The Tam News â€” June 2017
TABLE OF CONTENTS 2
Mountain Bike Team Places Second in State by Griffin Chen
Congressman Huffman Visits Tam by Elissa Asch
News Flash by Maddie Asch, Grace Bell, and Zoe Wynn Students Place Second in Rube Goldberg Contest by Katherine Livakis
Tam Organizes Anti-Semitism and Affirmative Consent Lessons by Josh Love
TiK ToK...#Throwback Time by Dahlia Zail
The Most Crustworthy Pizza in Mill Valley by Elise Korngut
June 2017 — The Tam News
Serious Answers to Silly Questions by Samantha Locke
A New Perspective: Bordeaux, France by Coline Tricault
11 features Girl Code by Kavi Dolasia
When You Can’t Sleep (On Those Red Hawks) by Abby Frazee Heard in Tam Hallways heard by the Opinion Staff
The Modern Addiction to Cell Phones by Ryan Leake
The Tam mountain biking team placed second in the state championships on May 14 thanks to the hard work of sophomores Kevin Satake, Josie Weisert, and Clodagh Mellett.
EDITORIAL: Hunting for New Ideas by Staff Crackin’ and Slackin’ by Staff
19 sports Crewe Hutson: Overcoming Obstacles by Kennedy Cook and Michael Diamandakis
Girls’ Swimming Wins MCALs by Emily Spears By the Numbers by the Sports Staff
Athlete of the Issue: Zevan Soloman by Connor Dargan
This month’s issue is all about taking a closer at aspects of our culture that we accept without a second thought. As our editorial discusses, the 2017 junior scavenger hunt was surrounded in controversy because of a violent altercation initiated by one of the participants. This interaction was the epitome of insane events that are normalized because they take place during the sacred, warped time of the “scav hunt.” Students need to take a closer look at what we consider normal. One action we could take is moving the scavenger hunt list away from destructive and violent tasks, and towards fun, creative ones that a wider range of people can enjoy without endangering themselves or others. Our feature, “Girl Code,” also takes a hard look at cultural norms that can be more damaging than they first appear. Reporter Kavi Dolasia dives into gender inequality within science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). This issue is also in large part caused by an underlying cultural message that girls receive from a young age about which jobs they are suited for. Through both these articles, and the issue as a whole, we hope to encourage readers to think deeply about societal norms they may take for granted. It’s only by doing so that we can recognize what needs to change, and go about changing it. At it’s best, local journalism does just what we described above: it provokes thought and reflection within the community it serves, while also ensuring that its readers are armed with the knowledge necessary to effectively respond to events and conflicts. As new editors in chief, we’re excited and honored to be overseeing The Tam News for the next year, precisely because of our belief in that mission.
Maddie Asch, Megan Butt, Marie Hogan and Dahlia Zail EDITORS IN CHIEF: Maddie Asch, Megan Butt, Marie Hogan & Dahlia Zail
NEWS: Elissa Asch, Samantha Ferro, Kavi Dolasia & Milo Levine
LIFESTYLES: Shane Lavezzo, Lola Leuterio, Glo Robinson, Calvin Rosevear & Emily Spears
FEATURES: Kennedy Cook, Michael Diamandakis, Ava Finn & Benji Wall-Feng
OPINION: Celeste Moore, Josh Love, Maddie Wall & Zoe Wynn
SPORTS: Connor Dargan, Sophia Krivoruchko, Jack Loder,
Cover by: Lucky Shulman On the Cover: Kavi Dolasia explores gender equality in STEM fields both locally and nationally.
PHOTOS: Hannah Nygard & Etham Swope GRAPHICS: Samantha Ferro & Francesca Shearer COPY EDITORS: Griffin Chen, Ravi Joshi-Wander & Samantha Locke
DESIGN: Lucy Allen, Kennedy Cook, Elise Korngut, Tess Lochman & Kylie Sakamoto
BUSINESS TEAM: Josh Davis, Shane Lavezzo, Savannah Malan & Aaron Young
SOCIAL MEDIA: Abby Frazee, Michael Diamandakis, Dylan Sgamba & Jacob Swergold
Miles Rubens & Adam Tolson Tamalpais High School 700 Miller Avenue Mill Valley, CA 94941 www.thetamnews.org
Volume XII, No. IX June 2017 A publication of Tamalpais High School Established 1916
ADVISOR: Jonah Steinhart PRINTER: WIGT Printing
REPORTERS: Nicole Anisgard Parra, Sabrina Baker, Michael Balistreri, Grace Bell, Mackenzie Bell, Andrew Bishop, Evan Boatright, Abigail Cabana, Connor Cardinal, Birgitta Danielson, Julian Dreyer, Danielle Egan, Jack Ferguson, Andrew Ferron, Maxine Flasher-Duzgunes, Marina Furbush, Jack Goldman, Benjamin Grant, Arya Guinney, Ephets Head, Caroline Herdman, Hannah Jeffris, Derek Jennings, Keana Kennedy, Raqshan Khan, Ivan Kovalev, Kendall Lafranchi Ginger Lazarus, Ryan Leake, JT Lieser, Gabriela Lilien, Katherine Liviakis, Clodagh Mellett, Isabella Minnie, Cal Mitchell, Nell Mitchell, William Moye, Connor Norton, Ben Olizar, Mary Overton, Emily Pavis, Georgia Pemberton, Evelyn Power, Alexander Price, Satori Richards-Bailey, Charlie Rosgen, Lucky Shulman, Emma Steinberg, Sarah Stone, Spencer Stone, Francis Strietmann, Kyle Sullivan, Red Thompson, Scarlett Trnka, Sam Uriarte Sanders, Sophia Venables, Daisy Wanger, Nikola Weisman, Maxwell Williams EDITORIAL BOARD: Nicole Anisgard Parra, Abigail Cabana, Michael Diamandakis, Danielle Egan, Marina Furbush, Raqshan Khan, Kendall Lafranchi, Nell Mitchell, Connor Norton, Georgia Pemberton, Calvin Rosevear. The Tam News, a student-run newspaper publication, distributed monthly, is an open, public forum for student expression and encourages letters and article contributions. The Tam News reserves the right to edit submissions for length and content. All content decisions are made by student editors. The Tam News is published monthly, though dates may vary. The Tam News is nonprofit and any proceeds and contributions are used in the production of the newspaper publication and for journalism education. Additional information concerning contributions or advertising can be obtained by writing to the address provided above or through our website. Copyright © 2017 by The Tamalpais News. All rights reserved. Reproduction is prohibited without written consent.
The Tam News — June 2017
Congressman Huffman Visits Tam by Elissa Asch
Congressman Huffman addressing students at lunch. PHOTO COURTESY OF JACOB NISHIMURA
alifornia Congressman Jared Huffman spoke to students and answered their questions in Mead Theatre during lunch on Monday, May 15. The topics ranged from health care and school shootings, to political bias, automation, and globalization. Senior Jacob Nishimura, who organized the event, used his connections from working on the Hillary Clinton campaign to contact Huffman. Nishimura said that his inspiration to organize the event came from Breakthrough Day, a program for racial awareness held at Tam on February 27. “One of the things...that was missing from [Breakthrough Day] was the part of civic engagement, because there are obviously these problems that we have to address,” Nishimura said. “I thought what better way than to actually get involved in government, ask your representative questions, and find out what happens.” When asked about the current debate around Trump’s American Health Care Act, Congressman Huffman offered a twostep plan that would be his ideal solution. “[First] we have to solve health insurance, which is way too expensive and unavailable for too many people. I think the best way to do that is to have a national health insurance program like every other
June 2017 — The Tam News
industrialized country,” he said. The second part of Congressman Huffman’s plan centered around correcting the flaws in our current health system. “Our healthcare system is still flawed because it encourages lots and lots of procedures, because… The more scans and x-rays and tests of this and that, the more people make at every stop in our healthcare system… Our health care costs are just way higher than every other comparable country in the world.” In terms of the extreme bipartisanism the country is experiencing, Congressman Huffman discouraged the tribal nature of American citizens. “Don’t feel like on any given issue that comes along you’ve got to find out what’s the Democratic side of that issue so that I can sort of suit up and go to battle with the Republican side of it. Think it through, you know challenge yourself a little bit, and you might find that on a few issues your label, or your tribe, or your party, isn’t actually where you come out,” he said. Next the congressman explained how he is addressing this tribal nature. “I think I can only do it one relationship at a time. So I’m always looking for Republican colleagues who I can first get to know and
talk with about issues and then if we can establish a relationship, a trust and civility, maybe there are some issues we can do together,” he said. Congressman Huffman made it clear that he enjoys hearing from his constituents, but further explained how the likeminded Democrats that he represents can make a difference in the political field. “There are a number of issues where some of the advocacy needs to happen in other districts... We have a lot of people that are very upset, very opposed to the Republican health care bill. They can contact me all they want, they’re welcome to, but what we really need to do is go over to Modesto and talk to Congressman Jeff Denham, and ask him why he voted for this thing that hurts so many people in California.” In addition, Congressman Huffman discussed the national service bill he is submitting to congress that would significantly increase the range of national service programs for Americans. “You know John F. Kennedy inspired a whole generation in the 1960’s by his call to service, ‘Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country,’ and he created the Peace Corps… We’ve expanded service over the years to include Americorp and a few other things, but in recent years its been declining,” he said. “There are thousands and thousand of young people and even mid-career and older people that would love to go spend a year or more of their lives in service...doing any number of good things and we’re not providing them that opportunity.” Many students stayed after lunch to shake the congressman’s hand and ask him additional questions. “I think a lot of the students found it very interesting, and I think it was very cool to have him come to our school and to get that exposure...I think it had a positive impact,” senior Eva Brazer said. Nishimura was also pleased with the event. “I think it completely [had the effect I wanted it to], I think we had around two hundred kids there... The congressman’s answers were amazing, the students questions were very deep and smart for high school students,” he said. ♦
