ABOUT The Undergraduate is the University of Exeterâ€™s first and only non-profit interdisciplinary academic journal. We aim to stimulate, recognise, and reward undergraduate work at the university, and to provide a platform for undergraduates to exchange ideas. We value good writing, originality, creativity, sharp intellect, and engaging subject matter. Our unique approach and accessible nature intends to empower and reach all readers from across the university. We publish twice per academic year, in print and online at www.theundergraduateexeter.com. Both are free of charge to read. All Exeter undergraduates are welcome to submit to us for print or web publication. Ensuring that the journal remains free is our central priority: please do consider supporting our publication by making a donation online, or purchasing a subscription.
t h e u n d e r g r a d u at e , summer 2014, vol 1, no. 2. published by the undergraduate academic journal printed and bound in great britain by s h o r t r u n p r e s s l t d , exeter, devon. issn 2054-8478
female empancipation in contemporary italy elizabeth ackerley
ancient history & classics
middle eastern studies
representing the orient in rimsky - korsakov â€™ s scheherazade
business & economics
english & film
scotland , britain wants you
representations of postmodernist culture
olfactory marks : the ( not so ) sweet smell of success of chanel no . 5
runner - up of the lawrence shenfield prize
[ re ] imagined marc ricard
PR & MARKETING
M A S T H E A D
D I T
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Last term, one of my lecturers declared that exams are a waste of time. Many students, weary of the dreary slog of revision period, probably agree with that sentiment. Judging by the number of modules across the Colleges from whose curricula exams are absent, it seems the idea may be in favour amongst a sizeable group of academics as well. At the opposite end of the spectrum, however, there are 30-credit modules spanning two terms whose only form of assessment is an exam. Is one form of evaluation fundamentally better than the other? From the logistical perspective, exams are certainly more practical to administer to the masses. Assessment can be confined to one hour in one room, completed almost instantly through the digital scanning of the multiple choice bubble sheets. In China, the rigorous Confucian/civil service examination system ensured that civil servants were recruited based on merit alone, rather than political or personal connections. This system lasted for over 1200 years.
Today, we talk excitedly about “crowdsourcing”, and marvel at the wild success of businesses developing in the “sharing economy”. Far from being an old, romantic notion, essays and articles - where ideas can be shared, discussed, and advanced - have never been more important. It is, therefore, very encouraging have received such an excellent number of submissions for our second issue. Thanks are due not only to our talented also to our readership and supporters, ged with us throughout the year, whether gh our social media channels, or one of our
writers, but who engait be throupub quizzes.
Even if unwieldy to administer, however, the essay also has its merits. Where an exam excels in terms of practical efficiency, the essay adds value through learning efficacy. The verb associated with an exam - “sitting”- implies a relatively passive activity, where knowledge is typically (re)produced on an exam paper. We sit in lectures and we sit exams - but during what activity do we most effectively think, create, and develop?
Thank you to the University’s Annual Fund for their continued support, as well as Linklaters LLP for their contribution towards the publication of this second issue. We are also very grateful for the generous contributions of our individual donors. While the basic premise of The Undergraduate is to take the concept of a postgraduate research journal to the undergraduate level, our team is also committed to crafting a publication whose content, in its entirety, is exciting and accessible to read. While you are more than welcome to consult The Undergraduate in the Forum library basement, where it is indexed, I encourage you to take a copy home. If we keep your attention and inspire you to visit us online or write in, we have done our job!
F FO ORR EE WW OOR RD D While shooting the photography for the front cover, my camera lens focused on the face of our sculpture in Reed Hall gardens and, for the first time, I took a moment to truly drink in his expression. Unlike the other sculpture of a tall, toga-laden lady who stands at the centre of the gardens with a coy smile, our little boy is perched on the balustrade just behind her – and his face is anything but coy. No, the expression and commitment of our boy – and The Undergraduate – is more enduring than fleet fancies and fickle flirtations: it is the unflinching gaze of grit.
on Chanel No. 5 by toby craddock , the highly engaging essay on Sappho’s poetic voice by marc ricard , the cool fusion of (among other things) The Velvet Underground’s “Heroin” with American Psycho in an essay exploring post-modernist representations by oliver thompson , and the meticulous essay examining Orientalism’s influence in Scheherazade by hana tuhami .
We have also teamed up with the Ancient History & Classics journal, Pegasus, to publish the runner-up of their prestigious Lawrence Shenfield Prize for undergraduate writing. I am thrilled For our inaugural edition, we focused on his flight, The Under- to announce that one of our very own, the wonderful laurence graduate’s daring leap from the threshold. Yet, I could not help crumbie , was selected this year by the Pegasus editorial board but wonder whether this second issue would as the strongest runner-up for his intriguing fly or flop – for what else could match the paper on witchcraft. In addition, caroline inaugural issue’s richness? Leaping is only hughes – our Treasurer – surprised us in half the battle; the continuation of an upthe Business & Economics section during ward flight is the true war. This second issue reflects the perse- the anonymised reviewing process with her compelling article verance of The Undergraduate team, our contributors, and our regarding the financial matters surrounding Scottish Indepenreadership, all who have ensured that this issue has achieved dence. what I privately thought would surely be impossible: the brilliant work showcased here glitter just as marvelously, vivaciously, and As always, to our contributors and our readers: thank you, thank compellingly, as the gems in our inaugural edition. you, thank you. All of our success belongs entirely to every submitter, reader, and supporter. It has been rewarding and humOur inbox was very happily fed by over forty submissions during bling serving the journal, and I welcome doing so again this this second term and, again, the editorial panel had an im- coming September. We will strive to continue illuminating the mensely challenging time selecting submissions. Ultimately, what meaning, value, and intellectual curiosity that glows in underwe have chosen to showcase here reflects our interdisciplinary graduate work, and we hope very much that you – reader or journal’s ethos of high quality writing, accessibility, and originali- writer, student or teacher – will join us in our journey forward. ty. My personal favourites include the brief but absorbing article cherrie kwok 5
EDITOR - IN - CHIEF
ESSAYS “ a writer, like an athlete, must train every day. what did i do today to keep in ‘form’? ”
sontag, as consciousness is harnessed to flesh: journals and notebooks,
a n c i e n t h i s to ry a n d c l a s s i c s Sappho, the famous lesbian poet of Lesbos, is widely known today and has been an icon for women, lesbians and gays for millennia. However, her image has often been misappropriated, and the focus has hardly been on her as a poet but, rather, her sexuality. This essay explores this issue especially well, particularly with reference to Second Wave feminism, and also addresses how her portrayal and significance has permeated into modern culture. Lastly, it analyses perhaps the most forgotten aspect of the Sappho-myth - her poetry - and what makes her a great poetess. Working as part of The Undergraduate has been an excellent experience; I have enjoyed both writing blog articles for the journal and reading the quality essays submitted. Next year I study in Berlin, but when I return I hope to see the journal still running successfully.
sappho [re]imagined marc ricard From Fig. 1. Simeon Solomon’s Sappho and Erinna in a Garden at Mytilene.
In this essay I aim to explore the distinc- pho, he [and other artists] attaches to her the tive way in which the figure of Sappho has been persecuted solidarity of what now would be interpreted over the years, and to gauge the impli- understood as ‘LGBT’ or ‘Queer’ history. cations of these interpretations on Sappho’s voice. Thus Sappho became a sort of female and gay Modern readings of Sappho are experiential- icon, her myth was appropriated to signify the torly informed, not simply by the voice or text of the tured life of a woman / homosexual. It is this moment poet, but by a cult which surrounds the author figure where she transforms from author to symbolic figure; of Sappho; what Roland Barthes would call a ‘myth’, this was the birth of ‘Sappho’ as we know her today. “meaning the signifying systems whose true meanings Since entering popular consciousness in this guise, her are unknown to their proponents” (Abrams, 122). As myth has undergone a series of transformations which stated by Nicola Albert in her essay, a “mythical fig- inform, and even dictate, contemporary readings. ure of Sappho was constructed by writers and paintTo provide an example of these quite abstract ers at the end of the 19th century” (Albert, 87) which neatly coincides with the “proliferation of sexuali- semiotic points in a real-world scenario take the covties1” (Foucault, 1520) and birth of ‘Identity Politics’ er of the OUP’s Greek Lyric Poetry [Fig.2]. This is of the 19th century. The reason why Sappho initially an example of the myth of Sappho being played out became so popular as a figure during this period was to contemporary audiences. The illustration shows while people were given the means by which to mark the ‘Sappho’ figure established in the late nineteenth out their sexual and political repression, they turned century to be emblematic of the entire of the early to figureheads, Greek Lyric genre. The publisher being Oxford; the past and present, reader derives immediately a sense of authenticity: to relate to. Sim- ‘Such a reputable publisher represents it this way, eon Solomon for it must be true’, and the cover informs the subseexample [Fig.1] quent reading of the text. The voice we hear is that was a convict- of Moreau’s mythic ‘Sappho’, not the Greek poet. ed homosexual While it may seem quite a leap to make, it is important and faced judi- not to forget that as modern readers we are made to decial action for sire an author figure as we seek a human face to place his perceived with the text. In Barthes’ Death Of The Author he states: Fig.1. Simeon Solomon’s Sappho and Erinna in a perversions. Garden at Mytilene. By painting Sap- “The explanation of a work is always sought in the man or woman who produced it, as if it were al1 The categorisation by institutions: medical, psychoways in the end, through the more or less translogical and judicial of different facets of human sexuality, e.g. parent allegory of the fiction, the voice of a single lesbianism. 7
person, the author ‘confid- concept of ‘greatness’ gender-neutral, it created a cult ing’ in us.” – Barthes, 1332 of the sex, in the sense that sexual difference factored far more in people’s perception of authorship. This By assigning this figure of idolatry of the feminine, or celebration of sex, can be Sappho to the text, our read- seen manifested in the opposite end of the ideologing becomes influenced by ical spectrum in the men’s magazine Esquire’s ‘75 what we derive from the im- Greatest Women of All Time’ [fig.4]. Sappho’s poetry age and myth of ‘Sappho’. is taken out of context (she was no contemporary of This initial myth was later Homer) and pasted to a list taken up by “unknow[ing] shared by the likes of The proponents” (to paraphrase Dallas Cowboy CheerleadAbrams) and as a result we ers ’74-’76, Britney Spears Fig.2. Gustave Moreau’s Sappho  adorning the can trace Sappho becoming and Cher. Thus we see Sapcover of the modern Oxford more established in her role pho’s figure further adapted translation. as a figurehead and symbol to placate desires to place as opposed to a writer. Her image bleeds into popular not only Sappho, but a whole culture through reference and allusion to sex and sex- number of female artists out uality, so that while people may not know her for her of their proper contexts and poetry, they certainly know of the world’s first lesbian. list and mythologise them Fig. 4 Esquire magazine pays (in Chicago’s case, quite homage to Sappho in Wom This secondary, more sexual, refining of vividly) simply for what en: The Issue the ‘Sappho’ myth came during feminism’s ‘Sec- they have between their ond Wave’. There legs: the marvel is not her poetry, but rather her sex. emerged a tradition of reifying women’s In sumdiscrete role in his- mary, the result of tory and focusing it second-wave femiin isolation to wider nism’s explicit focus historical contexts on sex and the prowhile simultane- liferation of female ously meticulously discourse was that Fig. 3 Julia Chicago’s Dinner Party combing the history previously gender books for figures to herald as ‘pioneering, indepen- neutral figures, or for dent and inspirational women’. This ideology was whom gender played made manifest in a large-scale installation work of little role, now be- Fig. 5 Detail of Sappho’s setting. Her art by the American artist Judy Chicago, The Din- came the sum of their genitalia is the central feature. ner Party. [fig. 3]. The work was intended to show reproductive parts a general concourse between all the female figures [fig. 5]. Sappho therefore becomes a ‘Lesbian Poet’ from history. Interestingly, even mythic figures like – and this does not signify regionality, but sexuality. Sheba and Kali were given place at the table, next to real-world counterparts like Emily Dickenson and One of the more recent and symbolic repreArtemisia Gentileschi. This is what problematiz- sentations of ‘Sappho’, and the representation that es late feminist discourse. By elevating real wom- seems to best fit the inherited discourse of several en to be on par with these mythical figures in some generations of mythology, is the 2008 eponymous kind of trans-historic sorority, it distorts these art- movie Safo [fig.6]. The movie is not actually about ists and figures into pseudo-goddesses prized for Sappho the poet, but merely a character that bears their gender; precisely what feminists like Laura her name. It focuses entirely on sex and sexuality Mulvey accuse male artists doing to their ‘muses’. & ‘Sappho’ is used as signifier for lesbianism and femininity, though the film is sure to point out it is The work of Second Wave feminism was successful “based on the works of Sappho”. This is the perfect in the sense it caused an influx in notoriety to female metaphor for the current state of ‘Sappho’, the myth figures often overlooked in previous centuries due to has consumed the subject and all that’s left is the patriarchal values. However, instead of making the name, connotations and references. The poetry is lost. 8
Fig.6 Luxor Entertainment’s, Sapfo. A 2008 Ukrainian movie set on Lesbos exploring the titillating romance between two women [the protagonist named Sappho].
We can trace the beginnings of this back to the 1800’s: ‘Sappho’ was originally alienated and omitted because of her suspect ideological implications, now over the course of two centuries of cultural change, she is celebrated for it. The one constant is the obstructing figure of the author.
