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,];yhkpa kj mbg;gilthjKk; ,yq;ifapy; ,lk;ngw;w Fz;Lntbg;GfSk;  midj;J kj mbg;gilthjq;fSk; vjpu;f;fg;glNtz;Lk; K];yPk; kf;fs; vy;NyhiuAk; rk;ke;jg;gLj;jp Nehf;ff;$lhJ 

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01


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K];ypk;fspd; r%f milahsk; K];ypk;fs; ePz;lfhykhfj; jk;ik xU Njrpa ,dkhf mwptpf;fhj NghJk;> mtu;fs; jkJ jdpj;Jtj;ij xU E}w;whz;Lf;F Nkyhf typAWj;jp te;Js;sdu;. ,];yhk; kjk; tzpfu;fs; ClhfNt ,yq;iff;F mwpKfkhfpajhy;> K];ypk;fspilNa tzpfu;fspd; tpfpjhrhuk; gpw r%fq;fspy; cs;sjpDk; mjpfk;. vdpDk; ,d;W ngUk;ghNyhu; cly; ciog;ghw; gpiog;Nghuhtu;. rpq;fs Kjyhspfl;F K];ypk;fSld; tzpfg; Nghl;bapUe;jJ. mjd; tpisthfNt 1915,y; tlf;F ‒ fpof;F jtpu;e;j ,yq;ifapw; fLikahd rpq;fs ‒ K];ypk; Nkhjy; ele;jJ. mk;Nkhjypy; td;Kiwiaj; J}z;baikf;fhff; ifjhd rpq;fs Ngupdthjj; jiytu;fspd; rhu;gpy; fg;gypy; yz;lDf;Fg; Ngha; thjhba Nru; nghd;dk;gyk; ,uhkehjd; Ngupdthjpfis tpLtpf;FkhW kd;whbaNjhL> K];ypk;fl;Fg; ghjfkhAk; Ngrpaik njd;dpyq;if K];ypk; jiytu;fspilNa frg;ig Vw;gLj;jpaJ. K];ypk;fspy; Vfg;ngUk;ghyhNdhupd; tPl;L nkhop jkpo; vd;w fhuzj;ij Kd;dpWj;jp> mtu;fs; jkpou;fs; vd;Wk; K];ypk;fl;Fj; jdpg; gpujpepjpj;Jtk; Njitapy;iy vd;Wk; ,uhkehjd; Kd;du; thjpj;jikAk; Nehf;fj;jf;fJ. K];ypk;fs; fpof;fpyq;ifapw; fzprkhdsT gpuNjrj;jpw; nrwpthf tho;fpd;wdu;. tlf;fpYk; Nkw;Ff; fiuNahukhAk; K];ypk;fs; fzprkhf thOk; gpuNjrq;fs; cs;sd. MapDk; Vfg; ngUk;ghNyhu; gy ,lq;fspw; rpq;fs kf;fspilNa xU Fwpg;gplj;jf;f rpWghd;ikahf cs;sdu;. vdNt mtu;fs; jkpoUld; xg;gplj;jf;f nkhopg;gw;W cilNahuhapDk;> mtu;fspd; jdpj;Jtk;> nkhopia tpl Kf;fpakhf kjKk; gz;ghLk; rhu;e;jpUe;jJ. 02


mtu;fSila jdpj;Jtj;ij ,uhkehjd; epuhfupj;jhu;. Kw;wpYk; aho;. Flhehl;il ikag;gLj;jpa jkpo;j; Njrpa murpaiy mtUf;Fg; gpd; te;j [p.[p. nghd;dk;gyk; Kd;ndLj;jhu;. tlf;Ff; fpof;F khfhzj; jkpoiuAk; kiyafj; jkpoiuAk; K];ypk;fisAk; xU nghJ milahsj;Jl; nfhz;LtUk; Nehf;Fld; jkpouRf; fl;rp jkpo; NgRk; kf;fs; vd;w fUj;ij Kd;itj;jJ. mJ tlf;F‒fpof;fpd; K];ypk;fl;F cld;ghlhdnjdpDk;> jkpouRf; fl;rpapd; Nfhupf;iffSk; Nghuhl;lq;fSk; K];ypk;fsJk; kiyafj; jkpouJk; rpwg;ghd Njitfis typAWj;jj; jtwpd. jkpouRf; fl;rpf;Fg; ghuhSkd;w Mrd vz;zpf;if Kf;fpakhapUe;jJ. K];ypk; gpuKfu;fl;Fj; jq;fisj; jdpg;gl tYg;gLj;Jk; Njit ,Ue;jJ. vdNt> ntWk; Nju;jy; thf;Ff; fzpg;gpd; kPJ fl;bnaOg;gpa Gupe;Jzu;T epiyf;ftpy;iy. NgupdthjpfSila xLf;fy; mZFKiwahYk; jkpo;j; Njrpathjpfspd; FWfpa Nehf;fhYk; Njrpa ,dg; gpur;rid Nkhrkhfp xLf;FKiw tYj;j #oypy; jkpoPof; Nfhupf;if Kd;itf;fg;gl;lJ. mf; Nfhupf;if ehl;by; thOk; jkpo;j; Njrpa ,dk; KOtijAk; gw;wpa fzpg;gpy;yhkYk; K];ypk;> kiyafj; jkpo; kf;fs; gw;wp cupa rpe;jid ,y;yhkYk; mike;jJ. vdNt> K];ypk;fs; jkpo; kf;fspd; cupikfl;F Mjuthf ,Ue;jNghJk; gpuptpid gw;wpa Iaj;JlNdNa ,Ue;jdu;. jkpou; ‒ K];ypk;fs; gpuptpid jkpo;g; ghuhSkd;w murpaw; jiyikfs; kPjhd ek;gpf;ifia ,oe;j epiyapy; Kd;dzpf;F te;j jkpo;j; Njrpa ,isQu; ,af;fq;fspilapYk; FWe;Njrpa Nkyhjpf;fg; Nghf;F Kidg;ghapUe;jJ. K];ypk;fs; jkpoPof; Nfhupf;ifia Vw;Nwahf Ntz;Lnkdg; ngUthupahd ,isQu; ,af;fq;fs; epu;g;ge;jpj;jd. Fwpg;ghf> tpLjiyg; Gypfspd; Mjpf;fk; tYj;j Nghu;r; #oypy;> K];ypk;fSk; jkpo; kf;fisg; Nghy jkf;Ff; fPo;g;gl;L elf;f Ntz;Lnkd vjpu;ghu;j;j tpLjiyg; Gypfspd; mZFKiwahy; K];ypk;fs; mjpUg;jp mile;jdu;. mjd; gadhff; fpof;fpy;> Fwpg;ghf kl;lf;fsg;G mk;ghiw khtl;lq;fspy;> K];ypk;fis type;J jhf;fYk; K];ypk;fspd; vjpu;j; jhf;fYk; rpy K];ypk;fs; murhq;fj;Jld; epw;gJkhfj; jkpo; ‒ K];ypk; ey;YwTf;Ff; NfL tpise;jJ. mij NkYk; Nkhrkhf;FkhW 1990,y; tpLjiyg; Gypfs; K];ypk;fis tlf;fpypUe;J ntspNaw;wpaik jkpo;j; Njrpaj;Jf;Fk; K];ypk;fl;FkpilNa fLk; gpupit Vw;gLj;jpaJ. 03