NEWS FLASH Tam Wins Golden Ribbon Award
by Maddie Asch
amalpais High School received the Gold Ribbon award from the California Department of Education (CDE) on April 18. “The [award] seeks to recognize outstanding educational programs and practices,” according to CDE. According to Principal JC Farr, Tam was awarded for its Core Program, which pairs students with the same English and History teachers for their freshmen and sophomore years. Moving foward Farr hopes to individualize the Core Program to help close the achievement gap. According to Farr, teachers will review their student’s understanding so that if a student isn’t testing proficiently in a topic, teachers will be able to re-teach it. “If we are doing this work correctly...then students who are not reaching the standard... [get] support,” Farr said. ♦
Senior Art Show at Depot
Tim Morgan Named Coach of the Year
by Zoe Wynn
istory teacher and boys’ varsity basketball coach Tim Morgan was recognized by the Tamalpais High School Board of Trustees as Tam Coach of the Year, on May 23. Morgan was recognized for his outstanding performance and impact on the Tam Community. “The one [reason] that put him over the edge was his ability to tie the student body and our community together through basketball,” said athletic director Christina Amoroso. Morgan was extremely humbled to receive the award, “I am so honored by this because we have a lot of great coaches here at Tam that I look up to,” he said. There has been a lot of success with the Tam boys’ basketball program this year and Morgan credits this to the support and assistance from his staff. “I have a great staff and I can’t do it without them,” he said. ♦
by Grace Bell
he art department appreciated its senior’s hard work with an art show in the Depot Plaza on Friday, May 19. There were a variety of mediums on display, from large canvas paintings to ceramic vases. Some of the seniors expressed nostalgia as they reflected on their time in Tam’s art rooms. “I’ve enjoyed being able to document where I’ve been and what I’ve done,” senior Izzy Reeves, a drawing and painting student, said. Ellie Toole, a fellow senior enrolled in the class, expressed her appreciation of the role that the class has had in her time at Tam. “It’s a nice way to combine your academics with art,” Toole said. When student’s were asked about their favorite aspect of the art programs at Tam, the answers were all the same: they loved the community. ♦
Students Place Second in Rube Goldberg Contest
team of seven freshmen won second place and a People’s Choice Award in the high school division of a national Rube Goldberg competition. Rube Goldberg Incorporated, a non-profit dedicated to the memory of its eponym—the late San Francisco-born engineer Rube Goldberg— hosts the annual contest. A Rube Goldberg machine performs a simple task in a convoluted way using the domino-effect. This year, the task was to build a machine that applied a Band-Aid. Competitors were evaluated on two criteria: “referee” score, which assessed functionality, and a “judges” score, which valued teamwork and creativity of theme. The team built a 54-step machine called “Doctor Rube” that integrated doctor’s office items like pill bottles, stethoscopes, and spools of gauze. They even built a room to house the machine and decorated it like a doctor’s office. For members like Maddie Cope, the introduction to Rube Goldberg machines came just a year prior as eighth graders
by Katherine Liviakis
in Mill Valley Middle School teacher Sarah Petrini’s technology class. “I didn’t know anything about Rube Goldberg machines until this class, so I didn’t know I could be interested in it,” Cope said. In that class, students were assigned to build a portable Rube Goldberg machine that opened an umbrella. After building the most successful machines in the class of 60 students, the seven The seven person team and their invention. eighth graders decided to form a PHOTO COURTEY OF CAROLYN PREIS team as incoming freshmen. Three of the team members enrolled weeks before submission, they worked on in Tam’s engineering class. This gave them the machine as many as six times a week, access to resources like laser cutters, band- conducting trial after trial. saws, and 3D printers to build their ma“It was all trial and error,” freshman chine. However, the project was still an af- Rebecca Preis said. “You plan it out, you ter-school commitment. “I was prioritizing do some math...you just keep making those Rube Goldberg over my homework way judgments and adjustments until it works.” more than I should have,” team member Now, the team ends their freshman Charlie Warner admitted. year with a sponsorship from the Mill ValMost members met consistently for ley Police Department, and hopes for first three hours a week for six months. In the place next year. ♦
The Tam News — June 2017
Tam Organizes Anti-Semitism and Affirmative Consent Lessons by Josh Love
n April 24, the social studies department held a staff meeting after school to discuss two new California laws on affirmative sexual consent, as well as parental concern about the prevalence of anti-Semitism in the Tamalapais and Marin communities. The laws, SB-695 and SB-967, went into effect on January 1, 2016 and require that high school students are educated about affirmative sexual consent, but they also state that these specific legal standards only apply on public college campuses in California, not in high schools. According to a recent Tam News survey of 620 students, four percent of freshman girls, nine percent of sophomore girls, 14 percent of junior girls, and 13 percent of senior girls at Tam reported being sexually assaulted or raped. Additionally, three percent of male students surveyed reported being sexually assaulted or raped. Furthermore, there have been multiple swastikas found on the Tamalpais High School campus and reported since the beginning of this school year. The social science department is addressing these recent issues in its new curriculum. The material for these wellness lessons was presented to the social science department by Jessica Colvin, the Wellness Director Coordinator for the Tamalpais High School district. Colvin created the curriculum with the help of social studies teacher Aaron Pribble. Colvin’s curriculum covers the three main points of SB-695: affirmative sexual consent (informed, explicit, and voluntary agreement), consequences of sexual violence, and how to develop healthy peer relationships based on mutual respect, as well as the impact of anti-Semitism and other hate symbols in a community like ours. The primary reason the curriculum came to Tam was parental involvement. On January 24, after a parent workshop, parents went to principal JC Farr and asked that anti-Semitism and affirmative consent be discussed. Social science teacher Sarah Ewell, who taught the new lessons to both her ju-
June 2017 — The Tam News
niors and seniors in early May, was pleased that these lessons were being taught to upperclassmen because she believes that they are more practical when taught to older students. “You are only taught [sex education] once [in high school] and [studies] actually found that brain development, like your abilities for abstractions and empathy, are underdeveloped when you are 15,” she said. “As you mature, your brain develops different capacities for abstraction and empathy, so there is question of whether teaching [consent] in the tenth grade is really appropriate.” During some the affirmative consent lessons, students pretended to order a pizza with a partner to simulate a consent situation. Colvin explained how these lessons were good practice for asking for consent. “When talking about consent, it’s no longer no means no, it’s yes means yes for each sexual activity,” Colvin said. However, junior Daniel Park did not find the lesson very helpful or relevant. “They made the lesson seem like it was for an elementary school classroom by relating consent to a pizza,” Park said. For the lessons about anti-Semitism, students were shown hate symbols like the swastika, and discussed each one’s historical context and meaning. Ewell noticed that some students had difficulty debating these topics. “I’ve found in general that the girls [were] more into talking about [these les-
sons],” Ewell said. “And it definitely made people feel uncomfortable. I knew it was going to.” Despite the difficulty of these lessons, senior Stella Orr believes that the lessons should be taught earlier rather than later. “It’s something that we need to talk about, but I feel that for some students the lessons came too late,” Orr said. Orr argues that educating students on these topics earlier will instill compassion and respect in younger kids. But difficult or not, both Ewell and Colvin agree that these lessons were beneficial to students and that they will protect them in the future. “Students are being taught too early, we need this education to be later on too,” Colvin said. “I also hope to expand the curriculum and add more to focus on the consequences of sexual violence.” ♦
TiK ToK...#throwback Time The Top 5 Throwback Songs of the Last Decade by Dahlia Zail
hrowback song time!!! And no I’m not talking about ANYTHING recent. I’m talking straight out of elementary school— because we all know that’s where the lit tunes were at. Here are my top 5:
1. “TiK ToK” by Ke$ha This came out on “Animal,” Ke$ha’s 2010 album. It was one of those songs that the parents always understood just a liiiiitle more than we did. I don’t know about you guys, but when I heard “brush my teeth with a bottle of Jack,” I always figured that “Jack” was some kind of toothpaste brand. It has the perfect, steady beat needed for some uncoordinated elementary school kids to dance to. Whenever I play this song I get a cloudy vision of girls in pigtails and skirts from Zara “dancing” (clapping their hands and moving their feet side to side). The downfall: It’s pretty damn annoying to have a song stuck in your head, and the catchiness of “TiK ToK” makes it an easy target for a head sticker.
2. “Replay” by Iyaz
3. “Crank That (Soulja Boy)” by Soulja Boy The “souljaboytellem.com” album came out in 2007, headlined by the megahit “Crank That.” This was one of those “cool” songs that made us 3rd graders in our juicy sweatpants feel super gangster and hip. While this song may not have been the most popular when we were younger, it has travelled with us throughout the years. I can’t name a person who wouldn’t dance their heart out to this song - It’s a true Bar/ Bat Mitzvah classic.
