Tyndale Society Journal
No. 40 Summer 2011
About the Tyndale Society Registered UK Charity Number 1020405 Founded by Professor David Daniell in 1995, five hundred and one years after Tyndale’s birth. The Society’s aim is to spread knowledge of William Tyndale’s work and influence, and to pursue study of the man who gave us our English Bible.
• 2 issues of the Tyndale Society Journal a year • Many social events, lectures and conferences • Exclusive behind-the-scenes historical tours • Access to a worldwide community of experts • 50% discount on Reformation. • 25% advertising discount in the Journal
For further information visit: www.tyndale.org or email firstname.lastname@example.org or see inside the back cover of this edition of the Tyndale Society Journal.
Mary Clow; Dr Paul Coones; Charlotte Dewhurst; Philip Dickson; Rochelle Givoni; David Green; Revd David Ireson; Dr Guido Latré; Revd Dr Simon Oliver; Dr Barry T. Ryan; Jennifer Sheldon. .
His Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury; Rt. Rev. and Rt. Hon. Lord Carey of Clifton; Baroness James of Holland Park; Lord Neill of Bladen QC; Prof. Sir Christopher Zeeman, former Principal, Hertford College, Oxford; Mr David Zeidberg.
Sir Anthony Kenny; Anthony Smith, Emeritus President, Magdalen College; Penelope Lively; Philip Howard; Anne O’Donnell, Catholic University of America; Professor John Day, St Olaf ’s College, Minnesota; Professor Peter Auksi, University of W. Ontario; Dr David Norton, Victoria University, Wellington; Gillian Graham, Emeritus Hon. Secretary.
Other Tyndale Society Publications Reformation
Editor: Dr Hannibal Hamlin Humanities, English & Religious Studies, e Ohio State University, 164 West 17th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210-1370, USA. Phone: 1+614 292 6065 fax: 7816 email: email@example.com Commenced Publication 1996 • 1 issue a year • ISSN: 1357 - 4175
Contents e Tyndale Society Journal ♦ No.40 Summer 2011 Submission Guidelines Neil Inglis
Anne Richardson R. Magnusson Davis Andrew Hope Ramona Garcia John Hellstern Karen Wortley
Thomas Arundel, ‘Hammer of Heresy’ ‘Witness’ or ‘Martyr’ The Family of Humphrey Monmouth How Victorians perceived Nibley Knoll Introducing Museum-goers to William Tyndale Broadening the Furrow
12 18 27 37 40 47
16th Lambeth Tyndale Lecture Evolving English at The British Library An Evening with William Tyndale
51 54 55
Mary Clow Mary Clow David Smith
Letters to the Editor
56 57 57 58 60 60
Book and Media Reviews
62 67 68 70 71
What are you Reading?
Events in 2011/2012
Brian Buxton Robert Taylor Vic Perry Vic Perry Alasdair Rodgers Andrew Hope Brian Buxton Mary Clow David Ireson Mary Clow Bill Cooper Mary Clow
Tuesday 25th October
The Reformation and Robert Barnes The Book in The Renaissance The KJB - The Book That Changed The World Begat Heresies of Westcott and Hort
Credo by Jaroslav Pelikan 16th Lambeth Tyndale Lecture, Lambeth, London
Press Gleanings Journal Staff
How I Met William Tyndale Patrick Whitten
Society Notes Mary Clow
The New Testament 1526 - Special Offer
Dates for Your Diary Advertising Rates and Specifications Membership/Subscription Form - USA & Canada Membership/Subscription Form - UK & EU Key Contacts
79 53 80 82 83
Please note that neither the Tyndale Society nor the Editors of this Journal necessarily share the views expressed by contributors. Copyright of all material remains with the contributors.
Guest Editor for Tyndale Society Journal No.41:
Neil Inglis We invite your contributions for the next Journal by 15th September 2011 please (see p. 11 ) –––––––––––––––––––– ♦ ––––––––––––––––––––
Especially Welcome... contributions for: ‘How I Met William Tyndale’ Journal commenced publication 1995 • 2 issues a year • ISSN: 1357-4167 Cover illustrations by Paul Jackson • Cover design by Paul Barron Graphics
Editorial Neil Inglis
Guest Editor - TSJ Nos. 38, 39, 40
As I begin, I would like to say a word about a new unofficial member of our editorial team. This is Holy Cross, an Anglican Benedictine monastery in West Park, New York. Many visit this special place for a week of contemplation or prayer; how trivial the stresses of the office seem as one sits on the verandah and contemplates the Hudson River as it rolls serenely along. I have done much TSJ editing in the drawing room at this beautiful spot. This is a fully-functioning monastery with a full complement of daily services (‘offices’ ); the monks are kept busy with their pastoral duties and in maintaining the buildings. They are gracious hosts as well, as the Benedictine rule requires. I have yet to meet the shy monastery kitty, Hildegard (can you imagine a more fitting name?). Brother Scott, Hildegard’s owner, explained that Hildegard can usually negotiate the gap between the bed and Scott’s lap as he sits reading in his armchair; but one time Neil Inglis Hildegard miscalculated the jump, leaving a memorable set of gouges in Scott’s knee as she wended her way to the floor. When such an incident occurs in a monastic setting, it is but a short step to pondering Christ’s wounds and the importance of suffering patiently for those one loves. –––––––––––––––––––– ♦ ––––––––––––––––––––
IN THE BEGINNING WAS THE WORD. Think of TSJ40 as ‘Multimedia Tyndale.’ Articles on translation, history, and Scripture will continue to take precedence, yet we intend to analyze the role played by monuments and museums in publicizing the Tyndale story. Not for us the view expressed by the brash young teacher in Alan Bennett’s play, The History Boys, who flippantly states that there is ‘no better way of forgetting something than by commemorating it.’ We shall broaden the coverage of our magazine and stress the historical and
geographic resonance of the Tyndale message, while building on our commitment to the very finest standards of scholarship. It is an exciting time to be a Tyndale enthusiast. E-TYNDALE. Thanks to the tremendous, diligent, and creative efforts of Karen Wortley, we are now making an impact on the Internet and in the Blogosphere; the Society has a Facebook page, an updated website with full resources for new membership subscriptions, plus a members’ blogspot. The TSJ retains its core function as a forum for polished pieces, but thanks to the blogspot we now have a channel for late-breaking news-stories and conference announcements. For generations to come, the Internet—not paper—will be the primary source of historical information. We are moving with the times. In so doing, we hail the universality of the Tyndale story; recent blog posts refer not only to England (Blackheath, Grantham, Hampstead, and Wotton), but also Japan and the Moon! The world of William Tyndale will never be the same again! Karen provides further details in her report on page 47. TYNDALE ON RADIO. As our readers know, this is the 400th anniversary of the KJB, and this year represents a unique opportunity to spread the word about Tyndale. We hope that Tyndalians caught the recent KJB readings on the BBC (my favorite speaker is actress Emilia Fox). Of course, the media’s fondness for crediting anybody but Tyndale knows no bounds, and so we must be grateful to all those broadcasters who buck the trend. Happily, Melvyn Bragg’s The King James Bible: the Book that Changed the World aired on Saturday March 12th on BBC2 at 8pm [for further commentary in this issue, see pages 60, 68]. ‘Von Bismarck said the defining feature of modern history was that the Americans spoke English. It was an English which largely stemmed from the Bible. In both cases, British and American, the King James Bible version swept round the globe in school assemblies, far flung churches, remotely stationed battalions... it was the Book of the community of English speaking peoples. ‘New words - we use them still: ‘scapegoat’, ‘let there be light’, ‘the powers that be’, ‘my brother's keeper’, ‘filthy lucre’, ‘fight the good fight’, ‘sick unto death’, ‘flowing with milk and honey’, ‘the apple of his eye’, ‘a man after his own heart’, ‘the spirit is willing but the flesh is weak’, ‘signs of the times’, ‘ye of little faith’, ‘eat drink and be merry’, ‘broken hearted’, ‘clear eyed’. And hundreds more: ‘fishermen’, ‘landlady’, ‘sea-shore’, ‘stumbling block’, ‘taskmaster’, ‘two-edged’, ‘viper’, ‘zealous’ and even ‘Jehovah’ and ‘Passover’ come into English through Tyndale. ‘Beautiful’, a word which had meant
