set up by The Wandering Scholar before the trip. This way parents, donors, teachers and peers from home can receive updates in real time about each participant’s journey in the words of the participant and post comments in return with words of encouragement and advice.

Reflection and Presentation Post-trip Workshop and Presentation of Learning

Upon return home from their trips and before school goes back into session, participants meet once again for another two-day long workshop to share their experiences with their mentors and fellow program participants. With their mentors’ help they prepare and practice giving a presentation of what they took away from their experience and of their individual project. On the second day of the workshop stakeholders including donors, board members, families, friends and the interested public are invited to attend a presentation of learning by all the participants. This event serves as way for the participants to hone their leadership skills, affirm their experience and bring what they learned home. The event also serves as a way for stakeholders to connect with each other and see how their contributions and efforts have directly affected the lives of the mentors, youth and the communities to which they traveled.

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Peer to Peer Recruitment

As a final program requirement participants present their summer experience to their school community upon return to school, guaranteeing that at least one level the experience goes beyond the summer and into their school community. In this way, participants, the best proponents of the program, become the recruiting team for the following year’s potential participants. Mentors help get permission, set up a time and place, and publicize the presentation. The peer to peer recruitment component serves two functions. First recruiting future participants from the same community creates a critical mass of students in a community who have shared similar life changing opportunity and mutually support and build off of one another’s experiences. Moreover, participants, acting as ambassadors for The Wandering Scholar program and of the country they visited, have a vested interest in recruiting high quality applicants ensuring that the future of The Wandering Scholar is as vibrant as its present.

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Required Resources Activity

Location

Technology

Personnel

Materials

Recruitment of Students

classrooms/community space

Website

recruiters

application

meeting space for selection committee general meeting

Email

administration

applicant evaluation form

interview space for applicants

Telephone

selection committee

interview questions

Scanner

school contact list

Laptop

recruitment materials

Projector

recruitment video

Printer

Activity

Location

Technology

Personnel

Materials

Recruitment of Mentors

meeting space for training

website

trainer

job description

Email

application reviewer

interview questions

telephone

administration

application form

computer

background check form

printer

food for training session

telephone

evaluation form

virtual conferencing


Activities: The Wandering Scholar

Activity

Location

Technology

Personnel

Materials

Pre trip meeting

meeting space

website

meeting facilitator

agenda

email

videographer (3 hrs)

handouts

telephone

film editor

passport applications

computer

photographer (3 hrs)

interview questions

printer

evaluation form

telephone

food for meeting

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virtual conferencing projector camera background screen camera video camera Activity

Location

Technology

Personnel

Materials

Misc.

Pre departure workshop

workshop space

website

meals for two days

transportation for attendees

break out room space

email

separate accommodations for one night

telephone

workshop facilitator videographer (6hrs) film editor photographer (8 hrs) chaperones

interview questions

computer printer

handouts evaluations forms

pencils

telephone

pens

virtual conferencing projector

paper

camera

poster paper

background screen video camera

requested material for projects

notebooks


Activities: The Wandering Scholar

Activity

Location

Monitoring

Technology

Personnel

Materials

Blog

administration

checklist for mentor

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website Email telephone computer Printer

Activity

Location

Technology

Personnel

Materials

Misc.

Post trip workshop

meeting location

Website

workshop facilitator

meals for two days

transportation for attendees

Presentation of Learning

accommodation for one night

Email

event food

break out room space

telephone

videographer (8 hrs) film editor

Auditorium

computer

photographer(8 hrs) chaperones

evaluation forms

Printer telephone

event invitations

interview questions event publicity

virtual conferencing projector Camera background screen video camera Activity

Location

Technology

Personnel

Materials

Peer to peer recruitment

provided by schools

projector

recruitment materials

background screen

Publicity


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Budget

(fixed costs) Category 1

Category 2

Category 3

Description

Units

Salaries Administration/Trainers Employee Benefits Photographer Videographer

1.5 people (10% of 35,000) 19 hours 16 hours

Office Equipment, Supplies, Space shared office space Telephone Computer printer/copier/scanner/fax Projector Camera background screen video camera Adobe Photoshop Video Editing Software Accounting Software Paper Virtual Conference Software

12 months 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 cases 1

Marketing, Fundraising website development logo development

20 hrs 20hrs

CPU

Year 1

Year 2

$35,000/yr $3,500.00 $75.00 $75.00

$52,500.00 $3,500.00 $1,425.00 $1,200.00

$52,500.00 $3,500.00 $1,425.00 $1,200.00

$600.00 $100.00 $1,000.00 $900.00 $800.00 $200.00 $300.00 $500.00 $80.00 $200.00 $180.00 $36.00 $350.00

$7,200.00 $200.00 $2,000.00 $900.00 $800.00 $200.00 $300.00 $500.00 $80.00 $200.00 $180.00 $72.00 $350.00

$7,200.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $72.00 $350.00

$75.00 $60.00

$1,500.00 $1,200.00

$1,000.00 $0.00


Activities: The Wandering Scholar

printing costs

Category 4

Category 5

Category 6

89

$700.00

$700.00

Meetings and Workshops training space workshop space Accommodations meeting space Auditorium workshop buffets* meeting food presentation of learning reception training food transportation** workshop booklets

8hrs 4 days 2 nights 6hrs 4 hrs 10 meals 1 day 1 event 1 day 10 RTs 12 booklets

$50.00 $500.00 $400.00 $50.00 $50.00 $180.00 $75.00 $1,000.00 $105.00 $150.00 $5.00

$400.00 $2,000.00 $800.00 $300.00 $200.00 $1,800.00 $75.00 $1,000.00 $105.00 $1,500.00 $60.00

$400.00 $2,000.00 $800.00 $300.00 $200.00 $2,550.00 $100.00 $1,500.00 $180.00 $3,000.00 $85.00

Trip Costs student trips (negotiated @ cost) student trip materials passport fees

5 5 5

$3,000.00 $200.00 $100.00

$15,000.00 $1,000.00 $500.00

$30,000.00 $2,000.00 $1000.000

$70.00 $30.00

$1,680.00 $360.00 $60.00

$1,680.00 $360.00 $60.00

$101,597.00

$113,662.00

Communications Cell Wireless Webhosting

TOTAL

12 12

* 15$ person @ 12 people=180 ** each student receives 150 voucher for transportation to and from workshops


Activities: The Wandering Scholar

Budget Notes and Funding Sources

The budget, $101,597, for the pilot year, including start-up and marketing costs, takes 5 students through the program with one full time employee's salary with benefits and one half time salary. The second year budget, $113,662, doubles the number of students served with a flexible model that could easily expand to support more. The budget includes two, weekendlong workshops for the pre-departure workshop and post trip symposium. For the participants and mentors all meals and accommodation are covered. Mentors are asked to pay for their own transportation while participants are given a travel stipend. Meals are all buffet style and have been budgeted for $15 a person to cover catering and cleanup. Our first student travel company partner Walking Tree Travel has agreed to offer trips at cost to students. This averages out to be about $3,000 per participant per trip including international health insurance. Additionally The Wandering Scholar will pay for passport fees if participants do not already have a valid passport. Finally, as participants are asked to complete an in country project capturing their experiences while traveling each participant is given a $150 stipend to cover materials costs. Funding will come from people who have benefitted from educational travel experiences (either directly or through their own children), donations from travel corporations, and student travel organizations' in-kind donations of trips at cost to keep travel costs as low as possible. Funds will be raised through grant applications, online donations on both The Wandering Scholar website and our partner’s website as well as through direct solicitations, small happy hour networking events for potential and current mentors, and two bi-yearly fundraising galas.