He looks to me to be in heaven, that man who sits across from you and listens near you to your soft speaking, your laughing lovely: that, I vow, makes the heart leap in my breast; for watching you a moment, speech fails me,
After exhaustively exploring the portrayal of Sappho in modern popular culture, the point can be seen that the voice of Sappho has been inexorably intertwined with the author-figure that has been derived from later critical and artistic perceptions. Thus, to truly reach the poetry, we must strip away the decadent detritus of centuries of criticism in order to reach the text itself, a methodology outlined by the literary theorist Roland Barthes in his work The Death Of the Author. Such a reading, which divorces a text from any, and all our pre-conceptions to do, with context and authorship, allows us to look at Sappho’s poetry not as the product of a proto-feminist, or a queer author but simply as works of poetry in their own right.
my tongue is paralysed, at once a light fire runs beneath my skin, my eyes are blinded, and my ears drumming,
the sweat pours down me, and I shake all over, sallower than grass: I feel as if I’m not far off dying. -Sappho fr. 31, tr. M.West.
The poem is possibly an enkomion (praise poem) or even a bridal ode or epithalamion, intending to exalt the beauty of the bride, while possibly betraying Sappho’s envy at seeing a lover taken by another. Ignoring the issue of translation (which throws up an entirely new set of critical implications), the voice in this poetry is not only immediately identifiable, but also unmistakably moving and human. The physical manifestations of love’s malady (“blinded”, “[pouring] sweat”), the undiluted wonder at the object of “what one loves” (West, fr.16, p.37), in these tropes Sappho is surpassed by none. Indeed, Sappho’s work has been noted by numerous scholars for its intensity, including Longinus in his work On The Sublime. In it he states:
However, there must be a conscious and concerted effort on the part of the reader, as we are conditioned by centuries of literary practice to hunt for a figure to fulfil the “author-function” (Foucault, What is an Author?, 1489). It is due to this desire that, as the Greeks created mythic figures in order to understand the great mysteries of the natural world, so do we, the reader, invent these mythic Grecian poets in an attempt to understand the unknowable mysteries of the ancient past. We place the same onus on mythic Sappho as we would Austen or Joyce; and while their robust, modern frames may have been equipped for such a weight; the ancient fragments of the Greek poets are not. The withered papyral bodies of work buckle under the heaped projections of centuries of critics: inauthentic conceptions of classical Greece, gender, sexuality, etc. are manipulated to fit the gaze of the modern.
“her peculiar excellence lies in the felicity with which she chooses and unites together the most striking and powerful features… at the same moment soul, body, ears, tongue, eyes, colour, all fail her, and are lost to her as completely as if they were not her own ... her sensations contradict one another—she freezes, she burns, she raves, she reasons, and all at the same instant.” (22-23)
Further praise can be found in Plutarch who remarks that the poem “burn[s] like fire” (55) and Sappho’s voice speaks clearly and truthfully on the consumptive nature of amorous desires. Not only is Sappho’s voice one of merit, but of distinction too and is clearly distinguishable from her fellow Greek The voice can be still be appreciated as lyric poets. Yet this idea of difference is not rooted remarkably distinctive if we listen not to the in gender, Hipponax differs from Hesiod as much as feminine pitch, but the motive content. In or- Sappho differs from Solon. Arguably the best texder to best do this, one can look towards crit- tual approach to ancient, or indeed any literature, is ics which pre-date Sappho’s modern mythology. to relegate authors to a position of sterile, apoliti9
cal personhood and allow the poetry to speak to the Web. 14 Oct. 2013. reader in isolation. Yet of course, as with any ap- Fig 3. esquire.com. 70 Greatest Women of All Time (Sapproach to criticism, this methodology has its flaws. pho Entry). Webpage. 14 Oct. 2013.
Fig 4. Judy Chicago. The Dinner Party, 1974–79. Ceramic, porcelain, textile, 576 x 576 in. (1463 x 1463 cm). Brooklyn Museum, Gift of the Elizabeth A. Sackler Foundation, 2002.10. © Judy Chicago. Photo: © Aislinn Weidele for Polshek Partnership Architects. brooklynmuseum.org. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. Fig 5. Judy Chicago. The Dinner Party (Sappho place setting), 1974–79. Mixed media: ceramic, porcelain, textile. Brooklyn Museum, Gift of the Elizabeth A. Sackler Foundation, 2002.10. © Judy Chicago. Photograph by Jook Leung Photography. brooklynmuseum.org. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. Fig 6. Luxor Entertainment. Sapfo. 2008. uatracker.net. Web. 14 Oct. 2013.
For instance, who are we as modern readers, to decry the political and iconographic appropriation of Sappho by groups in society who were disenfranchised and misrepresented? Her figure performed a valuable service at providing a rallying point and opening up new discourse in social spaces and indeed perhaps Sappho would even “be proud that nearly 3000 years after her own lifetime, women are still romancing each other in her name” (Henley-Einon). However, admirable as this may be, a differentiation must be made between the body politic and the voice lyrical. During the course of the essay I spent far longer negotiating the quagmire of Sappho the figure before tackling any of her poetry; rather than seeing this as a misinterpretation of the essay’s function, see it as a textual metaphor for the process all modern readers must go through before they reach the words behind the curtain of myth. Misconceptions must be redressed before close reading and analysis can take place. Marc Ricard University of Exeter Works Cited Abrams, M.H. A Glossary of Literary Terms – 6th ed. Cornell U.P., 1993. Print. Albert, Nicole. “Sappho Mythified, Sappho Mystified or The Metamorphoses of Sappho in Fin de Siècle France.” Journal of Homosexuality: Sorbonne: Paris 1993; 25(12):87-104. Barthes, Roland. Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism. Ed. Vincent Leitch. 1502-1521. Norton: New York, 2010. Print. Foucault, Michel. “The History Of Sexuality.” Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism. Ed. Vincent Leitch. 1502-1521. Norton: New York, 2010. Print. ---. “What is an Author?” Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism. Ed. Vincent Leitch. 1475-1490. Norton: New York, 2010. Print. Henry- Einon, Josie. “Who Was Sappho?” Planet Sappho: The World’s Premiere Lesbian Dating Site. Web. 21/11/2013. Longinus. On The Sublime. Tr. H.L. Havell. Macmillan: London. 1890. Plutarch. Moralia. Tr. Arthur Richard Shilletto. George Bell & Sons: London. 1898. West, Martin. Greek Lyric Poetry. OUP, 2008. Print Images: Fig 1. Simeon Solomon. Sappho and Erinna in a Garden at Mytilene. 1864. Watercolour on paper. The Tate, London. Wikimedia commons. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. Fig 2. OUP. Greek Lyric Poetry. ukcatalogue.oup.com
the typicality of apuleius’ witches the university of exeter’s ancient history and classics departmental journal,
pegasus, awards the lawrence shenfield prize annually to the best undergraduate
runner up of the lawrence shenfield prize 2014
agreed to publish the submission that
to read the winning entry,
email firstname.lastname@example.org to order a copy of pegasus, or visit their website: http://
the pegasus editorial board deemed was the strongest runner-up for the prize.
The Typicality of Apuleius’ Witches Apuleius’ Metamorphoses centres upon magic and protagonist Lucius’ curiositas (‘curiosity’) as he becomes deeply immersed in the world of witchcraft. The witches he encounters are largely unlike Greek sorceresses, and while this is typical of Latin literary witches,1 they also display many traits characteristic of generic, folkloric and archetypal night-witches. This essay shall analyse Apuleius’ witches from a literary, cultural, and anthropological perspective, and assess how typical they are of witches in the Greco-Roman tradition, and of modern ones. It will particularly focus on witchcraft practices not found in other classical texts but present in modern societies, thereby demonstrating the great antiquity which such beliefs possess. Where possible, it will also try to explain specific aspects of witchery in the text through reference to witchcraft tradition, contemporary Roman culture, and theories derived from social anthropology. Meroe The first word of Apuleius’ picaresque novel is ‘Thessaliam’ (I. 5), thus beginning in an epic fashion,2 and immediately introducing the theme of witchcraft because of Thessaly’s association with the art in classical literature. Indeed, the terms Thessalae and Thessalides are regularly used to mean ‘witches’,3 and a cult to Hecate, the goddess of sorcery, existed there.4 Meroe, the first enchantress encountered in the romance, is “no longer young but extraordinarily attrac1 2
Stratton, 2007, p. 72.
The opening resembles the mēnin and andra of Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey respectively, though Tatum explains that such an opening is uncommon for a romance. Interestingly, Scobie notes that ‘there are many single hexameter lines imbedded in the prose of The Golden Ass.’ See: Tatum, J., ‘Apuleius and Metamorphosis’, The American Journal of Philology, Vol. 93, No. 2 (1972), p. 306; and: Scobie, A., Aspects of the Ancient romance and its Heritage, (Meisenheim am Glan, 1969), p. 32. 3 Burriss, 1936, p. 139. 4 Baroja, 1964, p. 77.
tive” (‘anus sed admodum scitula’) (I. 8). This description entwines Greek and Latin traditions: Greek sorceresses are typically beautiful and young,5 whereas Latin literary witches are often anus (‘old’)6 and ugly.7 Although both young and old women are particularly connected to witchcraft because of the supposed magical properties of menstrual blood and the notion that the power of witchcraft ‘is counteracted by child-bearing’,8 old witches are more common in modern societies.9 Thus Meroe, as aged but attractive, is a Roman saga who embodies both Greek traits, and ones indicative of more archetypal witches. Socrates’ recount of the punishments Meroe has inflicted on various members of the community for minor things (I. 9) implies that she acts, not for material gain, but out of envy, malice and spite – as witches typically do.10 Interestingly, however, she does change her “neighbour and rival” (‘vicinus atque ob id aemulus’) (I. 9), into a frog. Although it is plausible that this transformation was borne out of pure jealousy, it is necessary to note that running a caupona (‘inn’) was one of the few ways an independent, elderly woman could sustain a living in pagan Roman society, and that the occupation of lena (‘procuress’) was commonly found in conjunction with witchcraft.11 This thus means her punitive metamorphosis of her rival innkeeper may have also had a monetary motive. Meroe’s drunkenness (I. 9) is also typically 5 Medea, for example, is a young maiden but skilled in sorcery (Apollonius, Argonautica, III. 528-34). 6 Burriss, 1936, p. 140. 7 Notably Dipsas has white hair and wrinkles (Ovid, Amores, I. VIII. 111-2), and Erichtho is pale and emaciated (Lucan, Pharsalia, VI. 515-8). 8 Briffault, 1959, p. 284. 9 Ibid. Interestingly, although the western world’s stereotypical image of a witch finds an old, ugly hag, technical witchcraft terms like ‘enchanting’ and ‘bewitching’ still have sexual connotations, meaning the Greek tradition has partly permeated into our culture. 10 Mayer, 1954, p. 56. 11 Scobie, 1983, pp. 93-4.
elegiac,12 and inevitably arises from her running a caupona. As for her abilities, Socrates credits Meroe with control over pregnancy (I. 9), a power attributed to witches across a number of modern societies, such as the Mandari of East Africa;13 and can manipulate natural processes (I. 9), as is common for Thessalian witches. Similarly, she can perform the ‘Thessalian Trick’ (I. 6), the phenomenon in which the moon is brought down to earth so that its magical ingredients can be extracted and used in love potions.14 Such perceived power over the natural world is possibly because Hecate, the patroness of witches, was also a moon-goddess; but it may also be because women’s bodily constitutions were considered to be intimately connected to the natural world, especially to the moon which, in many witchcraft-present societies, is believed to be both the source of their reproductive and magical powers.15
generic old witches.’20 In contrast, Burriss’ statement that the significance of the term is lost in Apuleius, for Meroe and Panthia ‘are merely witches and not suckers of blood’,21 as the Lamiae originally were, is unconvincing. Their night-attack also exemplifies the anthropological concept of how witches and sorceresses delight in ‘unnatural practices’ and cruelty:22 Panthia asks whether they are first going to tear Socrates apart or castrate him (I. 11); and as part of her revenge Meroe effectively assigns Aristomenes as accomplice, which forces him to bury his friend and exile himself.23 The two witches also urinate on the narrator before leaving (I. 11); such urinary behaviour – which serves no magical function and is purely an epitome of them delighting in unpleasant activities – is not found in other Greco-Roman literature, but is among Mandari witches.24 Pamphile No explicit mention is made of Pamphile’s age, though Scobie declares that “maga primi nominis” (II. 21) – which Graves translates as ‘she is a wellknown witch’ – implies she is old. He then expounds his slightly tenuous statement, suggesting that she is supposed to be envisaged as ‘no longer young but extraordinarily attractive’ (‘anus, sed admodum scitula’) like Meroe. His reason for this is that it would be ‘at odds with her role as seductive enchantress’ were she ugly;25 however, his assumption that she is a ‘seductive enchantress’ is based solely on Byrrhena’s warning that she “binds [men] to her with the unbreakable fetters of boundless eroticism” (‘amoris profundi pedicis aeternis alligat’) (II. 21). This does not necessarily denote attractiveness and Photis’ narrative of Pamphile and the handsome young Boeotian proves that she does use charms for seduction (III. 44-5). Consequently no definite assertion about her looks can be made.