only human beauty, was greatly widened by Tyndale, as were many others...’ BBC researchers originally contacted The Tyndale Society last autumn to investigate and verify details of Tyndale’s dramatic part in the KJB’s story. And let us extend a special word of thanks to James Naughtie of BBC Radio 4 for his morning broadcast on January 4th, 2011 on The Story of the King James Bible. The following passages were recorded in the Chapel at Hertford College Oxford in front of the famous Whitefriars window image of William Tyndale: ‘Tyndale revolutionised English as a language. It is as big as that. He changed the way the English spoke and thought. ‘It is extraordinary and one of the great mysteries of this story that a man in his late 20s, early 30s, in a garret on the continent, on the run, hunted by the establishment, eventually dying as a martyr for translation could do this. ‘The whole story of The Bible in English is unthinkable without him.’ WORKS OF ART. UK readers will have noted the National Portrait Gallery’s campaign to raise funds for a restoration of the iconic Anne Boleyn portrait, which is the image fixed in the minds of many when the doomed queen is mentioned (but see the Eric Ives 1986 biography (pubs. Basil Blackwell) which downgrades its authenticity). Anne Boleyn has been on our minds lately as a result of Howard Brenton’s fine new play discussed in TSJ39. In future issues of TSJ it is my intention to address the question of why there are so few artistic portrayals of William Tyndale, and to discuss what can be done about this. FAREWELLS. We should like to pay tribute to Dorothy Daniell, devoted wife of Society Founder David Daniell, and a very special person in her own right. Dorothy (see obituary in this issue [page 78]), was a great friend to The Tyndale Society, and I have fond memories of my conversations with her at conferences over the years. Keith Salway wrote of her: ‘It was a great privilege to have known Dorothy and I have no doubt at all that her contribution to the lives of many is built already as an enduring and living memorial.’ I would concur, and say that the many wonderful things that have happened in the Tyndale community owe much to Dorothy. Our hearts go out to David, and to their sons Chris and Andy. –––––––––––––––––––– ♦ ––––––––––––––––––––
LEAD ARTICLE. Many historical figures are hard to love, few harder than Thomas Arundel, hammer of the Lollards and an early English Inquisitor. Revisionists have passed him by, and he has suffered death by relegation to
footnotes; but as Anne Richardson reminds us in her penetrating profile, we as Tyndalians should be leery of the superficial analysis, the curt dismissal. Now is our chance to assess Arundel’s handiwork with scholarly objectivity, and to avoid invoking the historical hindsight that the 15th Century Archbishop of Canterbury did not and could not possess. FEATURES. Ruth Magnusson Davis draws our attention to the eternal question of why Tyndale matters as a translator; choosing the right word carries momentous importance. We have read of the More/Tyndale debate over ‘congregation’ versus ‘church’, and ‘elder’ versus ‘priest’. Here Davis assesses the use of the word ‘witness’ in Tyndale’s translation [page 18]. Andrew Hope applies his extraordinary gifts as a forensic historian to the case of Sir Humphrey Monmouth [page 27]. As we progress, the Tyndale story acquires fresh dimensions, and layers of additional complexity. Ramona Garcia investigates contemporary Victorian reactions to the founding of the Nibley Knoll memorial [page 37]. John Hellstern then transports us to the very different world of the American South, and recounts his endeavors as museum curator and advocate for William Tyndale and other Reformers in several American states. With many delightful book reviews by Mary Clow and Brian Buxton, plus a new addition to our How I met Tyndale feature, an entertaining and thoughtprovoking issue awaits you all. –––––––––––––––––––– ♦ ––––––––––––––––––––
TINTIN AND TYNDALE. Newcomers to the Tyndale story, in particular nonlinguists, may be wondering exactly what is meant by a good translation. Bragg’s list provides several instances of the plain, but elevated style identified by David Daniell as one of the keys to Tyndale’s brilliance. Tyndale’s work was an early example of localization—using terms that would have meaning to British ploughboys (‘pinewood’ rather than an unfamiliar Middle Eastern species). The translators of the Tintin adventure serial (by Hergé) build on Tyndale’s example; they did not simply prepare a pale word-by-word copy, but conjure forth a rich and internally consistent imaginative world that captures the reader’s attention in a way both vivid and profound. Alas, poor translations can outnumber the good, and here again Tyndale’s methods show us why. On a translators’ chatroom recently, a number of Latin American translators (not native speakers of English) sought their colleagues’ advice on some impenetrable, turgid, and jargon-ridden movie criticism which they (the Latins)
had been asked to edit. The English translators on the mailgroup rushed to defend the movie review’s dubious honor, hailing it as a superb piece of refined English prose. The joke was on the Anglos; the offending text turned out to have been a literal translation from Spanish to English, retaining the GrecoLatin syntax and vocabulary of the original. The unreadable result struck some Anglophones as superficially impressive; but as in Tyndale’s day, self-proclaimed experts aren’t the best judge. Precisely because language that is unread changes no hearts, Tyndale adopted Anglo-Saxon syntax and Tyndale and Tintin - working with an ear to the locals... words, not abandoning Latin roots altogether (it can’t be done), but keeping them in check. And that is the essence of Tyndale’s clear and ‘modern’ style, and a good reason why we read and speak and remember his words to this day. A MESSAGE FOR HISTORIANS. After 10 years as reviewer for TSJ, I have come to observe recurrent patterns in the writing habits of historians. Stylistic quirks can spoil a reader’s pleasure or fray his or her nerves. Toby Green’s The Inquisition: The Reign of Fear (pubs. Thomas Dunne Books, 2007) is full of a mixture of fatalism and triumphalism; in burning these victims, the Inquisition sowed the seeds of its own destruction.... But nobody parodies Green better than himself—see his closing paragraph: ‘The stage was set for increasing bitterness. (...) The enemy never vanished. The Inquisition had helped in its pursuit, yet the split which had in consequence been opened up would become wider than an ocean. Thus in Portugal and Spain had paranoia bled prosperity into decay. It was the imperial society’s intolerance and pursuit of phantom threats which had ground its own empire into the melancholy runnels of oblivion.’ History is never so simple, or so linear.