4. “Dynamite by Taio Cruz This song was just legendary. I don’t know if there’s even anything else I can say. While for some of us it came out in the latter end of our time in elementary school, it still seems to be the most memorable. When talking to people about this article and asking for song recommendations, almost every single person’s first response was “Dynamite.” This catchy tune came out on Taio Cruz’s 2010 album “Rokstarr” (along with another solid hit, “Break Your Heart.”) It’s also another talent show hit— perfect for a group of 10-year-olds with fedoras to dance to.
5. “Party in the USA” by Miley Cyrus I don’t know anyone who would dispute this song in its rightfully deserved number 1 spot. On Miley Cyrus’s 2009 album “The Time of Our Lives,” this song rocked America’s youth like an earthquake. With upbeat and easy to sing along to lyrics, this song is absolutely timeless. No matter what music you’re slappin’ in 2017, these classic throwbacks tie all of us together. Even the elitist self-proclaimed music gurus of Tam High grew up on Selena Gomez, Ke$ha, and Iyaz. No matter how old we get, any of these songs will have us singin’ like na na na na everyday, with our iPod’s stuck on replay. ♦
The number one sing along song of all time, “Replay” debuted as a single in 2009. While sounding innocent on the surface, this song has an immensely sexual undertone. To a parent, the name Replay sounds like this song would be a Disney-esque song about someone wanting to replay a song over and over again. However, if you listen more closely to the lyrics, which include “she’s the gun to my holster” and other more profane analogies, you would see how truly “inappropriate” this song is for a young audience. However, this only adds to the swaggy vibe ;) GRAPHIC BY BRADY MERKL
The Tam News — June 2017
The Most Crustworthy Pizza in Mill Valley by Elise Korngut
ill Valley has a bountiful supply of pizza joints, each one with its own distinct style. Whether you’re feeling fancy or lazy, one of the many restaurants is bound to fix your pizza craving. If you just need a classic pizza or you want to step outside your comfort zone, our small town has something to offer. Here are five of the best choices for every possible pizza eating occasion.
Best Slice on the Go: Rocco’s Pizza and Pasta | $$ In the cases where you really want pizza, but your stomach or a time constraint just won’t allow it, you should stop by Rocco’s. They offer individual slices of cheese pizza with an array of toppings to choose from, including pepperoni, bacon, mushrooms, and peppers. A single slice of cheese costs $4.50, with toppings ranging from $0.46 to $0.92. Your single slice is ready in minutes. Rocco’s is a great choice for lunch, dinner, or just for a quick snack. Although very similar to Stefano’s, Rocco’s proximity to Tam and their cheaper prices make it a very popular lunch spot.
Best Splurge: Tamalpie Pizzeria | $$$ There are some instances in a pizza person’s life where they need to go out to dinner. Staying in and eating straight out of the box just won’t cut it. Sometimes you have to splurge and enjoy a nice meal outside the comfort of your own home. In those circumstances, your best option is Tamalpie Pizzeria. This local hotspot serves up a great array of pizza options from their basic Hoo-Koo-E-Koo pizza ($15 for 12 in) consisting of tomato, mozzarella, basil, to more local and outside the box specialties such as the Fern Creek ($17 for 12 in), topped with shaved asparagus, pea leaves, crescenza cheese, mozzarella and roasted garlic. Tamalpie also offers many appetizers sure to please and worth the cost. My personal favorite, the fried brussel sprouts ($9), helped me discover my love for the hated vegetable. Although on the pricier side, Tamalpie is a good way to put a fresh spin on a delicious classic.
June 2017 — The Tam News
Best bang for your buck: Domino’s Pizza | $ Sometimes you just need a pizza. Nothing fancy or embellished, nothing that breaks the bank, just plain and simple. If that is the case, Domino’s has got you covered. They are the cheapest option on this list, and when it comes to pizza, sometimes all you need is cheap. If you need to feed a large crowd of people or just don’t want to cash out your whole paycheck on one meal, Domino’s can provide you with the sustenance you need to get you through the day. You can get a large three-topping pizza for as low as $7.99 or a medium two topping pizza for as low as $5.99. Whether feeding the masses or feeding yourself, Domino’s gets the job done and leaves you with a little left to spend, possibly on a Chocolate Lava Crunch Cake.
Best delivery: Stefano’s pizza | $$
Pizza is the most quintessential delivery food in the world. It’s greasy, can be eaten with your hands, and shared easily. For these reasons it is important to find the best delivery for the best food. When I’m in need of the perfect pizza delivery, I turn to Stefano’s Pizza for a good, hearty pie. Conveniently located in downtown Mill Valley, the small space crafts large, cheesy, circles of goodness, delivered to your doorstep nice and hot. Stefano’s delivery typically takes around 30 minutes (depending on location and size of order), and the drivers are always friendly. Stefano’s also offers coupons that are perfect for delivery, such as $5 off an extra large pizza or two large cheese pizzas for $21.95. Whether you are having a party or need a quick and easy dinner solution, Stefano’s is the classic and local pizza joint that delivers your pizza needs.
Best variety: Pizza Antica | $$$ If you’re the kind of person who likes options or always goes for the “create your own pizza,” Pizza Antica is the place for you. It offers a multitude of entrees, appetizers, and salads, along with many options for pizzas and pizza toppings. Their topping options include roasted chicken, house-made ham, sun dried tomatoes, and many more. If you aren’t in the mood for pizza, their menu includes a super cheesy calzone that embodies a classic cheese pizza. It also offers many pasta and meat entrees, such as their pan-seared pork chop and their fresh ricotta ravioli that are fresh, modern, and different from many other items on the menu. Pizza Antica is sure to hit the spot for those of you who don’t like to be restricted to just pizza or like to be a little creative with your appetite. ♦ GRAPHIC BY FRANCESCA SHEARER
Serious Answers to Silly Questions by Samantha Locke
e so often only see administrators and teachers as their positions or subjects, but they are so much more. To bring this to light, The Tam News asked bizarre hypothetical questions to show that our staff members are people too.
If You Were A Vegetable, What Vegetable Would You Be And Why?? SUPERINTENDENT YOSHIHARA: A vegetable? A vegetable. What vegetable would I be and why… I don’t know. I would say a passion fruit, but that’s a fruit. That is a fruit. So, I’m trying to think of a vegetable that I would be.... Broccoli, because I think it’s kind of hearty. Sort of robust. And generally, I think it’s liked. And I kinda like to be liked. That’s the reason. It’s sort of this hearty plant, typically a winter-time vegetable, versus a summer-type, like corn, so it’s got this sort of sustenance kinda thing, at least I think it does. And my kids like broccoli, and my kids are pretty picky, so … if my kids like broccoli, maybe a lot of people generally like broccoli, but that may not be true. PRINCIPAL JC FARR: If I could be any vegetable… Probably, I wouldn’t want to be a vegetable because I don’t like them. So, I don’t know. I don’t eat - broccoli maybe? It’s kinda stinky and green…I’d be broccoli. I’d be stinky and green. But when you cook it, it gets soft. I don’t know. MR. LAPP: I would be an artichoke…well, because there would be so many layers you’d have to peel before you found my heart. MR. HARTQUIST: Which vegetable would I be and why. I don’t know. I eat a lot of bananas. That’s - uh. That’s my answer I guess…. I guess I would be a banana because I eat a lot of bananas. I’m not sure a banana is a vegetable. Oh, a vegetable! I’m sorry, I’m spacing out. A vegetable. Thank you for the correction. A vegetable. I don’t know. Um. Garlic? Is that even a veggie? What do I even...? Maybe I need to eat more Veggies? I don’t know. Let’s just go with garlic.