jkpouplkpUe;J K];ypk;fs; tpyFtij tpUk;gpj; jkpo;‒K];ypk; gifiaj; J}z;Lk; nray;fisr; rpy K];ypk; murpay;thjpfs; nra;jdu;. mij tha;g;ghf;fpa rpy jkpo;j; NjrpathjpfSk; jkpo;‒ K];ypk; giff;Fj; J}gkpl;ldu;. mjpy; Ngupdthjpfs; Fspu;fha;e;jdu;. ,d;W njd;dpyq;ifapy; K];ypk;fspw; Fwpg;gplj;jf;f gFjpapdu; murhq;f epu;g;ge;jj;jhYk; tsf; FiwTfshYk; rpy rkak; Ra njupthAk; rpq;fs %yNk fy;tp ngWfpd;wdu;. rpq;fsk; ,d;dKk; gyupd; tPl;L nkhopahfhtpbDk;> K];ypk; r%fj;jpd; milahsk; NkYk; NkYk; kjKk; gz;ghLk; rhu;e;J mikAk; #o;epiy tYj;Js;sJ. vt;thwhapDk;> rpq;fsj; Njrpathjk; rpq;fs‒ngsj;j Ngupdthjkhf cUkhwpa epiyapy; mJ K];ypk;fisr; rpq;fstu;fshf Vw;Fk; tha;g;Gf; FiwT. mNjNtis> jkpo;f; FWe;Njrpak; xU Gwk; K];ypk;fspd; jdpj;Jtj;ij kWj;J mtu;fisj; jkpo; Nkl;Lf;Fbfl;Ff; fPo;g;gl;Nlhuhff; fUJtjhy;> K];ypk;fs; jkpo;j; Njrpa milahsj;Jf;F cl;glTk; tha;g;G ,y;iy vdyhk;. Njrpa ,dkhf K];ypk;fs; nghJ epiyikfSld; Fwpg;ghd epiyikfisAk; fzpg;gpw;nfhz;l Gjpa [dehaf khf;rpr nydpdprf; fl;rp> K];ypk; jiytu;fisAk; kiyafj; jkpo;j; jiytu;fisAk; tpl Kw;Nghf;fhfr; rpe;jpj;J> K];ypk;fsJk; kiyafj; jkpouJk; jdpj;Jtj;ij mq;fPfupj;jNjhL> mtu;fisj; jdpj; Njrpa ,dq;fshf Vw;fNtz;LnkdTk; tw;GWj;jpaJ. me;j mbg;gilapNyNa Raepu;zaf; Nfhl;ghl;il NkYk; tpupTgLj;jp> ehl;bd; ehd;F Njrpa ,dq;fl;Fk; Raepu;za cupikia typAWj;jp> If;fpa ,yq;iff;Fl; Rahl;rp mikg;Gfs; vd;w jPu;it Kd;itj;jJ. 1978Mk; Mz;bd; murpay; ahg;Gg; GFj;jpa tpfpjhrhuj; Nju;jy; Kiw K];ypk;fl;F Kd;ndg;NghjpDk; mjpfg; gpujpepjpj;Jtj;Jf;F top nra;jJ. mjd; %yk; ghuhSkd;wj;jpw; fzprkhd Mrdq;fis ntd;w = yq;fh K];ypk; fhq;fpu];> mikr;ru; gjtpfisg; ngwTk; gpw rYiffisAk; tsq;fisAk; milaTk; Kw;gl;lNjnahopa> K];ypk; kf;fs; xU Njrpa ,dkhfNth jdpj;Jtkhd xU r%fkhfNth vjpu;Nehf;Fk; gpur;ridfisg; ghu;f;ftpy;iy. ,g;Nghf;F K];ypk; 04


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Ngupdthjj;jpd; ,yf;fhf K];ypk;fs; 1915f;Fg; gpd; ePz;lfhykhf rpq;fs‒K];ypk; Nkhjy; VJk; epfotpy;iy. MapDk;> K];ypk; tzpfu;fs; ,uj;jpdf;fy; tzpfk; Nghd;w JiwfspYk; 1970fspd; vz;nza; neUf;fbf;Fg; gpd;G kj;jpa fpof;Fg; nghUshjhuk; fz;l nropg;gpd; gadhd Gjpa tzpf Kaw;rpfspYk; NkYQ; nry;te;ju;fshd #o;epiyapw;> gioa Nghl;bAzu;T jiyJ}f;fpaJ. vdpDk; xUrpy cs;@u; Nkhjy;fl;F Nky; Fwpg;gplj;jf;fstpy; vJTk; epfotpy;iy. 1977f;Fg; gpd; jkpo;j; Njrpa ,dj;ij ,yf;Fitj;j rpq;fsg; Ngupdthjk;> K];ypk;fSld; jdJ Kuz;ghl;ilj; jho;epiyf;F ,wf;fpaJ. MapDk; K];ypk;fl;nfjpuhd frg;G ePWG+j;j neUg;ghfj; njhlu;e;jJ. mij K];ypk; murpay;thjpfs; mwptuhapDk;. thf;F tq;fpfisg; gyg;gLj;JtjpYk; ghuhSkd;w> mikr;Rg; gjtpfisf; fl;bf;fhg;gjpYk; jq;fisAk; jq;fsJ FWfpa tl;lq;fis tsg;gLj;JtjpYk; mtu;fs; ftdq;fhl;bdNu xopa> K];ypk;fisg; gpw r%fq;fSld; ,zf;Ftijg; gw;wp mf;fiw nfhs;stpy;iy. rpq;fs‒ngsj;j kjthjk; rp`y cUka vdj; njhlq;fp ,e;j E}w;whz;bd; njhlf;fj;jpy; [hjpf n`y cUka vDk; mg;gl;lkhd rpq;fs‒ngsj;j ,dthj mikg;ghfg; gupzkpj;jJ. mjNdhnlhl;b K];ypk; tpNuhjj;ij Kjd;ikg;gLj;Jk; td;Kiw mikg;Gfs; Njhd;wpd. mtw;Ws; Kf;fpakhdit nghJ gy Nrd. rp`y uhta> rpq;` Ny Nghd;wit. mNjNtis> fpwp];jtu;fl;Fk; K];ypk;fl;Fk; vjpuhd JNt~j;ijf; fpswpa Nrhk Njuu; Nghd;wtu;fl;F Clf MjuTk; ,Ue;jJ. 2003Mk; Mz;L u~;ahTf;Fr; nrd;w Nrhk Njuu;; Neha; fhuzkhf kupj;jij xU rjpnad;W $wpf; fpwp];jt Myaq;fs; jhf;fg;gl;ld. ,g; Nghf;F ,d;dKk; njhlu;fpwJ. tpLjiyg; Gypfspd; Njhy;tpapd; gpd;> rpq;fs‒ngsj;j td;Kiw mikg;Gfs;> Njrpa ,dg; gpur;ridapd; jPu;Tf;F Mg;G itg;gJ Nghf> K];ypk;fisAk; fpwp];jtu;fisAk; Fwpg;ghf ,yf;F itj;jd. K];ypk; tzpf epWtdq;fs; jhf;fg;gl;ld. MapDk; rl;luPjpahf eltbf;if vLf;ff;$ba #o;epiyfspYk; NgupdthjpfSld; rkurk; nra;tijNa K];ypk; ngUtzpfu;fs; tpUk;gpdu;. ,g; gytPdj;ijr; rpq;fs‒ngsj;j ntwpau;fs; jkf;Fr; rhjfkhf;fpdu;. 05