Meroe’s attack on Socrates with her sister Panthia is unique in the context of Greco-Roman witchcraft but in fact bears resemblance to a number of modern witchcraft practices. In similar fashion to how magicians of the Vele of Guadalcanal and Vada of south-eastern New Guinea purportedly first daze their victim, Meroe and Panthia don’t wake Socrates despite their loud entrance (I. 10); Meroe then pulls out his heart (I. 11), much as Vele and vada magicians extract their victim’s vital organs; they likewise miraculously close the wound, which the Apuleian witches do too, though by using a sponge (I. 11); finally, both victims live a little longer, but cannot name their assailants and die shortly afterwards.16 The sisters’ revenge also resembles a vampire attack,17 since they collect the poor man’s blood and cross the threshold of the room – which is significant in threshold mythology.18 Expanding upon this, Leinweber asserts that the pair embodies vampiric qualities, particularly those associated with the classical Lamiae,19 and that Apuleius’ use of the term (I. 13) to describe the Pamphile’s sorcery, however, is typical of Latin sorceresses is ‘indicative of the hybrid blending of witchcraft: she possesses power over ghosts (II. 44), two old folklore traditions, that of Lamiae and more a common ability of Thessalian witches;26 like Meroe has control over natural processes (II. 21); and Byrrhena’s description of Pamphile’s magic as “carmen 12 Ovid’s Dipsas reportedly never sees the dawn sober (Amores, I. VIII. 3-4), and Propertius wishes a procuress-witch to have ‘an ancient wine-jar with chipped neck’ as her tombstone (IV. V. 75), which Dickie (2001, p. 184) elucidates was a literary motif for alcoholics. 13 Buxton, 1963, p. 103. 14 I firmly believe Hill here that it refers to this, and not a lunar eclipse. For further detail, see: Hill, D. E., ‘The Thessalian Trick’, RhM, Vol. 166 (1973), pp. 221-37. 15 Briffault, 1959, pp. 294-5. 16 Firth, 1956, p. 40. 17 Leinweber, 1994, p. 79. 18 Ibid., p. 79. 19 Ibid., pp. 77-82.
20 Ibid., p. 78. 21 Burriss, 1936, p. 139. 22 Mayer, 1954, p. 56. 23 For a discussion of this, see: Frangoulidis, S. A., Cui Videbor Veri Similia Dicere Proferens Vera?: Aristomenes and the Witches in Apuleius’ Tale of Aristomenes, The Classical Journal, Vol. 94, No. 4 (1999), pp. 375-91. 24 Buxton, 1963, pp. 103-4. 25 Scobie, 1983, p. 92. 26 Meroe can raise the dead too (I. 8), as can Erichtho (Lucan, Pharsalia, VI. 633-6).
sepulcrale (II. 21) connotes singing,27 much as the sorceress in Virgil’s Eclogue VIII sings her love charm. Both spells also involve sprinkling ingredients over a fire, a practice similarly found in an attraction spell from the 3rd or 4th century AD. Ogden explains that the use of fire in this spell is ‘to instil the heat of desire’,28 which indicates the role of Sympathetic Magic in the charm.29 The fire in Pamphile’s charm is presumably for the same purpose, and the key ingredient, hair of the beloved (II. 44), reveals her spell to be a form of Contagious Magic, the use of hair in which is extremely common, for ‘whoever gets possession of human hair or nails may work his will, at any distance, upon the person from whom they were cut.’30 The descriptions of her sorcery as facinerosae illecebrae and mala ars (II. 21) connote evil purposes,31 and pertinently she ‘[lives] outside the city walls’, (‘extra pomerium et urbem totam colit’) (I. 15) – as is common for those practising harmful witchcraft. Pamphile’s metamorphosis, however, is the greatest point of interest with regard to her practices. Although the eponymous theme of metamorphosis itself flourishes in Apuleius’ romance,32 since the novel follows in the Ovidian tradition of metamorphosis,33 Pamphile’s transformation is given by far the most attention. Her ritual parallels the one performed by the sorceress in Lucian, Lucius or The Ass (XII), to which the ass-tale is related, as she metamorphoses into an owl – an animal connected to witchcraft in both Roman34 and African traditions.35 The association between witches and owls may be because witchcraft is particularly active at night;36 however, it may also be connected to how there are often ‘no distinct boundaries between animal and man’ in pre-industrial cultures.37 In her metamorphosis ritual, Pamphile begins by stripping (III. 47), a common phenomenon 27 Burriss, 1936, p. 142. 28 Ogden, 2009, p. 233. 29 Sympathetic Magic is the notion that things which are either similar (Homeopathic Magic) or were once in contact (Contagious Magic) affect each other through a secret sympathy. For a full definition, see: Frazer, J, G., The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion, (Oxford, 1998), pp. 27-8. 30 Ibid., p. 37. 31 Burriss, p. 138. 32 For an excellent discussion of how Apuleius weaves metamorphosis into his work, see: Tatum, 1972, pp. 306-313. 33 Tatum elucidates that metamorphosis was only ever found in a literal sense in Greek texts, and that Ovid is the first to change this tradition (Ibid., p. 310). The ‘vocis immutatio’ (I. 5) in Apuleius’ prologue – which refers to him writing in a different language, and is the first transformation in the novel – almost certainly alludes to ‘mutastisi’ (I. 2) in Ovid’s prologue, which denotes a change of genre and is likewise the first metamorphosis in his work. 34 See: Ovid, Amores, VIII. 13-4. 35 Evans-Pritchard, 1929, p. 30 36 37
Ibid. This is the reason among the Azande. Scobie, 1983, ps. 98.
of shape-shifting tales;38 her subsequent application of unguents and resultant shaking (III. 47) ‘accurately reflects the application of narcotic stimulants to the human body’, a technique shared by many shamanistic cultures worldwide.39 Thus the ritual is very typical of ones in the Greco-Roman tradition of transformation, and of modern ones. The Witches in Thelyphron’s Tale The sagae in Thelyphron’s narrative who come to steal the body of a man who has died, as Thessalian witches habitually do (II. 29), act very strangely, which is one reason why Perry considers it to be an ‘awkward compound’ of different stories.40 Seemingly unable to burst through the locked door (unlike Meroe and Panthia), the witch inserts herself through a small crevice, much as Lobedu witches allegedly can,41 having first transformed into a weasel to do so (II. 31). However, she proceeds to vacate the room and then, having first enveloped Thelyphron in sleep, cuts off his nose and ears through a small hole in the wall (II. 33). For Perry, this anachronistic behaviour (of leaving the room and instead trying to mutilate Thelyphron through a small crevice) is Apuleius’ attempt at telling ‘two stories about the ravages of witches as if it were all one.’42 Whilst he may be correct that the story is a fusion of different sources, his proceeding analysis – criticising how Thelyphron’s wax, facial replacements remain intact for the remainder of the ordeal, and how he has to replace these features instead of simply keeping them on – subjects the folk tale to an absurd level of logical scrutiny, one which folk tales shouldn’t be subjected to, and so weakens his argument.43 Ogden’s suggestion that Apuleius banishes the sorceress from the room to explain their mistake of confusing the corpse with the living man is, ultimately, far less extreme and more credible.44 Gordon’s observation that the robbing of graves often ‘evokes a world in which the symbolic means of putting things in their place, of setting things right, has gone awry’45 is significant here, since Lucius has already heard terrible stories about local witchcraft, and is about to be accidentally metamorphosed into an ass. In making direct reference to Thelyphron’s story, Gordon explains another purpose that contemporary witchcraft served: ‘the moralisation and rationalisation of the divine 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45
Leinweber, 1994, p. 81. Scobie, 1983, p. 104. Perry, 1929, p. 231. Krige, 1947, p. 264. Perry, 1929, p. 235. Ibid., p. 236-9. Ogden, 2009, p. 139. Gordon, 1999, p. 208.
summoning their most feared familiar, the khidudwane: a human ‘killed in such a way that when he is buried only his shadow is interred, the real personality being imprisoned in a large earthen pot by day and dispatched by its mistress upon sinister missions by night.’51 There is no mention of when the witch’s biaiothanatos (‘one dead by violence’) is summoned, but it arrives at noon (IX. 153), which is still a ‘witching hour’ in some European countries, possibly since no shadows are cast at that time, thus making it uncanny, and also because it belongs neither especially to the morning nor afternoon.52 Thus all the witches in Apuleius’ novel are alike to many Latin literary witches in both their portraits and practices, which are themselves often products of Roman culture and belief. They also resemble modern witches in many respects; particularly their night-attacks, which themselves often have almost exact modern parallels, and their reversal of socially-accepted standards. This ultimately demonstrates how witchcraft possesses a temporal universality. Furthermore, their practices, even those unique to Greco-Roman witchcraft centre upon canonical, anthropological principles. Although the witches certainly are quite unlike their Greek counterparts, their literary heritage is evident, especially in Meroe’s appearance and Pamphile’s metamorphosis ritual. Ultimately though, Apuleius’ witches are predominantly a blend of folkloric, Roman, and generic night-witches, which explains why certain aspects of their witchery are not found in other classical texts. Laurence Crumbie University of Exeter
world that slowly took place from the Archaic period had, by the Hellenistic period, made it difficult to accommodate misfortune into the dominant image of the civic pantheon… the image of the night-witch, particularly the necromantic witch… can be understood as a further adjustment to a moralised heaven.’46 The validity of his theory is enhanced by the observations of many social anthropologists: Kluckhohn notes that, among the Navaho, witchcraft serves as ‘an adaptive structure of a high order’;47 and likewise Mayer elucidates that it is imperative in protecting ‘the picture of the moral universe.’48 Perhaps connected to this notion that post-Hellenic witches serve as adjustments to a moralised, rationalised pantheon is how Meroe and Pamphile are credited with powers over the gods, thus making them godlike puppeteers of others’ fortunes: Meroe is able to “hurl the gods from their thrones; to quench the stars or illuminate the dark Land of Shadows” (‘deos infimare, sidera exstinguere, Tartarum ipsum influminare’) (I. 9); and Pamphile can similarly lighten Tartarus (II. 21) and constrain deities (III. 45). Book XI’s veteratrix The veteratrix hired to reanimate the baker’s love for his adulterous wife presumably attempts to do so using love potions,49 thereby fulfilling a role Roman witches played in serving disillusioned lovers. Indeed, Apuleius infers it is a common one since the wife has ‘turned back to her old tricks, indulging in the sort of practice that women like to engage in’ (‘ad armillum revertit et ad familiares feminarum artes accenditur’) (IX. 153). These ‘love philtres were sold in Rome by the old women who dealt in abortifacients’, and the poculum amatorium (‘love potion’) actually became so used in early imperial Rome that a decree was eventually promulgated, declaring that love-potions were deemed poison – which they effectively were considering the substances they were composed of.50 Yet when she fails to reanimate the baker’s love for his wife, she sets on him the shade ‘of a woman who had died by violence’ (‘violenter peremptae mulieris’) (IX. 153). Similar necromancy is performed by Lobedu witches, for they may punish someone by
Bibliography, primary sources: Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, tr. Seaton, R. C., (Loeb, 1912). Apuleius, L., The Golden Ass, tr. Graves, R., (Penguin Books, 1990). Homer, Odyssey, tr. Lattimore, R., (Harper Perennial Modern Classics, 2007). Lucian, Lucius or The Ass, tr. Macleod, M. D., (Loeb, 1967). Ovid, Metamorphoses, tr. Raeburn, D., (Penguin Classics 2004). Propertius, The Poems, tr. Lee, G., (Oxford University Press, 1996). Virgil, Eclogues, tr. Rhoades, J., (Britannia Great Books, 1952).
46 Ibid., pp. 208-9. 47 Kluckhohn, 1962, p. 255. 48 Mayer, 1954, p. 60. 49 Although there is no actual mention of a love-potion, it can be assumed that Apuleius is referring to them when he describes her as ‘quae devotionibus ac maleficiis quiduis efficere posse credebatur’ (IX. 153); indeed Graves even translates this as: ‘who had the reputation of being able to do whatever she liked with the help of charms and drugs’. 50 Thompson, 1927, p. 84. The ingredients largely consisted of various disgusting entrails and parts of animals.
Secondary sources: Baroja, J. C., The World of Witches, tr. Glendining, N., in Marwick, M., (ed.), Witchcraft and Sorcery, (London, 1982), pp. 73-81. Bernard, W., ‘Zur Dämonologie des Apuleius von Maduara’, RhM 137, 3/4 (1994), pp. 358-373. 51 52
Krige, 1947, p. 265. Scobie, 1983, p. 137.
Briffault, R., The Mothers, (London, 1959). Burriss, E. E., ‘The Terminology of Witchcraft’, Classical Philology, Vol. 31, No. 2 (1936), pp. 137-45. Buxton, J., ‘Mandari Witchcraft’, in Middleton, J. and Winter, E. H., Witchcraft and Sorcery in East Africa, (London, 1963), pp. 99-123. Dickie, M. W., Magic and Magicians in the Greco-Roman World, (London, 2001). Evans-Pritchard, E. E., ‘Witchcraft (mangu) amongst the Azande’, in Marwick, M., (ed.), Witchcraft and Sorcery, (London, 1982), pp. 29-38. Firth, R., ‘Reason and Unreason in Human Belief’, in Marwick, M., (ed.), Witchcraft and Sorcery, (London, 1982), pp. 38-41. Flint, V., Gordon, R., Luck, G., Ogden, D., The Athlone history of magic and witchcraft in Europe, (London, 1999). Frangoulidis, S. A., ‘Cui Videbor Veri Similia Dicere Proferens Vera?: Aristomenes and the Witches in Apuleius’ Tale of Aristomenes’, The Classical Journal, Vol. 94, No. 4 (1999), pp. 375-91. Frazer, J, G., The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion, (Oxford, 1998). Herzig, O., Lukian als Quelle für die Antike Zauberei, (Tübingen, 1940). Hill, D. E., ‘The Thessalian Trick’, RhM, Band 166 (1973), pp. 221-37. Hornblower, S. and Spawforth A. (ed.), The Oxford Classical Dictionary, (Oxford, 1993). Kluckhohn, C., ‘Navaho Witchcraft’, in Marwick, M., (ed.), Witchcraft and Sorcery, (London, 1982), pp. 246-63. Krige, J. D., ‘The Social Function of Witchcraft’, in Marwick, M., (ed.), Witchcraft and Sorcery, (London, 1982), pp. 263-76. Leinweber, D. W., ‘Witchcraft and Lamiae in “The Golden Ass”’, Folklore, Vol. 105 (1994), pp. 77-82. Marwick, M., (ed.), Witchcraft and Sorcery, (London, 1982). Mayer, P., ‘Witches’, in Marwick, M., (ed.), Witchcraft and Sorcery, (London, 1982), pp. 54-70. Marwick, M., ‘Witchcraft as a social strain-gauge’, Australian Journal of Science, Vol. 26 (1964), pp. 263-8. Ogden, D., Magic, Witchcraft and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman Worlds, (Oxford, 2009). Perry, B. E., ‘Who was Lucius of Patrae?’, The Classical Journal, Vol. 64, No. 3 (1968), pp. 97-101. Scobie, A., Apuleius and Folklore, (London, 1983). Scobie, A., Aspects of the Ancient romance and its Heritage, (Meisenheim am Glan, 1969). Stratton, K. B., Naming the witch. Magic, Ideology and Stereotype in the ancient world, (New York, 2007). Tatum, J., ‘Apuleius and Metamorphosis’, The American Journal of Philology, Vol. 93, No. 2 (1972), pp. 306-13. Thompson, C. J. S., The Mysteries and Secrets of Magic (London, 1927).