But what of substantive issues? Less than full disclosure can raise questions about an otherwise excellent book. I recently read back-to-back accounts of the Battle of the Bastogne, a pivotal engagement of the closing stages of WWII, in the (very different) autobiographies of Belgian resistance leader Herman Bodson (Agent for the Resistance, pubs. Texas A&M University Press, 1994) and the beloved American broadcaster Walter Cronkite (A Reporter’s Life, pubs. Random House, 1996). Bodson begins as a mild ‘pacifist’ in the 1930s but casts this gentility aside as Nazi tanks roll into his country. His contemplative nature vanishes overnight. A Nazi soldier demands to see his papers at a checkpoint? Bodson steps on the accelerator and runs the German over, splattttt. Dozens of horrifyingly dangerous but well planned operations are carried out in coordination with the Belgian government in exile. Now, Cronkite has a different perspective on these events; by his recollection, the Belgians in London were keenly concerned about Communist influence in the domestic theatre of war. But Bodson glosses over that issue. A small detail, no matter. The important thing to remember is that Bodson memorializes his fallen comrades by setting up a monument in the forest. I ask you, dear readers, to join me in reading and pondering the following passage, as we take up the task of honoring a man who died in Belgium under very different circumstances in 1536. ‘In a simple building in the depths of the woods stands an altar in the middle of a square base. At each corner, a column supports the dome where the names of our lost friends are engraved. They are remembered there, among the singing birds and the quivering leaves. They are remembered and visited by the few who still remember. (...) They did not fight for ribbons or honors; they fought for an ideal so great and so pure it could not be remembered in a busy place.’ Neil L. Inglis Bethesda, Maryland
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Tyndale Society Journal No. 41 Guest Editor: Neil Inglis Please send all article submissions (via email where possible) to Neil at: firstname.lastname@example.org
Articles may be supplied either via Word Document, or as plain text in the message body of your email. Alternatively, we can accept typewritten copy (for scanning in) or clear, hand-written copy submissions. Artwork and photographs may be supplied electronically either via email or on CD-R (minimum resolution for all digital images: 300dpi). Alternatively, these can be supplied in hard copy form, for scanning. All type-written/hand-written copy, digital artwork on CD-R/hard copy artwork for scanning should be sent to: K Wortley, Tyndale Society Journal No.41 Barnyard, Purdy Street, Salthouse, Norfolk, NR25 7XA Deadline for submission of articles to the next issue: 15th September 2011
Introducing Museum-goers to William Tyndale Through Bible Exhibits Dr. John R. Hellstern [Note from Mary Clow: Dr John R. Hellstern, long-time member of the Society, is co-founder of The Living Word National Bible Museum with Dr Donald L. Brake Sr, Dean Emeritus of Multnomah Biblical Seminary, Portland, Oregon. The Tyndale conference ‘The Bible as Battleground: the Influence of the English Bible in America’, at Regents University, Virginia Beach in 2005, was privileged to hear a description of their outstanding Bible collection from curator, Dr Diana Severance. The following article outlines Dr Hellstern’s endeavors and struggles through exhibitions in various places in the American South to bring to the widest possible audience the extraordinary story of the heroism that produced our English Bible. Research has shown that although 91% of the US population owns more than one Bible, as in Europe, general knowledge of religious history is sparse. This is the ignorance Dr Hellstern combats. Here is his frank and inspirational discussion of his difficulties in keeping the Museum running and his experiences over many years.] The passion of my life for over thirty years has been to see a museum established specifically devoted to the Bible. I decided very early that it should be a place where treasures of the Bible would be displayed in worthy settings and the Bible’s dramatic history told with multimedia resources. As setting up exhibits involves considerable time, cost and security issues, we sought established museums with space available for extended periods. Our ‘mission statement’ said we exist ‘for the purpose of preserving original Biblical documents and celebrating the story of how we got our Bible.’ Our First Exhibit with a Short Tyndale Film Our first exhibit was set up at the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History in their entry wall cases in 1994. That year focused attention and honor on the 500th anniversary of William Tyndale’s birth. Twenty-four Bibles, from a manuscript, to early 15th century printed Bibles, to first editions of the English Bible, to a first edition King James Bible, were accompanied by a short, six minute film highlighting William Tyndale’s life. Entitled The Fire of Devotion, our film was produced at the Southern Baptist Radio and Television studios by
Board member, Bill Hendricks. The dramatic close showed the famous woodcut of Tyndale’s martyrdom in Foxe’s Book of Martyrs, with the effect of live flames gradually consuming his image. Museum staff reported positive reception for the exhibit and it was extended from six to nine months. We continued to use this short but compelling film subsequently. Second Exhibit, Display Cases, and Gutenberg Press Demonstration The Biblical Arts Center, Dallas was the location of our second exhibit. Our commitment was to remain in their 1,800 square foot Founder’s Room for one year and for this we needed secure cases. Charles Paramore, CEO of Museum Arts in Dallas, immediately took special interest in our project and designed six foot high cases with lighted windows that children and adults could easily view. A portable construction allowed the cases to be configured into “rooms” allowing a timeline arrangement for the manuscript period, the early printed Bible, and the early English Bible. Charles and his company enhanced the theme, The Art of Bible Making, with large graphics depicting each of the dominant figures of Bible-writing history—Moses, Jerome, Gutenberg, Wycliffe and Tyndale—along with other informational and inspirational graphics. We added more Bibles and artifacts, including a beautifully illuminated 13 foot long vellum Esther scroll. Positioned at the beginning of the exhibit, both the viewing of the 26 miniatures depicting the story, as well as the Hebrew script, could be read in correct sequence by the flow of entering visitors. A working press was specially built I and the actual printing of a page was demonstrated as the narrator related the importance of print in the Renaissance, the Reformation and the spread of vernacular language Bibles. The providential timing of Gutenberg’s invention of moving type was brought to viewers’ attention: whereas Wycliffe’s Bible (translated from Latin into Middle English in the fourteenth century) had to be copied in manuscript, the next century’s development of printing allowed mass production of the Bible, and the writings of the Reformers streamed forth in the sixteenth century in multitudes of copies during their lifetimes! Media facilities were expanded for this exhibit. Full-size replicas on parchment of the seven Dead Sea scrolls found in Cave One were displayed. These replica scrolls were accompanied by a computer program that allowed viewers to toggle to some of the stories about how they were found and understand their importance in verifying the text of the Old Testament. Punch button audio was made available at another case containing a first edition Geneva Bible to tell of the persecution of Protestants in England during the reign of Queen Mary. A good many questions were raised for the docents to
address regarding this period of Bible history. As previously, the movie The Fire of Devotion on Tyndale’s life was shown. Promotion went out to church newsletters, private, public, and homeschooled groups, as well as to area newspapers. Several excursions from large churches had to be divided for tours, but another multimedia exhibit in the Biblical Arts Center lasting about forty-five minutes made this task easier. Visitors to the Biblical Arts Center increased 12 percent during the year and we were invited to remain for another six months. An article in the Dallas Morning News the week before the exhibit closed brought in over 1,500 visitors on the final weekend! We were bursting at the seams, but excitement was definitely stirred regarding the Bible and the history of its transmission. I was full-time with this exhibit during the daytime. Don was with it on Saturdays, and some extremely interested volunteers helped on Sundays and the one night the museum was open. Comments were very positive and, with our time commitment ending, we felt we wanted to test the waters on our own. Third Exhibit—Launching Out on our Own For our next location, we chose Branson, Missouri, which labels itself ‘The Music Capital of the World,’ with more than 50 live theaters every night. This small town set in the Ozarks cradles three beautiful lakes and boasts ‘family entertainment’ for over 7 million visitors each year. In Branson, we had sufficient space to expand so more visitors could be present, more Bibles displayed, and we included more media. Accompanying a 15th century Book of Hours in the manuscript room was a computer screen that showed all of the illuminated miniatures of the Christmas story in the volume, changing on a six second rotation. The same was done with the rare 1536 ‘blank stone’ edition of the Tyndale New Testament in the English Room. We showed all of the famous woodblock illustrations in the Book of Revelation of artist Lucas Cranach the Younger, using the same technology.II Also in our theater area an entire busload of visitors could be seated to view The Fire of Devotion Tyndale movie, and I offered a few comments before and after the movie and invited persons to write in our Guest Book. Visitors then exited through our gift shop. One theater executive who toured our exhibit in our second year commented: “You could have done better financially if you used all the exhibit space for gift shop and the gift shop space for your Bibles!” Many memorable experiences stand out in these two years. One young boy of about seven, I will forever remember. He came with a mixed age homeschooled group. He looked to be the youngest. Demonstrating the Gutenberg press culminated with laying down the light creamy paper on the plates, calling