rpq;fs‒ngsj;j ntwpau;fs; `yhy; khkprj;Jf;F vjpuhf Kd;ndLj;j ,af;fj;jpd; NghJ> ,U jug;GfspYk; ,Ue;j gpur;ridfis mwpe;j K];ypk; jiyikfs;> rpq;fs kf;fSf;F `yhy; gw;wp mwpT+l;lhjNjhL> `yhy; vd;gijg; gzk; rk;ghjpf;Fk; cghakhf;Fk; kj epWtdq;fisf; fz;bf;fTk; jaq;fpdu;. ,jdhy; K];ypk;fs; rpq;fstu; kPJ `yhy; khkprj;ijj; jpzpg;gjhfg; nghJ gy Nrd Mjpa epWtdq;fs; elj;jpa JNt~g; gpurhuq;fis Ntisf;Nf Kwpabf;f ,aytpy;iy. K];ypk;fspilNa kj mbg;gilthjg; Nghf;F K];ypk; r%fk; murpaw; jsj;jpw; jdpikg;gl;l mNj Ntis> mij NkYk; jdpikg;gLj;Jq; fhupaq;fspy; rTjp epjp cjtpAld; nraw;gl;l ryh/gp‒t`hgp Kftu;fs; jPtpukhapdu;. 1970fspd; ,Wjp Mz;Lfs; njhl;L kj;jpa fpof;fpy; Ntiy NjLk; Nghf;F tYj;jJ. mij A+.vd;.gp. murhq;fk; Cf;Ftpj;jJ. mjd; jPa r%f tpisTfisg; gw;wp ,g;NghJ gyUk; NgRtu;. ,yq;if K];ypk;fspd; r%f tho;tpy; mugpag; gz;ghl;Lj; jpzpg;G xU Kf;fpa mk;rkhFk;. kj;jpa fpof;fpy; Ntiy tha;g;Gfs; ngz;fisg; gze;jpul;Lk; nghwpfshf;fpa msTf;Fg; ngz;fs; rk;ghjpj;j gzk; mtu;fSila r%f tpLjiyf;F cjttpy;iy. muGr; rKjhaq;fspd; (Kf;fpakhfg; gLgpw;Nghf;fhd Ml;rpfisf; nfhz;l muGj; jPgfw;g ehLfspd;) fLk; Mzhjpf;fr; rpe;jid Mz;fs; %yKk; ngz;fs; %yKk; ,yq;if K];ypk; r%fj;jpw; gutpaJ. mijtplg;> gy;NtW muG ehLfs; K];ypk;fspilNa jkJ nry;thf;if tsHf;f epjpAjtp> epthuzg; gzpfs;> mgptpUj;jpj; jpl;lq;fs; Nghd;wtw;iwg; ghtpj;jd. Fwpg;ghf> epjpAjp Kjy; ryh/gp‒ t`hgp gpurhuq;fs; cl;glg; gy topfspw; rT+jpr; nry;thf;F K];ypk; r%fj;ij CLUtpaJ. ,];yhk; vd;gJ ,d;dJ jhd; vd;W fl;Lg;gLj;jTk; mjw;Fg; Gwk;ghd vJTk; ,];yhkpa khu;f;fj;Jf;F tpNuhjkhdJ vdTk; K];ypk; rKjhaj;jpDl; Gjpa fl;Lg;ghLfs; cUthfpd. jdpg;gl;l mstpy; ,J ngz;fspd; cil gw;wpa fl;Lg;ghlhf ntspg;gl;lJ. K];ypk; Mz;fs; jhb itg;gJ Kjy; rT+jpapy; mzptJ Nghd;w Nkyq;fp mzptJ tiu tw;GWj;jg;gl;lJ. K];ypk; tpNuhj td;nray;fSk; epe;jidfSk; tYj;j

06


epiyikfspy; mjw;Fj; jkJ vjpu;g;igf; fhl;lTk; fzprkhNdhu; ,];yhkpa cilfis mzpayhapdu;. ,];yhkpa cil mzpe;j ahtUk; ryh/gp‒t`hgpfsy;y. vdpDk; ehl;by; tYj;Jte;j kjthjr; rpe;jidfspilNa mJ K];ypk;fisg; gpw kjj;jpduplkpUe;J jdpikg;gLj;j cjtpaJ. mNjNtis> kjj; jPtputhjk; K];ypk; r%fj;jpDl; gpsTfis tpistpj;jJ. kjr;rhu;gw;Wr; rpe;jpf;Fk; K];ypk;fisAk; ryh/gp‒ t`hgpfs; Vw;fhj eilKiwfisf; filg;gpbg;NghiuAk; khu;ff ; tpNuhjpfs; vd epe;jpf;fTk; K];ypk; r%fj;jpdpd;W tpyf;fTk; Kaw;rpfs; ele;jd. #/gpak; vDk; jpwe;j rpe;jidg; Nghf;Fs;s xU tifr; rpj;ju; kuG ,yq;ifapYk; ,Ue;Js;sJ. mijtpl ey;nyhOf;fKila K];ypk; rhd;Nwhupd; [dh]hf;fis (rlyq;fis) mlf;fpa fGu; vDk; fy;yiwfis tzq;Fk; tof;fKk; ,Ue;Js;sJ. ,it ahTk; fLikahfr; rhlg;gl;ld. xU jrhg;jk; Kd;du; Nkw;fpy; NgUtisapYk; fpof;fpy; fhj;jhd;FbapYk; khu;f;f tpNuhjg; gs;spthry;fs; vd #/gp gs;spthry;fisj; jhf;fpa epfo;Tfs; gutyhfg; Ngrg;gl;ld. K];ypk; r%fj;ijg; gpse;j ,g; Nghf;Ffs; Mog; GiuNahb Nkyhy; maW glu;e;j Gz;fshf ,Ue;jd. K];ypk; kf;fisg; gpwuplkpUe;J gpupf;Fk; jPtpug; Nghf;Ffis Kwpabf;f K];ypk;fspw; ngUk;ghd;ikapdUf;F MjuT Njitaha; ,Ue;j #o;epiyapy;> K];ypk; tpNuhjg; gpurhuKk; td;KiwAk; jPtpug; Nghf;Ffl;Fk; mbg;gilthjj;Jf;Fk; NkYk; jdpikg;glYf;FNk cjtpd. K];ypk; kf;fSk; K];ypk; jiyikfSk; njd;dpyq;ifapy; 1970fspd; eLg;gFjpapy; ele;j XupU td;nray;fis If;fpa Kd;dzp murhq;fk; ftdkhff; ifahz;L mit guthkw; jLj;jJ. Mdhy; mbahoj;jpypUe;j JNt~j;jpd; fhuzq;fis tpsq;fNth fisaNth ,aytpy;iy. 1970fspy; ,uj;jpdf; fy; tzpfk; %yk; rpy K];ypk; tzpfu;fs; ngUQ; nry;te;ju;fshapdu;. mijtpl> 1974,d; gpd; vz;nza; tpiy gd;klq;F cau;e;jjhy; kj;jpa-fpof;F ehLfspd; nghUshjhuk; nropj;jJ. mijnahl;b tzpf> Ntiy tha;g;Gfs; tsu;e;jd. ,jdhy; ,yq;ifapd; vy;yhr; r%fj;jpdUk; ed;ikaile;jhYk;> K];ypk;fs; tha;g;Gfisf; $bastpw; gad;gLj;jpdu;. 1978,d; jpwe;j nghUshjhuf; nfhs;ifiaaLj;J kj;jpa fpof;fpw; njhopy;NjLk; Nghf;F Ntfkile;jJ. 07