Pegasus is the journal of the Department of Classics and Ancient History at the University of Exeter. It was established in 1964 and is currently edited by a board of postgraduates. The journal focuses on multifarious aspects of the ancient world, the Exeter Department of Classics and Ancient History, as well as the classical world in Devon. Past issues have included the Jackson Knight Memorial Lectures, articles by students including J.K. Rowling, contests, artwork and poetry. Email: email@example.com Website: http://blogs.exeter.ac.uk/pegasus/
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business and economics
We have been overwhelmed with the support for our journal and delighted with the volume and quality of responses to every section. Thank you again to everyone who has contributed to our journal thus far. I have selected “Scotland, Britain Wants Your” for printed publication. Providing an economy-wide or macroeconomic perspective with an emphasis on currency and financial stability in the event of Scottish independence, this essay reflected not only quality but strong application and interest in a highly topical issue. Keep an eye out for opportunities to debate and discuss through The Undergraduate website and social media as we grow and, most importantly, keep submitting for the opportunity to become one of the exclusively published students at the University of Exeter!
scotland, britain wants you caroline hughes
Scotland faces some tough decisions in the years ahead. On the 18th September this year, a referendum will be held to ask Scots if they want to become an independent country. By the time current first and second year university students are in their graduate jobs, the United Kingdom could no longer exist.
“Bagpiper playing on the sidewalk” by Postdlf is liscensed under CC BY 2.0
that is still fresh in the memory of the 2008 Credit Crunch. The Scottish financial sector is rather oversized in comparison to Gross Domestic Product (the total value of goods produced and services provided in a country during one year)3. Compare the size of the Banking Sector of the UK as a whole (492 per cent of GDP)4 with that of just Scotland (1254 per cent of Scotland’s GDP)5. This means that the assets of the Scottish banking sector would be over twelve times the size of the economy as a whole, in the event of independence. If problems like those of the 2008 Financial Crisis were to reoccur, the idea of the Scottish Government being able to bail out the banks is laughable; it would have to turn to the Government of the rest of the UK to save its economy. Under EU law, an independent Scotland would have to develop its own financial regulator,6 separate from the rest of the UK. Asking the UK to bail out Scottish banks, when it has no control over the laws they must follow, is an imposition.
Last November, the Scottish Government published a White Paper on its vision of the country after independence. Alex Salmond, the First Minister of Scotland, wants to “work in partnership with the rest of the UK to share the [Great British] Pound for our mutual benefit, but … pursue a Scottish tax and economic policy to boost jobs, growth and social justice.”1 This would involve having a currency union across Scotland and the rest of the UK, similar to that of the Euro (and all the problems it brings with it). However, George Osbourne, the current Chancellor of the Exchequer, has other ideas: in his speech in Edinburgh on 13th February, he firmly stated, “If Scotland walks away from the UK it walks away from the pound.”2 There are Another foreseeable issue is the longevia number of reasons that could explain his concern ty of such a currency union. The Permanent Secwith preventing the pound to be used in Scotland. retary to the Treasury, Sir Nicholas Macpherson, warned, “Successful currency unions are based on Osbourne is perhaps worried that the the near universal belief that they are irreversible.”7 left-leaning Scottish Parliament would overspend and If Scotland only continues to use the British monhave to be bailed out by the rest of the UK, after the etary system (the system of interest rates and monChancellor’s careful and thorough reduction of UK ey printing to control economic indicators such as public debt. The Scottish Government is, after all, inflation) in a period of transition, with a view to bound to go through a trial and error period, during changing to another currency down the line, investheir first autonomous rule since the Acts of Union tors will not trust the pound, choosing to move their in 1707 that bought Scotland and England together. investments elsewhere. This would greatly harm the 3 OED Gross Domestic Product There is a more significant concern though, 4 UK Treasury - Scotland analysis: financial services and banking p18 5 Ibid. 6 Ibid. p8 7 11th Feb letter Sir Nicholas Macpherson
1 A. Salmond, preface of Scotland’s Future: Your Guide to an Independent Scotland (Scottish Government, 2013), p. x 2 13th Feb speech Edinburgh
economy of both Scotland and the rest of the UK. Regardless of their individual reasons, the leaders of all three major parties in the UK have stated that, if Scotland were to become independent, they would not legally be able to continue using the pound.8
our countries, getting the agreement of the others.”12 Nicola Sturgeon pleaded to the European Policy Centre afterwards, “Scottish membership of the European Union will be good for us, good for your individual nations, and good for Europe as a whole.”13 As the country with such promising natural resources (“the Consequently, Scotland has only a few op- major share of the EU’s oil production, almost a quartions remaining over its choice of currency as an in- ter of its offshore renewable energy potential, a fifth of dependent nation: continue using the pound without its natural gas production and a twelfth of its seas”14, the permission of the UK, use the Euro, or create according to Ms Sturgeon), the European Union its own currency. Panama is a country in the South would be a great deal worse off without Scotland. America region that has undergone a similar independence journey that resulted in a currency change. It Despite our historical differences, Scotland has been using the balboa, pegged one to one with and the rest of the UK have displayed huge globthe dollar since 1904,9 but it uses the dollar as legal al strength and influence for the past 300 years. tender. In comparison, Scotland using the British A decision to break this union would have severe pound as a currency substitute is clearly not an op- consequences for both countries and Europe as a tion owing to political pressure and British refusal. whole. Working through such stagnant and uncerFurthermore, the future of the Euro remains unclear, tain economic times, we would be better together. so joining now without the knowledge of what route the Eurozone will take in the coming years, would Caroline Hughes not be a wise decision for Scotland. Before adopting University of Exeter the Euro, countries must first be a member of the exchange rate mechanism (that is, semi-pegging one’s Bibliography (2014). Currency union for independent Scotland wins currency to the Euro, allowing only small fluctuations Agencies. backing. Available: http://www.theguardiancom/politics/2014/mar/23/ in the exchange rate, in which the UK was unsuc- currency-union-independent-scotland-backing. Last accessed 27 cessful and consequently forced to leave the pre-Eu- March 2014. News. (2014). Swinney rules out joining euro. Available: http:// ro system in 1992) and Scotland has expressed “no Argyll forargyll.com/2014/02/swinney-rules-out-joining-euro/. Last accessed intention” of joining,10 according to John Swinney’s 27 March 2014. remarks on the BBC’s Sunday Politics Show. The Bagehot. (2014). The future of Britain: George Osborne’s pound of flesh. Available: http://www.economist.com/blogs/blighty/2014/02/ only realistic solution would be for Scotland to create future-britain. Last accessed 27 March 2014. its own currency, with a new Central Bank to con- Balls, E. (2014). Why the Euro shows a currency union would be bad trol monetary policy. However, this would be costly for an independent Scotland & the rest of the UK. Available: http:// Last accessed 27 March 2014. to implement, and it is not a decision to made lightly. www.edballs.co.uk/blog/?p=4834. BBC News. (2014). Scotland’s referendum: Five facts from Labour’s The other main economic issue for an independent Scotland would be its relationship with the European Union. The Scottish Government’s intentions are clear on White Paper: “We will continue to be a member of the EU and will have a seat at the top table to represent Scotland’s interests more effectively; we will not be at risk of leaving the EU against the wishes of the Scottish people”.11 However, the President of the European Commission, Jose Manuel Barroso, stated on the BBC’s Andrew Marr Show, “I believe it’s going to be extremely difficult, if not impossible, a new member state coming out of one of 8 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-scotland-politics-26166794 9 S. Edwards, “Dollarization and Economic Performance: An Empirical Investigation” in NBER Working Paper (8274): 6, (2001) 10 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-scotland-politics-26215963 11 White Paper p206
devolution plan. Available: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-scotland-politics-26627959. Last accessed 27 March 2014. BBC News. (2014). Scottish independence: Barroso comments ‘inaccurate’ says former EU official. Available: http://www.bbc.co.uk/ news/uk-scotland-scotland-politics-26278237. Last accessed 27 March 2014. BBC News. (2014). Scottish independence: Barroso says joining EU would be ‘difficult’. Available: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-scotland-politics-26215963. Last accessed 27 March 2014. BBC News. (2014). Scottish independence: George Osborne will rule out currency union. Available: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-scotland-politics-26147783. Last accessed 27 March 2014. Bennett, A. (2014). Thomas Cook CEO Harriet Green Warns Against EU Exit And Scottish Independence. Available: http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/2014/03/21/thomas-cook-european-union-scottish-independence_n_5001037.html. Last accessed 27 March 2014. Black, A & James, A. (2014). Scottish independence: Currency union block could hurt firms, says Alex Salmond. Available: http:// www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-scotland-politics-26220638. Last accessed 27 March 2014. Black, A & James, A. (2014). Scottish independence: ‘Yes’ vote 12 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/bsp/hi/pdfs/1602141.pdf 16/02/2014 13 http://www.scotland.gov.uk/News/Speeches/scot-europe-sturgon-26022013 14 Ibid.
Carrell, S. (2014). Scottish independence would leave families worse off, says Gordon Brown. Available: http://www.theguardian.com/ politics/2014/mar/20/scottish-independence-familes-worse-off-gordonbrown. Last accessed 27 March 2014. De Castella, T & Judah, S. (2014). Scottish independence: What would it mean for the rest of the UK?. Available: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/ magazine-25035427. Last accessed 27 March 2014. Devlin, K & Gardham, M. (2014). Sturgeon calls for talks on EU after Barroso rebuff. Available: http://www.heraldscotland.com/ politics/political-news/sturgeon-calls-for-talks-on-eu-after-barroso-rebuff.19646327. Last accessed 27 March 2014. Dickie, M, Felsted, A & Rigby, E. (2014). Independent Scots face higher food bills. Available: http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/064cc436-5e7e11e3-8621-00144feabdc0.html Duncanson, H. (2014). It would be ‘extremely difficult’ for independent Scotland to join EU, says European Commission chief Jose Manuel Barroso. Available: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/ scottish-independence-eu-bid-extremely-difficult-says-jose-manuel-barroso-9131925.html. Last accessed 27 March 2014. Economist, The. (2013). Little England or Great Britain?. Available: http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21589420-country-faceschoice-between-comfortable-isolation-and-bracing-openness-go. Last accessed 27 March 2014. HM Government. (2014). Scotland analysis: Assessment of a sterling currency union. Available: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/ system/uploads/attachment_data/file/279454/CM8815_2901849_SA_ SterlingUnion_acc.pdf. Last accessed 27 March 2014. HM Government. (2013). Scotland analysis: Financial services and banking. Available: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/ uploads/attachment_data/file/200491/scotland_analysis_financial_services_and_banking_200513.pdf. Last accessed 27 March 2014. Johnson, S. (2014). Independent Scotland would have to accept the EU ‘template’. Available: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/politics/10418890/Independent-Scotland-would-have-to-accept-the-EUtemplate.html. Last accessed 27 March 2014. MacNab, S. (2014). Scottish independence: Barroso ‘incorrect’ on EU.Available: http://www.scotsman.com/news/politics/top-stories/scottish-independence-barroso-incorrect-on-eu-1-3313437. Last accessed 27 March 2014. MacNab, S. (2014). Scottish independence: EU membership row continues. Available: Scottish independence: EU membership row continues. Last accessed 27 March 2014. MacPherson, N. (2014). Scotland and a Currency Union. Available: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_ data/file/279460/Sir_Nicholas_Macpherson_-_Scotland_and_a_currency_union.pdf. Last accessed 27 March 2014. McCrone, G. (2014). North Sea oil is key to an independent Scotland. Available: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/mar/11/ north-sea-oil-independent-scotland-economy-revenue. Last accessed 27 March 2014. McIvor, J. (2014). Scottish independence: New row over post Yes student fees. Available: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-scotland-politics-26681897. Last accessed 27 March 2014. Moore, C. (2014). Is there a difference between voting to get out of the UK and voting to get out of the EU?. Available: http://blogs.spectator. co.uk/coffeehouse/2014/02/is-there-a-difference-between-voting-toget-out-of-the-uk-and-voting-to-get-out-of-the-eu/. Last accessed 27 March 2014. Morris, P. (2014). Scottish independence: What are the key EU questions?. Available: http://www.fundweb.co.uk/news-and-analysis/politics/scottish-independence-what-are-the-key-eu-questions/2007342. article. Last accessed 27 March 2014. Peston, R. (2014). EU law may force RBS and Lloyds to become English. Available: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-26455655. Last accessed 27 March 2014. Peston, R. (2014). Scottish independence: Standard Life draws up ‘Yes’ contingency plan. Available: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-scotland-politics-26364418. Last accessed 27 March 2014. Scottish Government, The. (2014). Scotland’s Future: Chapter 7 Justice, Security and Home Affairs. Available: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/ Publications/2013/11/9348/11. Last accessed 27 March 2014.