up someone from the group to help me pull the huge handle, then lifting off a page of the bold, black print of Psalm 150 from the Gutenberg Bible. “Awesome” immediately sprung from the mouth of this small boy on the front row! Another young lady of high school age asked to be given a reject page wadded up and sticking out of Gutenberg’s waste paper basket. She told me she wanted to do a paper on Gutenberg. I talked with her and her mother, and gave her two perfect printed pages. One was printed with only the black type and a blank space left open for the hand illumination that was individually done on every Gutenberg Bible. The other page we had preprinted with the large color initial “B” and other capitals in red and blue ink, which we then printed over during the demonstration with the black type. Her mother reported back to me months later that she had written a paper on Gutenberg for a speech contest, had won at every level and had gone on to the State contest! That was the year before Gutenberg was selected by Time Magazine as Man of the Millennium. Very early in our Branson exhibit, an elderly evangelist from Springfield called to arrange a visit. He arrived just as we were opening, which allowed me to take him through on a solo tour. As we stood in front of two manuscript Bibles, I commented that a scribe would spend as much as five years of his life copying just one Bible. He quietly prayed, “Thank God for the scribes.” As we moved on I told him about Wycliffe and his followers, and their phenomenal courage in defying the Roman Church because they believed the Church was teaching doctrines contrary to the Scriptures, and the only way he believed to correct this would be for the people to have the Bible in their own English language. Again he prayed, “Thank God for Wycliffe.” It was the same as we moved to the press demonstration, “Thank God for Gutenberg.” When we entered the English Room and I told him about Tyndale. Tears welled up in his eyes as again he prayed, “Thank God for Tyndale.” Together we viewed The Fire of Devotion film. After it finished, I asked this devoted servant of God for prayer for our Branson exhibit. We learned much in Branson beyond the issues involved in managing an exhibit open to the public. We left with the conviction that we had exposed many thousands of persons to our Bible history. Visitors’ expressions of appreciation showed that many had been deeply affected by what they had seen and learned. But above all else, we discovered that in just telling about the lives of Wycliffe and Tyndale, we were proclaiming the Gospel! Many volunteers helped us in Branson. Some worked in our Gift Shop. Two persons who had helped in our Dallas exhibit drove 500 miles each way to volunteer two weeks of vacation time to give me some respite. They demonstrated the printing press, answered questions, and recounted incidents of
Bible history. The Christian radio and TV stations supported us strongly. Greg and Celina Danaha are two committed Christians I would mention specifically. Celina helped in our Gift Shop and Greg gave Bible history tours and demonstrated the press. Greg was very interested in archaeology and was an ordained Baptist minister. At that time, however, he owned a very productive business in Branson and was not in full-time church ministry. During our two years in Branson, they made the decision to sell the business and return to graduate school for further preparation for pastoral and teaching ministry. They cited as part of their influence in this decision, their work with the Bible exhibit. Financially, our venture in Branson was a failure, as breaking into this entertainment city takes a lot of publicity capital with a long-term business plan. However, in terms of learning the potential of what a Bible museum could achieve, it was a great success. To use a theater term often expressed in Branson, exit approval was nearly universally positive! Most visitors wrote in our Guest Book or explained to me personally that what they learned was totally new to them. Many others said that they had heard the names of Wycliffe and Tyndale, but knew almost nothing about them. Even more significantly, many said that both hearing the stories of their lives and seeing the actual Bibles they had produced would change their lives and their ministries from that day forward. Others spoke the truth when they said that Godâ€™s Word is so easily available to us today, it is easy to just take it for granted. Fourth Exhibit in Tulsa, Oklahoma A missionary organization in Tulsa, Oklahoma heard about the Bible exhibit in Branson and one of their representatives came to see it. We had already made the decision to close in Branson, so we accepted their invitation to become a part of the greater museum they were establishing to tell the history of all Christian martyrs since the Apostle Stephen. A first class museum was underway! Visitors entered as though in the catacombs of Rome, with Scripture frescoes painted on the walls and around the burial places. From there the Bible exhibits with media told about Wycliffe and Gutenberg, and as they moved from the press room into the English Bible room, visitors stared directly into a prison cell. A weary-looking man sat behind a crude table with a few books on it. In the dim light of a single candle, the man was writing and the story of William Tyndale began. Just beyond, an overhead TV showed our movie, The Fire of Devotion. This was truly a worthy museum that carried the story of Christian martyrs to the present day. I spent a paid year helping design the Bible section, as well as sharing ideas for other exhibits. Through some elaborately planned dinners in
their huge meeting hall, we exposed thousands of leaders in the Tulsa community to what was coming. My part was to demonstrate the printing press, exhibit some of our Bibles, and tell a few short minutes of the Bibleâ€™s dramatic story. The museum opened in the fall of 2000, and I stayed through December. I decided that it was time to return home to Houston Baptist University Fort Worth. The exhibit remained in Tulsa until September of 2003. One capable volunteer with the Tulsa exhibit was Dr. Timothy Paul Jones. He volunteered the one evening the museum was open late and sometimes on Saturdays. Timothy was a pastor, scholar, and author who had seen the exhibit in Branson. He was the author of Christian History Made Easy. III Permanent Home for the Bible Museum The culmination of our exhibit years, and our dream of a museum devoted specifically to the Bibleâ€™s history, came about in 2008 when the Dunham Bible Museum was dedicated at Houston Baptist University, Houston, Texas.iv Cases and setting were designed by Museum Arts of Dallas. Several thousand of our Bibles are permanently located there. Some Bibles are used in rotating exhibits, while others are already being used in research. Their excellent website www.dunhambiblemuseum.com can give online visitors some idea of the splendid events that have taken place in just the past two years under the outstanding leadership of Dr. Diana Severance, museum director. I would especially call your attention to the events taking place in 2011 with the celebrations that mark the 400th anniversary of the King James Bible. It has been a personal satisfaction to me to see my former first edition King James Bible, viewed throughout the movie The Making of the King James Bible. The movie produced by Jerry Griffith for Vision Videos was filmed in part at the Dunham Bible Museum; other location footage included London, Hampton Court Palace, Westminster Cathedral, Oxford and Cambridge Universities along with magnificent scenes of the English countryside. (See www.visionvideo.com).
Notes and References My brother Joe built the press, logging precisely 298 hours of skillful workmanship. Made of Arkansas oak, it had a maple screw providing the printing torque. Some visitors said they came expressly to see the press demonstration.
ii To see pictures of the English room as it is now in the Dunham Bible Museum where our Bibles are now permanently located, go to: http://www.hbu.edu/hbu/DBM_English_Bible.asp?SnID=2.