A Unicorn Walks In Right Now. Why Are They Here? What Do They Want? SUPERINTENDENT YOSHIHARA: I don’t know. He probably wants to know what’s different about me. What is different about you? I’d like to think that… that I’m willing to do the right thing, sometimes at the risk of doing things right. What? Or...not doing the things right. Doing the right thing versus doing things right. What is that difference? That doing things right means following the rules and following the laws which we know exist, and in our profession is quite voluminous. We have education code and board policies. Doing the right thing means you look at the situation. You look at either the kids, or the parents, and you said ‘okay, doing the right thing means helping this kid, students should be successful’ at the point where sometimes it blurs sort of the lines of what’s allowable and what’s not allowable. So that’s why the unicorn is here? Excuse me? That’s why the unicorn is here. That would be why the unicorn is here. PRINCIPAL JC FARR: To show everyone that we’re all unique…. He’s just showing off. We’re all unicorns. We’re all unique. MR. LAPP: A special creature needs to be in the most special spot in Tamalpais High School MR. O’MEARA: Just passing through. MS. EWELL: I’m guessing that it’s my student Will Rogosin, dressed up in a costume, and he’s just saying hi. ♦ GRAPHIC BY NICOLE ANISGARD PARRA
The Tam News — June 2017
A New Perspective: Bordeaux, France
By Coline Tricault
ey! My name is Coline Tricault and I’m a senior at Tam High. I’m not an exchange student, my family and I moved in the U.S three years ago from France. They left last year, but I decided to stay to finish high school here as it would have been a pretty hard process to do it in France. I started learning english when I was in 5th grade but I was never good at it. When we moved to the U.S., I was a sophomore at Tam and it was the worst year of my life. However everybody was so welcoming and tried their best to make me feel at home. They all tried to approach me. However, I usually just nodded because English sounded like chinese to me. I noticed that they .dress a lot more comfortable, sometimes provocative, in a mix of so many different styles. In class, I loved the fact that instead of copying and learning by heart, what I learned how to do for years, they would just sit on a couch, talk, and express ideas and then it would grow into debates. I loved it, even though it was pretty hard for me to get used to it, because it was basically forbidden in France to just take a stand and speak freely about what you think. It was the hardest thing I ever had to do. Junior year was a lot easier. I could communicate from the first day of school. Everybody is so friendly, as the stereotype says. I heard Americans were really friendly, and welcoming. I confirm. I got to play a sport even though I did not have the skills but I still made the Basketball Junior Varsity Team. I really enjoyed it. At the end of the year, we all decided to move back, including me. Indeed, I spent my first month as a senior in a private french school. There are strict rules to respect, and classes were not up to you to choose. Days are awfully long as we start our day at 8am and end at 5 or 6pm, and when you got home you had 2 mandatory hours every night. No time for fun, no time for sports. I was overwhelmed and I realized that I could go back to the U.S. to finish high school. The next thing I knew, I was back at Tam. The two first months back in the U.S. were pretty hard, I realized I would never live with my family ever again, and I became independant, which was hard to take in all at once. Next year, I’ll be moving back to France for college, however I won’t be living with my family. Though, I improved my english to the point where I dream and think in english. I know that I have three weeks left before all this ends. I don’t want it to end, when back in sophomore year that’s all I wanted, to go back home, in France. Even though sophomore year was the worst year of my life, it was only because of the language barrier because senior year ended up being the best year of my life. I don’t regret any of it and I know it made me stronger. I learned to look at the bright side of life even if you have literally nothing to hold on to. Everything has to end one day or another but this was the most amazing thing I have ever done and I’m proud of it.
June 2017 — The Tam News
oucou! Je m’appelle Coline Tricault et je suis une terminale à Tam High. Je ne fait pas une échange avec mon école et Tam, ma famille et moi avons déménagé aux États-Unis il y a trois ans en provenance de la France. Ils sont partis l’année dernière, mais j’ai décidé de rester pour terminer le lycée ici car il aurait eu un processus assez difficile à faire en France. Lorsque nous avons déménagé aux États-Unis, j’étais en seconde à Tam et c’était la pire année de ma vie. Au contraire, tout le monde était si accueillant et faisait de son mieux pour me faire sentir comme chez moi. Ils ont tous essayé de m’approcher, mais je me contentais de hocher la tête. Tout était si différent, la façon dont les gens s’habillaient, plus confortable, parfois provocateur, et un mélange de pleins de styles différents. En classe, j’aime le fait qu’au lieu de copier et d’apprendre par cœur, ce que j’ai appris à faire pendant des années, ils s’asseoient sur des canapés parlent et expriment des idées, et que tout cela crée des débats très intéressants. J’adorais ce concept, même s’il était très difficile pour moi de m’y habituer, car il était pratiquement interdit en France de prendre la parole et de parler librement de ce que vous pensiez. C’était la chose la plus difficile que j’ai jamais eu à faire. Mon année de première était beaucoup plus facile. Je pourrais communiquer dès le premier jour de l’école. Tout le monde est tellement amical, comme le dit le stéréotype. J’avais entendu dire que les américains étaient très amicaux et accueillants. Je confirme. Je n’avais pas le niveau, je n’étais même pas proche de l’avoir, mais j’ai quand même réussi à être acceptée dans l’équipe de Basketball Junior Varsity. J’ai vraiment apprécié. À la fin de l’année, nous avons tous décidé de retourner vivre en France, y compris moi. En effet, j’ai passé mon premier mois en tant que terminale dans une école française privée. Il y a des règles strictes à respecter, et vous ne pouvez pas choisir vos matières. Les journées étaient vraiment longues puisque nous commençons nos journées à 8h et finissons à 17h ou 18h, et lorsqu’on rentre à la maison, on avait au moins 2 heures obligatoires de devoirs tous les soirs. Pas de temps pour s’amuser, pas de temps pour le sport. J’étais débordé et je me suis rendue compte, que je pourrais revenir aux États-Unis pour terminer le lycée. Et puis en un clin d’oeil, j’étais de retour à Tam. Les deux premiers mois aux États-Unis ont été très difficiles, j’ai réalisé que je ne vivrais jamais avec ma famille, et que j’étais devenue indépendante, ce qui était difficile à accepter tout d’un seul coup. Je vais retourner vivre en France l’année prochaine pour l’université mais pas avec ma famille. Mon anglais est à présent au point où je rêve et pense en anglais. Je sais qu’il me reste trois semaines avant que tout cela ne se termine. Je ne veux pas que cela se termine, quand, en seconde, c’est tout ce que je voulais, rentrer chez moi en France. Bien que l’année de seconde ait été la pire année de ma vie, c’est seulement en raison de la barrière de la langue car ma terminale a fini par être la meilleure année de ma vie. Je ne regrette pas du tout tout ce que j’ai vécu en déménageant aux États-Unis et je sais que cela m’a rendu plus forte que jamais. J’ai appris à regarder le bon côté de la vie, même si vous n’avez absolument rien à quoi vous raccrocher. Tout doit finir un jour ou l’autre mais c’était la chose la plus incroyable que j’aie jamais faite et j’en suis fière.
Girl Code By kavi Dolasia When freshman Siena Romito first walked into Computer Programming 1-2, she was met by a sea of fresh-faced, eager-to-learn boys, and two other girls. In the coming weeks, both of the other girls would transfer out, leaving Romito as the sole female in the class. “It was a lot of different things coming at once with the new school and the class,” she said. “In the beginning...I didn’t know where to start or who I should talk to. I think if it was a male teacher I definitely would’ve dropped out...[but] having a girl as a teacher, it’s just easier to relate to her. The guys all had each other to talk to or get help from, but I didn’t.” Romito’s situation is by no means an anomaly, whether at Tam or in the workplace. According to the United States Department of Labor, women comprise 47 percent of the total U.S. labor force yet hold only 26 percent of all tech jobs. One might expect Tam would reap the benefits of living in such close proximity to Silicon Valley, but it offers just two courses in automotive technology, three in computer science (two of which are AP classes), one in architectural design, and two in engineering. In comparison,
Redwood High School, a larger school in Tam’s district, offers six computer science classes, a web design course, five courses in architectural design, three in engineering (including a woodshop class), and in-depth accounting classes. In the 2016-17 Tam school year, 10 out of 63 students enrolled in computer programming classes, three out of 20 in engineering classes, and six out of 45 in automotive technology classes were female. The numbers of classes available and students enrolled have increased in the past decade, according to Kelly Kennedy, a computer science and math teacher at Tam. Yet there still remains a lack of diversity in all aspects of the field. The technology industry as a whole is generally dominated by white and Asian people, leaving Hispanics and African Americans outnumbered. Women, too, remain underrepresented in the field. These trends carry over to Tam, where, students like Romito find, technology classes are dominated by boys. Kennedy brought the computer programming courses with her when she joined the school in the 2015-16 school year. Eight years
The Tam News — June 2017
Features prior to Kennedy’s hiring, a male teacher had run a similar course, but that class disappeared when he left. “When I came, I was originally interviewing for math but they offered me computer science as an option, and I love teaching electives so I [agreed],” Kennedy said. “Computer science is so relevant and it’s going to be integrated into math and science classes in the near future, so I think it’s very important in this generation and at Tam.” A few years ago, the idea of computer science in every classroom might have sounded farfetched, but with technology becoming more central to everyday life, it seems that that aspiration may very soon become reality. In early 2015, New York City launched a program dubbed “Computer Science for All,” allocating $81 million with the promise of making computer science available to all of the city’s public schools within 10 years. Several countries, including Australia and the United Kingdom, have followed suit, investing large sums of money into implementing science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) into their public school curriculums. Just across the bay from Tam, the San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD) has begun pioneering their own program to spread computer science to all of their 57,000 students. These major budgets and high expectations are no doubt a start, but they put little emphasis on the female population. According to girlswhocode.org, a national nonprofit organization, 74 percent of girls in middle school express interest in STEM courses, but few retain this interest into college, where only 0.4 percent of girls select computer science as their major. But the statistics aren’t all dreary — both women and men are somewhat more likely to choose STEMrelated majors than they were in 2004. The Tamalpais Union High School District
June 2017 — The Tam News
(TUHSD) has not announced any programs similar to those in San Francisco or New York, but individual schools within the district have begun to take notice of the effect STEM is having on our culture. At Tam, Kennedy is interested into seeing how we could assimilate such fields in the future. “I would like to start looking into integrated curriculums and core subjects that integrate STEM standards so that foreseeably we could start teaching math through computer science or geometry through engineering,” she said. The school where Kennedy formerly taught, Sonoma Valley High, started engineering- and design-related core classes with that principle in mind. “I think [that model] could be effective here at Tam but it would be probably two or three years down the road before something like that got implemented to a full extent,” she said. “I think people could be open to it, but some people just haven’t seen what it looks like and the biggest thing is to make sure it would positively impact our culture and our school.” Tam has not currently implemented a STEM-focused curriculum into pre-existing courses, but the issue extends beyond the classroom. The highest percentage of women occupying tech jobs was in 1991 at 36 percent, a statistic that has been on the decline ever since. In comparison, the number of computer science college graduates has risen by 92 percent in the last four years, and the number of computing-related jobs in the U.S. is expected to reach 1.1 million by 2024, a significant increase. There is somewhat of a paradox behind all of this: how can the tech industry be growing, while women are becoming less active in the field? Perhaps the issue is rooted much earlier than previously thought: in prior education. One of Tam’s largest feeder schools is Mill Valley Middle School (MVMS). The school requires sixth graders to take technology, a one-trimester class, as part of the school’s “wheel” program that serves as a way to introduce students to potential future electives. But some students said that what is taught in the technology course doesn’t provide proper insight into what is actually done in those fields. Isabella Heinemann, an eighth grader at MVMS and a member of the school’s robotics team, knows that distinction firsthand. “We did a little of Scratch,” she said,
Features referring to the popular visual programming language developed by MIT and commonly utilized by elementary schoolers. “[But] it wasn’t about robotics or computer science as much. It’s nothing like robotics club right now.” Romito, who went through the same curriculum, attested to its lack of depth. “In tech, in the wheel [program], we mainly did Photoshop and simple languages. It’s so different from my [computer science class] at Tam right now.” Science teacher Ben Wien taught the wheel technology portion at MVMS for six years before moving onto Tech 2, where he has served as the teacher for four years now. He also mentors the robotics club. In response to student criticisms of the wheel classes not providing a proper introduction, Wien said: “We’ve articulated and set up the concepts [we’re using] throughout sixth, seventh and eighth grade, but I think there’s probably some more work that can be done...I think hearing from the kids [about] what’s happening in tech that’s really exciting to them right now and will give a learning experience [is important]. Things have changed so much in the last couple years, and our school has changed so much in the last three years, through the 1:1 iPad program, that whatever we can do that gets the kids to fully engage, something that they can be creative and learn with, is crucial, as opposed to continuing with the exact same program.” Over Wien’s years as a teacher at MVMS, he has seen the program expand and the demand grow proportionately. “The tech classes didn’t even exist when I first started teaching here...and [they] have grown a lot,” he said. “I think that we are overenrolled for the tech classes — there are more kids interested than we have spots.” Nonetheless, in Wien’s 7th grade technology class this year, seven of the 55 students were girls. “I really don’t know [why there aren’t more girls]. I’m always puzzled as to if it’s that they’re not interested in taking tech or if they’re not signing up for the tech classes because it seems to me that there are more interested than there are signing up.” Lack of course availability is also a prominent issue at Bayside Martin Luther King Jr. Academy (MLK), located in Marin City.
