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Volume 3 T Issue 2

Complimentary

Katie’s Story:

We’re all Ears! An Ounce of Prevention…

Why You Should Be Fighting Fleas NOW

Time Out!

Why Punishment Doesn’t Work

Reduce Your Risk

Common Zoonotic Diseases and How to Avoid Them


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PUBLISHER'S NOTE

Brehmer Barks HAPPY BIRTHDAY—to The Triangle Dog!! Is it appropriate for us to wish ourselves a happy birthday? Regardless, The Triangle Dog is two years old and we are so proud of everyone who has helped us get this far. If we haven’t said it enough, we want to thank all of our partners: the writers, the advertisers, the readers, the distributors, the editor, the sales team, the designer, and everyone else who has entered our life over the last two years. It is hard to believe our “baby” is already two years old. Now we don’t personally have children, but from what I have heard from friends who do, there is this thing called the “terrible twos.” In order to avoid the terrible twos with our magazine, we are trying to switch things up a bit—to keep the two year old entertained, so to speak. As you read this issue, you will find many aspects the same as before, such as the usual columns of Natural Dog, Safety 101, and Animal Health & Wellness, which in this issue focus on in-home euthanasia, dog chew options, and problems with punishment, respectively. In addition, we have added some new items such as 10 Ways…, a feature offering little blurbs on 10 ways to “help you create a better life for your dog,” and Bark Back where we can share your email and social media feedback. To help us avoid our terrible twos, we want to hear from you. Drop us a line at abrehmer@thetriangledog.com or give us a shout out on our Facebook page and let us know what you are thinking, what you want The Triangle Dog to cover, and what you have seen enough of. As we enter our second year, we want to again thank all of you for your continued support. We are thrilled to continue this journey with all of our fellow dog lovers in the Triangle and want to hear from you so we can partner in creating a better life for your dog. To a great 2nd year, Chuck & Angie Brehmer (and Morrie, Millie, Elsie, and Cindy Lu) Publishers/Editor-in-Chief

Millie

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Elsie

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Table of contents Volume 3 • Issue 2

34  Natural Dog: Veterinary Hospice: Supporting the Caregiver

36  Animal Health & Wellness: Problems with

Punishment: Let’s Throw Choke Chains in the Trash

38  Safety 101: Chewsing a Chew: Giving Dogs Safe Ways to Exercise Their Chompers

Departments: 4 Publisher's Note 5 Table of Contents 6 Masthead 7 Bark Back! 8 Contributors 24 The T-Dog ‘Round Town 26 Ask the Groomer 29 Picture This! 30 Let's Cook 32 Ask the Vet

Columns: 12  Shelter Spotlight: Great Dane Rescue Alliance 13  Adoptable Dogs: Great Dane Rescue Alliance 18  Nutrition: What’s in the Bag: Preservatives 20  Pet Friendly Business: Have Dog, Will Drink 22  Dogs @ Play: Heard about Herding?

40  10 Ways…To Enjoy a Triangle Restaurant with Your Dog

44 Training: Housetraining 101 46  Tails from the Heart: Bailey’s Gift

Cover Story:

14 Meet Cover Dog Katie by Donna S. Elliott

Features:

10 Is Your Canine Contagious? by Jennifer J. Goetz, DVM

16 Understanding Breed Predisposition

by Lisa Giannini-White, CVPM and Harrison Hill

23 Bug Off!

by Michelle Pineda, DVM

41 Coping with Chronic Kidney Disease by Brian Lapham, DVM

42 Understanding Canine Epilepsy

by Willard J. Moore and Julie Nettifee Osborne, RVT, BS, VTS (Neurology)

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Founders: Chuck Brehmer and Angela Brehmer

Volume 3 • Issue 2

“Helping You Create a Better Life For Your Dog” Publisher: Chuck Brehmer

Cover Photography: InBetween the Blinks Photography

Editor-in-Chief: Angela Brehmer

Art Director: Michele Sager

Editor: Allison Bennett

Advertising Director: Betty Schomer

Distribution Manager: Mary Price

Website Designer/Manager: Michele Sager

The Triangle Dog 6409 Fayetteville Rd, Suite 120-376 Durham, NC 27713 919-249-8364 (TDOG) info@thetriangledog.com

“Like” us on

Follow us on

On The Cover: Courtesy of: Details: Cover Photography By:

Katie Laura Kneavel & Mike Worsham “Meet Cover Dog Katie” InBetween the Blinks Photography

TheTriangleDog.com

Submissions: Please send all editorial material, advertising material, photos, and correspondence to The Triangle Dog magazine, 6409 Fayetteville Rd, Suite 120-376, Durham, NC 27713, or via email at editor@thetriangledog.com We welcome previously unpublished material and color pictures either in transparency or disc form at 300 dpi. We cannot guarantee that either the article or the photos will be used or that they will be returned. We reserve the right to publish all letters received, as well as all Facebook and Twitter posts left at The Triangle Dog sites. Advertising Sales: Send requests to Angela Brehmer at 919-249-8364 (TDOG) or abrehmer@thetriangledog.com The Triangle Dog magazine is published 4 times per year. Entire contents are copyright 2013. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted by any means without prior written consent from the publisher. Publication date: April 2013. The information contained herein has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable. However, the publisher makes no warrant to the accuracy or reliability of this information. Views expressed by editorial contributors do not necessarily reflect the views of the publisher.

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Bark BAck! Where do your dogs sleep at night? A. In bed with the humans = 61.5% B. Wherever they want = 23.1% C. Their bed = 7.7% D. Other = 7.7%

In 2013, will you be taking a vacation with your dog? A. Maybe, depends if I can find a place that will take pets = 60% B. Yes, every vacation we go on = 20% C. No, traveling with a dog really isn't a vacation = 0% D. Other = 20%

Join the Conversation Do you have an opinion or want to share an idea? 1. Become a fan of The Triangle Dog on Facebook 2. Tweet us on Twitter @TriangleDog 3. Send us an email at abrehmer@thetriangledog.com Percentages based on The Triangle Dog’s January 2013 Facebook surveys. Have your voice heard! Check out The Triangle Dog’s Facebook page to be included in the next survey.

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CONTRIBUTORS 3. 4.

2.

Photo by Lindsey McDaniel

1.

6. 5. 1. Rebecca Brodney Rebecca Brodney recently graduated from Meredith and is attending NC State for her master's. In her spare time, she enjoys exercising, reading, writing, and finding new and creative ways to spoil her dog Buttons (aka Fluffrat). Buttons is a ten-year-old, virtually untrained Shih Tzu Poodle mix. Brodney, however, says she is the one who has been trained to give into his every whim, whether it be feeding him a second dinner or scouring the house for his favorite toy!

2. Sean Drummond Sean Drummond is the stay-at-home parent of three human children and two canine kids. The dogs are both rescues from different organizations. In the midst of childcare and dogcare, he attempts to maintain a freelance writing career. You can read his blog about his adventures in the Triangle with his children at http://besteducateddad.blogspot.com.

3. Donna S. Elliott For 15 years, Donna S. Elliott was blessed to love a little brown dog named Reason, and now she shares her love with her two dogs Jules and Luna, who continue to teach her how to live with an open heart and a happy tail and to be grateful for every smile. Elliott volunteers with animal welfare causes and strongly supports making low-cost spay and neuter available to low-income families as a means of reducing pet overpopulation and ending the unnecessary euthanasia of pets in shelters. She serves on the board of directors for AnimalKind, a local non-profit dedicated to the spay/neuter cause.

4. Lisa Giannini-White, CVPM Lisa Giannini-White is a 1987 graduate of the Indianapolis School of Veterinary Management. She earned the esteemed designation of Certified Veterinary Practice Manager (CVPM) in 1994. Her special interests are teaching and empowering team members and comforting pet owners and their pet companions. She has a special place in her heart for senior patients. She spends her free time playing soccer, creating art with found and recyclable objects, seeking spiritual guidance through meditation, chakras, and universal energy, and spending time with

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7.

Photo by Lindsey McDaniel

her 2 rescue cats Braveheart and Dirt and her very fluffy rescued Great Pyrenees Sandy Marie.

5. Jennifer J. Goetz, DVM When Jennifer J. Goetz graduated from NCSU College of Veterinary Medicine in 1997, there were two things she knew about the direction of her career and life. She never wanted children and never wanted to open her own veterinary practice. Today, Dr. Goetz has a 5-year-old child, Celeste, and is the owner of Animal Hospital at Brier Creek. Her life is just one exciting moment after another and she has never been so happy.

6. Eliza Kuklinski Eliza Kuklinski is a writer and dog lover who lives in the Triangle with her dog Brooke and black cat Jax. She enjoys hiking, playing fetch (with help from her Lab/Basenji mix), baking homemade dog treats, and swimming (with her dog, of course). By the end of the day, she is usually covered in fur, dog licks, peanut butter, mud, and grass stains. She has written for several animal-themed magazines and websites and previously maintained her own blog. Now, she generally skips the blogging so she can have more time to play fetch and tug-of-war, but that’s fine with her.