Tim currently is teaching at Southern Baptist Seminary in Louisville, Kentucky and has published quite extensively. iii
Named after the Archie Dunham family, their major contribution made the Bible museum possible. iv
S P E C I A L O F F E R : T H E N EW T E S TA M E N T 1 5 2 6
Courtesy of the British Library, the Tyndale Society has a few remaining copies of the facsimile of The New Testament 1526: translated by William Tyndale to offer for sale to members at the special discounted prices of: £22 (inc p&p) UK; $30 (+ p&p) USA; €30 (+ p&p) Europe
Please send your cheque (made out to ‘The Tyndale Society’) with order to: The Tyndale Society, Barnyard, Purdy St., Salthouse, Norfolk NR25 7XA, UK
All enquiries to be sent via email to: email@example.com 46
Broadening the Furrow The Tyndale Society spreads the Digital Word Karen Wortley Last Autumn - anticipating a major upswing of interest in the English Bible in 2011, due to the 400th Anniversary of publication of the KJB - The Tyndale Society set forth on a major mission to raise Tyndale’s profile as its pre-eminent translator. Discussions between the European Trustees and Neil Inglis - our Washington-based editor of The TSJ concluded that the most effective way to reach out to this new international audience would be online, via the web. Therefore, The Tyndale Society set about the development of four new initiatives to put this strategy into action. 1. Tyndale Society Members & Friends Blog On 27th September - just after our tour of The London Charterhouse, the Society embarked on our very first blog posting. Since these early beginnings, there have been 46 more postings (averaging just over one and a half per week) on a variety of topics suggested by our international members and friends including: ‘The Door That Saved Charterhouse in 1666’; ‘Brenton Treads the Boards at Lambeth’ ; ‘Memorials and the Tyndale Story’ ; ‘Tyndale on TV’ ; ‘Tyndale on the Moon’ and ‘Scripture from Stars of Stage and Screen’. In terms of content, we have posted a host of Tyndale-related news items, numerous events announcements, conference calls for papers and booking forms, special discounted offers, radio and TV podcasts and digital online publications (more of that later!) Alongside the postings, there are direct links to our website and Facebook pages (more of these later too!), gallery slideshows of recent event photos, online joining facilities and most recently a map showing the country of origin of our recent website visitors But - who reads the blog? How do people find out about it? Each individual blog posting is coded with specific keywords relating to its content, which are visible to search engines. These keywords help to guide the path of those interested in the topics which we cover. Also, there are links to our blog at the foot of every email sent out by the Society, as well as on our website and the websites of other co-operative organisations. As a result of our blogging efforts The Tyndale Society’s Members and Friends
blog has grown from a modest 124 visitors per month in November 2010 to more than 450 visitors per month in April 2011 with total page views of 3,439 from 54 countries achieved over the past six month period. 2. Tyndale Society Digital Publications Our second experiment in the digital arena was to dip a toe into the waters of digital publishing. On publication of TSJ39 back in September 2010, we decided to trial an online version, to promote the title and show the breadth of our content and articles. For copyright reasons, it was decided to include the Editorial and Society-related material, but not the main articles, which would still continue to be available only in the printed edition. We decided to use an online format called ISSUU - which allows creation of a digital publication with innovative, user-friendly ‘flippable’ e-pages. The resulting document can, like our postings, be key-word coded and embedded into websites - such as our blog - for distribution. Titles are also archived and promoted on ISSUU’s own digital publishing site, for the wider world to access. The results have eclipsed our expectations. Since publication, the digital version of TSJ39 has been read by more than 1,164 individuals - introducing the work of William Tyndale and The Tyndale Society to a readership almost three times higher than our paper circulation! We plan to repeat this strategy with TSJ40 - so - watch this space... 3. Email Newsletter Our third online venture was an email newsletter facility, developed through online mailing specialists Mailchimp. This system allows us to create professional, content-rich HTML newsletters for email distribution to our Members and Friends, avoiding problems of spam-blocking and firewall issues. The system also handles our new sign-ups process through electronic sign-up forms available on our blog, website and Facebook pages. Mailchimp helps up to manage these and to develop our database of Members and Friends responsibly, in correct compliance with data protection and anti-spam regulations. Since our first e-newsletter in October 2010, we have launched over 20 editions and have almost tripled our email subscriber database over that period. 4. Tyndale Society Facebook Page The fourth and final pillar in our online strategy was to create a Facebook page for the Society, to try our hand at surfing the wave of ‘viral marketing’ -
(where Facebook users become a ‘friend’ of your page and point others with whom they are connected in its direction, to spread information). It was hoped that in this way Facebook could act as a bulletin board for our various developments and upcoming activities, to broaden our outreach beyond our current membership. Since our first entry on 17th October, advertising a call for papers, we’ve made almost 60 postings. We have developed a network of 66 - and counting Facebook friends across the world to help us to promote awareness of Tyndale’s work and of the existence of the Society. We’ve also created a linked ‘business page’ for The Tyndale Society which can be accessed by non-Facebook users via the web. This page feeds all our news straight to the home page of our website at www.tyndale.org. Facebook does not directly publish hit rates for user-pages. However, we can see from our web ‘came from’ statistics that our two Facebook pages are working to feed a steady stream of new traffic through to our blog and website. Putting Tyndale on the Map It is not always easy to measure the effect of awareness-raising initiatives, as the results can be tricky to quantify. However, in the digital arena, we are more than fortunate in this respect. Google Analytics confirms that our online initiatives over the past six months have between them published over 20,000 pages of Tyndale-related material to online users from 93 countries/territories.
Dark grey areas of the map above show the international home locations ofe Tyndale Society’s online Members and Friends from November 2010 to April 2011. Source: Google Analytics.
The list of these includes: Peru, Chile, Nepal, Ethiopia, Saudi Arabia, Congo, Lithuania, Zambia, Benin, Nicaragua, Guyana, Indonesia, Serbia, Kenya, Lebanon, Cameroon, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, Algeria, Moldova, Slovenia, Vietnam, Egypt, UAE, Croatia, Cote d’Ivoire, Trinidad & Tobago, Bulgaria, Colombia, Argentina, El Salvador, Norway, Turkey, Czech Republic, Romania, Hong Kong, Mexico, Ukraine, Malaysia, Nigeria, Sweden, Israel, Singapore, Kuwait, Brazil, Pakistan, Taiwan, Greece, Finland, Switzerland, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, Denmark, Dark grey dots on the map above show the city locations e Tyndale Society’s UK-based online Members and China, South Africa, Ireland, South ofFriends from November 2010 to April 2011. Korea, Japan, Isle of Man, Sweden, Source: Google Analytics. Cyprus, Armenia, Andorra, Barbados, Thailand, Jamaica, Channel Islands, Belgium, Spain, Netherlands, Italy, New Zealand, Russia, France, Philippines, India, Germany, Canada and Australia. In the UK, we have had browsers from 262 cities/districts. Topping the top 20 poll for most visits are: London, Camberley, Bristol, Cambridge, Oxford, Norwich, Southampton, Kensington, Edinburgh, Manchester, Birmingham, Glasgow, Poplar, Lambeth, Leeds, Nottingham, Preston, Sheffield, Edgbaston and Cheltenham. In the USA there have been visitors from 52 different regions. The top 20 of these are: Pennsylvania, California, Texas, New York, Illinois, Georgia, Florida, Washington, Michigan, Tennessee, Virginia, Ohio, North Carolina, Missouri, Wisconsin, New Jersey, Maryland, Oregon, Alabama and Connecticut. In Canada we have had visitors from 66 cities. The top 20 of these have been: Toronto, Calgary, Edmonton, Ottawa, Outremont, Halifax, Vancouver, Weston, Winnipeg, Victoria, Hamilton, Montreal, Richmond, London, North York, Burlington, Saskatoon, Lethbridge, Alliston and Kitchener. The maps above illustrate the outreach which we have managed to achieve through our online strategy. A firm fan himself of the power of portable publishing, we hope that Tyndale would have approved of our plan to harness the latest technology to drive forth the plow.
16th Lambeth Tyndale Lecture, by Howard Brenton Lambeth Palace, London 16th December, 2010
Report by Mary Clow Lambeth speakers at the Tyndale lecture are a distinguished group. Over 15 years we have heard clergy (two Archbishops), politicians, economists, scientists and writers, but never before 2010 a playwright - and one with the temerity to fashion a character ‘William Tyndale’ in the summer production of his new play Anne Boleyn at Shakespeare’s Globe Theatre on London’s South Bank (see TSJ39). On 16th December Howard Brenton - backed up by his wife and son stepped into the Guard Room at Lambeth. Beneath the impressive portraits of past residents of the Palace, he proceeded to defend his portrayal of our hero. As it turned out, all was well. Brenton is an author of wide-ranging interests: his plays have covered issues from politics and history to football, and his subjects from Winston Churchill to the Apostle Paul. It was quickly apparent
Howard Brenton lectures in the Guard Room at Lambeth
that his passionate curiosity and creative imagination are not let down by sloppy research. Brenton’s Tyndale was grounded in text and historical fact, even if the man himself was depicted in two impossible scenes as a fugitive on clandestine visits to England - and thus meeting with a sympathiser of Reform and reader of his forbidden books, Anne Boleyn. A few of us in the audience had seen the play staged at the Globe in July and August. Most had not, and Brenton made up for this by reading passages and outlining the plot, describing his research and his interest in the subject. Questions afterwards showed an involved and stimulated audience. Howard Brenton’s play Anne Boleyn will be performed again in repertory between 8th July and 21st August, 2011 at Shakespeare’s Globe Theatre on the South Bank, London. To apply for tickets, contact the Box Office on +44 (0)207 401 9919. Copies of the play are available on special offer from the Society (see below). [Note: For anyone who missed our Lambeth event, Howard Brenton’s lecture can be listened to in its entirety over the internet by Podcast. To access this feature, visit our blog at: http://thetyndalesociety.blogspot.com/2010/12/brentontreads-boards-at-lambeth.html ]
S P E C I A L O F F E R : B R E N TO N P L AY T E X TS
You’ve read the report, you’ve heard the podcast - want to find out more about Howard Brenton’s award-winning plays?