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Monitoring and Evaluation Stage

Measure

Method

Purpose

Recruitment of Participants

# of schools visited

Contact List Database Contact List Database Contact List Database Application Database Application Database

Extent of outreach

Application Database Application Database Application Database Questionnaire

Future expansion

Questionnaire

Quality Improvement

# of community organizations visited # of students addressed # of applicants Profile of applicants:  Race  Gender  School  Grade  Family income Rate of acceptance Rate of matriculation Rate of program completion Student Recruitment Session Evaluation:  Interest in program  Enjoyment of presentation  Consider international travel in future  Acquisition of new information  Comments for improvement Teacher/Counselor Recruitment Session Evaluation:  Enjoyment of presentation  Acquisition of new information  Likelihood to pass information on to others  Comments for improvement

Extent of outreach Extent of outreach Extent of outreach Diversity of outreach

Future expansion Program success indicator Quality Improvement

Stage

Measure

Method

Purpose

Mentor Recruitment and Training

# of applicants

Application Database Application Database

Extent of outreach

Profile of applicants:  Race  Gender  Occupation

Diversity of outreach

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Education

Rate of acceptance Rate of matriculation Rate of program completion Mentor Training Session Evaluation:  Understanding of program goals  Prepared for mentor relationship  Enjoyment of presentation  Likelihood to recommend program to a friend  Comments for improvement

Application Database Application Database Application Database Questionnaire

Future expansion Future expansion Program success indicator Quality Improvement

Stage

Measure

Method

Purpose

Pre trip Meeting

Parental Attendance

Questionnaire

Participant Attendance

Questionnaire

Mentor Attendance

Questionnaire

Gage interest and buy in of parents Gage interest and buy in of mentors Gage interest and buy in of mentors

Pre-trip Meeting Parental Evaluation:  Parent understands program goals  Parent is informed about and agrees to program safety measures and rules  Parent feels that their questions and concerns have been answered  Comments for improvement

Stage

Measure

Method

Purpose

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Activities: The Wandering Scholar

Pre-departure Workshop

Participant Attendance

Questionnaire

Gage interest and buy in of mentors Gage interest and buy in of mentors Comparison of pre and post workshop levels of understanding and satisfaction.

Mentor Attendance

Questionnaire

Participant Pre Evaluation:  Intercultural Sensitivity  Knowledge of destination country  Self reported sense of preparedness  Self reported goals for workshop

Questionnaire and Survey

Participant Post Evaluation:  Intercultural Sensitivity  Knowledge of destination country  Self reported sense of preparedness  Goals for workshop completed?

Questionnaire and Survey

Comparison of pre and post workshop levels of understanding and satisfaction.

Mentor Overall Evaluation:  Things learned at workshop  Aspects they enjoyed  Aspects that could be improved

Questionnaire

Quality improvement for future workshops.

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Activities: The Wandering Scholar

Stage

Measure

Method

Purpose

Travel and Monitoring

# of blog entries per participant Quality, depth and trends of blog entries # of conversations with mentor per participant Family Satisfaction Trip Leader Evaluation:  Participant leadership  Participant maturity  Participant ability communication skills with peers and host community  Participant to try new things  Concerns and commendation

Database

Measure interest in sharing experiences. Understand impact of trip on participant. Measure interest in sharing experiences. Quality improvement. Understand impact of trip on participant and group. Quality improvement.

Participant Evaluation Trip

Questionnaire and video interview

Content analysis Database Phone Call/Survey Post trip Survey

Understand impact of trip on participant. Quality improvement.

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Activities: The Wandering Scholar

Stage

Measure

Method

Purpose

Post trip symposium and workshop

Presentation of Learning of each participant

Rubric

Participant Attendance

Questionnaire

Mentor Attendance

Questionnaire

Parental Attendance

Questionnaire

Stakeholder attendance

Questionnaire

Stakeholder Evaluation of Presentation:  Questions, comments, suggestions for improvement Participant self evaluation of presentation Mentor evaluation of Presentation and Program:  Questions, comments, suggestions for improvement

Questionnaire

Feedback for participant. Measure participants’ leadership development. Measure interest in program. Measure interest in program Measure interest in program. Measure public interest in program. Quality improvement, research for future outreach initiatives.

Stage Peer to peer recruitment

Rubric

Measure participant’s sense of self efficacy

Questionnaire

Quality improvement, research for future outreach initiatives.

Measure

Method

Purpose

# of Participants who present at school or community organization

Database

# of people who attend presentation # of applicants recruited by each past participant

Database

Measure success of program goals: leadership skills, willingness to share experience Extent of outreach and interest in program Interest in program

Database

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Measuring Impact A measurement of the impact of The Wandering Scholar must take into account both the short term and long term effects of participation in the program. The two key stakeholders involved in the program are the participants and their mentors. Short Term Impact

Measure

Method

Purpose

Participants

Participant involvement in extracurricular activities

Pre-program and post program survey (after one year)

Participant academic improvement

Grade database

Participant personal growth and development of future plans.

Pre-program and post program survey (after one year)

Measure impact of program on participant’s involvement in extracurricular Measure impact of program on participant’s grades. Measure impact of program on participant’s future plans

Long Term Impact

Measure

Method

Purpose

Participant

Participant contact with online alumni network

Internet Database

Participant contact with mentors

Database

Participant contact with host family/community

Survey

College acceptances

Survey compared to peers.

College matriculation

Survey compared to peers.

College study abroad participation

Survey compared to peers.

Measure impact of program on participant’s ability to network. Measure impact of program on participant’s ability to network. Measure impact of program on participant’s cross cultural communication skills Measure impact of program on participant’s future options. Measure impact of program on participant’s future decisions. Measure impact of program on participant’s future decisions.

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# of Scholarships and recognitions received

Survey compared to peers.

Major in college

Survey compared to peers.

Post collegiate plans

Survey compared to peers.

Measure

Method

Purpose

Mentor interest and understanding of youth development and intercultural awareness. Mentor contact with participant

Pre-program and post program survey (after one year)

Measure impact of program on mentor.

Database

Mentor recruitment of other mentors and participants.

Database

Measure impact of program on mentor’s interest participant’s future plans. Measure impact of program goals on mentor.

Long Term Impact

Measure

Method

Purpose

Mentor

Mentor contact with online mentor network

Internet Database

Mentor attendance at future program events.

Database

Mentor financial and inkind donations

Database

Measure impact of program on mentor’s interest in networking. Measure long term interest in supporting program. Measure long term interest in supporting program.

Short Term Impact

Measure impact of program on participant’s future opportunities. Measure impact of program on participants’ future options. Measure impact of program on participants’ future options.

Mentor

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Activities: The Wandering Scholar

Project Assumptions Phase 1: Recruitment and Selection 

Schools and community organizations will allow recruitment visits.

After recruitment session students will be interested enough in the program to apply.

Students from a low resource background with high motivation to participate will apply.

Other student travel organizations will want to partner with Wandering Scholar in the future.

Other student travel organizations will be willing to offer trips at costs.

Experienced travelers will want to volunteer their time as travel mentors.

Travel mentors will be able to commit the necessary time to the program.

Applicants once accepted will matriculate into the program.

Phase 2: Preparation 

Parents will be willing to allow their children to participate.

Parents or a guardian will be able to attend the informational meeting.

Participants will get their passports in time to go on the trips.

Matriculated students will finish the program.

Phase 3: Travel 

Students will be able to periodically access the internet and a telephone during their trips.

Participants will contribute positively to their trips.

Participants will have a positive and educational experience while on trip.

Students will have time to complete their project.

Phase 4: Reflection 

Stakeholders will attend the presentation of learning.

Participants will actively promote the program to their peers upon return.

Participants will successfully recruit applicants for the following years.

People who have studied abroad or whose children have studied abroad will be willing to donate money to support the program.

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Cost Benefit Analysis

Public School Teacher Training

Maintain the status quo

Solution Cost

Benefit

Societal Cost:  Future leaders and workforce are not educated to compete in the international job market.  Future leaders and workforce do not develop intercultural communication skills and have less knowledge about the world around them.  An opportunity gap continues to exist between privileged and low resource students.