7. Brian Lapham, DVM Dr. Brian Lapham received his veterinary degree from the University of Florida in 1999. His true passion lies in preventative care—preventing disease before it can manifest itself as cancer, osteoarthritis, epilepsy, or the like. Outside of the hospital, Dr. Lapham is often occupied spending time with his family, woodworking, completing home improvements (which never seem to end!), and running. Included in the mix are his menagerie of pets, currently including two cats, Pia and Kitten, and Elizabeth the guinea pig. Dr. Lapham’s daughter is still vying for a puppy—coming soon!

8. Dana Lewis, DVM Dr. Dana Lewis is a small animal veterinarian serving the Triangle since 1997. She is honored to assist her clients by providing endof-life care with dignity, compassion, and love for their pets. Hospice care improves quality of life and enables the animal maximum comfort to enjoy life in familiar surroundings and in the company of loved ones. This setting allows the family to


CONTRIBUTORS bl

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9.

11.

10.

Ph

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Av a

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Photo by Russ Lewis Maestro Prodouctions

13.

Photo by Kristen Beck

12. prepare for the loss of their beloved family member. Dr. Lewis believes that every being deserves a comfortable end. Visit www.LapOfLove.com, http://www.facebook.com/lapoflove or http://lapoflove.blogspot.com/ for more information.

9. Diane Lewis Diane Lewis is an award-winning professional dog photographer in the Raleigh/Durham area. She started photographing dogs over 17 years ago to help rescue organizations adopt dogs and she continues to do so as time allows. Lewis has been a dog lover her entire life and today she shares her home with 3 rescue dogs: Reesie, Sissy, and Romeo. She feels blessed to do what she loves every day and thanks her first rescue dog Bailey for opening up her heart to the idea of pursuing a career in pet photography.

10. Julie Nettifee Osborne, RVT, BS, VTS (Neurology) Julie Nettifee Osborne has worked at NCSU-CVM for over 15 years, continuing to support clinical research in neurology and oncology and teach support. Nettifee Osborne has extensive experience as a Licensed Veterinary Technician. She provides grant research and writing for the university and the Carl Nettifee Memorial Animal Shelter. She is especially interested in veterinary neurology including patient rehabilitation, canine epilepsy, and veterinary communications. She studies the human-animal bond and supports the DAKOTAH Fund for Humane Education through the North Carolina Veterinary Medical Foundation, Inc. Nettifee Osborne resides in Apex, NC with her husband Chris, son Jordan, 2 dogs, 2 rabbits, and assorted other foster pets.

11. Michelle Pineda, DVM Dr. Michelle Pineda is a small animal veterinarian and one of the founding owners of Dogwood Veterinary Hospital & Pet Resort (919-942-6330, dogwoodvethospital.com). She received her doctorate in veterinary medicine from NCSU-CVM, where she graduated with high honors. While in veterinary school, Dr. Pineda was presented with both the Phi Zeta and the Martin Litwack Awards for Academic Achievement. She is a member of the Phi Zeta Veterinary Honor Society, the American Veterinary Medical Association, the American Animal Hospital Association, and the North Carolina Veterinary Medical Association. She also holds a master’s in physics from Duke University.

14.

15. Photo by Diane L ewis

12. Heidi Schmidt Heidi Schmidt is the former owner of a pet retail store and is a recognized CGC trainer and evaluator. She has been a professional dog trainer for over 15 years. Heidi has been featured on television and in newspaper articles for her dog training knowledge.

13. Barbara Shumannfang, Ph.D., CPDT Barbara Shumannfang shares dog training tips and lessons we can learn from dogs at VeryFetching.com. Her new book is titled Puppy Savvy: How to Raise Your Dog without Going Bonkers. She is also the author of Happy Kids, Happy Dogs: Building a Friendship Right from the Start and is a Canine Life and Social Skills (C.L.A.S.S.) evaluator. Her teachers include a bossy, extremely adorable terrier mix and a Border Collie that makes a sound like a vuvuzela. She can be reached at barbara@veryfetching.com.

14. Karen Smith Karen Smith is a Triangle-area dog trainer at All Dogs Allowed, Inc. Training. Since 2000, she has counted not only dogs as her students, but also horses, sharks, and tigers, just to name a few! If she can train an 800 lb male tiger to stretch on command with a clicker, she can train your pint-sized pup. Karen specializes in obedience training, fun sports, and canine activities. She is recommended by area veterinarians and rescue groups. She loves snuggling one of her five dogs, three cats, or assorted other menagerie members—husband included—and tromping through the woods with a handful of dogs in tow. Visit her at www. AllDogsAllowedInc.com.

15. Linda Tilley Linda Tilley, owner and operator of Falls Lake Kennels in Creedmoor, NC since 1987, began teaching obedience in 1989, training the family and their pet. She offers Dog About Town (DAT) classes in the Butner/Creedmoor area, exposing dogs to real-life situations, distractions, and experiences. Tilley is a founding board member of the Humane Society of Granville County and North Carolina Responsible Animal Owners Alliance and is also a member of the National Association of Dog Obedience Instructors. She lives with an elderly aussie, Border Collie, sheltie, and two brown dogs—one a shelter rescue and the other a visually impaired stray rescue.

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Is Your Canine Contagious? by Jennifer J. Goetz, DVM, owner, Animal Hospital at Brier Creek

A

zoonotic disease is an infectious disease of animals that can be transmitted to people. Zoonotic diseases are common in the United States; approximately 150 are known to exist, including anthrax, plague, salmonellosis, Lyme disease, West Nile virus, worms, leptospirois, and, rabies, to name a few. Becoming familiar with diseases commonly associated with household pets is well worth any pet owner’s while.

Roundworms and Hookworms Roundworms (Toxocara) and hookworms are intestinal parasites that can affect both dogs and cats and may be transmitted to people. While these parasites are most commonly found in puppies, kittens, and cats that roam outside, they are also commonly found in the average house dog. These parasite are often diagnosed in children. While they can be contracted from the

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household pet, it is also common to contract these parasites from uncovered sandboxes, soil, and playgrounds. While these parasites are intestinal parasites in animals, they can cause a variety of illnesses in people. For example, according to the Center for Disease Control (CDC), “each year more than 700 people infected with Toxocara experience permanent partial loss of vision.” Hookworms may be contracted through the skin and can cause severe itchiness, or they can be contracted by ingestion and cause abdominal pain and severe gastro-intestinal symptoms. However, it is important to remember that parasites can be prevented. Dogs and cats, especially puppies and kittens, must be treated regularly for worms by a veterinarian. Frequent sanitation of the pet’s living area is also important. Owners should keep pets from defecating where children play. It is very important to teach children to wash their hands after playing with any animal and after playing outdoors. Children should be taught that eating dirt or items that have fallen on the ground is dangerous, and children should be taught to avoid going barefoot in sand or soil where pets may have defecated.


Leptospirosis Leptospira is a bacteria that may affect dogs and other animals, including deer, raccoons, and rodents. Leptospira is transmitted in the urine and may survive on vegetation, on soil, and in water for months. The early symptoms of leptospirosis in animals and people may be similar to many other conditions and include vomiting, diarrhea, decreased appetite, weakness, depression, abdominal pain, fever, and muscle aches. However, no symptoms may be present until liver and kidney failure occurs. Dogs can easily be vaccinated to prevent them from contracting the disease and exposing family members. Remember that even mild symptoms can be indicative of a more serious disease and warrant treatment.

Rabies With the advent of vaccinations and laws that require vaccination of all cats and dogs, rabies is far less common in the United States. However, rabies is still of epidemic proportions in wildlife. Indoor pets may

be exposed to rabies if they escape or if rodents or bats obtain access to the home. Human exposure most commonly occurs through contact with stray cats, dogs, kittens, or puppies, or through exposure to bats in the home (bites from bats often occur when people sleep and bats may leave no marks at all). Rabies in cats and dogs is extremely common in many foreign countries and can even be a common cause of human mortality, as rabies is universally fatal in people. Keeping an unvaccinated pet is not only risky for people but is problematic if the pet bites a person or another animal. Even if the pet was antagonized by a neighbor, scared by the situation, or bitten by another animal first, when an animal bites, the law requires contacting animal control. Once animal control is contacted, if the pet is unvaccinated, a 10day period of confinement away from the home at the owner’s expense is required by law. The zoonotic diseases discussed above are just a few that can be transmitted to humans from a family pet. It is important for pet owners to not only know about these diseases but to take appropriate measures to reduce the risk of these diseases to them and their families.