Courtesy of publisher Nick Hern Books, the Tyndale Society has copies of both Anne Boleyn and In Extremis (RRP £8.99 each) to offer for sale to members at the special discounted prices of: One title: Our price £7.99 incl UK postage
(add £1 for European or £2 for US postage)
Both titles: Our price £15 incl UK postage (add £2 for European or £3 for US postage)
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The Tyndale Society Journal Full Page(115x180mm): £80/$160; ½ Page (115x90mm): £60/$120; ¼ Page(115x45mm): £40/$80; Inserts (A5 sized):£150/$300 (Tyndale Society Members qualify to receive 25% discount on these prices)
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Evolving English - One Language, Many Voices Exhibition at The British Library, London November, 2010 - April, 2011
Report by Mary Clow
Our native speech is a mongrel tongue. The first item shown here, the Undley Bracteate, was found in a Suffolk field but probably made in Southern Denmark around AD450. On the small gold disc about the size of a UK10p/US quarter coin, a bearded, helmeted warrior’s head hovers over a huge-eyed wolf greedily suckled by Romulus and Remus, with the runic inscription: This she-wolf... The Roman Legions had marched away yet the emblem of their city survived. Three centuries later their Latin, reintroduced by the Church, was ‘cribbed’ in native English crudely written above the lines of the Vulgate Vespasian psalter for halfeducated monks of AD750. About the same date, the Derby bone-plate (possibly a Bible bookmark), has the recognisable modern English words this God. Summer is icumen in sang the revelers because Middle English had no word for ‘spring’, but plenty of vocabulary for basic bodily functions - from the 13th century the book farteth is a first recorded usage (whatever did that mean?). Perhaps Tyndale’s critics had a point when they complained that English was ‘too rude’ for Holy Scripture? However, when Henry V wrote letters home from Agincourt, he used English to make sure no important instructions to his servants were lost in translation. Among the first books to use English were Wycliffe’s Bibles (in manuscript) and there is a large, beautiful example here, gorgeously illuminated in gold and many colours, custom-made for the rich and powerful who were safe from its official condemnation, and certainly would not let the plough-boy into their library. Near to it is Tyndale’s 1525 interrupted Cologne fragment - Matthew 1-22 - which the exhibition notes as a ‘major influence on vocabulary and phrasing in later English translations, including the King James Bible’. With its modest appearance and small size it is the mustard seed of our language. From then on English expands into every possible category, and the exhibition covers them all in exuberant detail. There are books to learn from and books to play with, there are nursery rhymes and thieves’ cant, there is academic obfuscation and regional dialect, there is patois and jargon, and from the moment English became a literary language, someone was complaining that it was not written properly.
An Evening with William Tyndale The Church of The Ascension Blackheath, London April 3rd, 2011
Report by David Smith Blackheath’s special ‘Start the Month’ event for April 2011 was a wonderful Tyndale-themed evening of music and readings. The event was greatly enjoyed by over 40 audience and participants. There was much praise for the range of readings and music and the timing of the event, to coincide with the 400th Anniversary of the KJB. The programme included readings from Tyndale’s The Obedience of a Christian Man, David Daniell’s William Tyndale - a Biography, Scene 11 concerning Tyndale - from the play Anne Boleyn by Howard Brenton and a passage on Tyndale’s abduction and execution from John Foxe’s Book of Martyrs. There were also scripture readings from Genesis ch 1 vs 1-5, 26, 27 & 31 in Wycliffe, Tyndale and King James versions, Tyndale’s St Matthew ch 1 vs 18 -23 and New Testament: 1 Corinthians ch 13. The musical interludes included ‘The Truth from Above’ a West Country carol (arr Vaughan Williams), the Lutheran hymn ‘A Mighty Fortress is Our God’ and Thomas Tallis’ ‘If ye love me’ . One choir member said of the event ‘It was a pleasure and an honour to participate. Wonderful little interlude. A lot of work went into that and it was well worth it. I am sure that William Tyndale is smiling from wherever he is’.
e Church of e Ascension, Blackheath
Letters To the Editor To the Editor I am grateful to Andrew Hope for his letter (TSJ39) clarifying two areas in my article on John Tyndale (TSJ38). When there are so many uncertainties, as there are in the life of William Tyndale, his family and associates, it is doubly important that we get our facts straight whenever possible. It is worth noting that in the case of Martin Tyndale there does seem some connection with Southwark as, in the records of Cambridge University, he is apparently described as being of ‘St. Mary Overy, Surrey’ (Alumni Cantabrigienses, J. & J.A. Venn 1922-1927). St. Mary Overy was the priory which is now Southwark Cathedral. If it is indeed the case that the younger Thomas Patmore, in trouble with a John Tyndale and one other in 1530, was the son of Henry Patmore by his second wife, Julian Poyntz, then this adds a note of interest to the story of Thomas Poyntz. Although there are no references to Julian in any of the surviving manuscripts relating to the Poyntz family of Essex (neither is she mentioned on the family memorials at North Ockendon), it is fairly clear that she was a sister of Thomas Poyntz and thus the younger Thomas Patmore was likely his nephew. The sixteenth century historian John Stow tells us that Julian was described on the tomb of Henry Patmore in St. Peter’s, Cornhill, in the City of London as ‘Julianæ filiæ Wilhelmi Poines de Essex’. Clearer still is the carved inscription from the great hall at Dutton Hall in Cheshire, built by Julian with her second husband, Sir Piers Dutton. This reads ‘... this hall and all the newe chambs … were made and finished anno mcccccxxxix bi the especiall devising of sr piers dutton knight and dame julian his wiff doghter of william ponies of northok’gtton in essex’. This inscription survives today in the hall which is now a part of an estate in Sussex. This estate has recently been on the market. Whatever its new use it may be hoped that it will allow for some public access. It is a magnificent hall. We may
reflect that whilst Julian and her husband were lavishing money on this grand project her brother Thomas was in great financial straits resulting from his defence of Tyndale, his escape from prison and his flight back to England! From Brian Buxton, Kesgrave, Suffolk, UK To the Editor
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The Synod of Dort authorised a Dutch Bible, which was published in 1637. It was then authorised to be published in English by the Westminster Assembly of Divines. The scholar Theodore Haak was the translator. Here is the Dutch/Haak version of 1 John 3:4: “Everyone that committeth sin he also committeth unrighteousness, for sin is unrighteousness. Whereby is signified whatsoever is not with the law is contrary to the law, or breakeath the law.” The words used are almost identical with Tyndale’s New Testament, but the words underlined seem to support the reading in the King James Version. Does The Tyndale Society have any opinions on the choice between Tyndale and the KJV in the Dutch bible? From Robert Taylor, Longview, Texas, USA –––––––––––––––––––– ♦ ––––––––––––––––––––
Reply to above: Before I make any comment, let me set down the texts. The Dutch Annotations upon the whole Bible. London, 1657: v 4 . Every one that committeth sin, [That is, who gives himself to a sinful life, and lets sin reign over him: as also v. 8. And some following. Namely, what manner of persons soever they be, and how little soever they be esteemed by men] he also committeth unrighteousness: [that is, he committeth the transgression of the Law, or he breaketh the Law] For sin is unrighteousness. [Gr. anomia, whereby is signified whatsoever agreeth not with the Law, is contrary to the Law, or breaketh the Law.] Annotations upon all the Books of the Old and New Testament. London, 1645: v.4. Whosoever committeth sin [Good men must not flatter themselves in their sins, nor give way to their infirmities, as if they were no sins; for they are breaches
of Gods law] transgresseth also the law [It condemns their opinion, who think, that such as are freed from the curse of the law by faith in Christ, are not subject to the command of it, 2 Pet. 2.19. Jude v. 4.] sin is the transgression of the law [For, where there is no law there is no transgression, Rom.4.15 and 5.13. And these two are convertible: for every transgression is a sin, and every sin is a transgression.] Tyndale New Testament (1534) Whosoever committeth sin, committeth unrighteousness also, for (1526 and) sin is unrighteousness. (Mg. He that worketh righteousness, is born of God and taught by his Spirit.) Tyndale, The exposition of the First Epistle of Saint John (1531) All that commit sin commit unrighteousness; for sin is unrighteousness. [That the English calleth here unrighteousness, the Greek calleth anomia, unlawfulness or breaking the law. So that all sin is breaking of God’s law, and only the transgression of God’s law is sin.] Geneva Bible (1560) Whosoever committeth sin, transgresseth also the Law: for sin is the transgression of the Law. (Similarly Bishops’ Bible) AV (1611) Whosoever committeth sin, transgresseth also the law: for sin is the transgression of the law. It is clear from Tyndale’s Exposition of 1 John and the changed translation in the Geneva Bible, which was followed by the Bishops’ Bible and the AV, and later backed up by both the English and Dutch Annotations, that no difference was seen between unrighteousness and breaking/transgression of the law. And the English Annotations say that the terms are convertible. The English Annotations are often called the Westminster Annotations on the grounds that they were commanded by the Westminster Assembly, but, if I remember correctly, they were commanded by Parliament. From Vic Perry, Ely, UK –––––––––––––––––––– ♦ ––––––––––––––––––––