In kindergarten through fifth grade, science is incorporated into the classroom curriculum. However, in middle school, the students are limited to science lessons twice a week with MLK’s sole science teacher, who works part-time at the school. Moreover, the seventh and eighth grade classes are merged, totalling around 23 students and combining the science curriculum for two different grades, giving students even less exposure to the subject. “I think what [the school] needs to do is have a single-subject science teacher come and teach all of the grades separately,” said Louis Edney, who teaches language arts and history at MLK and is the school’s only full-time middle school teacher. “The only reason I think it is important for middle schools to have single subject is because [the teachers] are experts at it and that’s all they do so they can really focus on that.” Another recurring issue is the school’s constant revolving door of teachers. At MLK, it isn’t unusual for a science teacher to only stay for a year or two before moving on. The current science teacher is in her first and last year at MLK, after not being asked to come back. “In the 12 years I have been here [in the district and as a teacher at the school] there have been maybe four different [science] teachers,” Edney said. “When I went to middle school I had science every single day and mostly why I think that science should be taught every day is because it’s an important subject and we need more scientists, especially female ones, on the planet. Anytime that you are cutting curriculum to save money, the students are impacted. [The students] aren’t front-loaded when they go to Tam where there is everyday science and I want [MLK] kids to be exposed the way that Hall Middle School or MVMS kids are... they will be left behind and I don’t want that to happen.” Moving on into high school, when students have more freedom in course selection, many of them take new routes. When choosing electives prior to freshman year, Romito was encouraged by her family and friends to take computer science, but few of them believed she’d follow through. “My parents thought it was a good idea but didn’t really think I would actually do it,” she said. “I think some of my friends think it’s funny [that I’m in the class]... they just think it’s dif-
ferent for me to do it. I don’t think it’s because I’m a girl, but just because it’s computer programming.” Freshman Alex Gershman was one of the three girls in Romito’s computer programming class for exactly a week before she transferred to photography. After moving from Del Mar Middle School in Tiburon, Gershman was already an outlier considering almost everyone in the computer programming was acquainted with one another. However, Gershman continued to find herself lost as the class progressed. “Immediately, I had no idea what [Ms. Kennedy] was talking about and everyone else knew exactly what she was saying and I felt so completely lost... like I wasn’t part of that group. So I switched out.” Kennedy, who graduated from Dartmouth with a major in engineering sciences and studio art in 2005, is more than familiar with Gershman’s struggle. “In college, I had to take computer science as a prerequisite...I was often ignored when I was contributing to group projects. If I was in a group with mostly men, I was just totally disregarded at times. I would offer a solution to a problem to help them with their work and they would ignore me. I was talked down to a lot — it was very subtle but it was there.” About four of the 30 students in Kennedy’s engineering class at Dartmouth were female. Since her time at Dartmouth, the school has made evident progress — in 2016 the school made history by granting 54 percent of its u n d e rg r a d u a t e engineering degrees to women. The headway the
The Tam News — June 2017
Features school has made is promising for women across the country. According to the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE), 19 percent of students who receive undergraduate degrees in engineering are women. Dartmouth has approached that issue by encouraging students — from liberal arts to language majors — to take courses that put emphasis on technology. Other top universities have taken procedures similar to Dartmouth. In 2016, 48.5 percent of the students enrolled in the School of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University were women. There was a similar outcome in the school’s College of Engineering (43.3 percent), leading to an almost equal ratio within the university. Morgaine Mandigo Stoba, an astrophysics major and recent Tam graduate, is a freshman at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and has also had a firsthand experience with sexism in the classroom. At Tam, Mandigo Stoba took many courses relevant to her current major, including AP Computer Science (APCS), AP Biology, AP Calculus BC, and an online Multivariable Calculus class. “I’ve definitely been patronized by people both in high school and here at Caltech. Back in my sophomore year at Tam, I was heavily involved in the Engineering Club of which I would later become president,” she said. “One Saturday, we were all working on our 3D printer [and] as usual, I was the only girl present. One of the freshman asked a simple question aloud and I answered. He gave me a [look of] disbelief and asked one of the male club members, who gave him the same answer. The questioning of my technical ability was unfortunately frequent, especially from male club members.” Two years ago, the undergraduate population was 59 percent male and 41 percent female. according to the Caltech registration office. However, these numbers have begun to even out and the gender ratio of the incoming classes has become nearly 50:50. Despite this, Mandigo Stoba contin-
ues to feel the subtle pressure of being a female, even at Caltech. “Earlier this year, I went to office areas for my Single Variable Calculus class. When I entered the room, the TA was working with a few male students, solving a difficult problem. When he began helping me,
also prominent in workplace, creating stereotypes about women. Their under representation in tech stems from deeprooted societal norms, according to Sheryl Sandberg, the Chief Operating Officer of Facebook and spokesperson for promoting women’s rights. “We put more pressure on
" If I was in a group with mostly men, I was just totally disregarded at times." -math and Computer Science teacher kelly kennedy
June 2017 — The Tam News
his tone completely changed...The TA assumed that I had no prior knowledge and even asked me [about a simple derivative], which was one of the first thing taught in Calculus AB [at Tam]. The next student was also female, and he treated her in the same remedial manner. Not only was it offensive and embarrassing, it prevented me from getting anything out of the session.” Because Caltech is a tech-oriented school, very few people major in fields outside of STEM — less than one student per year.. Therefore, the majority of Mandigo Stoba’s classes share a 50:50 gender balance. Although many of her classes are related to her major, she has also taken Introductory Computer Science, a common freshman course, and feels that her Tam classes have prepared her well. “APCS at Tam only taught Java, which is not a language that I have used since coming to Caltech,” she said. “However, I think the general concepts I learned have been applicable to a lot of my classes here, many of which include programming...I’ve never felt behind in terms of my programming skills, so I’d say that I was pretty well prepared for computer science here.” The gulf between the two genders doesn’t stop at the high school or even collegiate level. Only 15 percent of tech’s chief officer titles are held by women; 5 percent of tech startup owners are women; 17 percent of tech employees at Google are women. The imposing evidence continues to mount, creating an unavoidable rift in the technology industry. Social pressures are
our boys to succeed and on our girls to stay at home,” she said in a TED Talk. “Bias is experienced and practiced by both men and women. It hurts all of us.” However, Wien has seen a shift in this phenomenon, especially with regards to commercial products. “I don’t think that the activities are necessarily stereotypical towards boys, [but] some of the products are. We’ve used Lego products for a long time and the way that they were marketed for a long time was much more geared towards boys. That seems to have changed in the last couple years where it’s not towards building a specific thing but involves more creativity...it’s not more boy or girl oriented but just about the end product.” Freshman Rebecca Preis took all the technology classes available at MVMS and made a smooth transition into Principles of Engineering at Tam. Her current class, in which the students represent a range of grades, has 4 girls out of 25 students. “The truth is that [women] are just viewed as a minority [in tech] because they are,” she said. “The media obviously portrays us differently — I think it started off as more men in business, that being less women, and the media portrayed that and now it’s just a trend. “[The media has expanded this effect] because if you never see someone like you doing something, you’re going to be less inclined to do it.” Wien shares a similar perspective. “I know this is a problem statewide and nationwide that [technology is] vastly under enrolled, especially in high school classes, with girls [in] coding...I know
Features this is a problem in the tech industry as far as programmers and stuff like that which are so overwhelmingly male,” he said. “It’s not like there are no girls getting involved in computer science but the number is incredibly low. I’d be interested in talking to women who have chosen to continue on in a career in computer science and see what kind of obstacles they felt were in their way. There are stereotypes about programmers and computer science people and I wonder if that stereotype is self-selecting in who gets involved with computer science to some extent. Since the industry has been around for a long time now, maybe that has somehow influenced who chooses to study it and get involved.” Although stereotyping is a huge factor, due to the immense income gap in the world of tech, women are also financially affected, regardless of their position or capabilities. These disparities have contributed to Silicon Valley’s self-garnered nickname, The Boys’ Club, which reflects exactly what it is: a male-dominated environment in which women are reduced to high-heeled secretaries. The median hourly wage for STEM jobs is $37.44 as opposed to $18.68, the average wage for all other jobs. Yet 69 percent of the time, women are paid less for the same job at the same company, according to Hired, a job recruiting startup. Preis believes that the wage distinction, while important, isn’t a discouraging factor for women considering a career in tech. “I don’t necessarily think [the wage gap] is going to change their mind about [joining the industry], but it can bias them,” she said. “For example], if you’re in the industry and you’re getting paid less it’s just going to make you not enjoy your job and be more likely to not continue...I think the difference in pay may change their viewpoint once they are in the workplace.” Beyond the monetary imbalance, there is another factor that has impacted Silicon Valley for years: sexual assault and harassment. A recent study called “Elephant in the Valley,” conducted by working entrepreneurs and CEOs living in Silicon Valley, surveyed more than 200 women with 10 or more years of experience. The study indicates that 60 percent of women in tech reported unwanted sexual advances, and that one in three women feel fearful of their personal safety