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shelter spotlight

Do you love big, sweet, and gentle dogs? Does your couch have an empty spot on it? Then look no further than our rescue. We are the Great Dane Rescue Alliance. Our aim is to rescue Great Danes and mixed-breed Great Danes who have been abandoned, abused, or neglected. These Great Danes come to us from animal shelters, as owner turn-ins, or as strays that were found wandering the streets. Our goal is to rehabilitate these dogs through any means necessary. We provide much needed veterinary care, positive reinforcement training, socialization, and love. This rehabilitation prepares these dogs to be adopted into loving forever homes where they can become part of the family. The Great Dane Rescue Alliance was founded in May, 2012 by an enthusiastic group of volunteers dedicated to helping these gentle giants. Our rescue is completely foster-home based. So in order to accept more Great Danes into our program, we must have more volunteers open their homes to these dogs. Foster homes get to know each animal better, so we are then able to place the Great Dane in an appropriate forever home environment through a custom matchmaking process. The backbone and strength of the Great Dane Rescue Alliance is its volunteers. Our volunteers come from all walks of life. For example, we have military families, healthcare providers, homemakers, law enforcement officers, legal personnel, business people, and a host of other professionals who work tirelessly to improve the lives of our Great Danes. You may see our volunteers and Great Danes out 12    Volume 3 • Issue 2

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doing “Meet and Greet” events at local stores, raising awareness about Great Danes and our rescue. You may also see our rescue volunteers and Great Danes at larger events and festivals, raising funds and letting the public know how friendly, loving, and social Great Danes can be. Volunteers also help to transport Great Danes between foster homes and veterinary hospitals. Plus, many volunteers use their talents to make craft items and jewelry pieces to sell at events in a fundraising effort. We are always in need of volunteers offering their time and talents or fostering one of our dogs in a concerted effort to help Great Danes. Our website (www.greatdanerescuealliance.org) showcases our Great Danes for adoption, our community events, and ways to help our organization. The website also highlights our “Veterinary Care Fund.” The fund helps Great Danes who are in poor physical condition and desperately need medical assistance to regain their playful spirit and vitality. These animals are some of our more challenging rescue cases and can use any financial assistance available. The rescue’s largest expense is veterinary care for our Great Danes. Most of the Great Danes need to be either spayed or neutered and many of them have more extensive medical issues that need addressed prior to adoption, including heartworm treatment. Please consider helping the Great Dane Rescue Alliance. Our volunteer application can be found on our website. Whether you are volunteering, fostering, contributing financially, or adopting, the Great Danes thank you!


adoptable dogs Henry was picked up as a stray by the local shelter. He is black with poorly cropped ears that lay flat on his head all the time. It’s actually pretty cute though! (Excuse me, handsome.) He’s estimated to be between 6-7 years old and has typical “old man” issues with some arthritis. He takes some medication to help with his arthritis and enjoys a good butt rub. He is super sweet and loving and wants all the attention you’re willing to give him. He’s not too terribly playful, but just wants to lie at your feet. He’d be great for an older family and has done wonderfully with my 2 little dogs and other Great Dane!

Henry

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6-7 years o

Marley is an approximately 3-5-year-old male with cropped ears and a heart of gold. He enjoys a soft warm bed, good eats, and some good snuggling. He’s great at giving hugs and is content to just lie near you. He knows sit, come, and how to shake. Despite an abusive past, he is learning to trust again. He gets along with dogs of all sizes, male and female. He shares toys but is sensitive if a dog charges him while he is eating. When Marley came to GDRA, he was heartworm positive and extremely underweight. However, he has had his final treatment and is ready to go to his forever home. While Marley cannot go to a home with small children, he is looking for the right family to adore him as he will adore them.

Jane

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Jane is a harlequin Great Dane with natural ears. She is regal, sweet, gentle, and sometimes timid. Jane’s between 3-5 years old and weighs roughly 125 pounds. When she came to GDRA, she had heartworms. But we’re happy to report that she’s received her final treatments. Jane originally only ate in her crate at night. However, she now eats without difficulty with her foster siblings. She adjusted quickly to the members of her current foster family, both human and canine. She lets children pet her, sit on her, and even good-naturedly pull her ears. Jane travels well and is crate-trained. She would probably be happiest in a forever home with female owners and other pets, although she could very well warm up to a male if he was patient and prepared for acclimation. Any family who would be lucky to have her!

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Meet Cover Dog Katie

by Donna S. Elliott Photos by Tara Lynn, InBetween The Blinks Photography

K

atie isn't only this issue's cover dog; she is also a Hurricane Katrina rescue dog. Now 7 ½ years old, Katie was born in New Orleans, LA around the time of the infamous storm. She and her 5 siblings were saved by an act of compassion and brought to the Triangle by a local rescue group. “There had been a news segment on TV in addition to an article in the Cary (NC) newspaper,” explained her owner Laura Kneavel. “I saw these dogs, and I just rushed out that day, looked at the dogs who desperately needed homes, and I knew at that moment that I was going to rescue Katie. Before 6:00 a.m. the next morning, I had faxed in my application to adopt.” Smiling, sharing a picture of Katie as a puppy, Kneavel said, “She looked like a little yellow lab, and then all of a sudden, these humongous ears just started springing up.” “For a while they were curled at the top, and then they just unfolded,” added Kneavel's husband Mike Worsham. “Now, that's what defines her. Her ears will go straight up, they'll go straight out, they'll twirl backwards, and every which way her ears are positioned, they are so big and expressive.” 14    Volume 3 • Issue 2

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Her ears will expand to full mast when she hears the invitation to walk around the block or play Kong football in the backyard, two of her favorite activities. Football seems a fitting activity for her to love, given that when Worsham and Kneavel met 21 years ago, they knew “it was right” when they realized they shared a common love of animals and football. “One of the reasons we wanted to get Katie on the cover of The Triangle Dog magazine is that she’s just not that pretty of a dog,” Worsham said with clear love and affection for their dog. Kneavel laughed and added, “She's not pretty to most people, but she’s beautiful to us. There’s just something about her ears!” Katie may not know that her ears are too


big, but she knows she is loved by her family. What she can’t possibly understand is that the act of compassion that brought her to North Carolina changed not only her life but the lives of many local animals. Katie’s rescue inspired Kneavel and Worsham to become more involved in community efforts to save animals. Now, Kneavel is active as both a board member and volunteer for the SPCA of Wake County. Additionally, she volunteers with several Trap-NeuterReturn (TNR) feral cat programs including Operation Catnip and a groundbreaking, cooperative effort with Cary police and Cary Animal Control called Cary Companion Animal Resources & Education (CARE) Team, responding to a TNR helpline. Katie lives with several cats Kneavel and Worsham have adopted through Kneavel’s rescue efforts. Kneavel encourages everyone to get involved in rescue whether through adoption, fostering, volunteering, or donating. One of her favorite events is the SPCA of Wake County’s annual K9-3K Dog Walk, held in April. Kneavel strives to be one of the top fundraisers every year and makes it easy for anyone to help by inviting donations through her web page. Visit www.spcawake. org/goto/Katie to get involved. This article is dedicated in loving memory to Sophie, a rescued Border Collie mix and Katie’s longtime companion, who passed away in 2012.

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Understanding Breed Predisposition

by Lisa Giannini-White, CVPM and Harrison Hill (Pre-Veterinary Student), Southpoint Animal Hospital Photo by Diane L ewis

E

ver wonder if your dog is at risk for predisposed genetic diseases? Similar to humans, dogs are also susceptible to genetic disorders. Most diseases are affected to some extent by both genes and the environment. A genetic disorder is one in which an abnormality in the genetic make-up (the genome) of the individual plays a significant role in causing the condition. Although some disorders occur because of spontaneous mutation, many genetic disorders are inherited. These conditions are seen quite often in dogs—mostly, but not exclusively, in purebreds.

For many of the disorders that are believed to be inherited, the specific pattern of inheritance has not been established. Breeds that have an increased risk for a condition, relative to other dog breeds, are said to have a breed predisposition. To find out if your dog is predisposed to genetic disease(s), check out the chart below.

Genes’ roles in disease are becoming better understood. Genetic factors are involved to a greater or lesser extent in congenital malformations (conditions with which an animal is born), metabolic disorders, disorders of immune function, disorders associated with aging, and cancer. These categories of disease have become relatively more important as infectious, parasitic, and nutritional diseases have become less common due to vaccination programs and advancing knowledge about nutrition, treatments, and diagnostic methods. Dog Breed* Common Predisposed Diseases Labrador Retriever

hip and elbow dysplasia, diabetes, epilepsy, cataracts

German Shepherd

megaesophagus (enlarged esophagus), hip dysplasia, food allergies, deafness, epilepsy

Beagle

cleft palates, hemophilia, Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA) leading to blindness, dermatitis

Golden Retriever

hypothyroidism, muscular dystrophy, hip dysplasia, melanoma (skin cancer)

Yorkshire Terrier

cataracts, PRA, bladder stones, alopecia (loss of hair)

Poodle

alopecia, hypothyroidism, diabetes, intervertebral disc disease

Boxer

dilated cardiomyopathy (enlarged heart), hypothyroidism, cryptorchidism

Dachshund

food allergies, diabetes, narcolepsy, cataracts, pneumonia

Shih Tzu

endocardiosis (heart valve disease), cleft palate, tracheal collapse

Maltese

cleft lip/palate, tracheal collapse

Rottweiler

hypothyroidism, narcolepsy, cataracts, deafness

Chihuahua

glaucoma, mitral valve disease, tracheal collapse

For a complete list of dog breeds and genetic diseases, visit http://www.upei.ca/~cidd/intro.htm. For the well being of your pet, it is important to collaborate with your veterinarian about preventative measures and management of predisposed genetic diseases. *Source: Ackerman, Lowell. The Genetic Connection. Lakewood, Colorado: AAHA Press; 1999. 16    Volume 3 • Issue 2