To the Editor TSJ39 contains articles on Calvin by Timothy George and yours on Servetus. You may be interested to know of an ongoing series of articles by WJ Grier being reprinted in the Banner of Truth magazine, which I list below. I went to the BOTT website to see if the articles were published there. They are not, but I found a reprint of a chapter by William Wileman (1909) on the subject (http://tinyurl.com/2whs7ar). Another article on Calvin from 100 years later, which mentions Servetus, is at http://tinyurl.com/345ywyd. 2009 Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug-Sep Oct Nov Dec
John Calvin's early years John Calvin: wanderings and flight John Calvin: a Protestant manifesto John Calvin: arrival in Geneva John Calvin: first ministry in Geneva John Calvin: the Strasbourg years Revolution at Geneva Geneva in Calvin’s time John Calvin: poor or rich? Calvin’s toils
2010 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug-Sep Oct Nov Dec
Calvin’s frailties and charm John Calvin: building the walls of Zion Calvin versus the Libertines The errors of Servetus The burning of Servetus Efforts for union of Protestants The brink of hostilities A city of liberty, morality, and learning Preserved amid perils The remarkable growth of protestantism in France The closing year
Calvin as a thinker From Vic Perry, Ely, UK
To the Editor We [BBC Television] are currently making a documentary with Melvyn Bragg which explores the impact of the Bible in English on our history and society. Clearly, this takes us to Tyndale - and I have a question which I wonder whether someone from The Tyndale Society, might be able to help me with? Someone has mentioned that such was the determination of the authorities to stop the smuggling of Tyndale Bibles that Henry VIII sent the navy out to stop and search ships. I have scoured the large pile of books on my desk, and also tried good old Google, and although I can find references to the banning, and the smuggling, I can't find anything which confirms the navy involvement. But if it’s true, it’s too good not to mention... does it ring any bells with you? Any information or thoughts you might have would be very much appreciated. Thank you for your time. From Alasdair Rodgers , BBC Religion and Ethics September 19 th 2010 –––––––––––––––––––– ♦ ––––––––––––––––––––
Reply to above: This is an area which I have spent a number of years investigating. I have never come across any suggestion that the navy was employed to prevent heretical books being smuggled into the country. Moreover it seems unlikely for a number of different reasons. The navy itself was relatively small and it seems implausible that in the years concerned - c.1525 to c.1538 - which were ones of high international tension it would have occurred to anybody to have used it for this purpose. There is also little or no evidence that Henry interested himself in this particular matter. The actions to prevent Tyndale’s New Testaments coming into the country were very largely if not wholly initiatives by individual officials employing such powers as they had, as, for example, Lord Chancellor (Wolsey, More), or bishop (Wolsey again, or Warham at Canterbury, Fisher at Rochester, Tunstall and Stokesley at London, Longland at Lincoln, and Nix at Norwich), or ambassador.
Most of the early attempts were to stop the production at source, which from
1526 was at Antwerp, through diplomatic pressure and criminal prosecution. These were orchestrated by John Hackett, the English ambassador to Margaret of Austria, the Emperor Charles V’s regent in the Low Countries. Hackett had a few minor successes but his approach was seen to fail when the Antwerp courts refused to convict an English merchant named Richard Harman, who had been both Tyndale’s host in Antwerp and an exporter of bibles to his native Kent. (Harman had his revenge by having Hackett arrested, and Hackett spent a night in gaol before the authorities ordered his release on the grounds of diplomatic immunity.) Throughout Hackett’s difficulties were made worse by the failure of Wolsey - contrary to most accounts - to offer him any backing. Wolsey only became exercised about the issue when heretical books started attacking him personally. He does not seem to have been worried too much by Tyndale’s New Testament. When More succeeded Wolsey he largely abandoned the policy of attempting to stop the activities of printers and publishers outside English jurisdiction, and concentrated instead on intercepting books at the point of entry, the ports, or when the book agents attempted to distribute them. To this end he put a lot of effort into obtaining high grade information either from informers or those under arrest whom he interrogated himself. He was thus able for example, to identify consignments containing heretical books by secret markings which had been placed upon them. Concurrent with these two attacks on the trade were the efforts of diocesan bishops to prevent the circulation and use of Tyndale’s bibles in their own dioceses. The most successful year for this was 1528, when large numbers were rounded up. Subsequent attempts were more difficult, probably because people had been alerted to what kinds of precautions they should be taking. Nevertheless of course there was a steady trickle of people though the church courts in the next eight years. From Andrew Hope, Oxford, UK
modern West), and so monogamy became law by imperial Edict, as it still is in the West. However slave owning was untouched, a tragic omission for which we are still suffering the consequences. (See Dr Pelikan’s last book Interpreting the Bible and the Constitution 2004, a brilliantly insightful short work.) Since Peter replied to Jesus: ‘Thou art Christ, the son of the living God’, Christians have struggled over centuries for the words to define the ineffable. Dr Pelikan quotes the Masai Creed of the 20th century: ‘We have known the High God in the darkness, and now we know him in the light’. This wonderful book lets in more light. –––––––––––––––––––– ♦ ––––––––––––––––––––
Press Gleanings ‘Christianity was never meant to be an explanation of anything in the first place. It’s rather like saying that thanks to the electric toaster, we can forget about Chekhov.’ Terry Eagleton –––––––––––––––––––– ♦ ––––––––––––––––––––
‘we should note that behind all the earlier English Bibles … there loomed a single Tudor translator of genius, William Tyndale. Tyndale, as John Foxe long ago told us and as recent research seems to have confirmed, came from the English borders ofWales, and one must think of the boy being fascinated by the sound of two utterly different languages in the marketplaces and alehouses of his childhood. In the 1520’s, Tyndale brought the same fascination to translating biblical Hebrew and Greek into English, finding the sacred languages much more suited to his native tongue than they were to the Latin of theWestern Church’sVulgate, and the English that he created could hardly be bettered. Indeed, the KJB translators did not try very hard to do so… From London Review of Books 3rd February 2011 ‘How Good is it?’ by Diarmaid MacCulloch (review of 5 books about the King James Bible)
How I Met William Tyndale... Patrick Whitten
When a figure like Tyndale looms so large in your consciousness, it’s often hard to remember exactly when he first registered. Yet I had no Damascene conversion. Looking back, a number of strands came together. Being involved through my work in the 20th century telecoms and internet revolution, it was perhaps natural to share some affinity with those instrumental in an earlier, rather similar burst of change - printing. Tyndale bravely embraced this 15th/16th century communications revolution with a vengeance. As an amateur historian I also took issue with Robert Bolt’s lionising of Thomas More through his play A Man for All Seasons, and his undoubtedly brilliant screenplay for the subsequent movie. Indeed many readers will agree it’s a real pity so many people get what little history they have from Hollywood and TV. Having no love for the Stuarts and their role in British history, I was personally affronted that Tyndale’s monumental contribution to our literature, language and thought should, with a few minor changes, have gone down in history as The King James Bible. Finally, the more I learned of the European Reformation, the more I grasped its vital political and cultural role in shaping the modern, rational world of today – a sine qua non of progress in learning and its applications in philosophy, law, science, technology and medicine. Tyndale was writing 150 years before the Enlightenment, but his work was a vital stepping stone in creating what we now take so much for granted. So while Tyndale and I never formally met and shook hands, every room I went into seemed to have Tyndale in the background – as reformer, thinker, writer and translator. With so little known about him there was something of a detective hunt, too. A distinct feeling he’d been airbrushed out of history, and a sense of righteous indignation that his role had not been properly recognised. Reading the 19th century Demaus biography only pushed me to David Daniell’s stunning account of Tyndale’s life and work. Tyndale’s tolerant and modest attitude shone through. Some of the Protestant reformers were as self righteously cruel and dogmatic as the Catholics diehards. But Tyndale’s approach was more pragmatic - ‘democratic’ as we might say. If someone could improve on his writing, fine. Justification by faith, not works, perhaps. But what works! Tyndale’s two towering successes were in helping to break the suffocating
power of the medieval church and as the father of the modern English language. That’s why he’s so important to our world. Some have suggested that if he were writing today he’d be an atheist. Whether that’s true or not – and we can never know - he was a revolutionary, and something of a prophet without honour in his own land. But his effect on our culture is incalculable and his final legacy endures with us today. Crucially he bridges the gulf between the religious and the secular, so people of faith and of no faith can be equally grateful to him.