Societal Benefit:  There is no societal benefit to maintaining the status quo

Financial Cost:  In the future, with a less internationally competitive workforce, society will have to support unemployed citizens.  In the future, with more intercultural interaction and unprepared citizens, society will have to pay for the affects of war, conflict and unrest. Societal Cost:  Already busy teachers will spend more time out of the classroom training and less time teaching.

Financial Benefit:  There is no financial benefit to maintaining the status quo other than that no money is spent on this program.

After training there is no guarantee that teachers will implement their skills into their teaching.

Schools that already have packed curricula will need to add additional lessons, courses and evaluations.

Financial Cost:  Money will be spent on designing and promoting teacher training programs. 

Money will be spent to execute training sessions.

Money will be spent to pass proposed teacher training curriculum

Societal Benefit:  If properly employed both teachers and students will benefit from lessons learned and skills acquired through training.

Financial Benefit:  Once the investment is made in one teacher he or she can pass on skills and ideas to other teachers and the community at large.

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Activities: The Wandering Scholar

by teacher unions, lobbyists and politicians. 

Create own “non profit” trips

Substitute teachers will be paid to cover classes when teachers are at training. Societal Cost:  Man hours that could be devoted to recruitment of students, awareness raising and volunteer training will be spent on researching, designing and planning trips. 

Trips designed by preexisting student travel companies, that have already been designed and proven effective and safe, will not be full.

With trips departing at less than capacity fuel and resources are wasted, producing less environmentally friendly trips as each trip will have a bigger carbon footprint.

Students who attend the “nonprofit” trips will not have the opportunity to interact with and learn from students from other backgrounds who attend preexisting trips and vice versa.

Financial Cost:  Time and money that could be spent on funding scholarships to preexisting trips that have agreed to offer “at cost” trips will be spent on developing new trips.

Societal Benefit:  Low resource students will have the opportunity to participate in a global education opportunity at a low cost. 

Financial Benefit:  Since pre-established travel companies have agreed to offer trips at cost there is no financial benefit to creating new non-profit trips 

Time and money that could be spent on recruiting and preparing students for these trips will be spent on developing new trips.

Host countries and communities will interact with a diverse and more socio-demographically representative sector of the United States.

However, not having to seek out more travel company partners as the program expands could save time/money.

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Activities: The Wandering Scholar

Societal Cost:  Citizens will be asked to support the project through volunteering and financial donations.

The Wandering Scholar

Financial Cost:  Funds must be raised to cover recruitment, training, preparation and evaluation of the program.

Societal Benefit:  Low resource students will have the opportunity to participate in global education opportunity at a low cost. 

Host countries and communities will interact with a more diverse and socio-demographically representative sector of the United States.

Trips designed by preexisting student travel companies, that have already been designed and proven effective and safe, will not be full.

With pre-existing trips departing at capacity, fuel and resources are maximized producing more environmentally friendly trips as each trip will have a smaller carbon footprint.

Participants will have the opportunity to interact and network with and learn from students from other backgrounds who attend preexisting trips and vice versa.

Future leaders and workforce are educated to compete in the international job market.

Future leaders and workforce develop intercultural communication skills and have more knowledge about the world around them.

The opportunity gap between privileged and low resource students will be lessened diversifying the profile of successful students and future leaders.

Volunteer mentors and their mentees will mutually benefit from a supportive intergenerational relationship.

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Activities: The Wandering Scholar



Volunteer mentors will benefit from interaction with a group of like minded individuals.

Financial Benefit:  In the future, with a more internationally competitive workforce, society will benefit from economic gains and security. 

In the future, with more interculturally competent citizens, society will spend less on wars and crime.

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Activities: The Wandering Scholar

Internal

SWOT Analysis Helpful to Project Proposal Strengths:  Provides pre-trip preparation so that participants can make the most of their international experience.  Recognizes that there are multiple barriers to access including: awareness, finances, resources and support.  Facilitates intergenerational relationships based on shared interest in travel and cross-cultural communication.  Provides both virtual and face-to-face platforms for participants to share their experiences to stakeholders.  Acknowledges that parents or guardians of participants must be on board to make program successful.

Harmful to Project Proposal Weaknesses:  Project depends on continued cooperation with student travel companies to accept Wandering Scholar participants and offer trips “at cost”.

Opportunities:  Two similar programs, Farther Foundation and the National Center for Global Engagement, offer scholarship money for students to travel abroad have had significant success in terms of securing funds, partnering with travel companies and recruiting interested students.

Threats:  Many large social investors are looking for projects that are financially self sustaining and make a profit that can be reinvested in the project.

 Farther Foundation and the National Center for Global Engagement serve specific populations in Atlanta and Chicago meaning that much of the country is still subserviced.

Mentor programs have gained significant accolades as being highly effective forms of improving a student’s academic success.

Use of the online mentoring platform such as iMentor will help mentors and mentees contact each other more often and stay connected over a longer period of time.

External

Project is not financially self sustaining and therefore depends on donations of time and money from the public.

This project does not have an income generating component.

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Conclusion The wake of the 21st century is a time of great opportunities for expansion of our interconnected world through technology and globalized communications. Low resource youth will have an increasingly difficult time competing with their privileged peers for academic and career opportunities in this environment. Schools will struggle to provide access to high quality education to all, higher education will remain expensive and out of the reach of many, and the job market will cater to those with the skills to take advantage of the technologies and internationalization. In this time, more than ever before, adolescents will also be asked to compete and collaborate with individuals the world over. To be successful in meeting this challenge they must understand how to communicate across languages and cultures both locally and globally. We can be assured that twenty years from now an ability to adapt to abrupt changes in power dynamics and technologies, think from another’s perspective, and communicate effectively with individuals across various backgrounds will be of utmost importance. The Wandering Scholar understands that experiential travel is the best way to give low resource youth an opportunity to develop these skills. Through international travel, horizons are expanded both literally and personally. One is confronted with new sights, smells, viewpoints and surroundings but also familiar relationships, problems and desires. Understanding and thinking critically about how these essential relationships are maintained or how universal problems are solved illuminate’s a world of possibility to a traveler. The program provides full financial support to qualified youth who wish to participate in intercultural exchange programs to make this world of possibility accessible to all youth. Recognizing that

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Conclusion: The Wandering Scholar

barriers to access are more than financial, the program recruits participants directly from their schools and community organizations, provides pre-trip counseling to families and participants, and matches each participant with a mentor who guides them through the program with encouragement, experience and advice. The multiple benefits of experiential travel are not always automatic. Sometimes travel can result in a negative experience of isolation, homesickness, culture shock, and even xenophobia. To help engender positive, educational and transformative trips The Wandering Scholar ensures that each participant is prepared for their first international travel experience. This is achieved through regular correspondence with their travel mentor, completion of a destination country profile, and participation in a pre-departure workshop with fellow scholarship recipients which covers topics from human rights to travel writing. To ensure that the lessons learned and experiences had during the trip continue to shape the participant’s choices and advance their opportunities The Wandering Scholar provides each participant with materials to record their experiences in a method of their choosing, a venue to share their trip with program stakeholders in a post trip symposium and an virtual platform to maintain contact with program alumni via an alumni network. The ultimate goal of The Wandering Scholar is to create a cross-generational, socio-demographically diverse network of program alumni. A network of globally responsible travelers, thinkers and doers who can rise to the exciting and complex challenges our future holds.