because of that. In addition, 60 percent of women who reported sexual harassment were dissatisfied with their company’s response, and 39 percent of those harassed took no action because they were worried it would affect their careers. In recent years, more light has been shed on this issue, bringing awareness to the sexism in the Valley and beyond. Perhaps the most prominent case occurred early this year, when ex-Uber employee Susan Fowler wrote a detailed blog post that reflected on her tumultuous year recounting her manager’s unwarranted plea to sleep with him and threats of termination, after the incident. Her story soon went viral, leading to immediate backlash against the company, and causing women with similar stories to speak out. Knowing, as a women, they would be entering a sexist culture, with little compensation and an increased risk of sexual harassment, why would any women dare to step foot in the world of technology? School districts, teachers, and industry professionals are seeking answers to these questions. But when girls receive an adequate introduction into the world of tech and retain that interest throughout their schooling and into the workplace, the results are undeniable. “Honestly, I think people see me as smarter and that I know what I’m doing,” said Romito, “like I have my whole life together. Most people just take art, but I’m going in and trying something different.” Around the world, people have united to bridge the gender gap in technology and provoke change. Organizations targeted at girls to spark interest in STEM-related fields have emerged, like Girls Who Code (U.S.), She++ (Stanford University), DC Web Women (Washington D.C.), and Women in Technology (United Kingdom). Through networking, recruitment, informative classes, and summits, they have reached out to thousands of girls to promote the pursuit of careers in technology. At Tam, Kennedy is hard at work creating more classes and programs to supplement the current technology classes available. Next year, Tam will be offering AP Computer Science Principles, a course more project-based in comparison to the
current computer science classes. Kennedy is also looking into curriculums for a cybersecurity class. She also has plans to implement a Girls Who Code chapter at Tam. “It will be more directed into encouraging more female students and students of color to the field,” she said. “I think we will be doing some activities at MLK Middle School and MVMS as well to try to encourage more women into the subject, maybe even going into some of the elementary schools. They [can be] exposed to it at a younger age and know that they have a program here coming into Tam.” Kennedy emphasized the importance of males getting involved as well as females, in order to close the gender gap. “I think that awareness is really important and people are becoming more and more aware. We need a lot of support from the men and from the people that do have the representation in the subject to actually be interested in encouraging more diversity,” she said. “If [the men] are the majority, and we don’t
have their buy-in in getting more of this diversity, then we’re going to be fighting the system, essentially, and it’s going to be a real uphill battle.”
The Tam News — June 2017
When You Can’t Sleep (On These Redhawks) by Abby Frazee
nce in awhile, you may desire to have an “early night.” At 10 P.M., you have the power to overcome your addiction to Netflix and instead hit the hay. Why is it, for me at least, that these are always the nights you can never sleep? At 12 in the morning, you lie there thinking about what it meant when that certain person gave you a certain look, or about the future of earth as we know it. Now it’s one in the morning, and instead of entering your Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep, a deep stage sleep involving vivid dreams, you have figured out your summer plans five years in advance. Insomnia is the inability to fall asleep or stay asleep throughout the whole night. Insomnia may last briefly for some, and for others it’s a chronic illness. The negative impacts of insomnia are that of a bad night’s sleep- fatigue, trouble concentrating, mood disturbance, and increased accidents during the day. A study presented by Sleep Education, an organization researching the health benefits of sleep, estimated that lack of sleep causes an employee to lose eight days of work performance yearly. This causes an estimated $63 million dip in the nation’s annual gross domestic product (GDP) compared to if employees could get the recommended amount of sleep.
Heard in the Tam Hallways 16
Insomnia’s effect on people’s well being varies in severity, but bottom line, it sucks the life out of you. There are correct and incorrect ways to deal with it, but for some there is absolutely nothing that can be done. When asking students for their reaction to a bad night’s sleep, most explained how frustrated they get. Sophomore Elli Mulkey said, “I start to hyperventilate and panic.” Junior Libby Anderson said, “I thrash around in bed, sometimes I’ll cry if it gets really bad.” It is understandable to get frustrated when one struggles to get some “shut eye,” so the question is, what do you do? Students explained their personal cures to a bad night’s sleep and the most common answer was not a reassuring one. “I go on my phone [when I cannot sleep]. It’s the worst thing to do, but it’s what I do,” said Junior Lily Wyle. Freshman Lillian Penther and Mulkey reported the same habit, and I’m sure the two are not alone. Though the holy iPhone may provide comfort, research has shown that it is not the best choice before going to bed. According to National Sleep Foundation, blue light emitted from phones disrupts the production of melatonin, the hormone which controls the body’s circadian rhythm, or sleep cycle. Going on one’s phone causes the brain to remain alert, the opposite reaction one would want for their brain before bed. The phone provides endless distractions, social media stimulation, and thanks to phone addiction, is practically impossible to put down. Luckily, there is a more effective approach to falling asleep than the phone, and is also fairly common among students. Penther said she listens to music. Others, such as junior Ali Rolnick, have different
“It’s like hooking up with a hermit crab.” -Science Building
June 2017 — The Tam News
solutions. “I sometimes read a boring book,” she said. These remedies tire the brain out without the stimulation of the phone. Whether the voice of one’s favorite singer soothes, or the lines of an ancient book makes it impossible to keep one’s eyes open, it all can help you to get to sleep. Junior Maia Ciambriello explained her in depth process of creating a happy story in her head, which distracts her from her stress while also tiring her brain out. “I have to make sure to be very careful about what I think about, or I’ll return to consciousness,” Ciambriello said. For those that can’t turn to distraction for sleep, it may be time to turn to medicine. The simplest solution is taking melatonin, the hormone which controls the natural sleep cycle. It is sold over the counter and it is relatively harmless when taken as directed. If one’s insomnia is severe, medical remedies such as cognitive behavioral therapy or prescribed sleeping pills may be the most effective. Sleep is an often undervalued treasure of life. It’s so important, yet as one gets older their average hours of sleep dip dangerously. Sleep feels incredibly satisfying, but it is also vital to emotional and physical health. We have all suffered a few bad nights, and luckily there are tricks to make it better. For those suffering more severe insomnia, they may need to put a lot of effort into finding the cure to never ending restlessness. Sleep tight, you may never know when the next bad night is coming. ♦
“Tinder is like Pokemon GO. You look for monsters and try to catch them.” -Student Center
GRAPHICS BY EMMA BLACKBURN
“Who still drinks straight cow’s milk in 2017?” -Math Building
The Modern Addiction to Cell Phones by Ryan Leake
wish I grew up 30 years ago. Not because I want 50-cent Coca-Colas, or because I want to watch Larry Bird go up against Magic Johnson (though that would be a plus), or even because I wouldn’t have to hear this annoying message before watching any movie in a movie theater: “Our world seems to be overrun with technology. There is a time and a place for it, but a movie theater is not the time nor place... Do not be the person we ask to leave the auditorium…because we will.” No, it’s because 30 years ago I wouldn’t have to look around only to find everyone around me on their bright little cell phone screens. You can’t go anywhere without seeing someone with their head down looking at their phone. People everywhere live through social media apps such as Snapchat, Instagram, Facebook, and many others. The idea of getting the satisfaction from your post being “liked” or looking at others peoples’ lives through your phone has become the addiction we all know. Teenagers especially are using these handheld devices for a nearly a half of their days, “On any given day, teens in the United States spend about nine hours using media for their enjoyment,” according to CNN. I miss the good ol’ days when we all had flip phones and the phone that had a sliding keyboard was considered cool. I never had that phone, but I always wished I did. I was in sixth grade when my peer group was first introduced to the iPhone. It was only the first generation iPhone, but at the time it was still more advanced than any other phone out there. The iPhone quickly became the newest sensation. Since then, 14 other models of iPhones that have been released, all the way up to the most recent
“...and then my penis unfolded and I realized I was gay.” - Upper-Upper Keyser
iPhone seven plus. But what makes this phone so special? The millions of apps on the Apple store enable your phone to have features like no other phone out there. The apps started out as simple games and utilities for your phone but quickly expanded into more. Social media apps were the ones that changed the game. Apps like Facebook, Snapchat, Instagram, and Twitter, were introduced and took America by storm. They sway people to become a part of the iPhone sensation and create the most popular forms of communication. Sadly, these forms of communication overpower face to face interactions and make the world a different place. In a recent episode of 60 Minutes, they analyzed why people are so absorbed in their phones and claimed that social media apps were more than just apps made for people to communicate in a “fun” way. Social media apps were made to make people addicted so the creators would make more money, a strategy known as “Brain Hacking.” For example, Snapchat, which is probably the most popular app for highschoolers currently, creates streaks that you get from sending pictures back and forth to the same individual everyday. Kids get so caught up in maintaining these streaks that it can actually cause severe levels of stress or sadness if they’re lost. Some users even go as far to give their password to their other friends to keep their streaks going on their behalf while on vacation. The use of social media and the addiction to constantly refreshing your feed to see what else is new in your friends lives make your mood worse. In a study by National Institute of Mental Health, it was found that there is a direct correlation
“Well, I don’t have a boyfriend, but I made hella money this weekend.”