MOREANA embraces all fields of research connected to Thomas More, Humanism and the Renaissance including History, Literature, Theology and any other relevant field capable of throwing light on More’s work and his time.
AsajournalspecializingintheSixteenthCentury,MOREANA also aims at promoting research concerning such men as Erasmus, Budé, Vives, Luther, Tyndale, Pico della Mirandola…With the aim of better understanding More’s time, the journal supports research in the history of the Church, the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation.
A special edition of MOREANA covers the 2008 Liverpool Hope University conference - Tyndale, More and their Circles - in which the Tyndale Society took part (see report TSJ No.35). It publishes the texts of the distinguished speakers and is on offer to our members at the special rates of: UK £14 (incl. p&p), USA $20 (+p&p), Europe €15(+p&p)
To receive your discounted copy, please send your cheque with order to: The Tyndale Society, Barnyard, Purdy St., Salthouse, Norfolk NR25 7XA, UK. Alternative, if you would prefer to pay by credit or debit card, please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org to request a secure online Google Checkout invoice for your purchase.
Compiled by Mary Clow
Dr Hannibal Hamlin opened The Ohio State University conference ‘e King James Bible & its Cultural Afterlife’ with a tribute to Professor David Daniell as the original inspiration for the event. It was much regretted that David could not be with us due to ill health, but his ground-breaking work to establish the debt of the KJB to William Tyndale was acknowledged throughout the conference. A full report on the proceedings and reviews of some of the many books stimulated by it follows in TSJ41.
Helen Martin, of Pennsylvania, USA has been researching the life and work of Sir Isaac Newton for the last 33 years. Even though we remember Newton as a great scientist who explained motion, Newton wrote more on theology than any other topic and thought that his theological writings were his most important contribution to the store of knowledge. Einstein stated that Newton’s theological writings ‘provide a unique insight into his spiritual workshop.’ Helen’s studies began with a quest to read and understand Newton’s theological writings and study his notes in his personal Bible. As a Tyndalian she is directed to his Bible and religious studies, and as herself a teacher of science and mathematics, she is of course his follower in these disciplines. In March she was invited by Kings School, Grantham, Lincolnshire, the grammar school where he received his early education, to make her presentation ‘e Classical Education of a Great Scientist: Sir Isaac Newton.’ Headmaster Charles Dormer and the school officials had even arranged for ‘Sir Isaac’ himself to be present - in appropriate 17th century dress. In addition to the evening presentation to the general public in the actual school room where Newton studied, she gave two talks to the school assembly in the school hall, each time for around 400 pupils. ‘It was one of the most exciting events of my life - to be able to talk about Newton in the very room where he went to school!’ writes Helen. ‘It was also a special blessing to have Tyndale Society members, Ralph Werrell of the UK and my brother and sister-in-law from the USA, Tom and Bonnie Martin, in attendance for the evening’s presentation.’ Karou Yamazaki of Tokyo, Japan describes being in the earthquake and its frequent aftershocks as ‘like getting seasick’ - a perfect example of the calm and courage of the Japanese people in these terrifying circumstances. After a brief respite in New York where she was researching the Bible on which Washington took the Oath, she is back teaching in Tokyo, in spite of the dangers.
Obituary of Dorothy Daniell 1933-2010
Dorothy Daniell, who died last November, was born in India where her father and mother were Baptist missionaries. Aged 10 she came with her family to England, and went on from school to Birmingham University where she gained a degree in Social Studies. At church she met the son of the Minister, then a student at Oxford: David Daniell. They married after graduation and for some years both taught school. They had two sons, and finally settled in Leverstock Green, Hertfordshire. But Dorothy’s artistic side led her to develop new interests. She studied and taught dance, and then art therapy which deepened into training as a psychotherapist at the London Centre for Psychotherapy. For over thirty years she worked in this field, only retiring when illness caught up with her. David always gave her his utmost support throughout her career, which latterly also involved deeply caring work with trauma sufferers at the Refugee Therapy Centre. Dorothy had a strong and thoughtful faith. The Reverend Simon Cutmore, Vicar at Leverstock Green, described her as ‘gracious, graceful, generous. A slight frame belying a wisdom accumulated through a full and diverse life and a passion for people.’ Keith Salway of The Tyndale Society wrote: ‘It was a great privilege to have known Dorothy and I have no doubt at all that her contribution to the lives of many is built already as an enduring and living memorial.’
Doroth Daniell (second from left) with Mary Clow, David Daniell and Rochelle Givoni of e Tyndale Society
Dates for Your Diary 2011/2012 ♦
April 22nd - September 4th Manifold Greatness: Oxford & the Making of the King James Bible, Oxford, UK Exhibition at Bodleian Library, Catte Street, Oxford, UK. Admission free daily until 4.30 pm. ♦
April 29th - October 3rd Reading the Book of Books, Then & Now: The KJB 1611-2011, Winchester, UK Exhibition & Lecture Series Winchester Cathedral, Hampshire, UK. Information: 01962 857225/857275 ♦
July 8th - August 21st Anne Boleyn by Howard Brenton, in repertory, London Shakespeare’s Globe Theatre, South Bank, London. Box Office: 44+(0)20 7401 9919 ♦
September 16th - 20th The Word Read - the Word Preached, Conference, Salisbury, UK Anglican Lutheran Society Conference, Sarum College, Cathedral Close, Salisbury, Wiltshire, UK. Information: Helen Harding 44+(0)1923672240 Speaker: Revd Ralph Werrell. ♦
Tuesday 25th October, 6:00-8:00pm 16 Lambeth Tyndale Lecture & Reception, Lambeth Palace, London, UK ‘What is religion? An archaeologival answer’. Professor David Lewis-Williams Professor Emeritus of Cognitive Archaeology at the University of Witwatersrand, South Africa, prolific author, most recently Conceiving God: The Cognitive Origin and Evolution of Religion, 2010. For booking form see: www.tyndale.org th
e Tyndale Society much regrets that due to unavoidable circumstances we must announce the cancellations of the following Conferences: August 3rd -5th 2011, The English Reformation up to Henry VIII’s Break with Rome, St. John’s College, Nottingham, UK
September 6th - 8th 2012,Tyndale, Erasmus & the New Learning, Antwerp, Belgium
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