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Appendix I: The Wandering Scholar

Appendix I

Project Planning

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: The Wandering Scholar

Subsystem Logic Table Description Of Activities

Subsystem

IPS

Researching Root Cause Of The Problem*

100

NONE

Developing Project Goals And Mission

200

100

Incorporating NPO

300

200

Fund-Raising /Awareness

400

300

Designing Mentor Program

500

200

Designing Pre-Departure Workshop

600

200

Designing Pre-Departure Meeting

700

200

Designing Post-Trip Workshop

800

200

Recruiting Participants: School Visits

900

600

Recruiting Participants: Selection Committee

1000

600

Recruiting Participants: Application

1100

1000

Recruiting Participants: Selection

1200

1100, 1000

Recruiting Mentors

1300

500

Implementing Mentor Training

1400

1300

Matching Mentors And Participants

1500

1400, 1200

Implementing Pre Departure Meeting

1600

1500, 700

Recording Parents Experience At Meeting

1700

1600

Evaluating Parents Experience At Meeting

1800

1700

Implementing Pre-Departure Workshop

1900

1600

Monitoring Students Progress During Trip

2000

1900

Implementing Post Trip Workshop

2100

2000, 800

Implementing Final Presentation Of Learning

2200

2100

Evaluating Mentor’s Overall Experience

2300

2200

Evaluating Student's Overall Experience

2400

2200

Recording Students Overall Experience

2500

2400

Publicizing Experiences

2600

2500

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: The Wandering Scholar

Subsystem Pert Diagram

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Gantt Diagram

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: The Wandering Scholar

Frequently Asked Questions Who can apply to The Wandering Scholar? Any matriculating sophomore, junior or senior in high school can apply to The Wandering Scholar. Does The Wandering Scholar only target students of color? The Wandering Scholar does not make acceptance decisions based on race or ethnicity. How is The Wandering Scholar funded? The Wandering Scholar is funded through donations from individuals, businesses and foundations that understand the educational value and life changing possibility of international travel, mentor relationships and youth development programs. Donations are solicited through fundraising events, the organization’s website and through grant applications. How do you determine financial need? Financial need is determined based on the parent or guardians’ previous year’s tax returns as well as a statement written by the applicant and/or family member explaining their financial situation in more detail. This statement may include information about medical expenses, family members’ tuition expenses and extenuating circumstances not explained through a simple tax return statement. Do applicants have to get good grades to be accepted into the program? The Wandering Scholar does not determine acceptance based on academic performance. Written and visual essays produced by the applicant, a phone interview and a recommendation from an adult of the participant’s choice provide the selection committee with the necessary information to determine an applicant’s potential for success in the program. Do applicants have to speak another language to be accepted? Knowledge of the host country’s language is not required for acceptance although a demonstrated interest in learning languages may strengthen an application. Applicants who have not taken classes in the language of the host country should be open to immersing themselves in the language and be prepared for the exciting challenge ahead of them.

Does The Wandering Scholar design and operate the trips? The Wandering Scholar does not design and operate trips. The Wandering Scholar matches participants with trips designed and operated by established student travel company partners. How do you choose partner student travel organizations?

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Partner travel organizations must be committed to increasing the socioeconomic diversity of their participants, offer trips at cost to The Wandering Scholar, and design trips that spend at least 2/3 of their time in an immersion setting such as a homestay or language school. When do the trips take place? All trips take place during summer vacation. When do the pre-departure and post trip workshops take place? The pre-departure workshop takes place the first weekend in June starting at 9 am on Saturday and ending at 5pm on Sunday. The post trip workshop takes place the second weekend in August starting at 9 am on Saturday and culminating at 5 pm on Sunday with the Presentation of Learning. All meals and a travel stipend are provided to participants.

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Appendix II: The Wandering Scholar

Appendix II

Sample Forms

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Appendix II: The Wandering Scholar

The Wandering Scholar Participant Application Applicant Information (please print clearly) Name: First

Middle

Last

Preferred Name: Gender:

Date of Birth

Current Grade:

Current School

Home Number:

Alternative Number

Home Address: Street

City

State

Zip Code

Email/ Facebook: Primary Language Spoken at Home:

Parent/ Guardian Information Name: First

Middle Last Level of Education Completed:

Occupation: Work Number:

Alternative Number

Home Address: Street

City

State

Zip Code

Email: Relationship to Applicant:

Primary Language Spoken:

Parent /Guardian Information Name: First

Middle Last Level of Education Completed:

Occupation: Work Number:

Alternative Number

Home Address: Street

City

State

Zip Code

Email: Relationship to Applicant:

Primary Language Spoken at Home:

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Appendix II: The Wandering Scholar

With whom does the applicant live? Where should correspondence be sent? How did you hear about The Wandering Scholar:

Financial Statement: Fill out sections with help from guardians. Annual household income: $____________________ Please Attach with a Staple to the Back of the Application  

a copy of your guardians’ most recent federal income tax return a statement (on separate paper) explaining any extenuating circumstances or reasons for financial need that are not already expressed through the above information

Application Questions: Note: This is a chance to help us learn more about who you are, where you come from and where you want to go. Please take time to make your answers as clear and complete as possible. We love learning about you and consider these essays the most important part of the application. Please answer the first question and then choose 2 of the 3 following questions to answers. There is no word count, so use your best judgment. Attach your answers to the back of this application with a staple. Required: Why do you want to participate in The Wandering Scholar program? What makes you the best candidate and what do you hope to take away from the experience? Choose two more: 1. You are going on a trip far away from home for a month. If you could take only one object with you, beyond clothes, what would it be and why? 2. You have just won a trip to visit one country anywhere in the world. Where would you go, what would you do there and what would you bring back to share with your friends? 3. Imagine that someone from another country has decided to visit your town or city, create a 3 day travel itinerary for them and explain why you chose each place.

Visual Option: You may substitute a visual representation of one of the two above questions. This may consist of photo, video, drawing, painting or song.

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Appendix II: The Wandering Scholar

Recommendation: Please ask an adult who you know well (teacher, coach, employer, mentor, friend) and who is not a relative to fill out this reference form. Once they have filled it out and placed it in a sealed envelope, send it along with the rest of your materials. Recommender’s Name:

Occupation:

Applicant’s Name:

Relationship to Applicant:

To the Recommender:. We are eager to learn from you about his/her aptitude, experiences, and achievements. We would appreciate your most candid and thoughtful responses. You are welcome to attach a separate letter if you prefer, but please complete each question. 1. How long have you known the applicant and in what capacity?

2. In what activity have you worked with this applicant? How long has he/she been involved? What level of skill and/or responsibility does he/she display? Has the applicant received any honors or recognition in this activity?

3. How would you describe the applicant’s work ethic, self-esteem, and personal resilience?

4. How well does he/she respond to criticism and advice? How does the applicant respond to setbacks?

5. What else would you like us to know about this applicant? Based on your experience with this applicant, please rate the applicant as realistically as you can: One of the top few I have ever encountered

Excellent (Top 10%)

Good

Average

Below Average

No Basis

Dedication Concern for Others Leadership Skills Respected Accorded by peers General evaluation

Signature _________________________________________ Date______________________________ Thank you for taking your valuable time to complete this evaluation. Your reflections are an important part of the candidate’s application. All information you provide will be held in confidence and disclosed only to the Admissions Committee.

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Appendix II: The Wandering Scholar

The Wandering Scholar Mentor Application Applicant Information (please print clearly) Name: First

Middle

Last

Preferred Name: Gender:

Date of Birth:

Occupation:

Level of Education Attained:

Home Number:

Cell Number:

Home Address: Street

City

State

Zip Code

Email/ Facebook: Languages Spoken:

Please answer the following questions in the space provided: 1. Do you have experience working with adolescents? In what capacity?

2. Why are you interested in becoming a Wandering Scholar Mentor?

3. Please describe your travel experience. What countries have you visited, how long were your stays and what brought you to those places?

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Appendix II: The Wandering Scholar

Please list three character references. Include name, relationship to you, phone number and email address. Name

Relationship

Phone Number

Email

Have you been convicted of a felony? If so please explain.

Background Check To ensure the safety of our participants every Wandering Scholar mentor will be asked to self perform a background check using www.mybackgroundcheck.com before being matched with a mentee. Upon approval each mentor will be reimbursed. Please sign below and print your name if you agree to this background check policy.