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nutrition by Heidi Schmidt

What’s in the Bag? Preservatives If you’ve been keeping up with The Triangle Dog magazine, you now have some idea of the proteins, carbohydrates, and other nutrients in dog food, but you should also consider how those ingredients are being preserved. The other additives used in dog food supposedly add to the taste, texture, stability, and appearance of the food. Additives can include emulsifiers to prevent water and fat from separating, antioxidants to prevent the fat from turning rancid, and various artificial colors and flavors to improve the appearance of the food to the human consumer. Yet, there is some doubt whether these additives actually improve the flavor for the dog! Whether for humans or their pets, all foods must be preserved in some fashion so that they remain fresh and appealing. Over the years, many types of preservatives have been used by the pet food industry. Just as in human foods, many have proved to be less effective or even harmful over time. Preservatives can be either synthetic or natural. Synthetic preservatives include butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hyroxytoluene (BHT), propyl gallate, propylene glycol (also used as automotive antifreeze), and ethoxyquin. BHA and BHT are no longer used extensively in human food preservation because of an association of long-term use and cancers. Ethoxyquin in one form is used to prevent the breakdown of rubber and in another form is used as an insecticide for apples. The “food grade” form is used to preserve dog food. Monsanto, the manufacturer, released ethoxyquin based on

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questionable data. In 1996, Monsanto completed a further study in which they reported no significant toxicity. In July of 1997, the FDA’s Center for Veterinary Medicine requested that pet food manufacturers voluntary reduce the levels of ethoxyquin by half. There have been claims that this substance is associated with disease, skin problems, and infertility in dogs. Ethoxyquin has never been tested for safety in cats. Natural preservatives include Vitamin C (ascorbate), Vitamin E (mixed tocopherols), oil of rosemary, oil of clove, and sunflower seed oil. While natural preservatives are effective, they don’t provide the shelf life that the synthetic preservatives do, so dog foods that use the natural preservatives usually cost more. Also, these foods tend to spoil upon contact with air. They are not meant to be placed in a storage container. They need to remain in their own bag with the air pushed out after opening. Other additives that are found in dog foods include anticaking agents, antimicrobial agents, coloring agents, curing agents, emulsifiers, flavor enhancers, humectants, leavening agents, pH control agents, stabilizers, thickeners, synergists, and texturizers. None of these add to the nutritional value of the food and may be unsafe in the long run. As is true with proteins, carbohydrates, and other nutrients, do your best to be informed about the preservatives present in your dog’s food.


The Triangle Dog

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pet friendly business by Rebecca Brodney

Have Dog, Will Drink Have you ever wished that you could enjoy a beer with your friends and your dog in the heart of downtown Raleigh, NC? If so, you’re in luck. The Flying Saucer Draught Emporium on 328 West Morgan Street invites patrons to bring their canine companions with them to enjoy the sights, sounds (and smells) while they sit on the covered patio, protected from the summer’s impromptu storms. One of the largest draws to this particular bar is its enormous selection of beers from around the world. The bar has a full-fledged menu dedicated solely to beer and organized by type. Of course, there’s food as well. Patrons can expect to find the staples of bar and grill-type establishments—sandwiches, fries, and a handful of unique spins on classic appetizers. The restaurant’s large beer selection in conjunction with its classic pub fare means the Flying Saucer has enough choices to satisfy any customer, from those looking for a stout import and a sauerkraut sandwich, to others craving a simple American lager and a cheeseburger. The Flying Saucer first landed in Fort Worth, TX in 1995 and has since expanded to a multitude of other southern cities. The Raleigh location opened in early 2000 and has become a staple of the downtown experience ever since. Customers are given the option of joining The Flying Saucer’s U.F.O. club for $18, which entitles them to perks such as a free Sunday brunch (buffet style), a cool t-shirt (unisex and fitted styles available), and the option to track 20    Volume 3 • Issue 2

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what beers have been tasted. When a customer has tried 200 unique beers, he or she earns a plate on the wall; the plate can be personalized with the patron’s name, a quote, a dog’s name, or all of the above! Recently, I caught up with Collin Jarman, a member of the U.F.O club, beer enthusiast, and dog owner. He had not been aware that dogs were permitted on the patio until recently, but now looks forward to bringing his own. About three months ago, Jarman decided to adopt a dog from Greyhound Friends, a shelter outside of Greensboro, NC that seeks homes for retired Greyhound racers. He named his two-year-old dog Badger and described him as “a super sweet and mellow dog.” Jarman goes to The Flying Saucer regularly for Sunday brunches, the atmosphere, and of course, to work on earning a plate on the wall. Certainly all bars sell beer, but few sell beers that cater to so many different tastes and preferences. Some bars may allow pets, but few are available in such a convenient location near downtown Raleigh. Other bars may sell t-shirts to their customers, but few offer a club to track which beers each member has tried. These traits, along with a unique and friendly atmosphere, help make The Flying Saucer one of downtown Raleigh’s top spots to grab dinner, some drinks, and to hang out with close friends—including man’s best friend!


The Triangle Dog

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DOGS @ PLAY by Linda Tilley

Heard about Herding? The most popular stock dog in the United States today is the Border Collie. Some of the other breeds used for working livestock include the Australian Shepherd, Australian Kelpie, Australian Cattle Dog, Shetland Sheepdog, Corgi, Rough and Smooth Collie, German Shepherd, Rottweiler, and Bouvier des Flanders. Stock dogs work by instincts that have been developed through the ages. Even in our technical world, working dogs are still out there doing serious jobs—competing in sheepdog trials and skill competitions and working as partners on small farms and huge ranches with flocks numbering in the thousands. The major problem I encountered when first beginning lessons with my adult Border Collie Wedge was my need to be in control. Having had an obedience background, I was hardwired to lure, reward, and praise my dog when training. My first instructor drilled me on keeping quiet, walking backwards quickly, letting the dog work, and not getting knocked over by the sheep. If the dog did something inappropriate, I could then correct that error, but above all else, I had to let the dog work. Of course, the instructor had to point out when the dog was doing something inappropriate and how best to correct. A whole new, exciting world was opening up. I realized that being allowed to work—not my presence—was at the heart of the reward for the dog. If you are interested in pursuing stock dog training, there are a couple of commands you can be working on while seeking an instructor. A really reliable recall despite major distractions will be immensely helpful. You 22    Volume 3 • Issue 2

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will need to be able to call your dog off (away from) the livestock. An instant stop—a “lie down” command— is also needed. In the working world, lie down means stop all forward movement, period. If you have taught a reliable recall and lie down command before the dog’s focus is on the livestock, you will be ahead of the game. Another activity to prepare you and your dog for livestock is participating in an organized herding instinct test put on by an experienced individual, an all-breed club, or a breed club. Attend sheepdog trials, see working dogs in action, ask questions, and seek out an experienced instructor. I can’t emphasize enough the importance of a dog’s first introduction to livestock being carefully supervised by a knowledgeable person. If the beginning introduction is handled incorrectly, it could be disastrous for all involved. Only time and experience will provide a clear picture of a dog’s abilities. Keep in mind that stock dog classes are often held in all sorts of weather. I often reminisce about early mornings when the sun, ever so slowly, crept across the frozen earth as the fog lifted, breath bellowing from all creatures, or the days of heat so oppressive the dogs were only allowed to work for a couple of minutes in the early morning or late evening before plunging into a cooling tank. I wonder for a second why Wedge and I were there, but only for a second. Watching and participating with a stock dog as he awakens to the music in his soul sends shivers through my body. To share with him his ancestral dance takes my breath away and warms my soul.


by Michelle Pineda, DVM, Dogwood Veterinary Hospital & Pet Resort

L

ast year, North Carolina saw one of the worst flea seasons on record. To avoid fleas on your pets this year, it’s important to be proactive and start planning now. Fleas are not difficult to treat once you know what to do. For effective treatment, you first need to understand the flea life cycle. When adult fleas are present, thousands of flea eggs are in the environment and hatching out in the carpet, the bed, and the upholstery. One adult female flea can lay up to 50 eggs per day. These eggs fall off the pet into the environment where they mature and hatch into maggot-like larvae. The larvae live in the carpet and upholstery. They form pupae (cocoons), which emerge into adult fleas. Within a few days, ten fleas can turn into hundreds or thousands of fleas! Even if you kill all the adult fleas that are present on a pet, the thousands of eggs in the environment will continue to hatch out and re-infest that pet. Bathing your dog in a flea shampoo, putting out bowls of water, or even flea-bombing your home won’t work because these interventions kill only adult fleas and do nothing to rid your house of the fleas hatching out from eggs in the environment.

Bug off!

or K-9 Advantix (only for dogs). These products are very different from the older pesticides and are safe and effective when used correctly. They do cost more than Biospot, Hartz, or Sergeants flea spot-on products, but in this case, you definitely get what you pay for. Purchasing the correct product is only the first part of the equation. You must also apply it correctly and consistently. Topical flea products must be applied directly to the skin. On some pets, you must part the hair and actually dig down until you see the skin. Do not apply the product to the hair. To be effective, even the long-lasting flea products should be applied every month, year-round. In short, the key to preventing a flea infestation is to purchase a newer generation flea product and apply it every month, religiously, year-round. Avoid dangerous, ineffective, permethrin or pyrethrin-based products. It is much easier to prevent an infestation than to eradicate one. Above all, follow the advice of your pet’s veterinarian.