Scottish Government, The. (2014). Statement Issued on Behalf of the Fiscal Commission Working Group. Available: http://www.scotreferendum.com/2014/02/statement-issued-on-behalf-of-the-fiscal-commission-working-group/. Last accessed 27 March 2014. Scottish Government, The. (2013). Scotland’s Future: Your Guide to an Independent Scotland. Available: http://22.214.171.124/00439021.pdf. Last accessed 27 March 2014. Scottish Liberal Democrats. (2012). Federalism: The Best Future for Scotland. Available: http://scotlibdems.org.uk/files/Federalism%20 -%20the%20best%20future%20for%20Scotland%20web.pdf. Last accessed 27 March 2014. Sturgeon, N. (2013). Scotland’s Relationship with Europe. Available: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/News/Speeches/scot-europe-sturgon-26022013. Last accessed 27 March 2014. Taylor, M. (2014). Scotland’s referendum: What are the ‘no’ parties offering instead of independence?. Available: http://www.bbc.co.uk/ news/uk-scotland-scotland-politics-25626977. Last accessed 27 March 2014. Watt, N. (2014). Alex Salmond hits back at George Osborne over Scottish independence. Available: http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2014/feb/17/alex-salmond-george-osborne-scottish-independence. Last accessed 27 March 2014.
Calling all Business School Students! If you enjoyed this article, please consider submitting one of your own for the next issue of The Undergraduate. This can be your coursework, or articles you have written in your own time! We are an interdisciplinary journal, so you canto submit works that combine economics, business, marketing, or accounting, with politics or current affairs. Getting published is a great addition to have on your CV!
o an f.
english and film
Once again, I have been bowled over by the submissions that we received this term. It is a real privilege for me as English Editor to pick the buds of the talent flourishing in our undergraduate community. A good essay, as Virginia Woolf once wrote, ‘should lay us under a spell with its first word, and we should only wake, refreshed, at its last.’ Considering that while going through the submissions, I was so spellbound that I even forgot about the need for caffeine, that really does say something. Selecting essays for the print edition was as painstaking as choosing a chocolate from a new box of Heroes. However, it must be said that the essay I have chosen for publication was a real pleasure to read and thoroughly deserves to feature here. Through the lens of postmodernism, the author ingeniously incorporates the song lyrics of ‘Heroin’ and the novel American Psycho into its discussion; I found this particularly refreshing and appropriate in light of Noel Gallagher’s comment last year about lyrics being treated as inferior to literary texts. This essay epitomizes how analysing English and Film can give one the weapons to penetrate the heart of society and reveal the fabric of humanity. Please also keep an eye out Editor’s Note for the shortlisted essays which will appear online shortly after the publication of our second issue. On a final note, I would like to thank the students for their submissions and would encourage you all to submit again for our next issue. To return to the horticultural metaphor, there is a huge amount of budding talent in the undergraduate community at Exeter, but it is only with patience and nurture that essays with flourish and burst forth into flower.
representations of postmodernist culture oliver thompson
“Hip” by Steve is liscensed under CC BY 2.0
Jean–François Lyotard’s essay “Defining the Postmodern” envisages a modern, consumer society that is morally vacuous. He cites that “the development of the techno-sciences has become a means of increasing disease, not fighting it” (Lyotard 1467). His use of the word ‘disease’ is not by any means literal. Instead, ‘disease’ connotes a humanity that has become isolated and indifferent. Advancements seeking to set society free have instead stalled human emotional connectivity. Or, as Harper Lee puts it, society has now become “abundant”, where our focus on consumer goods, “laptops, cell phones, Ipods”, has stunted humankind’s ability to truly connect on an emotional level. Instead, individual minds have become “empty rooms”. The light that these two writers shed on modern society evokes a step towards the retrograde in literary criticism. Althusser’s “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses” places the concept of ideology at the forefront of Marxist thinking. Just like Lee and Lyotard, Althusser presents a society lacking in individualism. We are not the autonomous beings that we think we are. Instead, we are emotionally lacking, slaves to the ruling ideology of capitalism that perpetuates itself through our attachment to products and the creation of a regulated and pre-determined workforce. Therefore, I propose that both literary and critical writers, as well as filmmakers, have identified our contemporary society as impersonal and emotionally deficient, due to a ruling infatuation with material goods and indirect communication. In The Velvet Underground’s 1967 song ‘Heroin’, Lou Reed’s lyrics provide a swan song about the
need for escapism in the environment of late twentieth century New York: “I wish that I was born a thousand years ago I wish that I’d sailed the darkened seas On a great big clipper ship Going from this land here to that Put on a sailor’s suit and cap Away from the big city Where a man cannot be free Of all of the evils of this town” (The Velvet Underground. ‘Heroin.’) Reed’s implicit suggestion, that he would like to have lived “a thousand years ago”, implies that he would like to go back to simpler times, where he is not plagued by modern living. Similarly, ambiguous imagery, of a ship in an open ocean, juxtaposes the claustrophobic imagery conjured up by Reed’s reference to the “big city”. Ironically, because a “man cannot be free”, the city is not “big” (my emphasis), meaning vast, rather, choking and small. For Reed, it is this brief moment of escape, “when [he] [puts] a spike into [his] vein”, that counteracts the monotony of modern living – he becomes an elevated individual, “I feel just like Jesus’ son.” Just as Reed shows, contemporary art has identified the character of the late twentieth and early twenty-first century as indifferent and stoic. Modern literature gives us an insight into what Lyotard saw as “no longer a horizon of universalization” (Lyotard 1466). As Lyotard concedes on the topic of postmodernism, art is now defined by its need to react against the modernist desire to progress from tradition in order to reach an ide19
al society. This postmodernist concept, of ‘breaking from the ideological conventions of his society. At from tradition’, is a way by which artists can coun- the novel’s end, Bateman’s monologue reveals that teract the constraints of the ruling social ideologies. the murderous character he has created for himself is a way through which he can escape conformity to Althusser’s Marxist ideas can shed some light the social conventions of Wall Street: on more contemporary texts that have been branded as ‘postmodern’. Bret Easton Ellis’ novel American “... there is an idea of a Patrick Bateman, some kind Psycho articulates the struggle between the need to of abstraction, but there is no replicate capitalist ideologies, from generation to gen- real me, only an entity, something illusory.” eration, and an implicit human desire to break from (Ellis 362) tradition. Patrick Bateman’s narration encapsulates the ruling ideology of consumerism in 1980s Wall Street: Bateman’s brief reference to himself in the third person indicates that he does not bear control “Vidal Sassoon shampoo is especially good at getover his own individuality. Instead, there is “no real... ting rid of the coating of [him]”, and the creation of his fictitious doppelgangdried perspiration, salts, oils, airborne pollutants and er serves the purpose of going against the ruling idedirt... that can make you look ology of material desire. As Althusser points out, older.” ideology is “the imaginary relationship of individu(Ellis 25) als to their real conditions of existence” (Althusser 1334). Bateman ‘imagines’ that his relationship with The passage here echoes advertisements: his ‘conditions of existence’ is turbulent, considering brand names permeate the text. This highlights a “all the mayhem... [he] has caused and... [his] utter modern focus on consumer goods. The reference indifference towards it” (Ellis 362). However, at in this passage to the fear of “[looking] older” (my the climax of the novel, it becomes ambiguous as to emphasis) refers to characters’ fears of sticking whether the killings actually occurred. Instead, as out in a world that puts emphasis on beauty. This Lyotard cites, Bateman is a “human [entity]... [that manifests as the ‘Ideological State Apparatus’ in seems] to be destabilized by the results of this dethe text, as a cultural obsession with beauty leads to velopment” (Lyotard 1467). Bateman’s delusion is Bateman’s obsession with material goods. Bateman a way through which he can express frustration at continually mocks supporting characters due to the focus on progression, such as gathering montheir inability to reach an idyllic level of beauty: ey and attaining beauty, in his society. This is most “Carruthers is not dressed well: a four-button dou- poignantly expressed as he splits from his partner, ble-breasted wool suit... by Chaps, a striped cotton Evelyn: shirt and a silk bow tie” (Ellis 30) However, it is made clearer in the film adaptation that this ideal of “My need to engage in... homicidal behavior on a beauty is unattainable. As Bateman explains to massive scale cannot be, um, his secretary Jean why he is on a diet, after refus- corrected,... But I have no other way to express my ing sorbet, he claims, “you can always be thinner... blocked... needs” look better” (Harron, American Psycho). This scene (Ellis 325) indicates that the attainment of beauty is an evercontinuing, but futile pursuit. The willingness of Indeed, as Fredric Jameson claimed in his Bateman to continue to seek an unachievable lev- writings about postmodernism, the culture of the el of beauty highlights that material consumption novel, 1980s Wall Street capitalism, means that is a constantly reproducing chain. As Althusser ar- Bateman is not an individual, but another cog in the gues, “every social formation must reproduce the machine: “in the age of corporate capitalism, of the conditions of its production at the same time as it so-called organization man,... today, that older bourproduces” (Althusser 1336). In this way, the ide- geoisie individual subject no longer exists” (Jamesology of beauty is an ever-perpetuating chain, as on 1850) It is because of Bateman’s need to conform the goals Bateman wants to reach are unfeasible. to his social ideology that he creates this murderous character for himself. It is his only means of expres Due to this overarching obsession with image sion in an emotionally deficient society. Thus, Ellis’ in Ellis’ novel, the passages of extreme violence novel characterizes the late twentieth century as imfunction as a way through which Bateman can break personal due to a ruling ideology of capitalism, one 20
that forces the individual into delusion as a means of escaping progression towards perfect beauty and an obsession with material goods. Contemporary art, of the late twentieth and early twenty-first century, also identifies the theme of indirect communication. Moreover, as the ability to communicate through social media has advanced, humanity has been left more isolated and more alienated. Slam poet Marshall Davis Jones, in his poem “Touch Screen”, claims that technological advances have created a culture of easy communication, resulting in the inability to properly express emotions: “Your life is an app, Your strife is an app, Your wife is an app” (Jones 7-9) Jones condenses important aspects of life into a smart phone app. The repetition of ‘app’ emphasizes the way in which modern culture has trivialized important aspects of life through social media. He elaborates by citing that it is ‘clicks’ that form friends in the modern age, through social sites such as Facebook, rather than human contact: “It was difficult to connect when friends formed cliques, Now it’s even more difficult to connect Now that clicks form friends.” (Jones 13-15) The pun on “cliques” and “clicks” articulates the way in which human relationships have become digitized in the modern age, dispelling typical human interaction. Lyotard’s work in postmodernism elaborates on the growing phenomenon of human alienation as a result of technological advances: “even social beings appear today irrelevant in the face of this sort of obligation to complexify... every object” (Lyotard 1468). Lyotard’s notion runs parallel to Jones’ poem. As a result of the modernist desire to progress in communications, we have lost touch with what makes us human. This idea runs parallel with Althusser’s concept of ideology as a means of control. Althusser argues that Ideological State Apparatuses represent “a certain number of realities which present themselves to the immediate observer in the form of distinct... institutions” (Althusser 1341). The way in which Althusser points out that ideology derives from real institutions coincides with Jones’ notion that social
media outlets have now grasped control of humanity, keeping humans away from autonomy: “they’ve got us love drugged” (Jones 57). As both Althusser and Jones conclude, we are not totally free from what we have created. Tragically, Jones argues that since we are not free due to our own creations, the twenty-first century can be identified by our inability to communicate properly: “our technology is not advanced enough / To make us human again” (Jones 57 – 8). In the quotation from Harper Lee, she exclaims that she “still plods along with books”. To me, this seems to be a rarity when looking at the way in which artists have identified the late twentieth and twenty-first century so far. What is learned from the critical theory of Althusser and Jean – François Lyotard is that, with constant human advancements, there always is an element of burden in the contemporary cultural climate. This is by no means an emotional burden, in the sense that humanity has become more in touch with its expression. Instead, this is an emotional burden in the sense that humanity has lost touch with its ability to sufficiently express itself. A focus on consumer goods, in a predominantly capitalist society, has meant that humankind is not focused on needs, but rather desire. Moreover, an insufficient ability to communicate, with the creation of more advanced technology, has meant that we carry a newer burden. This burden derives not from an increased emotional capacity, but a decreased emotional capacity. Art is now focused on what is not said, rather than what is said. Writers have now identified human interaction as arbitrary, continually influenced by the external pressures of modern society. As Brian says, in Cameron Crowe’s 2001 film Vanilla Sky exclaims, “the sweet is never as sweet without the sour” (Crowe, Vanilla Sky). Emotions, blocked by the ruling ideology, mean that we no longer have ‘the sour’ or ‘the sweet’, and modern artists have struggled to make sense of a world bent on progression. Oliver Thompson University of Exeter
Works Cited: Althusser, Louis. The Norton Anthology of Critical Theory. New York: Norton & Company, 2010. American Psycho. Dir. Mary Harron. Edward R. Preston Film Corporation, 2000. Easton-Ellis, Bret. American Psycho. New York: Vintage Books, 1990. Jameson, Fredric. The Norton Anthology of Critical Theory. New York: Norton & Company, 2010. Jones, Marshall. “Touchscreen.” The Henry Brothers. Web. 20 Dec. 2013. Lyotard, Jean – François. The Norton Anthology of Critical Theory. New York: Norton & Company, 2010. The Velvet Underground. “Heroin”. The Velvet Underground and Nico. Verve Records, 1967. Vanilla Sky. Dir. Cameron Crowe. Paramount, 2001.