mijtpl> 1956 Kjy; murhq;fk; K];ypk;fspd; fy;tpapw;; rpwg;ghd ftdq; fhl;baJ. 1970 njhl;L K];ypk;fs; cau; fy;tpapw; Jupjkhf Kd;Ndwpdu;. vdNt> K];ypk;fSld; tzpfj; Jiwapy; ,Ue;j Nghl;b 1980fspy; cau; fy;tpj;Jiwf;Fk; tpupayhdJ. mJ Nghf> K];ypk; nry;te;ju;fs; jk; nry;tr; nropg;igf; fhl;LkhW Mlk;gu tPLfisAk; ngupa gs;spthry;fisAk; fl;lyhapdu;. ngU efuq;fis tpl Kf;fpakhfg;> nghUshjhu tsq;Fiwe;j rpwpa gl;lzq;fspy; ,it tWikg;gl;l gpw r%fj;jpdupd; fz;fis cWj;jpd. kj;jpa fpof;fpypUe;J te;j epjpAjtp K];ypk; r%fj;jpd; trjp gilj;Njhiu tsg;gLj;jpaik gyuJ ftdj;ijAk; <u;j;jJ. Ngupdthj murpaw; fl;rpfs; Ml;rp mikf;f K];ypk; murpay; jiyikfspd; murpay; re;ju;g;gthjk; cjtpaNghJk;> K];ypk; jiytu;fs; Nguk; Ngrp Kf;fpa gjtpfisg; ngWtJk; mtw;wpd; %yk; jk;ikAk; jk;ikr; rhu;e;NjhiuAk; tsg;gLj;JtJk; gw;wpa ntWg;G ,Ue;jJ. K];ypk; jiyikfs; ,t;thwhd tplaq;fisf; ftdpg;gjw;F khwhfj; jkJ K];ypk; thf;F tq;fpfis tYg;gLj;Jk; Nehf;fpw; nraw;gl;ldu;. 1978Mk; Mz;Lf;Fg; gpe;jpa tpfpjhrhuj; Nju;jy; Kiw> Kw;wpYk; K];ypk; thf;FfisNa ek;gpj; Nju;jypy; ,wq;f ,lkspj;jJ. vdNt K];ypk; fhq;fpu]; Kjypw; fpof;fpYk; gpd;G tlf;fpYk; jd;id tYthf epiyepWj;jpaJ. gpw khtl;lq;fspw;> Ngupdthjf; fl;rpfspy; ,ize;Jk; (mupjhfj; jdpj;Jk;) Nghl;bapl;Lj; Nju;jy;fspy; ntd;w K];ypk; ghuhSkd;w murpay;thjpfl;F K];ypk; r%fk; xU Njrpa ,dk; vd;w czu;Nth mjd; Njrpa mgpyhirfs; vd;d vd;w ftdpg;Ngh K];ypk; kf;fs; Kfq;nfhLf;Fk; r%fg; gpur;ridfs; vd;dntd;w mf;fiwNah ,Uf;ftpy;iy. Gjpa [dehaf khf;rpr nydpdprf; fl;rp K];ypk;fis xU Njrpa ,dkhf Vw;w gpd;Gk;> K];ypk;fspd; murpaiy xU Njrpa ,dk; vd;w mbg;gilapy; Kd;ndlhky; K];ypk; milahsj;jpd; Ngupy; thf;F Ntl;ilahLtijj; jhz;b K];ypk; murpay; tsutpy;iy. nrd;w E}w;whz;bd; Kbitaz;b ,e;j E}w;whz;bd; Kw;gFjp tiu fpof;fpyq;ifapy; K];ypk; Njrk; vd;w xU fUj;Jr; rpwpJ Kf;fpak; ngw;wJ. vdpDk;> ,yq;ifapd; K];ypk; r%fj;jpd; Fbg;guk;gypd; rpf;fy;fisf; fzpg;gpy; vlhky;> jkpoPof; Nfhupf;iff;F Vl;bf;Fg; Nghl;bahd xU kdepiyAld; K];ypk;fs; nrwpthf thOk; 08


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mjw;F khwhf> Ntnwe;j murpaw; fl;rpAk; Ngrj; JzpahjthW> K];ypk;fis xU Njrpa ,dkhf Vw;W> mtu;fs; nrwpthf thOk; gpuNjrq;fspy; Rahl;rpfisAk; mtu;fs; Ijhf thOk; gFjpfs; cs;sf Rahl;rpf; fl;likg;GfisAk; epWt Ntz;Lk; vd;w MNyhridia Nju;jy; murpay; Nehf;fpw; nraw;gl;l K];ypk; jiyikfs; fUj tpUk;gtpy;iy. mNj Ntis> jkpo;j; Njrpathjf; fl;rp vJTk; K];ypk;fis xU Njrpa ,dkhf Vw;fj; Jzpatpy;iy. vdNt K];ypk;fspd; murpay;> njspthd r%fNehf;Fk; murpay; newpAk; ,y;yhky; milahs mbg;gilapy; Nju;jy;fl;F Kfq;nfhLg;gjw;Fk; K];ypk; r%fk; jhf;fg;gLk; NghNjh Fwpg;ghd neUf;fbia vjpu;Nehf;Fk; NghNjh cuf;fg; NgRtjw;Fkhd tiuaiwf;Fl;;gl;lJ. K];ypk;fs; fpof;fpy; mLf;fLf;fhf epyg;gwpg;igAk; tlf;fpy; kPs;FbNawj; jilfisAk; njw;F KOtJk; Ngupdthj epe;jidiaAk; td;KiwiaAk; vjpu;Nehf;Fifapy;> mijf; ifahsw;Fupa tpupe;j murpay; Nehf;Fk; mZFKiwAk; K];ypk; jiyikfl;F tha;ff ; tpy;iy. K];ypk; r%fk; ,t;thW gpw r%fq;fsplkpUe;J jdpikg;glTk; jdf;Fs;NsNa gpsTz;zTk; fhuzq;fisr; RUq;ff; $wpd;: I. rT+jp muhgpahtpd; Mokhd nghUshjhu CLUty;. II. rT+jp Kftu;fshf ,aq;fpa ,];yhkpaj; J}a;ikthjpfs; K];ypk; r%fj;jpd; kPJ muhgpag; gz;ghl;ilj; jpzpj;jik. III. ehl;bd; murpaypy; Ngupdthj vOr;rpAk; mijnahl;bj; jkpo;f; FWe;Njrpathj vOr;rpAk;. IV. K];ypk; milahs murpay; Nju;jy; ,yf;Fld; nraw;gl;likAk; K];ypk; Njrpa ,dj;jpd; gpur;ridfis ehlhstpa Nehf;fpw; fUjj; jtwpaikAk;. V. ,lJrhup ,af;fj;jpy; K];ypk;fspd; gq;Fgw;wy; Xa;e;jik. (,jw;F ,lJrhup ,af;fk; 1970fspd; NghJ fz;l eypTk; Ngupdthjj;jp dJk; jkpo;f; FWe;Njrpaj;jpdJk; vOr;rpAk; gq;fspj;jd.) K];ypk;fs; xU Njrpa ,dnkd typAWj;jpa Gjpa [dehaf khf;rpr nydpdprf; fl;rp> K];ypk;fis mt;thW milahsg;gLj;jp mt;tbg;gilapy; K];ypk;fspd; Njrpa cupikfl;fhfg; NghuhLtjd; 09