To be successful against the flea invasion, choose a product that has a long-lasting effect so that as new fleas hatch out, they will be eliminated. There are several flea products that are very effective, but remember that not all flea products are created equal. It is important to choose a product that will be both safe and effective. Many over-the-counter flea products contain organophosphate, permethrin, or pyrethrin and are either ineffective or not as safe as they claim to be. These outdated insecticides have been available for many years and are the main active ingredients in the less expensive, over-the-counter flea spot-on products, such as Biospot, Hartz, or Sergeants. In addition to safety issues, they just don’t work as well as the newer medications. The newer generation flea control products include Frontline, Advantage, Revolution, oral Comfortis, The Triangle Dog

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The t-Dog 'round town Photos by Tara Lynn, InBetween The Blinks Photography

Westminster Kennel Club–137th Annual All Breed Dog Show Nearly a dozen dogs from the Triangle took a trip to the Big Apple to compete in the Westminster Dog Show. The two-day competition featured more than 2,500 dogs from all over the country. Local dogs Tashi the Tibetan Terrier, Winston the Beagle, and Jelly the yellow Labrador Retriever enjoyed being pampered as part of the festivities. Congratulations to JJ the Pug, whose owner lives in Chapel Hill, NC, for finishing first in his breed and fourth in the group competition!

Operation Kibble Drop Several area rescues received a big donation just in time for the holidays. Ellen DeGeneres, who co-owns Halo, Purely for Pets, teamed up with Freekibble.com for the second annual Holiday Kibble Drop. The initiative delivered 500,000 meals of all natural Halo Spot’s Stew to pets in need across the country. Phydeaux hosted the Raleigh Kibble Drop, one of 14 stops for this year's donation program.

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The t-Dog 'round town

Woof Gang Bakery Birthday Celebration In January, Woof Gang Bakery in North Raleigh celebrated its first year of business with both two and four-legged guests. From grooming to specialty collars and tasty treats, Woof Gang developed loyal customers quickly during its first year. All guests of the celebration, including canines, enjoyed good company, great appetizers, and delicious cake! There were also several chances for people to win prizes, including a year's worth of dog treats! Congrats Woof Gang!

“Helping You Create A Better Life For Your Dog”

www.thetriangledog.com Safety

Wellness

Rescues

Cooking

Careers

Sports Nutrition

The Triangle Dog

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ask the groomer

Beth Johnston Owner, Beth’s Barks N Bubbles, LLC in Durham.

A:

Q:

I recently took my dog to be groomed and my groomer noticed some red bumps on my dog’s Renee B., Mebane, NC skin. She suggested I have her checked by her vet, and her vet just diagnosed her with folliculitis. What is that? Can she develop it again?

Folliculitis can have many causes such as allergies, skin trauma, stress, and environmental changes, or it can be the symptom of a more serious underlying disorder. That is why I am glad to hear that you immediately took your pet to your veterinarian for diagnosis and treatment. Only your veterinarian can make the diagnosis and try to determine what may have caused it to occur in the first place. As to whether or not it could recur, it depends on what caused it to develop in the first place. Identifying and eliminating the cause will certainly help it from recurring! Be aware of the signs of folliculitis. If your pet has long hair, watching for signs can prove to be difficult. Signs to look for include small pimples, lesions, or crusts that can occur in a single area or over multiple areas. Your dog may also scratch the area or find other ways to rub the itchy skin. This scratching often leads to reddish brown discoloration of the hair, hair loss, dull coat, raised patches of wiry hair, and excessive shedding. Treatment usually consists of administering oral antibiotics, daily shampooing with an antibacterial shampoo until the issue is resolved, and applying an antibiotic cream. Treatment may vary depending on the cause and severity. Follow through with your veterinarian’s instructions and I hope she is feeling better soon!

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Q:

I just adopted a dog from a local breed rescue group and he is a happy guy but quite a handful. His hair is long and I am concerned Linda H., Durham, NC about my groomer being able to manage him! What can I do to help prepare him for the grooming process and calm him down?

A:

Congratulations to you on your family addition! Sadly, pets are given up for many reasons and it is possible that your dog has never received proper direction or socialization. If your dog has been deemed healthy by your veterinarian, immediately start looking for ways to exercise your dog. Depending on what breed of dog you have adopted, the exercise requirements could be quite high. Look into a training class and a dog park or swim facility to drain some of that energy. Also remember that mental exercise is just as important as physical exercise; teach him some tricks! Contact your local groomer to see which trainers in the area he or she recommends. There are many different approaches to dog training, and if you are planning on using a groomer who already has a good rapport with a trainer and similar training beliefs, that will go a long way in your training program and will make the grooming process safer and less stressful for your pet. Additionally, pick times when your dog is tired to hold the face, lift up or clean the ears, pick up the feet, lift the tail, etc. Practice brushing and combing your dog. Practice “stays” and teach your pet to be still for short moments. If you run into a situation where you are not able to safely groom or handle your dog or you feel like your dog has the upper paw, please stop and get expert guidance from a local groomer or trainer. It is important to establish good habits early on, because once bad ones are created, it can be more difficult for your groomer to safely manage your pet and also more time consuming for you and your trainer to undo undesired responses or reactions. Good luck! The Triangle Dog

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picture this!

e Pho to by Clair Ramag

Bronco Photos by Olivia Lynn Photography

Photo by Sara Ire land

Khloe

Photos by Amy Ingram

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Stryder Judith Marquez

Snow

Photo by Ryan Mauchma r

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Photo by Joy Ingalinera

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Izzy

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Oliver Pickels

Khloe

* If you want to submit your dog’s photo for one of our next issues, visit us on Facebook and post your picture, or send it to info@thetriangledog.com.

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Sa ele

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Penelope Pitstop

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Photo by Erin Crenshaw

Kahlua

The Triangle Dog

Gala T Volume 3 • Issue 2      29  


let's cook

by Angela Brehmer

Doggy Granola Bars Your dogs will love these sweet bars as an “anytime” treat. Because this treat recipe calls for a large can of pumpkin, it yields a larger quantity. If this batch seems too big, you can cut the recipe in half and use the rest of the pumpkin for a treat on your dog’s dinner. Another option is making the entire batch and freezing what you won’t use within a few days. Instructions Prep time: 20 minutes Skill level: low

Cook time: 1 hour

Ingredients • 11 cups oatmeal

1. Preheat oven to 325˚. Lightly grease two cookie sheets. 2. Mix all ingredients in a large bowl (keep in mind you are using 11 cups of oatmeal). Thoroughly mix the ingredients and then pour the mixture onto the greased cookie sheets.

• 3 1/2 cups whole wheat flour • 8 eggs • 3/4 cup vegetable oil • 2/3 cup honey • 1/2 cup molasses • 2 cups whole milk • 1 large can pumpkin • 4 mashed bananas, very ripe

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3. Bake for 1 hour. Then, turn the oven off and let the granola cool in the oven. Once cool, cut the granola into bars of any size or break off pieces as you use them to treat your dog.


The Triangle Dog

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ask the vet

A graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, Dr. Diane Deresienski has been with Bowman Animal Hospital since 1993. She has also been an Adjunct Assistant Professor of Clinical Sciences at NCSU College of Veterinary Medicine since 1997. In 2011, Dr. D. became Medical Director of Bowman Animal Hospital. She enjoys surgery, internal medicine, and dermatology cases. She is certified in PennHIP radiographic technique and in Canine/Feline Practice through the American Board of Veterinary Practitioners since 2000. She has also been featured on Animal Planet’s “Pets 101.” As an exotic animal veterinarian, she sees a variety of pets ranging from birds and reptiles, to small mammals such as rabbits, ferrets, and guinea pigs.

Dr. Diane Deresienski , VMD, DABVP

Q: A:

Dear Dr. D., I know I am supposed to exercise my dog, but I'm not sure how much is healthy. Can you give me any insight? ~ Kent, Apex, NC

Dear Kent,

You are right: it is very important to give your dog exercise. Many of our family pets lay around on the couch all day while we run to work, go shopping, pick up the kids, etc., and when we get home we’re too tired to take them out for exercise. No wonder over 60% of dogs in the US are overweight or obese! On average, it’s recommended for dogs to get 1-2 hours of exercise daily to help keep them healthy. Of course there’s a lot of variation on that recommendation depending on the breed and age of your dog. A highenergy dog such as a Brittany Spaniel or Border Collie could very well use 4-6 hours of exercise daily, while a small breed dog such as a Shih Tzu or Pekingese would not need that much exercise at all. Finding out how much exercise your dog needs takes some investigation. Always exercise your pet during the coolest part of the day. Never push your dog to exercise if he or she sits or lies down during a time of exercise. Watch for any wheezing, difficulty breathing, weakness, or lameness, and stop immediately if any of these symptoms are

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observed. In general, most dogs will let you know how much they want to exercise. For high-energy dogs, it’s a good idea to have a ball or toy to throw, because you may tire out before they do! I have clients who are long distance runners who actually train with their dogs. As long as you increase the miles gradually, and the dogs do not show any lameness or injury to their feet, dogs can run long distances too. If you are planning any long distance running with your dog, it’s best to check with a veterinarian prior to getting started.