I would firstly like to thank all of those who sent in their work to The Undergraduate. The quality of submissions was even higher than last time and, once again, it has been very difficult to decide which to select for publication. I am pleased to announce that the submission I have chosen concerns whether a scent can be registered as a trade mark, with the conclusion that it cannot. Being an issue which I have never considered, and I’m sure many of our readers hadn’t, this piece caught my attention by its originality and creativity- two elements which the journal aims to foster. May I thank again all those who offered their submissions, and I wholly congratulate the writer, Toby Editor’s Note Craddock. I hope that our readers find his work engaging and enlightening.
olfactory marks : the ( not so ) sweet smell of success of chanel no . 5
to b y c r a d d o c k
“Chanel No. 5” by Josh Pesavento is liscensed under CC BY 2.0
Chanel No 5 is one of the world’s most iconic fragrances.1 It has been estimated that a bottle is sold every 55 seconds;2 a fact that is as staggering as it is ironic. Although the Chanel branding, the logo and the design of the bottle are theoretically capable of registration under the Trade Marks Act,3 the scent is not. Despite the absurdity of this scenario, olfactory marks have consistently failed to establish themselves as capable of being graphically represented at a national and European level, and the rationale behind this decision will be considered below.
of Patrick Süsskind’s novel ‘Perfume’,6 Advocate General Ruiz-Jarabo considered the emotive strength of our olfactory memory and although the court recognised ‘The ability of the human eye to perceive colours is just as limited as the ability of the sense of smell to perceive odours’,7 they nevertheless upheld the decisions of the German national courts: “Can an olfactory sign be graphically represented in a way which is precise and clear for everyone? In my view, the answer is ‘No.’”8
Ultimately, the Sieckmann criteria’s high standards of precision and certainty are a reflection of the breadth of the trade mark monopoly right, which has been described by Gow as ‘intrinsically linked to commerce’.9 Taken from within the context of the luxury goods industry, however, this justification did not appease Machnicka who cites the industry’s large and long-term investment in devising fragrances as comparable – but not identical - to the pharmaceutical industry and, therefore, is in need of trade mark protection.10
In the case of Ralf Sieckmann, the European Court of Justice listed the criteria for graphical representation; a trade mark must be “clear, precise, self-contained, easily accessible, intelligible, durable and objective.”5 Consequently, the olfactory mark before them was not granted protection despite Sieckmann’s efforts to represent the fragrance as “balsamically fruity with a slight hint of cinnamon”, a chemical formula and finally as an odour sample. 4
From Baudelaire poetry to an examination
Regardless of the commercial realities, Bainbridge has described the extent to which ap-
1 BBC News, ‘Chanel No 5: The story behind the classic perfume’ (BBC News, 29 May 2011) < http://www.bbc. co.uk/news/world-13565155> accessed 3 March 2014 2 Kate Shapland, ‘Chanel No 5: Enduring Love’ (The Telegraph, 7 May 2009) <http://fashion.telegraph.co.uk/ news-features/TMG5285472/Chanel-No-5-enduring-love. html> accessed 3 March 2014 3 Trade Marks Act 1994 4 Case C-273/00 Sieckmann v Deutsches Patent- und Markenamt  Ch. 487 5 ibid, 509
6 ibid, 497 (AG Ruiz-Jarabo); ibid., 496 (AG Ruiz-Jarabo) 7 ibid, 495 (AG Ruiz-Jarabo) 8 ibid, 500 (AG Ruiz-Jarabo) 9 Laura Gow ‘Creating a Stink?’ (2007) 28 BLR 86, 86 10 Agnieszka Machnika, ‘The Perfume Industry and Intellectual Property Law in the Jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the European Union and of National Courts’ (2012) 43(2) IIC 123, 124
plicants have gone to represent their scent as ‘not inconsiderable ingenuity.’11 Indeed, despite submitting an electronic nose analysis to remove the subjectivity of a description and the expertise required to comprehend a chemical formula, Geoffrey Hobbs QC rejected John Lewis of Hungerford Ltd.’s appeal.12 Mr. Hobbs QC deemed the analysis insufficient to comprise “something else outside the graphic representation… to obtain a direct perception of the sign.”13 Clearly the global understanding of Pantone chart numbers for colour marks and musical scales for sound marks were not deemed equivalent.
Shapland, Kate. ‘Chanel No 5: Enduring Love’ (The Telegraph, 7 May 2009) <http://fashion.telegraph.co.uk/news-features/ TMG5285472/Chanel-No-5-enduring-love.html> accessed 3. March 2014. Trade Marks Act 1994. John Lewis of Hungerford’s Trade Mark Application  RPC 28.
Ultimately, the inescapable precision required by the law in this area is ill suited to the olfactory sense and the current methods of graphically representing scent. If ‘the perception of signs by consumers can be as varied as the senses at their disposal’,14 then until technological advancements can secure uniform odour samples immune to deterioration,15 existing olfactory marks will continue to be akin to ‘a pearl in the desert’.16 Toby Craddock University of Exeter Works Cited:
BBC News, ‘Chanel No 5: The story behind the classic perfume’ (BBC News, 29 May 2011) < http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/ world-13565155> accessed 3 March 2014. Bainbridge, David. Intellectual Property (9th edition, Pearson 2012) 709. Case C-273/00 Sieckmann v Deutsches Patent- und Markenamt  Ch. 487. Gow, Laura. ‘Creating a Stink?’ (2007) 28 BLR 86, 86. Machnika, Agnieszka. ‘The Perfume Industry and Intellectual Property Law in the Jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the European Union and of National Courts’ (2012) 43(2) IIC 123, 124. 11 David I. Bainbridge Intellectual Property (9th edition, Pearson 2012) 709 12 John Lewis of Hungerford’s Trade Mark Application  RPC 28 13 ibid, 50 (Hobbs QC) 14 Case C-273/00 Sieckmann v Deutsches Patent- und Markenamt  Ch. 487, 493 (AG Ruiz-Jarabo) 15 David I. Bainbridge Intellectual Property (9th edition, Pearson 2012) 710 16 Case C-273/00 Sieckmann v Deutsches Patent- und Markenamt  Ch. 487, 498 (AG Ruiz-Jarabo)
The Undergraduate Fun Fact #1: Law was our most popular section for our inaugural edition, and was also the second most popular section for this issue. Keep them coming, Law students - we love your work. A big congratulations as well to our editor, Sophie Clarke, the newly elected Bracton Law Society VP. We’re all incredibly lucky to have her here at The Undergraduate, and we know that she’ll do a great job in BLS too. 23
middle eastern studies This original and intriguing piece explores the depiction of the ‘exotic Orient’ in Western art: specifically, music. Drawing upon Edward Said’s controversial yet oft-quoted thesis on the idea of ‘Orientalism’, Rimsky-Korsakov’s Scheherazade is meticulously deconstructed and analysed for your reading (or listening) pleasure. Editor’s Note “Queen Scheherazade” by Sophie Anderson is liscensed under CC BY 2.0
representing the orient in rimsky-korsakov’s scheherazade hana tuhami about the Orient. The Arabian Nights, particularly popular during this period, played a crucial role in inspiring cultural works like Rimsky-Korsakov’s Scheherazade that reproduced the repository and reimagined the Orient for a Western audience through its “telling and retelling bringing new variants to the story”,2 with each reincarnation of the text thus strengthening the Orientalist repertoire. The text of the music and the text it is inspired by, play an important intertextual role as it highlights Orientalism as a “discursive formation... a system for citing different writers [sic].”3 This intertextuality is important, as it offers a way of building on the authority of other authors to gain legitimacy, to be permitted to partake in the discourse, as well as reinforcing problematic Orientalist ideas such as the ‘backward Easterner.’
The Orientalist discourse described by Edward Said in Orientalism is a framework for producing knowledge about the Orient, shaped through the lens of Western imperial hegemony. This discourse relies on a repository of images of the East as a place of backwardness, danger and sensuality, which over time came to define the Orientalist canon of writing, music and art. This essay explores the unique presence of the canon and its repository of images in classical music, focusing as a case study on its use by the Russian composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov in his Scheherazade, composed in 1888. 1 The first section examines the textual context that Scheherazade inhabits, which draws upon The Arabian Nights, a crucial site of cultural inspiration for Orientalists. This section situates Scheherazade within this continuum of knowledge, highlighting Said’s emphasis upon the extremely intertextual and self-referential nature of Orientalism. In particular, I will focus on how musical technique found in the piece reproduces and reimagines this rich textual history. The second section explores how texts can also be used to comment on the ‘real’ Orient as represented by the West. Here, I will examine how Rimsky-Korsakov uses music and orchestral sections to construct ‘Eastern’ personas and represent the geographical divisions between the West and the Orient.
Rimsky-Korsakov himself was conscious of this importance of intertexuality within classical music that provided both the aforementioned inspiration and “distributive currency”4 to artists and writers to fantasise about the East. For instance, on being asked why he used the title Scheherazade, he replied: “Because this name and the title The Arabian Nights connote in everybody’s mind the east and fairy-tale wonders”5. Rimsky-Korsakov was thus deliberately building upon and exploiting the Orientalist textual canon and repository, engaging in a “dynamic
Orientalist discourse was extremely successful during the 18th and 19th centuries in filtering into culture and creating an Orientalist cultural canon that offered the potential for imagining and fantasising
2 Yuriko Yamanaka and Tesuo Nishio (ed.), The Arabian nights and orientalism : perspectives from East & West, (London ; New York : I.B. Tauris, 2006) p219. 3 Edward Said, Orientalism, (London: Penguin, 2003) p23. 4 Ibid, p23. 5 Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, My Musical Life, (London: Martin Secker, 1924) p248.
1 Gerald Abraham, The new Grove Russian masters, 2 : Rimsky-Korsakov, Skryabin, Rakhmaninov, Prokofiev, Shostakovich, (London: Macmillan, 1986) p8.
exchange of ideas”6 to represent the Orient for his listeners in a manner they could identify. I posit that this self-conscious act of textual manipulation served a dual purpose; not only was it a viable artistic choice which built upon a legitimate discourse accepted by intellectuals, but it was also a commercial motivation to meet public demand for Orientalist works. In addition to narrating and reimagining the text through his music, building on the Orientalist intertextual network, Rimsky-Korsakov was consciously narrating Western fantasies about the East. This is achieved through the use of musical themes, such as the Sultan’s theme7, which is stern, domineering and terrifying. The passage begins in the minor key, hinting at danger, and is played by nearly all of the orchestra in unison who are marked pesante8 and fortissimo9. A solid wall of sound surrounds the audience, which descends fearfully over the course of an octave10 and uses the notes of the whole-tone scale11 to introduce an imagined sense of the East, ending precariously and unresolved on the seventh12. The theme of the sultan is interwoven throughout the suite, which highlights the composer’s foregrounding of the text of The Arabian Nights within his score, continuing the “connective textual interchange [sic]”13 and thus the repository of fantasies of the fearful and dangerous Orient.
to represent reality through fiction, explaining that the text “offers a mirror to reality [...] thus without suffering the fatigue of going to look for these people in their countries, the reader will have the pleasure here, of seeing them act and hearing them speak [sic.]”14 Therefore, texts such as these, and works like Scheherazade that are inspired by them, are able to present an image of “a real but outrageously exoticised East.”15 By applying this notion to the score, we can see that Rimsky-Korsakov does not accurately portray the story faithfully according to the text; but instead mines it selectively in order to validate and strengthen his representation of the ‘real’ East according to the audience’s existing perception of it.
Rimsky-Korsakov also attempts to make the text reality through the use of musical conventions – a result of his involvement in the Russian composing group “The Five”16 which developed a set of musical stylisations that aimed to invoke a sense of the Orient. Many of these techniques can be found in Scheherazade; for example, trills17 and tremolando18, used to recreate a Western notion of Eastern music and its ‘exotic’ sounding harmonies, which are employed towards the finale19 to increase the sense of the thrilling fantasy of the Orient. Another example is the use of the whole-tone scale as discussed earlier, which creates a primitive and less harmonically structured sound, suggesting that Eastern music is less civilised While the text is an important site for dreaming than in the West, thus validating Said’s notion of the about the Orient in this way for cultural actors like ‘Orientalist repertoire’. Musical conventions such as Rimsky-Korsakov, it can have a more crucial role – these would eventually become staples of Eastern that of representing a Western notion of a ‘real’ or influenced music produced by the West and are ‘true’ Orient, in both its geography and the people particularly evident in contemporary Hollywood film that live there. One of the key translators of The scores for films such as The Mummy20 and Indiana Arabian Nights, Antoine Galland, flags up this desire 6 Edward Said, Orientalism, (London: Penguin, 2003) p14. 7 Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Scheherazade, Op.35 (Moscow: Muzgiz, n.d.1931) p3, Bars 1-4 first example, recurs throughout the score. Accessible from IMSLP: http://imslp. org/wiki/Scheherazade,_Op.35_(Rimsky-Korsakov,_Nikolay) Accessed 28/01/14. 8 Musical dynamic marking meaning heavy 9 Musical dynamic marking meaning extremely loud or strong. 10 The octave is the system of eight notes that make up the structure of a scale. 11 The whole tone scale is is a scale in which each note is separated from its neighbours by the interval of a whole step. In this case: E-D-C-A♯. 12 The seventh is the seventh note in a scale of any given key, it always sounds unresolved as the music feels drawn to the 8th note of the scale, also known as the tonic, which will resolve it back to the original key. 13 See: Edward Said, Musical Elaborations, (London: Chatto & Windus, 1991) p xii.