Upon request of The Wandering Scholar I agree to self perform a background check using www.mybackgroundcheck.com. This information will be shared with The Wandering Scholar. I understand that I will be reimbursed for this expense upon approval. If my background check reveals history that is compromising to the safety of participants in The Wandering Scholar I understand that I will neither be reimbursed nor matched with a mentee.

Signature

Date

Printed Name

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Appendix III: The Wandering Scholar

Appendix III

Pre-Departure Workshop Curriculum

118


Lesson 1 and 2: Introduction to Workshop and Culture LEARNING OUTCOMES

Participants will be able to:  Identify cultures participant is a part of  Invent own operational definition of culture  List cultures participant is aware of  Differentiate between visible and invisible culture  Demonstrate how people have different responses to situations due to invisible culture.

LINKS TO ACADEMIC STANDARDS

KEY TERMS AND IDEAS

English and Language Arts- discussion skills and presentation skills Foreign Language- cultural connections and communication development

Key terms: Culture Invisible culture Visible culture Key Ideas: Other ways of defining culture: Rural/urban Regional Social class Education level Age/generation Fashion Occupation Political Nationality

Lesson 1 Lesson: What does culture mean to you?

Teaching Strategies

Introduction of Workshop Goals

Introduction of Workshop Goals  Explain that workshop aims to prepare participants for their first trip to another country and culture.  Point out that although packing the right things is important it is also important to mentally prepare yourself for a trip so that you get the most out of the experience.  Explain that throughout workshop participants will reflect on who they are and where they fit into the world.  Explain that it is not a typical academic course with lectures and notes.

Reflection and Evidence of Learning Evidence of learning:  Discussion of examples of different cultures  Ability to explain and give examples of visible and invisible cultures that participant is a part of  Active participation in discussion  Presentation of Learning


Lesson 1 and 2: Introduction to Workshop and Culture 

Remind participants that course is for them and the quality of the activities and discussion will be determined by them and their input.

Warm-up/Energizer Musical Chairs Learning Outcomes:  Participants will get to know each other

Overview: Arrange chairs in a close circle and ask participant to sit down. Stand in the middle of the circle and explain that you are going to state your name and make a statement about yourself. When you do, everyone for whom that statement is also true must change chairs. (e.g. “I am X and am left-handed,” “I am X and I have a cat” or “I am X and I dislike eating ___”). Try to get a chair for yourself. The person left without a chair then makes a similar statement about herself or himself. Continue until most participant have had a chance to introduce themselves in this way. (Adapted from a Compasito Activity see Reference page)

Lay out general group guidelines (Beverly Tatum). Remind participants of guidelines at the beginning of every session.  Honor each other’s confidentiality  Treat each other with mutual respect  Speak from your own experience  Direct comments and questions to each other  Use first names when responding to or directing a comment

Introduction of Topic


Lesson 1 and 2: Introduction to Workshop and Culture 

 

Thinking and Writing Exercise: Guided Practice 

  

Ask group for participants to reflect on individually: o What cultures are you a part of? o How many can you list? Discuss answers in pairs Write list on board Reflect on opening activity, where any of the characteristics you listed cultural traits?

Explain that the term culture is defined in many ways and that people belong to many cultures simultaneously Define as small groups: culture, visible, invisible Compare definition as group and come up with final definition

Find out prior knowledge:  Introduce yourself and give a few examples of cultures you belong to  Ask group for participants to reflect on individually: o What cultures are you a part of? o How many can you list?

Introduction of Activity Explain that one’s cultural traits and habits both visible and invisible often become more pronounced during difficult situations.

Group Experiential Activity : Many Solutions Overview: Groups role play various cultural reactions to stressful situations. Learning Outcomes:  Participants put themselves in other people’s cultural shoes  Participants will demonstrate that there are many ways to react to one situation  Participant recognize their cultural identities by physically and verbally demonstrating their traits and stereotypes

Theme: Manifestation of Invisible Culture

Reminder: Some participants may not feel comfortable acting in public. Suggest that they perform the “lights, camera, action” directing role but ask that they participate in the reflection part of the activity.


Lesson 1 and 2: Introduction to Workshop and Culture Groups Size: 3-4 Type of Activity: Role Play Instructions 1. Entire group brainstorms scenarios in which a person’s patience would be put to the test by another and list on board. Example: Mother is waiting up for child to come home; Waiter messes up order for the 2nd time. 2. Group is divided and small groups select a scenario to act out. 3. Using list developed at beginning of session of various cultures each small group chooses three to act out. How would someone from that culture reaction in this situation. 4. Small groups practice skits and then perform for entire group. 5. Group is asked to guess which culture each participant is enacting 6. After skits are performed group reflects on cultures performed

Groups practice skits and then perform for group. Group is asked to guess which culture each participant is enacting After skits are performed group reflects on cultures performed: 6. Would you have done it differently? 7. Was the culture portrayed fairly? 8. What stereotypes did you come across? 9. Did acting out other cultures make you feel uncomfortable? 10. Did you see a cultural characteristic that you or a family member possesses acted out?

Lesson 2: Lesson:

Teaching Strategies Lay out/reminder of general group guidelines

Reflection and Evaluation


Lesson 1 and 2: Introduction to Workshop and Culture

Introduce Topic 

Point out there that just as we saw in the previous activity there are many ways to deal with difficult situations and that when you travel you inevitably come across situations that are not easily resolved.

Solutions and reactions to situations that seem obvious and normal to you may not be so obvious to someone who is not from your culture.

These solutions and reactions are part of our invisible cultures

Reading of Text The Green Banana  Read first page of the Green Banana aloud to the group.  Have the participants jot down ideas for a few minutes.  Questions for reflection.

Reflection Questions:  Have you ever had an experience like this?  What is the center of your world? Our world?  Can you think of some “green bananas” in our culture?   

Introduction of Activity Show participants your cultural box. Model a presentation of the box. This will help participants get to know you


Lesson 1 and 2: Introduction to Workshop and Culture better and understand what is expected of them. Individual Activity and Presentation of Learning A Cultural Box Overview: Participants construct 3-d boxes (see example at the end of the activity) showing cultures they are part of. Cultural traits that are visible will be depicted on the outside of the box and those that are invisible will be placed inside the box. Learning Outcomes and Objectives:  Contrast visible and invisible cultures.  Demonstrates one’s culture and identity creatively  Practice presentation skills  Get to know each other better Materials:  Box of various shape  Coloring materials (e.g. crayons, paints, markers)  Tape, glue or a stapler; drawing pins or small nails Scissors  Optional: magazine for cut-out pictures

Presentations of Learning: Each Participant shares: Personal definition of culture Explanation of box Evaluation: Presentation of Learning Rubric

Group discussion/Reflection • Ball Toss: Participant toss a ball from one to another. Each person who catches the ball states one thing she or he learned or can use from the activity. Self evaluation Packet (See references) Participation chart


Lesson 1 and 2: Introduction to Workshop and Culture Enjoyment dartboard Homework: Intercultural Encounters-INCA Evaluation (See references)


Lesson 3 and 4: What are Human Rights? LEARNING OUTCOMES

      

Summarize basic themes of UDHR Describe for who and when UDHR was written Connect historical events to why UDHR was written Demonstrate violations in society through role play Connect the UDHR impact to daily life Invent own UDHR for community Compare different invented UDHR and evaluate differences  Map where human rights are enacted in one’s own community

Lesson 3 Lesson: What are human rights?