Q: A:

Dear Dr. D., I have heard about microchips for dogs. Do you recommend them? ~ Suzie, Raleigh, NC

Dear Suzie,

I highly recommend microchips; thanks for asking about them! I have many happy reunion stories between pets and their distraught owners thanks to microchips. There are many unpredictable circumstances and events that can lead to the loss of a pet. Collars and name tags are a good idea, but they can fall off, leaving a pet unidentifiable. Microchipping your dog is a permanent way to identify where he or she lives and that you are his or her owner. A microchip is a high-tech instrument the size of a rice grain. It consists of a tiny computer chip that can store information. This microchip is injected through a needle under the skin of your dog, insuring that it will stay in place. We often place microchips during a spay or neuter surgery in young dogs, but it can also be placed at any time in a conscious dog. Usually dogs don’t feel any more than they would from a vaccine injection. The newer microchips are designed to stay in one place, generally between the shoulder blades where we implant them. Some of the older models migrated a bit under the skin, making them a little harder to find. A handheld scanning device is used to read the microchip. Most veterinarians and animal control officers have one of these devices. If you find a dog that is lost or without his or her owner, it’s best to bring the dog to a veterinarian to scanfor a microchip. The most important part of the microchip implantation is to register the microchip with your name, address, and phone number. Be sure to ask your veterinarian how to register the microchip in your name. It’s always sad to find a lost dog with an unregistered microchip or with a microchip storing outdated information. Got a question? Email me at dderesienski@bowmananimalhospital.com. The Triangle Dog

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natural Dog

by Dana Lewis, DVM, owner, Lap of Love Veterinary Hospice

Veterinary Hospice: Supporting the Caregiver

If you have ever cared for a geriatric or terminally ill pet, then you know what it’s like to hear those dreaded words, “There is nothing more we can do” ; or it’s even worse if your veterinarian simply says, “Call me when it’s time . . . you will know when that is.” However, euthanasia is not the only option available to you. Veterinary hospice is an emerging field in veterinary medicine and is a unique approach to your pet’s end-of-life needs; it is a familycentered service dedicated to maintaining comfort and quality of life for your pet until natural death occurs or your family elects peaceful euthanasia. As a veterinarian who solely practices in-home hospice and euthanasia, I have been given the unique privilege of helping families during, what I believe is, the most important time they have with their pet. So often a pet owner who has just heard that his or her pet has a terminal illness needs time: time to think, adjust, and make decisions. Veterinary hospice care supports both the pet and family during this time. Neither the family nor the pet should have to feel rushed or anxious at the end. The first and most important step in hospice care is educating yourself about your pet’s medical condition, so that you know what to expect in those last few months, weeks, or days. On our website and our blog, we have information on many common diseases our companion animals suffer from. As part of hospice, I discuss your fears and goals with end-of-life care and help you make the best decisions for you, your pet, and your family. The second step is making sure your pet is appropriately treated for comfort and/or anxiety. Veterinary hospice is not about giving pets such high doses of medication that 34    Volume 3 • Issue 2

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Photos by Russ Lewis

they can’t function; it’s about making sure they feel good throughout the day and have a comfortable full night’s sleep. The third step in hospice care is evaluating quality of life. Determining quality of life is easier when you have a scale and diary to help guide you; our scale can be found online at www.LapofLove.com. Many factors affect the euthanasia timeline, including the disease, its progression, and the current health of the patient. Our scale allows you to monitor your furry family member on parameters like appetite, mobility, and energy and alerts you to any trends. By using this scale, you can determine where your pet is in terms of his or her condition and if medical intervention or even euthanasia is appropriate. As a result, I can assist in implementing a plan that will meet your pet’s needs and respect your family’s wishes. Some of the consult/hospice services I provide include: • In-home consultation, where I can observe your pet in his or her natural surroundings and make suggestions for changes in the environment to improve your pet’s quality of life.


natural Dog • Evaluation of your pet’s comfort level and advice on possible changes in medication, fluid therapy, nutritional support, appetite stimulation, wound care, or pain management to make your pet more comfortable. • Connections between you and in-home groomers, acupuncturists, laser therapy veterinarians, nutritionists, or oncologists. • Handouts for particular diseases, including disease explanations, stages of progressive decline, and recommended treatments. We all wish for a peaceful, natural passing, but it is not always that simple, fast, or painless. As pet parents, we are responsible for making sure our pets do not suffer—even if that means we have to suffer a little ourselves and make tough decisions. When the time comes for euthanasia, I give medications to relax and calm the pet. This process gives you the opportunity to say goodbye in a calmer state of mind in the peace and privacy of your home. Every being deserves a comfortable end, and having your pet at home allows him or her to enjoy the last days of life in familiar surroundings and in the company of loved ones.

The Triangle Dog

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ANIMAL HEALTH & WELLNESS

by Karen Smith, owner, All Dogs Allowed, Inc.

Problems with Punishment:

Let’s Throw Choke Chains in the Trash

Geek alert —

did you know that dog training is actually based in science? As a biology–major–turned–trainer and animal behaviorist, I’ve long been fascinated by how animals— specifically dogs—learn, communicate, and interact. Turns out I’m not the only one. There are canine cognition centers all over the world that do just that—research to discover more and more about dogs and how they solve problems, take risks, and most importantly, learn by living and interacting with humans. Some fascinating discoveries have been made, dozens of articles worth, but the main one I’d like more and more pet parents to pay attention to is this one:

Punishment is not an effective method for changing a dog’s behavior.

1. Dogs learn through repetition and association. If, for example, your dog lunges toward other dogs while on a leash and you give a hard yank with a prong collar, after a few repetitions, your dog begins to equate passing dogs with pain and tension. Dogs anticipate what is going to happen next (think about what happens when you grab your car keys!), so after a while your dog sees another dog coming from far away, anticipates the pain of the prong collar, and your dog’s behavior around other dogs while on a leash worsens rather than improves. 2.  Punishment can cause serious physical or psychological injury. Prong and choke chains, for example, raise intraocular pressure, cause tracheal and skeletal injuries, and damage the nerve endings around the neck. Yikes! 3. Punishment can cause aggression. Studies in the 1960s all the way to 2012 have continued to find the same results: animals that are trained with physical punishment have a higher likelihood of developing or showing aggressive behaviors toward people, animals, and even inanimate objects.

Some of the more common forms of punishment that are sometimes still seen in use today include but are not limited to prong collars, choke chains, electronic collars, and leash corrections.

4.  Punishment can suppress important natural warning signs of aggression. For example, if you have a dog that is uncomfortable around children, he or she may try to let you and the child know he or she needs space by curling up a lip, growling, or showing teeth. If dogs are punished for showing this warning, they will soon learn to withhold those key signs of discomfort. Then when a child approaches, they appear normal—until they become so uncomfortable they bite with no warning.

There are many undesirable consequences of these so-called training tools, but I’ll mention a few key consequences here:

The most successful pet parents work with trainers who are current on research and use humane and proven methods grounded in science

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ANIMAL HEALTH & WELLNESS

to bring about results. These trainers look to change the state of mind from overly excited or uncomfortable to calm and confident through combinations of desensitizing, counter conditioning, and rewarding the desired behaviors to build habits. They’ll swap out your choke chain and citronella collar for a freedom harness and clicker, and away you go on a great adventure where you and your dog work together as a team to accomplish amazing things. For a list of trainers in your area who are committed to avoiding improper use of punishment, check out the K9 Kindness group at http://www.k9kindness.org/. To find out what your dog’s learning style is, sign up to be a part of the exciting citizen science at http://dognition. com/ or sign up for a day or two at the Duke Canine Cognition Center at http://evolutionaryanthropology. duke.edu/research/dogs. Happy training!

The Triangle Dog

T Volume 3 • Issue 2      37  


safety 101 by Sean Drummond

Chewsing a Chew:

Giving Dogs Safe Ways to Exercise Their Chompers It’s not news to dog parents that dogs like to chew. What dog owners may not know is that chewing on the right objects can keep their dogs’ teeth and gums healthy. According to the Veterinary Oral Health Council (VOHC), the veterinary version of the American Dental Association, chewing reduces plaque and tartar on a dog’s teeth, which is why most veterinarians recommend feeding dry kibble instead of canned dog food. In addition to dry food, chew treats can be a great way to eliminate doggie boredom, while at the same time giving your dog’s teeth a good brushing. But with the wide variety of chews on the market and the recent safety recalls—chicken jerky treats from China linked to kidney disease and pigs’ ears from Illinois tainted with salmonella—it’s hard to know what kinds of chew treats are safe to give dogs. And then there’s the continuing debate over rawhide—such a controversial little bovine by-product. Chews can be hard or soft, edible or inedible, even vegetarian. Deciding on a chew can be like playing a game of Operation. There are tracheas, aortas, tendons, and hooves, all of which are castoffs from the beef processing industry. Bully sticks are popular 38    Volume 3 • Issue 2