14 Yuriko Yamanaka and Tesuo Nishio (ed.), The Arabian nights and orientalism : perspectives from East & West, (London ; New York : I.B. Tauris, 2006) p239.
16 A group of five Russian composers who worked together and inspired each others music, particularly along Nationalist Romantic Lines. The group consisted of Mily Balakirev (the leader), César Cui, Modest Mussorgsky, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov and Alexander Borodin. See more: Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, My Musical Life, (London: Martin Secker, 1924). 17 Rapid alternation between adjacent notes and is commonly scored for string or woodwind instruments and is far less common amongst brass. 18 A trembling affect achieved by playing the same note rapidly, a common string technique. 19 Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Scheherazade, Op.35 (Moscow: Muzgiz, n.d.1931), p255, from figure Z for four bars among the 1st and 2nd Violins. 20 The Mummy, directed by Stephen Sommers (Alphaville Films, Universal Pictures: 1999).
Jones, 21 which “ensured the audience would ‘read’ works such as The Night Patrol at Smyrna.28 Secondly, looking at Scheherazade’s theme,29 we can see that it the subject as ‘exotic’ and ‘foreign’.”22 centres on ideas of tenderness and sensuality, shown As well as using musical conventions to create by the soft use of dynamics and string technique such a “general impression”23 of the ‘true’ East, Rimsky- as legato slurring30 and vibrato.31 This also feeds into Korsakov used sections of the orchestra to create a the “widely influential model of the Oriental woman”, sense of geographical boundaries and ‘otherness’. This who was sensuous, forbidden and exotic. This theme is demonstrated in passages where he “juxtaposes pure is supplemented by conventions such as ornaments32 orchestral groups against each other [sic]”,24 which and chromaticism33 that evoke “not just the East, but divides the orchestra both physically and sonically, the seductive East that emasculates, enslaves, renders reflecting the ideas of division and separation inherent passive… hinting at sex, desired or achieved.”34 in the text as well as in the geographical boundaries Rimsky-Korsakov’s approach is symptomatic of between East and West. This is also demonstrated wider trends within the Orientalist canon that display in the finale of Scheherazade where “the melody on a simultaneous fascination with and condemnation of unison trombones is accompanied simultaneously by a taboo topics such as sexuality. combination of string patterns, another set of patterns, Rimsky-Korsakov’s Scheherazade thus alternating with chromatic scales, on woodwind, and a third pattern of rhythms on percussion, with harp demonstrates the success of the Orientalist discourse glissandos.”25 Rimsky-Korsakov’s act of representing in permeating all areas of cultural life during the 18th the Orient through his music highlights Foucault’s and 19th centuries, shaping the work of artists, writers idea of ‘knowledge-power’, meaning specifically that and musicians in their work inside and around Europe. “the Westerner was in, or thought about, the Orient Part of what made this discourse so successful and because he could be there, or could think about it, prevailing was its “dynamic exchange” of texts and with very little resistance on the Orient’s part [sic].”26 knowledge between cultural actors, which continually Therefore, by being able to speak on behalf of the reproduced and reimagined the Orientalist repertoire Orient by way of his music and reproducing the of images and thus strengthened the hegemony of Orientalist canon, Rimsky-Korsakov is strengthening Western culture. We can see within the musical score the power and authority of Western cultural hegemony of Scheherazade and Rimsky-Korsakov’s approach to composing the piece the legacy of Orientalist texts, over the Orient. in particular The Arabian Nights, which shape and Musical themes are additionally able to channel inspire the music. The texts serve a dual purpose Orientalist perspectives by commenting on the ‘true’ of both reimagining the story through the lens of Orient through Western perceptions of Eastern gender Orientalism but also of presenting the composer’s idea representation and stereotypes. Firstly, the Sultan’s Alexandre–Gabriel Decamps, The Night Patrol at theme uses the “grim bass motif to describe a stern 28 Smyrna (French, 1803–1860), currently in the Metropolitan and domineering man [sic]”27 fixated on power over Museum of Art, New York. women and wields the threat of violence to control 29 Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Scheherazade, Op.35 them. The music is harsh, aggressive and over-bearing, (Moscow: Muzgiz, n.d.1931) p4, from the lento section that traits that suggest a wider reductive model of Oriental follows the slow introduction, a four bar phrase that recurs masculinity that is similarly echoed in Orientalist throughout the piece. 30 For stringed instruments, legato slurring is the grouping of a cluster of notes together to be played in one bow stroke instead of being playing separately which gives the impression of a smooth unbroken line. 31 Vibrato is used particularly on string instruments to add resonance and softness to music and is achieved through shaking the left hand, wrist or fingers, or a combination of all three, rapidly. 32 Ornaments are essentially musical features that add more detail to the music, such as trills that I discussed in the first section of the essay. 33 The chromatic scale is entirely composed of semitones played in ascending or descending order that create a distinctive and sinister sound. 34 Richard Taruskin, Defining Russia Musically: Historical and Hermeneutical Essays, (Princeton University Press, 2000) p165.
21 Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, directed by Steven Spielberg (Lucasfilm, Paramount Pictures: 1989). 22 Matthew Bernstein and Gaylyn Studiar (ed.), Visions of the East: Orientalism in Film, (New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press, 1997) p132. 23 Gerald Abraham, The New Oxford History of Music, Vol. 9, Romanticism: 1830-1890, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989) p508. 24 Gerald Abraham, The new Grove Russian masters, 2 : Rimsky-Korsakov, Skryabin, Rakhmaninov, Prokofiev, Shostakovich, (London: Macmillan, 1986) p24. 25 Ibid, p24. 26 Edward Said, Orientalism, (London: Penguin, 2003) p7. 27 Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, My Musical Life, (London: Martin Secker, 1924), pp.291-294.
of a ‘true’ Orient in its landscapes, boundaries and its people. Part of this representation centres on defining the Orient in opposition to the West, highlighting its mystery and exoticness. Therefore, Scheherazade is a highly constructed image of the Oriental ‘other’ domesticated and manipulated through musical conventions and textual legacies and kept within the confines of the concert hall, to be enjoyed at a distance by a Western audience. Hana Tuhami University of Exeter Bibliography Abraham, Gerald, The new Grove Russian masters, 2 : RimskyKorsakov, Skryabin, Rakhmaninov, Prokofiev, Shostakovich, London: Macmillan, 1986. Abraham, Gerald, The New Oxford History of Music, Vol. 9, Romanticism: 1830-1890, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989. Bernstein, Matthew and Studiar, Gaylyn (ed.), Visions of the East: Orientalism in Film, New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press, 1997. IMSLP, Scheherazade, Op.35 (Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolay), http://imslp.org/wiki/Scheherazade,_Op.35_(RimskyKorsakov,_Nikolay), Accessed 28/01/14. Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade. Directed by Steven Spielberg, Lucasfilm, Paramount Pictures: 1989. Iskander, Adel and Rustom, Haken (ed), Edward Said: A Legacy of Emancipation and Representation, University of California Press, 2010. Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolai, My Musical Life, London: Martin Secker, 1924. Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolai, Scheherazade, Op.35, Moscow: Muzgiz, n.d.1931. Said, Edward, Musical Elaborations, London: Chatto & Windus, 1991. Said, Edward, Music at the Limits, Columbia University Press, 2008. Said, Edward, On Late Style, London: Bloomsbury, 2006. Said, Edward, Orientalism, London: Penguin, 2003. Sahni, Kalpana, Crucifying the Orient : Russian orientalism and the colonization of Caucasus and Central Asia, Bangkok : White Orchid Press ; Oslo : Institute of Comparative Research in Human Culture, 1997. Taruskin, Richard, Defining Russia Musically: Historical and Hermeneutical Essays, Princeton University Press, 2000. The Mummy. Directed by Stephen Sommers, Alphaville Films, Universal Pictures: 1999. Yamanaka, Yuriko and Nishio, Tesuo (ed.), The Arabian nights and orientalism: perspectives from East & West, London ; New York : I.B. Tauris, 2006.
The Undergraduate Fun Fact #2: We will be adding International Relations, Theology, and Philosophy to our journal this coming September! We’re excited to see these new sections flourish - so if you’ve got a sharp eye for international affairs, or if you’re an aspiring theologian or philosopher, please consider submitting to us in the new academic year. Don’t forget to send your work to email@example.com! 27
m o d e r n l a n g uag e s
I would like to thank everyone for the great reception our first issue received, and for the number and quality of the essays we received for this second edition. I thoroughly enjoyed reading a wide range of essays that covered Chinese ideology to French sociolinguistics. I eventually chose this great essay ‘Female emancipation in contemporary Italy and migrant domestic help: exploring the paradox’ for print in the journal as aside from being superbly written, I believe that this pertinent topic showcases brilliantly the broad areas Modern Languages students are excelling in beyond their linguistic talents. Finally I must say adieu, as I shall be handing over this section next year, as I am off on my year abroad! I shall certainly continue reading from afar, and look forward to seeing The Undergraduate’s continued success. Happy reading!
female emancipation in contemporary italy and migrant domestic help: exploring the paradox elizabeth ackerley “Equality” by Unknown is liscensed under CC BY 2.0
Two crucial developments in the last fifty years of contemporary Italian history have been the process of emancipation for Italian women, and the shift from migration to immigration. Both of these have had a significant impact on the social and economic fabric of the country. This essay will explore the relatively recent phenomenon of female migrant domestic help in Italy towards the end of the twentieth century. It will be shown that there is a strong correlation between the calls for further female emancipation of Italian women of all classes, and the growing influx of primarily female immigrants in search of domestic work in Italy. To begin with, the changing nature of female emancipation in Italy will be discussed through the exploration of the developing position of Italian women in Italian society with regards to education, work, demographic trends and wider societal aspects. Following this, patterns of immigration to Italy, in particular non-EU women who come alone, why they come, the type of work they find and the difficulties they face will be explored. Contrasting the progressive steps Italian women have made with the reality of life as a female migrant domestic worker, it will be suggested that paradoxically female migrant domestic help has played a part in facilitating the process of emancipation for some Italian women, particularly from the lower middle classes and up, to the detriment of their own process of emancipation; the contradiction in this a symptom of larger global inequality.
nists were a minority, the movement provoked discussion of female rights and gave more women the confidence to assert themselves more freely and act on the ever-growing desire to enter the workforce. Feminism concentrated on emancipation at an institutional level, striving for equal opportunity. The motto of the feminist movement was ‘il privato è politico’ (Laviosa,1997:57) and throughout the 1970s a series of laws were passed, including the laws on divorce and abortion, which aimed to ensure equality in the home and in the workplace. Legislation fuelling the creation of more day-care centres and nurseries in the 1970s encouraged women to seek employment. There were few part-time work opportunities, but the tertiary sector expanded and by 1972 it employed 47% of women, rising to 67% in 1989 (Willson,2010:175). Many of these jobs were in the public sector, which, given the desirability of these positions was a positive step forward and thanks to the working hours often allowed women to keep up home commitments too. Across the labour market however they were discriminated against in terms of pay and access to managerial roles, and whilst legislation sought to protect women from this by ensuring paid maternity leave and parity of treatment in the workplace, they sometimes had the opposite effect by discouraging employers from hiring women.