%yNk K];ypk;fs; eLNt ,];yhkpaj; jPtputhjk; guTtijj; jtpu;f;f ,aYk; vd tpsf;fpaJ. ,t; tplaj;jpy; K];ypk;fspd; jdpj;Jtj;ij Vw;f kWj;j jkpo;j; NjrpathjKk; K];ypk; murpay; jiyikfspd; re;ju;g;gthjKk; ngUe; jtwpioj;jd. K];ypk;fs; nrwpthf thOk; gFjpfspy; K];ypk;fisj; jkpouplkpUe;J jdpikg;gLj;jy; %yk; jkJ thf;F tq;fpfis tsu;j;j K];ypk; murpay;thjpfl;Fj;> njd;dpyq;ifapy; nkhop> gz;ghl;L cupikfSk; [dehaf cupikfSk; kWf;fg;gLk; K];ypk;fspd; gpur;ridfs; gw;wpa mf;fiw JspAk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. njd;dpyq;if K];ypk; gpuKfu;fl;F ahUld; $l;Lr; Nru;e;jhy; ghuhSkd;wg; gjtpfisAk; mikr;ru; gjtpfisAk; ngwyhk; vd;gij tpl NtW ftdk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. vdNt ,yq;ifapy; K];ypk;fspd; Raepu;zaKk; Rahl;rpAk; gw;wpa mf;fiwf;Fg; gjpyhf> Fwpg;gpl;l rpy gpuNjrq;fspy; jkJ mjpfhuj;ij epiyehl;Ltjw;Fk; jdpg;gl;l rYiffisg; ngWtjw;Fk; kl;LNk K];ypk; murpay; rf;jpfs; Kad;wd. mz;ika K];ypk; tpNuhj miy ,g; gpd;Gyj;jpy;> 2002Mk; Mz;L khtdy;y jhf;Fjypd; gpd; mLj;jLj;J epfo;e;j K];ypk; tzpf epWtdq;fs; kPjhd jhf;Fjy;fs;> K];ypk; tzpfu;fisg; Gwf;fzpf;Fk; gpurhuk;> `yhy; khkpr tpw;gidia K];ypk;fl;nfjpuhd gpurhukhf;fpaik> nghJ ,lq;fspy; K];ypk;fisAk; ,];yhj;ijAk; epe;jpj;jy; Mjpa Jd;GWj;jy;fs; tYj;jd. Fwpg;ghf uh[gf;r Ml;rpapy; Nghu; cr;rj;ij vl;ba #oypy; tYtile;j nghJ gy Nrd> rp`y uhta> uhtz gya mikg;Gfs; K];ypk; tpNuhjj;jijr; rpq;fs ,isQu;fspilNa gug;gpd. [_d; 2014,y; cr;rj;ij vl;ba K];ypk; tpNuhjk; mSj;jfktpy; K];ypk; tpNuhj ntwpahl;lkhf ntspg;gl;lJ. mjpw; gq;Fgw;wpatu;fisAk; mijj; J}z;batu;fisAk; jz;bf;f uh[gf;r murhq;fk; tpUk;ghik 2015Mk; Mz;L rdhjpgjpj; Nju;jypy; uh[gf;rtpd; tPo;r;rpf;F xU fhuzkhdJ. K];ypk;fspd; VNfhgpj;j MjuTld; Ml;rpf;F te;j rdhjpgjp rpupNrdNth A+.vd;.gp.â&#x20AC;&#x2019;=Py.R.f murhq;fNkh Fw;wthspfisj; jz;bf;fj; Jzpatpy;iy. mijtpl> uf;gp fhy;ge;jhl;l tPuu; jh[{Bd; nfhiy tprhuiziaj; Nju;jy; gpurhuj;jpw; ghtpj;j A+.vd;.gp. gpd;G me;j tprhuizia ,Oj;jbj;jik Nghd;w tplaq;fs; K];ypk;fspilNa mjpUg;jpia tsu;j;jJ. 10