LINKS TO ACADEMIC STANDARDS

KEY TERMS AND IDEAS Key terms: Universal Declaration Right Violation

History and Civics-historical documents, international organizations, connecting historic events to social outcomes

Key ideas: UDHR language and content UN functions Basic facts about UDHR

Teaching Strategies

Lay out/reminder of general group guidelines

Reflection and Evidence of Learning   

Warm-up/Energizer:  Silent Calendar Learning Outcome: Participants learn to cooperate as a group. Participant understand how to use alternative forms of communication. Overview: Ask the whole group to line up in order of the day and month they were born. However, they cannot use words to accomplish this. You could do the same with shoe sizes, number of hours spent watching TV per week, or any other interesting personal data. (Adapted from Compasito)

Perform role play Presentation of Learning Active participation in discussion Find news article and identify rights being protected or violated


Lesson 3 and 4: What are Human Rights?

Introduction of Topic

Introduction of Topic & Find out prior knowledge  

 

Explain that as you travel throughout the world you will see humans treated in many ways. Point out that in many countries some humans are not treated as well as others even in the United States. Ask if they can think of any instances of a potential human rights violation. Remind participants that many countries have had to write legal documents protecting the rights of humans. Introduce history of UDHR- what who where when why UN WWII

Thinking and Writing: Guided Practice  List as a group examples of documents that protect rights? Bill of rights?  Define as small groups: universal, declaration, human, right, violation on white board  Compare definition as group and come up with final definition

Introduce Activity 

Point out that UDHR was developed as a way to prevent and resolve conflict among people and nations over resources, borders and ideas

Explain that this game will help participants experience what it is like to be in conflict with another group.

.


Lesson 3 and 4: What are Human Rights?

Group Experiential Activity The Battle for the Orange: Can this be a win-win situation? (Adapted from Compasito Actvity see references) Overview: Participant compete for possession of an orange and discuss how to resolve conflicts. Outcomes  To discuss the need for communication in conflict situations  To reflect on strategies for conflict resolution Materials  One orange Instructions Divide the participant into two groups. 1. Ask Group A to go outside and wait for you. Tell Group B that in this activity their goal is to get the orange because they need its juice to make orange juice. 2. Go outside and tell Group A that their goal in this activity is to get the orange because they need the peel of the orange to make an orange cake. 3. Bring both groups together inside and ask each group to sit in a line facing each other. 4. Tell the groups that they have three minutes to get what they need. Emphasize that they should not use violence to get what they want. Then place one orange between the two groups and say, “Go”. After three minute say, “Stop” or “Time’s up”. Reflection and Action  Discuss reflection questions  Develop ideas about how to deal with conflict within the group.

Remember: Usually someone will take the orange and one group will have it and how the groups deal with the situation will be a surprise. Sometimes groups will try to negotiate to divide the orange in half. At other times they will not negotiate at all. Sometimes the groups will communicate further and realize that they both need different parts of the orange; someone from one of the groups will peel the orange, taking the part they need. Do not interfere.

Questions for reflection: 

Did your group get what it wanted before the three


Lesson 3 and 4: What are Human Rights? 

List these ideas on a chart and hang it somewhere in the room.

 

 

 

Lesson 4: Lesson: What rights should all humans have?

Teaching Strategies Lay out/reminder of general group guidelines

minutes were up? What was your group’s goal? What was the outcome of the conflict over the orange? What did you do to achieve this outcome? Why is it important for people to communicate in order to resolve conflicts? Do people always communicate with each other when they are in a conflict? Why or why not? Do people always want the same thing in a conflict? Have you ever experienced similar situations? What was the outcome?

Reflection and Evidence of Learning


Lesson 3 and 4: What are Human Rights?

Introduction of Topic

Introduction of Topic Explain the UDHR is a primary and historic document. Point out that the group will be reading a version that has been abridged for understanding. Ask participants if it seems strange that the document has to be abridged to make it more understandable.

Reading of Text Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Kid friendly version)  Pre-read question: What rights/themes should be included?  List ideas on board  Read aloud rights

Role Play: Human Rights Right Here Learning Outcome:  Participants will connect topics in UDHR to their daily lives.  Participants will create real life situations where rights are violated.  Participants discuss and recommend ways to improve these situations. Role play  Choose a right as group  Prepare a skit that demonstrates a real life situation where right is either being

Questions for Reflection:  Which rights are most/least pertinent to you?  Did any rights surprise you?  What was missing?


Lesson 3 and 4: What are Human Rights?  

protected or violated. Perform skit for group Discuss skit after each performance   

Introduction of Projects Explain that participants can choose one of two options to explore more deeply. Give them a brief explanation of the skills used and outcome of each project. Allow participants to self select groups.

Project Based Learning 2 options (Adapted from Compasito see References): Putting Rights on the Map (spatial, visual) Overview: Participant work cooperatively to create a map of their community and identify the rights associated with major institution. Outcomes: To develop familiarity with human rights • To build association of human rights with places in participant’s daily life • To encourage evaluation of human rights climate in the community

Rights Mobile Overview: Participants construct hanging mobiles (see example at the end of the activity) showing the rights most important to them in small groups where each person has to agree with what is put on the mobile. Outcomes: • To discuss the content and meaning of basic rights • To discover which rights are respected in your own environment

Presentations of Learning: Evaluation Rubric Group discussion/Reflection


Lesson 3 and 4: What are Human Rights? Collective Summary: Pose a summarizing question (e.g. “ What will you especially remember from today’s activity?” or an open-ended statement (e.g. “Try to think of a word or phrase that sums up your feelings at the end of today” or “I still wonder…”). Ask participants to respond in turn. Self evaluation Packet Participation chart Local-global linking graph Enjoyment dartboard Homework: Find a recent news paper article that demonstrates a violation of a human right. List the right/rights it violate. List whose list is violated and by whom/what. Come up with 2 strategies to help protect that groups rights.


Lesson 5 and 6: Geography and Globalization LEARNING OUTCOMES

LINKS TO ACADEMIC STANDARDS

Participants will  Evaluate the depth or lack of depth of their own knowledge in terms of global geography  Define the basic concept of globalization  Understand how ideas, cultures, problem and products are interconnected  Design a visual explanation of how one product is connected to many places throughout the world

Lesson 5 Lesson : How are our lives, actions and problems connected to others?

English and Language Arts- discussion skills and presentation skills Social Studies- citizenship and geography

Lay out/reminder of general group guidelines

Introduction to Warm-up 

 

Watch movie. Have participants jot down a few quick ideas. Watch the movie a second time.

Key terms: Globalization Production Consumptions Key ideas: Stages of production Linking culture and geography

Teaching Strategies

Warm-up Energizer: Baraka Trailer

KEY TERMS AND IDEAS

Explain to participants that we will be watching a short clip from an experimental movie called Baraka The movie was filmed in 24 countries on six continents over a 14-month period Warn the participants that the clip moves fast and that they should keep focused for the entire length.

Reflection and Evidence of Learning  

 

Reflection on Baraka trailer. Participation in cultural/geographic comparison of participant’s local region to other region. Cooperation in drawing a map of the world. Reflection on map project.

Discussion:  What images stood out the most to you?  What cultures did you see represented?  How was culture represented?  What could you relate to?  What was new to you?  What do you think this movie is about?


Lesson 5 and 6: Geography and Globalization Introduction of Topic and Find out Prior Knowledge   

Thinking and Writing: Guided Practice 

Ask a group ask to compare their city and a region of the United States that is different but that they know a bit about (ex. California, Texas, Colorado, Puerto Rico) in terms of: Climate Popular foods Popular physical activities Style of dress Popular sports Display comparison in form of a Venn Diagram 

Group Experiential Activity: A map of the world

Ask participants what they know about the term geography. When in school have they talked about this subject? What types of assignments and what regions they focused on to learn about geography. Explain to participants that geography: climate, relative location, topography impacts our lifestyles, economic activity, style of dress, food choices and culture greatly.

Introduction of Activity Explain that people all over the world in many types of professions and walks of life use maps to help them understand complex relationships, demonstrate knowledge and simplify large concepts.