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if you can get over the fact that you’re giving your dog bull genitalia. Pigs’ ears are high in fat and don’t offer much benefit to your dog’s teeth. Deer antlers round out the list of chews made from animal parts. Then there are the compressed and formed chews made of grain and poultry protein. Dogs with grain or other food allergies need to steer clear of these. Corn starch chews even offer dogs a vegetarian option. There are also inedible chews on the market; two of the most popular are Nylabones, which are made of polymers, and the Kong, which is made of rubber. Because of the debatable status of rawhide (whether it’s safe and edible, or unsafe and inedible), it deserves its own discussion. Rawhide comes in two forms—compressed or rolled. Compressed hide is ground up into small pieces, pressed into a mold, and held together with a binding agent. Rolled hide is simply dried and rolled into those familiar bone shapes with the knots on each end. Rawhide itself is the un-tanned, inner layer of skin from the hide of cows or, occasionally, horses. The hide is dehaired using lye or lime, washed in hydrogen peroxide, stretched, dried, formed into the shape of the final product, and finally heated to cure it.


safety 101 One of the concerns about rawhide is where it is processed. Besides the fact that the US has stricter standards concerning rawhide production than other countries, most of the hides used come from American cattle and have to be shipped for long months to China or South America for processing, giving the hides plenty of time to decompose and gather nasty bacteria, so they have to be treated with more, possibly toxic, chemicals. Consequently, when buying rawhide, it’s best to buy American. And read packages carefully to make sure the hide is not only from American cattle, but also processed in the US. The other issue concerning rawhide is its digestibility. Some dogs are born with sensitive stomachs and rawhide simply presents another hurdle for their digestive tracks. Dogs that have any problems with recurrent stomach upset should not be given rawhide. The danger of rawhide and any other chew treat is that pieces small enough to be swallowed but too big to digest can lodge in your dog’s intestine, creating a blockage. The blocked area loses blood flow and eventually dies. The dead tissue rots, creating infection,

which could lead to the death of the animal. Vomiting, bloody stool, diarrhea, refusal of food, and abdominal pain can all be signs of a blockage. If you notice any of these symptoms in your canine, it is important to get veterinary attention quickly. Chew treats should only be given when you are able to supervise the chewing so you can make sure Fido doesn’t swallow something he can’t digest. And although chewing is meant to help your dog’s teeth, hard chews can actually do more damage by breaking teeth, especially in older dogs and dogs with soft or decayed teeth. Dr. Dana Lewis, veterinarian at Lap of Love Veterinary Hospice, recommends chews that can be bent with the hands or dented with a fingernail. After 7 days, or when the chew is whittled down to small pieces, take it away. Edible chews should be given sparingly like any other treat since the excessive calories can contribute to obesity. If you want to know which chews have been endorsed by the VOHC, you can go to their website at http://www.vohc.org, where you’ll find a list of approved foods and chews.

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10 Ways...

. . . To Enjoy a Triangle Restaurant with Your Dog Though your dog may not be able to actually enter the restaurant with you, these Triangle-area restaurants have great outdoor seating areas where Fido is welcome. Some of them might even offer up a bowl of water for your pup. Just be sure to keep your dog on a leash and teach your pup some table manners before you go.

1. Open Eye Cafe

6. Foster's Market

101 S. Greensboro St.

2694 Durham-Chapel Hill Blvd.

Carrboro, NC 27510 919-968-9410

Durham, NC 27707 919-489-3944

2. Hibernian Pub

7. Tomato Jake’s Pizza

1144 Kildaire Farm Rd.

8202 Renaissance Parkway

Cary, NC 27511 919-467-9000

Durham, NC 27713 919-572-7722

3. Spirits Pub & Grub

8. Sushi Gami Bar and Burgers

701 E. Chatham St.

427 Woodburn Rd.

Cary, NC 27511

Cameron Village

919-462-7001

Raleigh, NC 27605 919-833-8883

4. Brixx

9. Z Pizza

501 Meadowmont Village Cr.

9630 Falls of Neuse Rd.

Chapel Hill, NC 27517

919-844-0065

919-929-1942

Raleigh, NC 27615

5. Weathervane

10. The Village Draft House

201 S. Estes Dr.

428 Daniels St.

University Mall

Raleigh, NC 27605

Chapel Hill, NC 27514

919-833-1373

919-929-9466

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Coping with Chronic Kidney Disease by Brian Lapham, DVM, Southpoint Animal Hospital

C

hronic kidney dis e as e (CKD) is one of the most common diseases of senior animals. Two decades ago, a diagnosis of CKD was devastating, with most dogs and cats only living for weeks beyond their initial diagnosis. But advances in medicine over the last 15 years have allowed some of these pets to live for years after their initial diagnosis. Some of the earliest signs of CKD that you may see in your pet include increased water consumption and urination, a poor coat, weight loss, and/or a decreased appetite. However, some pets may show no signs of CKD until their disease is very advanced.

The guidelines for treatment and management of CKD are simply outlined by the acronym NEPHRON. The nephron is the basic filtering mechanism of the kidney. The goal in the management of CKD is to preserve as many nephrons as possible. When it becomes nonfunctional, the kidney cannot do its job of removing toxins from the bloodstream. When these toxins accumulate, your pet will begin to experience nausea, increased thirst, and a host of other detrimental side effects, most of which are not visible to the casual observer. Although CKD is not curable and will inevitably progress, its progression can be slowed and the toxic side effects can be minimized. Many pets can live for years with simple proactive therapy and periodic monitoring.

The causes of CKD are varied, but the disease is often the result of natural aging. CKD is diagnosed through lab work. Simple blood and urine tests will show changes in the function of the kidneys, protein loss through the kidneys, or a lack of urine concentrating ability. CKD is most often diagnosed during routine senior wellness exams. Early diagnosis, before your pet is showing clinical signs, can result in significantly longer life spans and help determine what steps you can take as an owner to improve your pet’s quality of life.

N – Nutrition E – Electrolytes P – Ph of blood H – Hydration R – Retention of wastes and estriction of protein O – Other renal insults (certain drugs, stress, UT infections) N – Neuroendocrine function (monitoring anemia, phosphorus) S – Serial monitoring (lab work, blood pressure)

The Triangle Dog

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Understanding Canine Epilepsy:

by Willard J. Moore and Julie Nettifee Osborne, RVT, BS, VTS (Neurology)

How One Dog’s Disease is Changing the Outcome for Pets and Their Owners

Witnessing a seizure in a canine companion is one of the most unsettling events any pet owner can face. Primary (idiopathic) epilepsy is a recurrent seizure disorder that has no identifiable cause and is believed to be inherited in many breeds including Golden Retrievers, Beagles, Standard Poodles, and Labrador Retrievers. Dogs most commonly develop primary epilepsy between 1-5 years of age. What is a Seizure? A seizure is a transitory disturbance in brain function due to abnormal electrical discharges from brain cells. There are two basic categories of seizures. Generalized seizures involve the body symmetrically and are characterized by the animal falling, losing consciousness, paddling, urinating, defecating, salivating, and demonstrating chewing motions. Focal, or partial, seizures involve only a localized area of the brain and produce fly biting, facial twitches, head turning, and/or alterations in behavior. Following seizure activity, many dogs also experience a period of confusion, disorientation, restlessness, aggression, or temporary blindness, which is called the postictal period. The postictal period may last minutes to hours. How Will Epilepsy Affect Your Pet’s Life? Epileptic pets behave normally between seizures and generally live a normal life span if the seizures are 42    Volume 3 • Issue 2

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controlled well with medications. A well-controlled epileptic can be expected to seizure less than once per month. Occasionally, side effects from the medications may affect a pet’s life span. Due to the likely genetic link, epileptic pets should not be bred, and females should be spayed because hormonal changes associated with the heat cycle are believed to lower the seizure threshold. It is helpful to maintain an accurate seizure log to document any changes in frequency, intensity, or duration of the seizures, and you should notify your veterinarian if any changes are observed. Blood work should be performed at least every 12 months to monitor your pet for antiepileptic medication side effects. What Should You Do If Your Pet Experiences Seizures? If your pet experiences a seizure, remain calm and time the seizure. Make sure your pet is on the floor so he or she cannot fall. Remove furniture from the immediate area and protect your pet from water, stairs, children, and other pets. Animals are not at risk of swallowing their tongues; do not reach into their mouths or place items in their mouths. Record the date, length, and description of the seizure in your seizure log. Seizures normally last a couple of seconds to a couple of minutes. If the seizure lasts longer than 5 minutes or if there are multiple seizures in one day, contact your veterinarian. Continue to watch your pet closely during the postictal period.


How is Primary Epilepsy Diagnosed? Primary epilepsy is diagnosed by excluding all other causes for the seizures. All dogs should undergo thorough patient history, physical examination, and blood work to rule out toxin exposure and systemic disease. Based on these findings, a presumptive diagnosis of primary epilepsy is made in most dogs. Additional testing, including brain imaging (CT scan or MRI) and spinal tap may be needed to rule out structural abnormalities in the brain, such as cancer or inflammation. These tests are typically recommended in a dog that begins to have seizures at a very young or older age, has an abnormal examination, or does not respond as expected to antiepileptic drugs. When all tests have been performed and no abnormalities noted, a definitive diagnosis of primary epilepsy is made. How is Primary Epilepsy Managed? There is no cure for primary epilepsy; however, there are several antiepileptic medications available that can help control the frequency and intensity of the seizures. These medications come with potential side effects and need to

be properly administered by the owner and monitored by a veterinarian. The most frequently used medications include Phenobarbital and potassium bromide. These medications will likely need to be given for the duration of the pet’s life. Other Antiepileptic Medications When seizure frequency is not adequately controlled by Phenobarbital and/or potassium bromide or unacceptable side effects occur, alternative medications can be used to attempt to manage the seizures more effectively. They include felbamate (Felbatol), gabapentin (Neurontin), levetiracetam (Keppra) zonisamide (Zonegran) or pregabalin (Lyrica). Additional Canine Epilepsy Resources: www.canine-epilepsy.com www.canine-epilepsy.net www.tobysfoundation.org http://www.canine-epilepsy-guardian-angels.com/

A Mission for Molly Willard Moore knows firsthand about epilepsy in canine companions, having adopted an English setter, Molly, from a shelter. Shortly after adoption, Molly began to have debilitating seizures. Although her life was shortened due to the disease, she lives on in outreach, education, and funding efforts to support clinical research. What began in 2007 as a donation to Canine Epilepsy Genetics research has turned into a mission for Moore and “Angel Molly.”

rescue fundraiser, hunt competition, or test, some fine people visit her table. Many visitors know firsthand about epilepsy; their stories are all different but have a common theme…the monster known as epilepsy,” noted Moore.