K];ypk;fl;nfjpuhd kjj; JNt~pfs; jz;bf;fg;glhik ngsj;j‒rpq;fs ntwpau;fl;Fj; JzpT+l;baJ. K];ypk;fl;F vjpuhd ngha;g; gpurhuq;fs; %yk; 2018 ngg;utupapy; mk;ghiwapYk; mLj;J fz;bapYk; ele;j ntwpahl;lj;ij cldbahff; fl;Lg;gLj;j murhq;fk; jtwpaikAk; Fw;wthspfs; kPJ fLk; eltbf;if vlhikAk; K];ypk; r%fj;ij NkYk; tUj;jpaJ. ,j;jidf;Fk; eLNt> K];ypk; mikr;ru;fSk; ghuhSkd;w cWg;gpdu;fSk; toik Nghy gjtpfis ,Wfg; gw;wpf; nfhz;L rlq;fhf mwpf;iffis tpLj;J kdepiwT nfhz;ldu;. I.v];.]pd; ftu;r;rp mSj;fk epfo;Tfspd; gpd; K];ypk; ,isQu;fspw; fzprkhNdhuplk; Vw;gl;l kdf; nfhjpg;G mtu;fisj; jPtputhjj;ij Nehf;fp ce;jpaJ. ,f; fhyj;jpy; mnkupf;f‒rT+jp MjuTld; rpupahtpy; Ntu;nfhz;l ,];yhkpa muR (I.v];.) Ntfkhf tsu;e;jJ. rpupa murhq;fj;ijf; ftpo;f;f rT+jp muhgpah> fl;lhu;> JUf;fp Mfpa ehLfs; ntt;NtW Nehf;fq;fSlDk; mnkupf;f Cf;Ftpg;NghLk; 2011 Kjy; Neubahfr; nraw;gl;ld. mtw;wpd; MjuTila Nghuhspfs; nty;yj; jtwpa epiyapy;> 2013,y; cUthd I.v];. ru;tNjr kl;lj;jpy; jd; ,];yhkpag; gilf;F Ml;fisj; jpul;baJ. mnkupf;fhTk; rT+jp muhgpahTk; fl;lhUk; JUf;fpAk; I.v];.i] Mjupj;jd. I.v];.]pw;fhd epjp rT+jp muhgpah> fl;lhu; cl;gl;l ehLfspypUe;Jk; rpupahtpw; fsthba vz;nziaj; JUf;fpf;F mDg;gpAk; jPtputhj MjuT epWtdq;fsplkpUe;Jk; fpilj;jJ. K];ypk; ngUk;ghd;ik ehLfs; vy;yhtw;wpYk; I.v];. Nt&d;whik ftdpf;fj;jf;fJ. vdpDk; K];ypk;fs; xU r%fkhf thOk; ehLfs; gytw;wpypUe;Jk; I.v];. Ml;fisj; jpul;baJ. INuhg;ghtpy; ,];yhkpa tpNuhjj;jpw;F Kfq;nfhLj;j K];ypk;fs; njhl;L Mrpa ehLfspd; mjpUg;jpAw;w K];ypk;fs; tiu VyNt ,];yhkpa mbg;gilthj <u;g;Gf;F cl;gl;bUe;jdu;. mtu;fspilNa my; iflh Nghd;w ,af;fq;fspYk; gpw Nghuhsp mikg;GfspYk; ,ize;Njhiu tpl I.v];.]py; ,ize;Njhupd; njhif mjpfk;. fhuzk;> I.v];.]pd; ntw;wpapd; ftu;r;rp. 11


FWq; fhyj;jpw; jdf;nfd xU ngupa gpuNjrj;ij cUthf;fpa I.v];. xU ,];yhkpa muir (fypgh Ml;rpia) mwptpj;jJ. 2017,y; mjd; gpuNjrk; Jupjkhfr; RUq;fpaNjhL mjd; ngUik kq;fpaJ. mjpy; ,ize;j Nghuhspfs; jkJ ehLfl;F kPs ,ayhjNghJ NtW ehLfspd; jPtputhj mikg;Gfspy; ,lk; Njbdu;. gyu; murpaypypUe;J xJq;fpdu;. rpyu; jkJ kjr; nraw;ghLfis kl;Lk; njhlu;e;jdu;. ,yq;ifapy; K];ypk; mbg;gilthjk; nrd;w E}w;whz;bd; ,Wjpg; gFjpapw; njhlq;fpaijAk; mjd; gpujhd MjuTj; jsk; rT+jp muhgpah vd;gijAk; 2013f;Fg; gpd;Ng ,yq;ifapy; I.v];. Njhd;wpaijAk; fUj;jpw; nfhs;sj; jFk;. ,yq;ifapy; xU gaq;futhjf; FOtpd; Njhw;wj;Jf;Fk; tsu;r;rpf;Fk; gpd;GykhfTs;s Gwf;fhuzpfSs; I.v];. kl;Lkd;wp rT+jp muhgpa> mnkupf;f Kftufq;fSk; mlq;Fk;. Mdhy;; mjd; jsk; cs;Shu; K];ypk;fisf; nfhz;lJ. ,];yhkpa mbg;gilthjj;ij Kd;ndLj;j ryh/gpâ&#x20AC;&#x2019;t`hgp FOf;fs; Nghf> K];ypk; murpay;thjpfs; gw;wp tpuf;jpAw;Nwhu;> Fwpg;ghf ,isNahu;> ,t; td;Kiwg; Nghf;fpy; ,ize;jdu;. I.v];. ,yq;ifapy; Ntu;nfhs;tij rTjpapd; jPtpu kjthj mikg;Gfs; Cf;Ftpf;f tha;g;G kpf ,Ue;jJ. ngUksthd MAjj; jpul;lYk; jw;nfhiyg; gilg; gapw;rpAk; I.v];. J}z;LjyhNyh JizNahNlh ele;jnjd;gJ kpfr; rhj;jpak;. kj;jpa fpof;fpy; I.v];. re;jpj;j Njhy;tpAk; vjpu;Nehf;Fk; NguopTk; I.v];.]pd; fypghg; NguuRf;F KbTfl;ba gpd;> I.v];. jiyik ,yq;iff;nfd xU Ntiyj; jpl;lj;ijf; nfhz;bUe;jJ vd;gJ fbdk;. jhf;Fjypd; Nehf;fk; ,j; jhf;Fjy;fs; Nfs;tpfs; cs;sd.

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I. ,j; jhf;Fjy; Vd;; fj;Njhypf;fu;fisf; Fwpitj;jJ? II. jhf;Fjy; Kaw;rpfs; ahTk; vjpu;ghu;j;j ntw;wpiag; ngw;wpUe;jhYk; ,t;thwhd jhf;Fjy;fisj; njhlu;e;J elj;Jk; tha;g;Ngh #oNyh ,Ue;jjh? III. jhf;Fjy; gw;wp vt;tsT jfty;fs; ,e;jpa csT epWtdq;fl;Fj; njupe;jpUe;jd? 12