Lesson 5 and 6: Geography and Globalization Objectives and Learning Outcomes:  Participants will share their knowledge of global geography  Participants will gain an appreciation of the difficulties of mapping the world and what sorts of assumptions and oversights are often made  Participants will recognize which parts of the world are most well known to them or have been focused on the most in school  Participants will try to locate the country they will visit  Participants will be able to identify what parts of the world they need to learn more about Type of Activity: Mapping Overview:  Small groups of participants will be given pencils, markers and a large sheet of paper.  They will be asked to draw a map of the entire world and label as many things as possible in thirty minutes.  They will be given no resources.  They will present their approach and final product to the rest of the group. Reflection: After thirty minutes each group will be asked to present their map to the group and reflect on the process of mapping. Guiding Questions for Discussion: How did you group approach the problem? What did you draw first? What was the hardest part of this exercise? What parts of the world did you feel like you knew the


Lesson 5 and 6: Geography and Globalization most about? What parts of the world did you know the least about? What differences do you see among the group’s maps? What are the similarities? Do you think a map drawn by participants in Asia or South America would look similar or different? What would some of the differences be? How can we improve our knowledge about the world?

Presentations of Learning: Evaluation: Presentation of Learning Rubric Group discussion/Reflection  Group Bulletin Board: Each child in turn adds one word or picture to a group display and explains why it represents something important he or she is feeling or has learned. Self evaluation Packet Participation chart Local-global linking graph Enjoyment dartboard Homework: Watch the Baraka movie

Lesson 6: Lesson

Teaching Strategies Introduction to Warm-up  Explain to participants that each action we take has multiple reactions.

Reflection and Evaluation

Ability to make connections between


Lesson 5 and 6: Geography and Globalization 

Give an example of a chain of events that are related to one action.

Warm-up: So what?  Objective and Learning Outcomes:  Stimulate participants thought process about long term consequences of simple actions  Help participants understand how one action or problem is linked to another  Encourage participants to think spontaneously and critically Overview:  Start ball toss off with a simple example, “Today I did not go to school”  Group responds – So what?  Ball is tossed to another participant who must come up with consequence  Group responds – So what? and game continues

Thinking and writing exercise: Guided Practice

Introduction of topic:  Explain to participants that like in the So what? game our actions, ideas, and problems are interconnected not just locally but globally  Provide participants with a basic definition of globalization (Vivian Stewart, “Becoming Citizens of the world”)  Explain that globalization has social, cultural, technological, economic and environmental aspects.  Provide an explanation for each aspect and include one example.  Ask participants if they can think of an example where globalization has a positive effect? A negative effect?

actions and consequences. Ability to provide basic explanation of the term globalization Provide examples of aspects of globalization in their own lives. Presentation of learning


Lesson 5 and 6: Geography and Globalization Have participants work in pairs to  Define globalization in their own words  brainstorm real world examples that demonstrate each aspect of globalization  Assess whether each aspect as a negative, positive, neutral affect on society? Once participants complete the exercise have each group share one idea.

Reflection Questions :  Who is affected negatively?  Is there someone/thing that is benefitting?  Is there a way this negative impact could be prevented or mitigated?  Is there something we as participants could do in specific?

Taking action Discussion:  Highlight one or two example from the presentations that showed a negative impact on society.  Answer reflection questions.

 

 Project Based Learning: Where’s it from? Overview: Groups of participants choose an object and trace its path from production to consumption through tracking the stages on a map. Objectives and Learning Outcomes  Participants will analyze the process of globalization.  Participants will understand how people, countries and ideas are connected.

Introduction of Project: Explain to participants that many products that we consume are a product of our globalized world. Provide an example of a product. Break down the stages of production: design/invention; materials; assembly; store; consumer Show path on a map.


Lesson 5 and 6: Geography and Globalization  

Participants will practice using maps. Participants will gain an appreciation for where everyday consumable objects come from.

Materials: Maps Objects (suggestions: I-pod, Starbucks drink, water bottle, sneaker) Laptop with internet connection Research Guide: suggestions for how to begin, suggested websites Presentation of Learning  Groups introduce object  List the stages of production for their object  Highlight on their map the journey of the product Discussion/Reflection:  What was hard about this activity?  What surprised you?  What types of products seem to have the longest journey?  Why is the journey so long?  Would it be more sensible to by products that have a shorter journey?


Lesson 7: Are you a global citizen? LEARNING OUTCOMES

LINKS TO ACADEMIC STANDARDS

KEY TERMS AND IDEAS Key terms and ideas: Citizenship Levels of CitizenshipLegal Minimal Active Transformative

Participants will:  Identify and explain the levels of citizenship in Banks’ typography (legal, minima, active transformative)  Develop examples of actions people might take at each level of citizenship  Participants will evaluate their roles as local, national and global citizens

Lesson 7 Lesson: What is your role as a citizen?

Teaching Strategies Lay out/reminder of general group guidelines (Beverly Tatum)

Reflection and Evidence of Learning 

Warm-up/Energizer:     

What do you care about? Watch a few short clips on you tube about teens talking about what they care about. Ask participants to write a list or draw about they care about Have participants share in a large group they things they care about and list them on a board Make sure the teacher also shares

Point out that knowing what you care about will help define what types of issues may inspire you may to be an active citizen.

Introduction of Topic:  Explain that the term citizen can be defined in many ways  Point out that when you travel to other places one of the first things people ask you is: Where are you from?

 

Discussion of examples of different levels of citizenship Active participation in discussion Definition of a local, national, international issue. Presentation of learning.


Lesson 7: Are you a global citizen? 

Share an experience with the group of a time when your allegiance to the US was questioned

Find out prior knowledge:  Ask group how they would define citizen and citizenship  Ask participants to remember when they were first taught about citizenship  Define as small groups: citizen and citizenship  Compare definition as a group and come up with final definition

Guided Practice: Thinking and Writing Exercise  

Pass out worksheet to help with thought process Explain to participants that we can be citizens of many places- schools, neighborhoods, cities, states, nations and even the world Point out that there are many levels of citizenship (Banks 2008) and give a brief definition of each type  Legal  Minimal  Active  Transformative Introduce a basic societal issue that could be improved through civic action (ex. Local issueschool vandalism) As a group brainstorm how a citizen at each level would respond to the issue

Group Project: A citizen at many levels

Explain to participants that we can be citizens of many places- schools, neighborhoods, cities, states, nations and even the world Point out that there are many levels of citizenship (Banks 2008) and give a brief definition of each type  Legal  Minimal  Active  Transformative


Lesson 7: Are you a global citizen? Overview: Participants identify a local national or international issue and brainstorm then demonstrate how citizens may react differently to the same issue. Learning Outcomes:  Participants practice defining a problem  Participant practice online research skills  Participants make connections between levels of citizenship in Banks’ typography and local, national and international issues.  Participants learn more about a local, national, international issues  Participants gain experience presenting their learning. Method: Participants choose to focus on a local, national or international level. They choose an issue. Do research on the issue online. Summarize the problem in five sentences. What is the problem? Where is this a problem? How did it originate? Who is affected? Does anyone benefit? Develop a response to the issue at each level of citizenship.

Presentation of Learning:  Participants will define their problem.  Participants can choose how they will present their findings: role play, cartoon, oral presentation.


Lesson 8: Facing Culture Shock and Avoiding Culture Clash LEARNING OUTCOMES

LINKS TO ACADEMIC STANDARDS

Key terms: Cultural border Cultural boundary Culture Clash Culture Shock

Participants will:  Distinguish between a cultural border and a cultural boundary  Provide examples of a border and a boundary in their local context.  Connect the idea of culture clash to cultural borders and culture shock to cultural boundaries

Lesson 8 Lesson

Teaching Strategies Introduction to Topic  Remind participants about the first session when we discussed cultures  Ask participants if they know what the term border means generally?  Provide a basic explanation: Political division, dividing nations, states  Ask participants what a boundary is?  When have the heard this term used? (That person has boundary issues, She pushes the boundaries)

Thinking and Writing: Guided Practice:  Participants list some of the cultures the group had identified  Using the list formed the participants decide whether any of the cultures are ever at odds with each other and why.