between social media and mental health, “The study found that levels of depression increased with total amount of time spent using social media and number of visits to social media sites per week,” according to The Conversation. So it makes you wonder if features like these on our phones are being made to help people with their lives or being made for the sole reason of hooking people into using the products.
And now that GRAPHIC BY iPhones rule the SAMANTHA FERRO world, the companies behind them are taking advantage of the people using them. Far too many people are getting addicted because of features like social media and far too many people are delusional to the fact that “brain hacking” is happening to them as well. Just take a step back and notice how much time you spend on your phone, are you addicted as well? As Ferris Bueller once said, “If you don’t stop and look around once in awhile, you could miss it.” Take a second, put your phone down, and go outside. Stop letting your phone take over your whole life! ♦
“I thought a pilates is a sandwich.”
-Middle Keyser The Tam News — June 2017
EDITORIAL: Hunting for New Ideas T
he annual scavenger hunts, referred to by those involved as the “scav hunt,” is a high school tradition that takes place in late May. This year’s junior scavenger hunt took place on May 26, with approximately 60 juniors participating. Like any scavenger hunt, the goal is to complete a list of tasks, but unlike typical scavenger hunts, these tasks are often illegal. From nonconsensual sexual acts to binge drinking and violence, the tasks often target younger students and encourage those involved to break the law in order to win. The “scav list,” usually written by one of the most social groups of boys in each grade, is given to the participants at a predetermined meeting place, along with a set of rules. Each task is worth a certain number of points, the value determined by the potential consequences and difficulty of achieving the task. The more reckless or insolent the task, the more points it is
worth. At the start of this tradition, these tasks were fun and creative. However, this list has taken a turn for the worse. It now targets specific people because of their physical appearance, reputation, and sometimes religion. Currently, the more extreme tasks on the list can hurt people get participants arrested including seniors who are 18 and can be tried as adults. The risk of prosecution is exacerbated by the requirement that everything must be videotaped and sent to or shown to the creators of the list in order to prove the task was completed; a digital footprint remains after each task is completed, and it’s one that can never be erased. Generally the lists try to “outdo” the ones created the year before. This recent trend of competition is perpetrating a system in which the list is only getting more dangerous, and not more original. This
Crackin’ and Slackin’
June 2017 — The Tam News
is caused by an influx of students caring more about “going hard” and being more extreme instead of being creative. The violent atmosphere caused by this list in part provoked a concerning incident that night. A group who had been participating in the scavenger hunt got into an altercation with a younger student, a fight ensued, and the younger student was injured so severely that he ended up in an ambulance. Since when was sending a kid to the hospital a fun, unifying night with your grade? Another recurring theme among “scav lists” over the years involves blatantly sexual activities and the coercion of middle schoolers or freshman into consuming potentially copious amounts of drugs and alcohol. For example, this year’s list included, “Get your whole group to hook up with the same underclassmen.” In a situation where an underclassmen or middle schooler is approached by a group of upperclassmen practically demanding that they participate in certain tasks, they might “say yes” but due to the extreme pressure of this environment, it cannot be considered true consent. So, by definition, some of these tasks are considered sexual assault. There is a fine line between having fun and taking advantage of younger kids, and that line is too often crosses in the midst of the “scav hunt.” The hunt doesn’t need to end, but the list needs to be changed. Take out blatant violence and tasks that are fueled by hate and bullying. Tasks such as “yelling ‘allahu akbar’ when going through a McDonald’s drive through,” are racist and simply unacceptable. Students at Tam are better than this. It is our responsibility to take this tradition and turn it into something unifying and fun. We need to pull away from hate and violence, before it’s too late and this timeless, well intended, tradition has to come to an end. It is possible to have a scavenger hunt that remains fun and exciting without promoting hate or disrespecting other people. Other high schools in Marin have scavenger hunts, but the tasks are more clever and prank-focused than illegal. A shift back to what the scavenger hunt was created as–a fun tradition for juniors and seniors to create final memories with their class and their friends before leaving–would protect the tradition itself as well as individual students and the Tam community’s reputation as a whole. ♦
Crewe Hutson: Overcoming Obstacles by Kennedy Cook & Michael Diamandakis
reshman Crewe Hutson is not your average dual-sport athlete. Although he played running back for the Junior Varsity football team and guard for freshman basketball team, the quality that truly separates him from his peers isn’t obvious. “If you talk to most people, I look like a normal athlete out there,” Hutson said. “Most people don’t seem to notice.” Hutson lives with a prosthetic eye. When he was three years old, he lost his right eye to retinoblastoma cancer. “There are always difficulties when you have one eye, but most of the time I don’t even notice it. I’ve had this for so long I just play the sport I’ve always done.” Hutson has adapted to his condition, and learned certain techniques that mitigate risks in sports like football. “[Because of my eye], I have a limited field of view. I’ve learned from a young age, just to turn my head a lot more. I definitely notice the limited field of view in football.” Hutson’s coach, Dan Sapp, has nothing but praise for Hutson. “Crewe is tough, intense, super high-energy and joyful. I’m not sure I’ve ever coached a kid with a ‘hotter motor,’” Sapp said. “He brings a unique combination of athleticism and energy that any coach in any sport would love to have on any team...there weren’t many places we could have put him that he wouldn’t have helped us on our freshman/ sophomore team this year,” Sapp said. Sapp said that Hutson’s disability did not hinder him in any noticeable way on the football field. “If it affected his play, I couldn’t tell. My guess is that he has very well accommodated to monocular vision as an athlete and in general. Before I even knew his name, I knew that [he] was a special athlete, teammate, and leader.” When not on the court or field, Hutson shares his first-hand experience of childhood cancer and disability with college students. Every year, Hutson goes to Penn Medical School to visit the doctor who
Freshman Crewe Hudson (23) was a star running back on the junior varsity team this season, despite having a prosthetic eye. PHOTOS COURTESY OF MIERYA CHING
treated him and help present a lecture. “A portion of the lecture focuses on how to give proper care to a young patient,” Hutson said. “My mom and I talk about [it]. While it is about the science, it’s also about caring for your patient and really making them feel comfortable through what is a really difficult time for them.” Hutson also commits his time to other cancer treatment fundraisers. “When I was younger, I did the Relay for Life,” Hutson said. “It’s a big fundraising event and
people donate for you for walking around a track 24 hours, the whole day, because cancer never stops, and you never stop walking that day.” Hutson is grateful for all the opportunities he is allowed to chase, with the love and support from his family. “I really appreciate [my parents] for making sure they are not overprotective with my eye. My mom has always said that having one eye is not going to change my lifestyle,” he said. ♦
The Tam News — June 2017
Girls’ Swimming Wins MCALs by Emily Spears
he girls’ swim team won their first Marin County Athletic League (MCAL) championship in school history on May 6 and 7 at Redwood High School. The team, led by coach Brittney Boyd, competed against Redwood, Drake, Terra Linda, and Marin Catholic. “It was so exciting, everyone was crying because they were so happy,” said sophomore swimmer Kyra Carney. The MCAL Championship meet is structured so that both junior varsity and varsity swimmers compete against other schools for the top 16 spots. The Hawks placed third in the The girls’ swim team celebrates with their MCAL pennant in the pool after winning the MCAL final round of relays, but finished with title for the first time ever on May 7 at Redwood. PHOTO COURTESY OF ZOE WYNN more points overall. relay swimmer Sam Sternfels said. and to succeed you have to be very comThe victory was close, ending As the last round came to a close, mitted and be at practice every day,” Firwith Tam beating Redwood by a mere 6 points. “Up until they announced it, it re- while many swimmers were still in the mage said. However, a little extra motivation ally could have gone either way, so it was pool, the scores were announced. “[Scores really stressful because it was really close, were announced] from tenth place to first from coach Brittney Boyd was also key in and every single point really counted,” ju- place, and then they went straight to the the MCAL win. Boyd has been pushing the winner, and they said by six points, Tam girls to do their best and show up to pracnior finalist Zoe Wortzman said. tice because they want to, rather than beIn recent years, Tam has placed close won,” Sternfels said. “We were all so excited after we won. cause they feel like they need to. “Britney’s behind their league competitors, as Marin is a highly competitive county for swim- We got our flag and it was so exciting to really tough about...