During the following years the development of gender roles continued. The perceived need for women to be in the home, however, was still pervasive. After the economic miracle resulted in in- Women became more involved in politics, and the creased internal migration, higher standards of living percentage of women classed as ‘economically active’ and more attention being given to girl’s education, rose to 36.1% in 1996 (Willson,2010:176), which, dewomen began to want more than their traditional spite being well below the European average of 50.2% role as housewife and mother. The feminist move- was an improvement. Willson (2010:174) states that ment grew in prominence, and whilst Italian femi- by this time, ‘the idea that women’s ‘normal’ role 28
was to be a housewife and mother was finally dead… replaced by the concept of the “dual presence”, in which both work and family commitments were seen as part of women’s core identity.’ Despite equalising legislation and tangible changes to women’s role in Italian society however, the highly patriarchal nature of Italian culture persisted and the expectations for women to fulfil their motherly duties were still high. Although the birth rate dropped to 1.12 in 1993, as health care and living standards improved (Ginsborg,2001:69), the percentage of elderly people grew, with women shouldering the burden of this ‘intergenerational care’ (Ginsborg,2001:80). Women’s ‘dual presence’ becoming more accurately described as ‘La tripla presenza’ by Valentini (Willson,2010:178). The slow growth of the welfare system in Italy, coupled with insufficient provisions for residential care of the elderly and Italian men currently contributing the least amount of time in Europe to ‘lavoro familiare’ (ISTAT,2008:24), meant that in spite of the progress made, the life of the modern ‘emancipated’ Italian woman was not without its contradictions. Exploring this concept of the ‘duplice ruolo lavorativo e familiare’ (ISTAT,2008:11), in the early 1990s a series of articles commissioned by ACLI-COLF cited the rigid city times, the shortage of part-time work, the inadequate state child care provisions and the amount of pensioners requiring assistance and company as reasons for the recent increase in the employment of domestic workers (Colombo,2005:435-64); hailed as ‘the last hope not only for bourgeois families, but for all those middle-class families who have specific caring needs.’ (Anthias,2000:159) In 2010, 10% of families employed a domestic helper, up from 2% in 1980, and 81.6% of domestic workers were female (Triandafyllidou,2013:137). This ‘solution’ for some Italian women, supplied mainly by the new migrant community of female workers, is what we shall turn to now. In the 1970s, unexpectedly and dramatically in terms of speed, Italy went from being a country of migration to a country of immigration, receiving immigrants from all over the world (Bonifazi,2007); the number of these tripling between 1970 and 1985 (Anthias,2000:126). Described as ‘an unguarded and unpredictable backdoor to the rest of Europe’ (Anthias,2000:108), Italy was one of the last countries in Europe to impose immigration controls. This, together with its geographical position, meant that it became a more popular choice by default when stricter controls were introduced in the ‘main receiving coun-
tries’ (Anthias,2000:105). Italy’s increasing global economic standing, coupled with it being the home of the head of the Catholic Church, made it an attractive destination for many immigrants, particularly from the Philippines where Catholic missions had sparked interest, whilst migrants coming from Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia were attracted by former colonial countries. A further, very significant reason for the influx of immigration in the 1970s was Italy’s underground economy and the need for ‘inexpensive and flexible labour in marginal areas of employment’ (Anthias,2000:105-6). Content to take on people without documents and a permesso di soggiorno, ‘il settore informale dell’economia italiana ha favorito l’immigrazione irregolare’ (Barbagli,2008:103), with the informal sector accounting for 25% of GDP in 1997 (Anthias,2000:4). There was marked ‘gender-specific immigration’ (Willson,2010:178) in Italy, with men mainly arriving from a number of African and Muslim countries; whilst women tended to come from Catholic countries, or former colonies. In 1997, women mainly came from ‘Cape Verde, the Philippines and Brazil’ (Anthias,2000:126). Possibly as a result of the easily available informal work, contrary to the general trend in Europe from 1965 to 1985, migration in Italy was characterised by a high number of female, mainly non-EU migrants, making up roughly 50% of all migrants (Anthias,2000:127). All over Europe, migrant women still frequently find themselves at the bottom of the employment hierarchy in the service industry, with the majority motivated to find work as domestic helpers; ‘filling the gaps’ (Anthias,2000:7) created by the increasing number of local women employed in the labour market. Previously in Italy working class Italian women had provided domestic work, the figure standing at 400,000 in 1951 (Willson,2010:120). This figure, however, had been halved by 1971, and with working mothers and ‘middle-class arrivistes’ (King,1997:16) increasingly demanding household help, female migrant domestic workers quickly filled, and surpassed, their places, generally arriving alone having ‘managed their own “migration process” entirely’ (Anthias,2000:127). Take the example of female Filipino migrant workers: fuelled by structural unemployment and a population surplus in the Philippines, and attracted by the possibility of paid employment and support from the Catholic Church, the number of Filipinos in Italy went from an estimated 15,000 in 1981, to around 40,000 in the early 1990s (Anthias,2000:110). 29
Other women, predominantly from the Maghreb area of North Africa and from Pakistan, arrived to join their husbands, this number increasing after the law in 1986 enabling family reunification. The most unlucky migrant women, particularly from Albania and Nigeria, have fallen into prostitution, most forming part of the disturbing ‘slave trade’ expanding across Europe (Willson,2010:180).
Due to the unexpected nature of immigration to Italy, services and legislation were not prepared for the influx of migrants and therefore adequate legislation and protection of the rights of workers still leave a lot to be desired. Around half of women working as domestic maids do so illegally (Catanzaro,2009:4), subject to the working conditions in the family they find themselves in and so there is little to protect them from abuse, either physically, or in terms of working rights and pay. As they work in houses, they seem to be invisible and their issues are often sidelined; even by organisations such as ACLI-COLF and by the feminist movement, which tend to overlook the needs of migrant women in their preoccupation with solidarity. Migrant women find it hard to access other areas of work, despite their being highly qualified in many cases (Anthias,2000:119), and the domestic work can be hard and demeaning, some women experiencing a decrease in their social standing: ‘Domestic work, while offering some security, also means stigmatisation and low social status as well as social isolation.’ (Anthias,2000:10) If Italian women struggled with a ‘dual presence’, in addition to caring for someone else’s family many migrant women also have the heavy burden of dealing with their own transnational family duties, as many have to leave their children behind in the country of origin. Either female relatives, paid women or husbands care for the children, thus creating a ‘carechain’ (Kraler,2011:318). Transnational relations are hard to maintain, generating tension and unhappiness from both sides: ‘I should be taking care of my own children and not someone else’s...Some days, I just start crying while I am sweeping the floor because I am thinking about my children in the Philippines’ (Willson,2010:179). Those women who fall pregnant once in Italy likely fear subsequent dismissal, evidenced by the abortion rates amongst migrant women, which in 1998 were on average about three times as high as those of Italian women. Buratta and Boccuzzo (2001:14-15) believe that ‘the levels of abortion...clearly reflect the need for support and education policies aimed at immigrant women, especially 30
The lives some migrant women find when they reach Italy are not all negative, the money they earn and the remittances they are then able to send home provide for their family and allow their children to live comfortably and ascend the social ladder in a way that might not have been possible had they been working in their country of origin (Kraler,2011:297-298). In addition, Banfi and Boccagni (Kraler,2011:291) have argued that migration can give women ‘the opportunity...to move away from more familial arrangements imbued with male-chauvinistic ways of life...without abdicating their responsibilities to the families at home’. The extent to which migrant women in domestic work are able to enjoy their independence and new found ‘freedom’, however, is limited due to the nature of the work (long hours and irregular shifts) and the difficulty of integration and adaptation to life in a new place without their habitual family structures and traditions. According to Tassello (Anthias,2000:113), former Director of the Centro Studi Emigrazione Roma, migrant women express ‘few thoughts of actually recognising themselves as women with rights etc, or displaying those feminine instincts that would be expressed in their own country. There is little thought of an education process or independence’. According to Chell (Anthias,2000:114) there is also often little shift in economic control, despite in some cases women becoming the main breadwinner: ‘The slight asymmetry of economic roles between men and women in the household, in favour of the women, does not seem to have produced the same change in their political and social ability to make decisions for the family unit.’ There is, therefore, unsurprisingly, a gap between the degree to which Italian women and female migrant domestic workers in Italy have experienced emancipation. Whilst Italian women have made significant gains in terms of education, policy and presence in the public sphere, Ehrenreich and Hochschild (2002:3) maintain that ‘Third World migrant women achieve their success only by assuming the cast-off domestic roles of middle- and high-income women in the First World.’ This contradiction has not been lost on a number of scholars. Willson (2010:180) goes as far to say that, ‘it is difficult not to draw the conclusion that some Italian women achieved their “emancipation” on the back of migrant women’. Whilst Andall (2000:281) defines the emancipation of Italian women as ‘distorted’, due to the Italian feminist movement’s focus on Italian women’s achievements
in their entrance to the labour market, and their silence on the paradoxical process that makes this possible: the exploitation of migrant women and their confinement to the live-in domestic sector. To a certain extent one could agree with Chell-Robinson (Anthias,2000:103) that migrant women have become ‘pivotal members of their communities’ in pursuing work and entering the global market, travelling thousands of miles and in many cases becoming the main breadwinner of the family. However this ‘progress’ is hindered by the difficulties they face when they arrive and the sacrifices they have to make to get there. Women in the western world, aided by relative economic ease, have been able to participate in feminism and facilitate varying degrees of liberation, whereas for women in the developing world the main consideration is most often that of survival, with little thought of, or time for, politics. The case in Italy is exacerbated by the strongly patriarchal society; the demand for domestic help alleged by Andall (2000:34) to be ‘symptomatic of an inability to conceptualise an alternative model to the pre-existing one’. Undeniably there is a way to go to address gender imbalances and the persisting idea of domestic work as female work in Italy. The paradox of female migrant domestic work facilitating western female emancipation however raises questions for women’s movements everywhere as this ‘female underside of globalisation’, as Ehrenreich calls it (2002:3), highlights the entrenched and wrenching global inequality in our world today.
Catanzaro, Raimondo, and Colombo, Asher, eds. (2009) Badanti & Co. Il lavoro straniero in Italia, Bologna: Il Mulino. Colombo, Asher, (2005) ‘Il mito del lavoro domestico: Struttura e cambiamenti in Italia (1970-2003)’, Polis, Vol. 14, pp. 435-64. <http://www.academia.edu/396398/Il_Mito_Del_Lavoro_ Domestico_Struttura_E_Cambiamenti_In_Italia_1970-2003_>, Accessed 1 January 2014 Ehrenreich, Barbara and Hochschild, Arlie Russell, eds. (2002) Global Women: Nannies, Maids and Sex Workers in the New Economy, New York: Henry Holt and Company. Ginsborg, Paul, Italy and its Discontents: Family, Civil Society, State 1980-2001 (London: Allen Lane, 2001) ISTAT (2008) Conciliare lavoro e famiglia: una sfida quotidiana, Argomenti n.33 <http://www3.istat.it/dati/catalogo/20080904_00/arg_08_33_conciliare_lavoro_e_famiglia. pdf>, Accessed 2 January 2014 King, Russell, Fielding, Anthony and Black, Richard, eds. (1997) Southern Europe and the New Immigrations, Brighton: Sussex Academic Press. Kraler, Albert, Kofman, Eleonore, Kohli, Martin and Schmoll ,Camille, eds. (2011) Gender, Generations and the Family in International Migration, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Laviosa, Flavia, (Spring 1997) ‘1970s: a Decade of Legislative Reforms for Italian Women’s Protection and Equity.’ Italian Politics and Society, Vol. 47, pp. 57-63, <http://www.arts.mun. ca/congrips/newsletter/47%20-%20Spring%201997.pdf>, Accessed 2 December 2013 Triandafyllidou, Anna, ed. (2013) Irregular Migrant Domestic Workers in Europe: Who Cares?, Farnham: Ashgate. Willson, Perry (2010) Women in Twentieth Century Italy, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Elizabeth Ackerley University of Exeter Bibliography ACLI-COLF: Assocazioni Cristiane Lavoratori Italiani, <http:// www.acli.it>, Accessed 8 December 2013 Andall, Jacqueline (2000) Gender, Migration and Domestic Service: The Politics of Black Women in Italy, Aldershot: Ashgate. Anthias, Floya and Lazaridis, Gabriella, eds. (2000) Gender and Migration in Southern Europe: Women on the Move, Oxford: Berg. Barbagli, Marzi (2008) Immigrazione e sicurezza in Italia, Bologna: Il Mulino. Bonifazi, Corrado (2007) L’immigrazione straniera in Italia, Bologna: il Mulino. Buratta, Vittoria & Boccuzzo, Giovanna (2001) ‘Evolution and epidemiology of induced abortion in Italy’, Journal of Modern Italian Studies, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 1-18. <http://0-www.tandfonline.com.lib.exeter.ac.uk/doi/ pdf/10.1080/13545710010020902>, Accessed 29 December 2013
The Undergraduate is run by a committee of undergraduate volunteers who have devoted their time, effort, and energy, to the making of this journal. If you’re looking to sponsor or support an innovative, meaningful, and educational cause, why not sponsor us? Get in touch at firstname.lastname@example.org to discuss details! We would love to have you on board. 31
After a challenging selection process due to a highly talented applicant pool of over fifty applications across the board, The Undergraduate’s new committee for 2014 / 2015 has officially been finalised. (Look out for their introductions in September!) Though we are always striving to push the journal forward, however, we would like to take a moment to say farewell to those who are leaving us. Departing from the editorial panel, we say a weepy goodbye to our charming Ancient History and Classics Editor, laurence crumbie, and our lovely Modern Languages Editor, jessica ballam. No doubt that their departures will result in a dozen shattered hearts in Exeter as they venture off to Europe for their year abroad. (We can only hope that they will consider getting involved with the editorial panel again when they return!) From the Administrative team, we wave au revoir to our Treasurer, caroline hughes as she, too, ventures on her year abroad; let’s hope the lush romance of France won’t steal her away from us for too long. We also wish all the best to the PR & Marketing Representative, fiona potigny, and the Secretary, sheriza wadhwani, as they leave for their year abroad as well. As we say goodbye, however, we open our arms to embrace the thirteen new committee members joining us. The rapid expansion of our committee indicates that The Undergraduate’s aspiring vision is not shrinking any time soon. We have some incredible ideas coming down the pipeline this coming September, and we hope that our readership and our submitters will join us as we continue to showcase the intellectual gems of the undergraduate community at the University of Exeter.
Bittern Road, Sowton Industrial Estate Exeter EX2 7LW Since its inaugural issue, The Undergraduate has been printed by short run press, whose friendly team draws upon over thirty years of experience to deliver a journal of exceptional quality. From the outset of The Undergraduate, we have been committed to producing a publication which is both intellectually stimulating and aesthetically pleasing. The short run press team, led by directors Rob, Mark, and Matthew, translate our overall vision into a technical print plan, ensuring that the journal is produced exactly as requested. True to their friendly nature, short run press is not an online automated business they’re real, professional people with a passion for the production of books, and they want to speak to you to tailor a solution that suits your printing needs. Need something printed? Contact them now!
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“The Undergraduate is an exciting venture for the talented student essayists of Exeter to display their skills. Studying at Exeter is an opportunity to engage with some of the UK’s leading minds. Teaching and learning here is not only built on our outstanding reputation for academic quality, but also on the global impact of our research. We reach out into the world through our students and academics. Exeter prides itself on its interdisciplinary approach to research and education. We recognise that most fundamental discoveries, from the structure of DNA to extra-solar planets, the most influential theories and ideas, are based on the exciting interdisciplinary spaces between disciplines. These are the reasons why our strategies for Humanities and Social Sciences, Science, Engineering and Medicine are interdisciplinary at heart. We welcome the interdisciplinary Undergraduate.” professor janice kay deputy vice chancellor of the university of exeter
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