KEY TERMS AND IDEAS

Reflection and Evidence of Learning   

Discussion of difference between borders and boundary. Ability to identify a culture shock situation and culture clash situation in movie clips. Participation in reflection discussion after simulation.


Lesson 8: Facing Culture Shock and Avoiding Culture Clash 

 

  

Explain the theory that differences among cultures can be described in terms of borders and boundaries. Provide an example of a boundary issues and an example of a border issue Ask participants which issue is more likely to lead to a violent or negative outcome?

Have participants work together to come up with two examples of each that they have experience or can imagine experiencing on their trip. Point out that identifying something as border vs. a boundary issues is all relative. Ask participants if they have ever heard of the term culture clash or culture shock.

Video Clips: Clash or Shock? Pass out worksheet. Show group five video clips. Ask participants to decide whether the situation they see is an example of a culture clash or culture shock? Discuss their choices.

Taking it to the next level: For those that they identify as culture clash ask if they think there is any way to avoid the violence?

Introduction of Activity

 Group Simulation: Making a Peanut Butter and

Explain that when traveling especially for an extended period of time in an unfamiliar place the feeling of culture shock is both common and frustrating. Experiencing these cultural differences is frustrating and confusing both sides.


Lesson 8: Facing Culture Shock and Avoiding Culture Clash Jelly Sandwich (Adapted from INCA Activity see References) Learning Outcomes:  Participants will experience culture shock and possible clash first hand.  Participants will use cooperative skills to accomplish a common goal.  Participants will share resources and knowledge.  Participant will develop skills to overcome cultural differences in the pursuit of a common goal. Overview: Group is divided into two. Group A is provided with a task that they must complete with the cooperation of Group B. Group B is provided with strict but easy to remember cultural guidelines that they must follow for the duration of the simulation. Group A has the ingredients and Group B has the knives and plates and napkins. Participants will be given 10 minutes to discuess/practice their roles with the group and 20 minutes to complete the task.

Reflection: After the simulation participants will fill out a self reflection sheet Questions for Group A: What are the cultural rules of the other Group? What evidence do you have? How did you react when they acted different from what you expected? How did you overcome these differences? Questions for Group B: What was the hardest part of this exercise? How did you feel when Group A misunderstood you? How did you overcome these differences?


Lesson 9: Your Experience Abroad LEARNING OUTCOMES

LINKS TO ACADEMIC STANDARDS

Participants will:  learn about where each of their fellow participants is going.  develop a pre-departure checklist of things they will want to learn before they leave  develop strategies for maximizing their enjoyment and learning experiences  develop strategies for how overcome feelings of culture shock and home sickness  choose a method of recording their experiences which will be presented in the final session.

Lesson 1 Lesson

 

KEY TERMS AND IDEAS Pre-departure research Coping Strategies Methods of recording experiences

Teaching Strategies

Reflection and Evidence of Learning 

Warm-up: Where are you going? Have each participant write their name on a sticker and go up to large map and place it on the country where they will travel. Ask each participant what got them interested in signing up for the trip.

Introduction to Topics 

Explain to the participants that there are three basic parts to any trip and this session: Pre-departure The trip Lasting memories of the trip

Ability to recommend strategies for how to plan, enjoy and record a travel experience.


Lesson 9: Your Experience Abroad

Thinking Exercise as a group Ask participants to imagine that someone from a small town by the beach in Thailand was coming to visit their city for the months of December-February.  Have participants write a list of : Things that person should learn about before arriving Things the person should bring with them Things the person should try to do while there Things that might be difficult for the person to get used to.

Pre-departure  Point out that what you do to prepare yourself for a trip can help make the trip more enjoyable and worthwhile.

Once ideas have started to run out make sure these concepts have been suggested, if not add them: Climate, language, transportation, monetary system, fun things to do, technology, important landmarks, appropriate clothes, passport, guidebook, atm card, dictionary/phrasebook Individual work 

Each participant write their own checklist for their trip and compare with a partner

The Trip: Developing Strategies: Adopted loosely from standards of peace corps training workbook http://www.peacecorps.gov/wws/publications/culture/pdf/chapter6.pdf

.

The Trip: Developing Strategies Adopted loosely from standards of peace corps training workbook http://www.peacecorps.gov/wws/publications/cultu re/pdf/chapter6.pdf  Explain to participants that the success of a


Lesson 9: Your Experience Abroad

travel experience is mostly up to the traveler. Life in the place you are visiting will continue to go on whether you are there or not so it’s up to you to decide what you will make of it. Oftentimes what can make an experience unenjoyable are feelings of homesickness, loneliness or culture shock.

Ask participants to remember a time they have made a transition to a new place i.e. moving to a new town, new school, new group of friends or team. If someone truly has never experience of transitioning than ask them to pair up with someone who has or think of a friend who has. Ask participants to answer these questions and share their responses with a partner:

1. What worried you the most as you prepared to move? Did this worry turn out to be accurate? 2. How long did it take before you were comfortable or content in the new environment? 3. Can you, in retrospect, identify any distinct stages in your adjustment to the new place? 4. Identify two or three specific things you did, consciously or unconsciously, that helped you to adjust in this new place.

   

Have participants brainstorm strategies for overcoming culture shock and homesickness on a worksheet. Divided the sheet into these four categories. Provide a suggestion for each one to help get the thought process moving. After 10-15 minutes bring the group together to create a master list which will be distributed before they leave.

Things I can do with other people Thing I can do on my own

 

Provide a suggestion for each one to help get the thought process moving. After 10-15 minutes bring the group together to create a master list which will be distributed before they leave.


Lesson 9: Your Experience Abroad Things I can remind myself of Things I can do to improve my language skills

 

Allow participants to peruse methods. Each participant will select one method and receive a packet with guidelines, expectations and evaluative rubric.

Methods: 1) Travel journal- text heavy, as many entries as possible although at least 15 2) Photo journal with captions- images with explanatory notes at least 15 distinct images 3) Scrapbook- mix of words, photos, mementos and drawings at least 15 entries 4) Interviews with people you meet on the trip- this will be hard if done in another language but try to perform 3-5 interviews with at least 10 questions 5) Sketchbook- at least 15 distinct images

Remembering the trip- Long term project  Explain to your participants that while the mere experience of going on a trip is valuable oftentimes what is more valuable are the memories and lessons you take back home with you.  Point out that there are many ways to record your thoughts while abroad.  Tell the participants that will be responsible for choosing a method of recording their experience and will be asked to share portions of or all of their record upon return.  Explain that all methods are equally valuable and what is more important is that the student picks a method that they will enjoy doing every other day during their trip.  Provide a sample of each method.


Lesson 9: Your Experience Abroad Final Evaluation: Upon return participants will attend a final session where they present their travelogue, reflect on the experience together and discuss ways they can used what they learned to make change in their own communities.


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Websites Asia Society 2008. Mission Statement Retrieved from http://www.asiasociety.org/about/mission.html Gilman Scholarship Data Source http://www.iie.org/Content/NavigationMenu/Programs7/Gilman_Awards/Recipient_Profiles_a nd_Statistics/Program_Statistics/Gilman_Comparison_to_Nat'l_08-09.pdf International Baccalaureate Organization http://www.ibo.org/ Partnership for 21st Century Skills http://www.21stcenturyskills.org/ Walking Tree Travel http://www.walkingtreetravel.org Curriculum Sources Compasito - Manual on Human Rights Education for Participant: http://www.eycb.coe.int/compasito/default.htm Culture Matters: The Peace Corps Cross-Cultural Workbook http://www.peacecorps.gov/wws/publications/culture/pdf/chapter6.pdf Intercultural Competence Assessment http://www.incaproject.org/


S. O'Halloran Master's Thesis