IV. ,e;jpa csT epWtdq;fs; jfty;fis Vd; ,ilepiy kl;lj;jpw; gupkhwpd? V. jfty;fis mwpe;j cau;kl;l mjpfhupfSk; murpay;> murhq;fj; jiytu;fSk; ahu;? mtu;fs; Vd; cupa eltbf;if vLf;ftpy;iy? ,e;jpa csTj; jfty;fs; fpilj;J> cldbahfr; nraw;gl;bUg;gpd; mwpe;j ,yf;Ffisf; fhg;ghw;wpapUf;fyhNk xopaj; jdpkdpju;fshfNth rpW FOf;fshfNth nraw;gl;l jw;nfhiyf; Fz;Ljhupfs; ,t;thwhd jhf;Fjiy Nk jpdk;> ntrhf; Nghd;W ,d;Dk; mjpfkhf kf;fs; jpuSk; ehl;fspy; elj;jpapUf;fyhk;. Vnddpw; gaq;futhjpfspd; Nehf;fk; fj;Njhypf;fu;fspw; rpyiuAk; Rw;Wyhg; gazpfs; rpyiuAk; mopg;gijtpl tpupthdJ vd;Nw njupfpwJ. tpupthd ePz;lfhyg; Nghuhl;lj;Jf;F tha;g;Gf; FiwT vd;gNjhL Mf kpQ;rp xUrpy ,yf;Ffs; kPJ jw;nfhiyj; jhf;Fjy;fis tpl mjpfk; ,ayhj xU td;Kiw mikg;G xNu ehspy; ,t;tsT ngupa capuopthYk; fzprkhd nghUsopthYk; rhjpj;jJ vd;d? cldb tpisTfs; vdf; $wf;$bad: I. ehl;by; mr;r czu;it tYg;gLj;jpg; ghJfhg;Gj; Njitia murhq;fk; typAWj;jTk; mjd; ngaupy; mlf;FKiwr; rl;lq;fisg; GFj;jTk; tha;g;G cUthdik. II. r%fq;fspilNa RKf cwitr; rPuopj;Jg; gu];gu Iaj;ij tYg;gLj;jpaik. (Fwpg;ghf K];ypk; JNt~ czu;itg; gug;GNthupd; iffisg; gyg;gLj;jpaik.) III. ,yq;ifapy; Eioaf; fhj;jpUf;Fk; me;epa Nkyhjpf;fr; rf;jpfs;> Kf;fpakhf mnkupf;fh mLj;J ,e;jpah> ehl;bd; ghJfhg;ig Kd;dpWj;jpg; gilj; jsq;fis epWtNth NtW tifapNyh ,uhZt cwTfis tYg;gLj;j Cf;Ftpg;G. IV. K];ypk;fspd; ,Ug;igr; r%fj;jsj;jpYk; nghUshjhuj; jsj;jpYk; kpul;lYf;Fl;gLj;jy;. V. FWfpaâ&#x20AC;&#x2019;,ilf;fhy Nehf;fpy; ehl;bd; nghUshjhu neUf;fbia Nkhrkhf;fy;. vdNt ,j; jhf;Fjy;fspd; %yk; eydilAk; rf;jpfs; vit vd ehk; ftdpf;fNtz;Lk;. I.v];. kl;LNk mtw;Wld; njhlu;Gila maw; rf;jp vd;W tplaj;ij vspjhf tpsf;f ,ayhJ. I.

13


I.v];. ahUila fUtp vd;gJ Nghf> Njrpa njs`pl; [khj;ij (NTJ) [khj;nja; kpy;yj;J ,g;uh`pk; (JMI) Mfpatw;iw I.v];. topelj;jpaJ vd;W nrhy;yp mtw;iwg; gad;gLj;jf; $ba NtW ru;tNjr epWtdq;fisg; Gwf;fzpf;fyhfhJ. Vnddpy; gaq;futhj ,af;fq;fis vjpu;j;Jg; NghupLtjhf mwptpf;Fk; mnkupf;fh mNj gaq;futhj ,af;fq;fisj; jdf;Ff; fPo;gba kWf;Fk; Ml;rpfisf; ftpo;f;fg; gad;gLj;JfpwJ. ,j; jhf;Fjy;fs; gw;wpa tptuq;fis EZf;fkhf ,e;jpa csTj;Jiw mwpe;J ,yq;iff;Fj; jfty; toq;fpajhAk; mit Nkyplj;Jf;Fg; Nghfj; jtwpajhAk; khwpkhwpf; Fw;wr;rhl;Lfisg; gupkhWk; mNj Ntis> vd;d jfty;fs; vd;Wk; ahu; vij ahUf;F vt;thW toq;fpdu; vd;Wk; tptukwpa kf;fSf;F cupikAz;L. mt; tptuq;fis ,Jtiu toq;fhik tprhupf;fj; jf;fJ. gpd; tpisTfSk; vjpu;fhyKk; NjLjy;fspd; Nghf;fpy; ,e; epfo;Tld; njhlu;Gs;stu;fs; kl;Lkd;wpj; njhlu;gw;w gyUk; ifjhfpd;wdu;. xt;nthU K];ypikAk; re;Njfj;Jf;FupatuhfTk; xt;nthU gs;spthriyAk; kjuhrhitAk; gaq;futhjg; ghriwahfTk; Nehf;Fk; Nghf;F tYj;Js;sJ. ,g; Nghf;Fj; njhlu;tJ ehl;bd; r%fq;fspd; xw;Wikf;F ey;yjy;y. K];ypk;fl;F vjpuhd ghugl;rk; tYj;jhy;; mjd; gadhd mjpUg;jp ehl;il vq;F nfhz;L nry;Yk; vd ehk; rpe;jpf;f Ntz;Lk;. Vw;nfdNt ehl;bd; ghJfhg;gpd; ngaupy; mlf;FKiwr; rl;lq;fis epiwNtw;Wk; Kaw;rpfs; Jupjkhfpd;wd. gaq;futhjj;ijAk; jPtputhjj;ijAk; xopg;gJ vd;w ngaupy; kf;fspd; epahakhd Nguhl;lq;fl;Fj; jPtputhj Kj;jpiu Fj;jpAk; mur td;Kiwf;nfjpuhd kf;fspd; jw;fhg;G Kaw;rpfl;Fg; gaq;futhj Kj;jpiu Fj;jpAk; kf;fis mlf;Fk; Kaw;rpfs; gw;wp kf;fs; tpopg;NghbUf;f Ntz;Lk;. MAjg; Nghuhl;lj;ij Vw;Fk; Gul;rpthjpfs; Gul;rpfu td;Kiwf;Fk; vjpu;g;-Gul;rpfu td;Kiwf;Fk; NtWghl;il mwptu;. jkJ Nghuhl;lq;fs; kf;fisj; Jd;GWj;Jtij epuhfupf;Fk; mNjNtis> MSk; tu;ff ; xLf;FKiwf;Fk; mur gaq;futhjj;jpw;Fk; vjpuhf kf;fs; MAjk; Ve;Jtij kf;fspd; mbg;gil cupikahf mtu;fs; Vw;fpd;wdu;. Mdhw; jdpkdpjg; gaq;fur; nray;fisAk; type;J kf;fisj; Jd;GWj;Jk; ntwpr; nray;fisAk; mtu;fs; vjpu;f;fpd;wdu;. 14


kf;fs; tpNuhj Ml;rpia khw;wp nfhz;LtUk; murpay; jPtputhjky;y.