In the fall of 2007, Moore decided to bring attention to canine epilepsy research at the Dog Olympics sponsored by the NCSU-College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM). Volunteering under the direction of Dr. Karen Munana, a veterinary neurologist at NCSU-CVM, Moore developed visual aids starring Molly. Since 2007, Moore and Angel Molly have supported Canine Outreach and Education at many events, including the AKC-sponsored Responsible Pet Ownership Day, The Tar Heel Cluster, local agility trials, Schnocktoberfest, and Yappy Hour sponsored by Chatham Animal Rescue and Education.

Moore commented that having “lost [my] pal to canine epilepsy, I feel the need to bring information about canine epilepsy research to people who are looking for help and direction.” Partnering with NCSU-CVM, Moore has found his mission. Moore explained, “One man who took literature from Molly’s table had an American Fox Hound suffering from clusters of gran-mal epileptic seizures. His dog was taking Phenobarbital and potassium bromide. Six months later, I saw this fellow at another dog show and he told me his dog was doing much better. With the help of his vet, he was able to enroll in a clinical program at CVM because of the literature he picked up at Molly’s table.” Moore humbly added, “I felt like I had just saved the life of his pal.”

“Angel Molly and I have been bringing awareness about canine epilepsy research to many people at approximately 50 local events for four years now. At each conformation show, agility competition,

Many continue to be touched by Molly’s mission. For more information on canine epilepsy, visit http://cvm. ncsu.edu/epilepsyresearch or contact Julie Nettifee Osborne at Julie_osborne@ncsu.edu. The Triangle Dog

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training by Barbara Shumannfang, Ph.D., CPDT

Housetraining 101 Do you dread the thought of bringing a new dog home because of what might happen to your carpets? Are you ready to give up your dog because of housetraining headaches? Good news! You can successfully housetrain your dog, provided you know the secrets to success and the pitfalls to avoid. Keep in mind, if your dog is suddenly having housetraining difficulty, consult a veterinarian. And if you are at the end of your rope with a dog of any age, visit APDT.com to find a Triangle-area trainer who can save the day.

Secrets to Success • Take your dog out on a strict schedule (don’t wait for him or her to signal). Puppies need to go out 1-2 times an hour (unless they’re sleeping) and dogs older than 6 months should be taken out every hour to start. Use a timer to help you keep up with the routine. • Feed a high-quality food at regular meal times (remove any remaining food after 10 minutes). This food and schedule make potty times much more predictable. • Take your dog on leash to the same spot each time, be silent until he or she is finished, and reward him or her instantly with praise, a treat, and a walk or play.

• Limit the possibility of indoor elimination by either interacting with your pup or confining him or her (always with a chew toy). Use a crate, exercise pen, small powder room, or indoor tether under supervision. Your job is to make sure he or she learns that indoor spaces are for interacting or resting, and outdoor spaces are where he or she is rewarded for eliminating. Crate puppies for no more hours than their age in months and crate no dog for longer than 4-5 hours. A neighbor or dog walker can help, or you can use a small area (like a laundry room) with bedding and toys at one end and pee pads at the other. • Keep a daily chart to list the time, place, and type of elimination, and who was in charge. The chart will show you whether you need to take your pup out more frequently, keep a better eye on him or her indoors, or make sure only adults are in charge of housetraining. You can download a free housetraining chart at VeryFetching.com.

Pitfalls to Avoid • Do not show anger if you witness your pooch eliminate indoors, or else he or she may learn it is scary to eliminate in front of you (including outdoors). Instead, interrupt him or her by gasping loudly and then take him or her outside to finish. If you find evidence of elimination in your house, recommit to supervision and confinement. • To clean an indoor spot, use only an enzymatic product like Nature’s Miracle; otherwise, the tiny scent particles will beckon your pooch to potty there again. • Don’t rush things. Instead, create success by preventing indoor elimination and rewarding all outdoor elimination. After 3 days of success, increase the time between potty opportunities by 15 minutes. Gradually introduce all rooms in the house by supervising as your dog eats, plays, and rests in each space. Once you have stretched the potty opportunities to 4-5 per day and you’ve had only outdoor elimination for a month, consider your dog housetrained!

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The Triangle Dog

T Volume 3 • Issue 2      45  


tails from the heart by Diane Lewis

Photos by Diane Lewis

Bailey’s Gift

S

ometimes a simple spur of the moment decision can completely change your life; this story is about one of those moments. I used to think it was luck, but now I know it was fate that led me to Bailey. Almost 17 years ago, we had just moved to Raleigh and I got lost in Garner. I stopped to ask for directions at a gas station and saw a sign that said SPCA out of the corner of my eye. When I pulled out of the gas station’s parking lot, I just drove across the street on auto pilot and pulled in to the SPCA’s parking lot. I walked in and looked at all the dogs and then left the kennel area, but something drew me back inside and when I opened the door, I locked eyes with the puppy inside the first run that had been outside when I first went through. From that moment, life changed forever. No decision was ever clearer than the decision that he was meant to spend his life with me. The only problem was we had planned on getting an Australian Shepherd puppy from a breeder the very next day. But all those plans got tossed aside when I saw Bailey. Bailey was 5 months old and had been adopted and returned twice before I adopted him. He had been in and out of three shelters (I later came to find all of this out through a long needle-in-a-haystack story). I couldn’t understand why, as he was the perfect puppy, sweet, kind, gentle, and easy going, but I am so thankful for those that gave him up so he could spend his life with me. Bailey changed my life in a million ways, all for the better. He led me to start a career that I absolutely love (photographing dogs), and he helped introduce me to 46    Volume 3 • Issue 2

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the best friends in the world. For almost 17 years, Bailey was by my side, watching out for me, my calm in the storm, never demanding, but always there when I needed him. He was the most faithful friend. We shared so many wonderful years together and I am so blessed he was with me for so long! Five years ago, I had a son named Blake. Bailey was always by his side


tails from the heart

and was the best dog a little boy could ask for. It was my wish when Blake was born that Bailey would live long enough for Blake to know Bailey’s heart and to remember him. That wish was granted, and for that, I am forever grateful!

calm, kind presence, and he made a difference that day in a little girl’s life, just like he made a difference in mine every day. They say dogs come into our lives to teach us. I believe that to be true; the lessons Bailey taught me are endless. He taught me to always be who you are and that you can do things that people think are impossible (as he showed that to the world when he became a pretty good herding dog despite being a lab mix.) He taught me that to give and love with all of your heart is the best way to get through life, for kindness truly does make the world a better place. Bailey’s kindness was endless! Near the end of his life, I thought of all he taught me over the years and thought that there was nothing more he could teach me, but I was wrong. When Bailey lay on his bed in our front yard, surrounded by friends, I said goodbye to my best friend and at that very moment, a huge ray of sunlight came upon us out of nowhere, and I felt the most love and warmth I have ever felt in my life. I can’t even describe it, but I felt complete peace and I knew without a doubt that Bailey was just fine. He saved the best gift for last; he showed me a slice of heaven that day.

Bailey was never sick a day in his life until he was diagnosed with kidney failure. He still walked for a mile or more every day at 16 years old. He seemed like he’d live forever, so when he was diagnosed, my heart broke. The thought of losing him consumed me with grief; I could hardly remember life before him. But Bailey prepared me for his death the best he could, and he showed me that what time we had left should be enjoyed, not spent crying for what was to come. In his last two months, he made many new dog friends, went to a dog swim, went sheep herding, and took many trips to the park. Young children were especially drawn to him and seemed to see his kind nature, looking past his old frail body. At the park one day, a 2-year-old girl who had run screaming from all the other dogs came up to Bailey and petted him. Her father wiped his tears from his cheeks, as I did mine. She followed Bailey all over the park and cried when we left. Bailey just had such a The Triangle Dog

T Volume 3 • Issue 2      47  


Dog Hol iday Resor t

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Also available: Grooming

• Bath and nails or full service grooming

Training

• Classes or individual private lessons

Cats & Kitties

• Private room • Active Aquarium • Bird feeders in windows • Nature sounds on stereo • TLC time daily

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830 Purser Drive Raleigh, NC 27603 919-772-8880

5 minutes from Downtown Raleigh

Best interactive daycare in town. While you work or sightsee!

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Volume 3 Issue 2