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,d;W Kf;fpakhd tplak; Njrpa ,dq;fspd; xw;Wik. Fwpg;ghf> ciof;Fk; kf;fs; ,d NtWghL fle;J ,ize;J nraw;gly;. FWe; Njrpathjj; jiyikfSk; Ngupdthjf; fl;rpfSk; mijr; nra;aj; jFjpaw;wit. Nju;jy; murpaYf;fhf ,d czu;Tfisf; fpswpg; gifiaj; J}z;LNthu; NkNyhl;lkhfNt xw;Wikiag; NgRtu;. mjd; fPo;> ,dg;gif ePWG+j;j neUg;ghff; fdYk;. kjj; jiytu;fs; NkilNawp kj ey;ypzf;fk; gw;wpg; NgrpDk; fPo; kl;lq;fspy; r%fq;fspd; ,zf;fg;ghl;Lf;Fr; nrayhw;w ty;Nyhuy;y. kj epWtdq;fspw; nry;thf;Fs;s Nkl;Lf;Fbfspd; eyd;fl;F khwhf ve;j kjj; jiyikAk; nraw;gl;ljpy;iy. fPo; kl;lq;fspy; cs;s kjFUkhu; kjQ;rhuhj r%fâ&#x20AC;&#x2019;murpay; mikg;Gfspy; gq;Fgw;wpdhy; mtu;fshy; kjj; jiytu;fs; vd;Nghiu tpl mjpfk; nra;a ,aYk;. MapDk; kf;fspilNa %lek;gpf;iffisAk; %ba rpe;jidiaAk; Cf;Ftpf;Fk; kjFUkhu; gw;wp kf;fs; tpopg;GWtJ mtrpak;. tuyhw;W Nehf;fpy; ,yq;ifapd; midj;Jj; Njrpa ,dq;fisAk; mizj;Jr; nraw;gl;l ngUik ,lJrhup ,af;fj;jpdJ. Nju;jy; murpay; njhlq;fpa ehs; Kjy; Kjyhspaf; fl;rpfs; ,d mbg;gilapNyNa ,aq;fpAs;sd. Nju;jy; murpay; ghuhSkd;w ,lJrhupfisg; NgupdthjpfSld; rkurQ; nra;aj; J}z;baJ. mtu;fs; NtWgLksTf;Fg; Ngupdthj xLf;fYf;Fj; JizNghd NghJk; mg;gl;lkhd ,dj; JNt~ murpaypy; ,wq;fpNahu; ntF rpyNu. ,lJrhup Kf%bAld; njhlq;fpa N[.tp.gp. Ngupdthjj;ij Kjd;ikg;gLj;jpNa jd;id tsu;j;jJ. Nghupd; KbT tiu> mjd; Ngupdthj mZFKiw tYthapUe;jJ. ,g;NghJ Ngupdthjj;jpd; %yk; mjpfQ; rhjpf;f ,ayhikahy; Ngupdthjj;ij mlf;fp thrpj;jhYk; mjd; nfhs;iffs; ,d;dKk; Njrpa ,dq;fspd; Raepu;za cupik gw;wpr; rupahd Gupjy; mw;wit. gy K];ypk;fs; ,];yhkpa mbg;gilthjj;Jf;Fg; gypahfTk; K];ypk;fs; jk;ikg; gpw r%fq;fspdpd;W jdpikg;gLj;jTk; Kf;fpakhd xU fhuzk; ,lJrhup murpaypd; eypT. ,d;W jkpo;j; NjrpathjKk; ,e;J kjthjg; Nghf;Ffspd; tpisthd Kuz;ghLfisAk; gpsTfisAk; vjpu;Nehf;FfpwJ. 15


,e;jpahtpy; kjthj murpay; ,e;Jj;Jtkhf ntspg;gl;l gpd;> 1980fs; njhl;L ,e;Jj;Jtk; jkpo;r; r%fj;ij CLUtp K];ypk;> fpwp];jtj; JNt~j;ij tsu;j;Js;sJ. Nghupd; KbNthL Jupj tsu;r;rp fz;l ,e;Jj;Jtk; gTj;j kjntwpau;fSld; ,zf;fq; fhzj; Jbf;fpwJ. Vl;bf;Fg; Nghl;bahf elf;Fk; rpd%l;ly;fs; gw;wp kf;fis tpopg;g+l;Lk; gzp ek; Kd;Ds;sJ. kjthj murpay; kf;fisg; gpupj;J Kjyhspaj;jpdJk; Vfhjpgj;jpaj;jpdJq; iffis tYg;gLj;jpAs;sJ. ehl;il kjthjj;jpdpd;W fhg;ghw;w muir kjr;rhu;gw;wjhf;f Ntz;Lk;. Neghsj;jpd; ,e;J Kbauirg; gpuNjr Rahl;rpfisf; nfhz;l kjr;rhu;gw;w murhf khw;wpa Neghs murpay; ahg;gpw; FiwghLfs; ,Ug;gpDk;> kjr; rhu;gpd;ikAk; mjpfhug; gutyhf;fKk; Neghsj;jpd; r%f xw;Wikf;F cjTtd. mjd; ghlq;fis ehk; fw;f Ntz;Lk;. rpjwpf; fplf;Fk; Nghuhspfl;fhd xU Ntiyj;jpl;lk; ,y;yhj epiyapy; mtHfs; cjpupfshfr; nraw;glTk; gpw kjthj mikg;Gfspy; ,izaTk; tha;g;Gz;L. vdNt kjj; jPtputhjj;jpdpd;W mtHfis kPl;gJ mtrpak;. mjpy; K];ypk; r%fj;Jf;F kl;Lkd;wpg; gpw r%fq;fl;Fk; nghWg;Gz;L. Nju;jy; murpaYf;Fg; gypahfhJ> FWfpa ,d milahs tw;GWj;jiyg; gfpuq;fkhf epuhfupf;Fk; r%fâ&#x20AC;&#x2019;murpay; rf;jpfs; kl;LNk Njrpa ,dq;fspd; xw;Wikf;F topfhl;bj; jiyik jhq;f ty;yd. ,g;NghJ> Vg;uy; 21,d; Jd;g epfo;Tfis kwe;J murpay; Mjhae; NjLtjpNyNa ghuhSkd;w murpaw; fl;rpfSk; jiytu;fSk; FwpahAs;sdu;. ehl;bd; mtyj;ijg; ghtpj;J CLUt Vfhjpgj;jpaKk; gpuhe;jpa Nkyhjpf;fthjpfSk; Jbf;fpd;wdu;. mlf;FKiwr; rl;lq;fis epiwNtw;wpAk; mur ,ae;jpuj;ij NkYk; tYthf MAjghzpahf;fpAk; kf;fspd; [dehaf cupikfis Klf;Fk; Kjyhspa> Vfhjpgj;jpa Nehf;fq;fs; mwNt kf;fs; tpNuhjkhdit. vdNt Neu;ikahd ,lJrhupfspd; Kd;Ds;s gzp ghupaJ. murpaiy kf;fs;kag;gLj;jp xU Gul;rpfu ntF[d ,af;fj;ijf; fl;bnaOg;gy; %yNk> kf;fs; tpNuhj muirAk; mjd; Vfhjpgj;jpa vrkhd;fisAk; mtu;fl;F kiwKfkhf cjTk; midj;J kjj; jPtputhjpfisAk; Kwpabf;f ,aYk;. ,j;jifa kf;fs; rhu;G ,lJrhup ,af;fq;fSld; kf;fs; ,ize;J gzpahw;w Kd;tu Ntz;Lk;. ntspaPL : Gjpa [dehaf khf;rpr nydpdprf; fl;rp

16

Profile for Theva Saba Thanujan

இஸ்லாமிய மத அடிப்படைவாதமும் இலங்கையில் இடம்பெற்ற குண்டுவெடிப்புகளும்  

வெளியீடு : புதிய ஜனநாயக மாக்சிச லெனினிசக் கட்சி

இஸ்லாமிய மத அடிப்படைவாதமும் இலங்கையில் இடம்பெற்ற குண்டுவெடிப்புகளும்  

வெளியீடு : புதிய ஜனநாயக மாக்சிச லெனினிசக் கட்சி

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