[Being committed to ming, according to Wortzman. This year, carry [it],” sophomore Kalia Firmage said. the team] if you don’t come to practice, you however, the team had stood undefeated “Everyone jumped in the pool, even peo- are on the bench during meets,” Carney ple in their clothes. Pretty much the whole said. “Our coach Britney is really great. throughout the season. The scoring at the championship meet team was there and everyone was super She’s really dedicated and invested in every swimmer regardless of their speed,” is announced openly, so each team knows supportive.” While surprising, this win was well- Wortzman said. whether they are in the consolation round Part of the reason the championor the final rounds as the competition earned deserved according to the swimship was such a surprise to the team was progresses. As Tam glided into the final mers. “We train really hard for because many of the top competitors are rounds, everyone knew that it was going to be close, and the nerves and stress level [MCALs], we practiced hard all sea- young, which means that they still have a son building up to it,” Firmage said. few good years ahead of them. “We are a rose quickly. “The last round was a 400 relay… we Many of the girls have been dedicated to young team, so I think we can only get betknew that it was going to be really close swimming their whole lives. “I would say ter as we go,” Sternfels said. “We do lose a and it got pretty stressful, so we knew we that most of the swimmers on the team are few good upperclassmen, but I have high just had to swim our hearts out,” freshman very committed… I take it very seriously hopes going into next season.” ♦
BY THE NUMBERS
Place of boys’ track and field team in the Redwood Empire meet on May 20 at Redwood High School
June 2017 — The Tam News
Place of girl’s track and field team in the Redwood Empire meet on May 20 at Redwood High School
Mountain Bike Team Places Second in State by Griffin Chen
he mountain bike team’s season cul- throughout the entire season. our rides were organized for the sole purminated with a second place finish in “We had a lot of strong racers, but pose of getting stronger. They were just the state finals, which took place at the Five Drake barely beat us at most of the races, team rides that we thought would be the Springs Farm in Petaluma, on Sunday, May including states,” said sophomore Jason most fun and if you rode hard you would 14. Students came from all across Califor- Dunn. “They have a lot more racers, so get in shape as a result.” nia to race, for the challenging race. “[The I guess it makes sense.” Despite not takIn the past few years, the team has race] was gnarly,” Sophomore Kevin Sa- ing first place, the take said. results of this seaIn spite of the adverse conditions, Tam son are great for the racers managed to place very well. Racing team. “Tam’s mounagainst up to 90 students in each category, tain bike team had more than a third of the team’s 32 racers it’s most successful finished within the top 15. Athletes compete in four separate categories for both girls’ and boys’: freshman, Sophmore Clodagh Mellett finished third in Varsity on the sophomore, junior girls side. varsity, and varsity, with the higher categories earning more points. Notably, SophoJamie Baker riding his way to twelfth place during the State Championship race in the Sophmore division. more Kevin Satake finished fourth on the boys side. In the girls’ races, sopho- race season since more Josie Weisert finished second, and the program beSophomore Clodagh Mellett, racing in var- gan 13 years ago with advisor Jon sity, finishing third. More than 800 bikers participated Hartquist,” said the in the event, traveling from all corners of team’s head coach, California. “I was elated to see so many Patrick Lepelch. The team poses on the podium after recieving second place at the happy riders...Coaches and spectators at Regardless of the State Championship race. PHOTOS COURTESY OF MOLLY BAUMHOFF students State Champs,” NorCal League Program results, Director Coco Ramirez said to the National greatly enjoyed the event. “It was so great,” been more dedicated and competitive. Scholastic Cycling Association. “Seeing said sophomore Jamie Baker. “I’m really “Now team rides are focused on getting to be a faster climber... It just means you all the kids so stoked made me realize that looking forward to next year.” The coming years look promising for have to find you own time with friends all the hard work that went into getting the venue ready was worth it, and I was proud the team, as the past few have seen nothing to go on a relaxed ride,” Slothower said. to help create an amazing experience for the but growth in team size and performance. “In general, the team has been ramped up kids.” Tam’s second place finish was un- “It has been exciting to see how successful in intensity since when I joined.” This inprecedented, as the team has never finished we have become,” said senior and Captain crease in intensity has clearly resulted in in the top three places until now. Tam, the Felix Slothower “When I joined as fresh- success for the team. “We have a bright runner-up, was close behind Drake’s team man, things were very different. None of future ahead of us,” Satake said. ♦
Check the Tam News online (www.thetamnews.org) for incredible and inspiring sports coverage.
Place of Junior TK Dahlke in the 100 meter at the state swim meet
Score of the varsity baseball team’s win at Northgate High on May 27 in the second round of the NCS Division Two Playoffs The Tam News — June 2017
Athlete of the Issue: Zevan Solomon by Connor Dargan alongside his father. Solomon never looked back. “Ever since I ran into the course, I had wanted to race just to cross a finish line, and my love for running has just developed through that [experience],” Solomon said. He began running competitively in middle school, but ultimately found his place with his
tween the sports] about intensity and difficulty,” Solomon said. “But really, we’ll talk about anything that can start a conversation. You’d be surprised what the guys can come up with throughout [the run].” Solomon’s dedication doesn’t go unnoticed. “Zevan is a great guy, and a very supportive teammate,” senior teammate Jac Martin said. “He always works incredibly hard to improve himself and do his best but never forgets to cheer on his own teammates to try their hardest.” Solomon wasn’t always confident in Solomon grins after finishing a race during his junior year at his abil- ity to run. During the NCS a dual meet against San Rafael. showcase meet early in the track season, Solomon als his senior year comes to a close, Zemost failed to cross the finvan Solomon stops to catch his breath ish line and complete his and look back on his time on track and field goal. “I was at about mile and cross country. Solomon runs the 800 two of the course and I was meter, 1600 meter, and 3200 meter and having a really bad race to helped the track team to a second consecustart, with people passing tive MCAL victory this year. His individme left and right,” Solomon ual performance also qualified him for the said. “I thought about [stopNorth Coast Section (NCS) final meet, his ping] for a minute, but then I last run of his high school career, where he Senior Zevan Solomon runs in a home meet against Terra thought about everything [the placed twelfth in the 800 meter. Linda on March 9. PHOTOS COURTESY OF ZEVAN SOLOMON team] had trained for and all For Solomon, a love for running began fellow runners. the work we’d put in. I thought to myself, to develop at age six . It all started when he “It’s the team dynamic that we have,” ‘Doesn’t matter how slow I finish the race, watched his father cross the finish line of a Solomon said. “We all get along really but I have to finish.’” short triathlon in Santa Cruz. Watching the well, and in training we compete against The unsung heroes key to Solomon’s runners finish the race inspired Solomon to each other. That friendly competition development have been his coaches, run out into the course and finish the race pushes all of us.” who’ve challenged him to drive himself to Twice a week be the best he can be. “Learning from my the teams meet for coaches, [who have] pushed me to become a training session, a better person, they’ve helped me learn whether it’s 40 who I am and what I’m capable of,” Solominutes to an hour mon said. of pace running or The bond Solomon has developed with 20 minute sprints. his teammates is something that he will During their train- hold onto as he leaves Tam to attend the ing, Solomon found University of Wisconsin. that striking a con“The family we’ve grown into, our versation up with class that’s graduating this year, has gotten his teammates was to know each other really well and we’re a good way to pass able to relate to the fact that we all run,” the time. “On our Solomon said. “[Having a] community of moderate runs we people that I could go to whenever I need talk a lot about help with something related to running or sports...[We draw not has been something I’ll remember forcomparisons be- ever.” ♦
June 2017 — The Tam News
The Tam News Thanks Its Patrons Alamin Family Alessandra Nociaro Alexandra Parra Allen & Lisa Preger Allen Family Alpana & Mahesh Kharkar Amy Zimpfer Ana Levaggi Andrea & Jerry Lane Andrew & Joanna Findlay Ann Mitchell Ryan Anna Ogino Annette Friskopp Annie Lazarus Antonette Greene Arya Guinney Avery Conybeare Barbara Rubens Barbara Sobel & Jonathan Rubens Barrett Nichols Barth Family Beth Inadomi & Tim Newell Betsy Beros Beverly Coughlin Bill Lampl Birgitta Danielson Bishop Family Blackburn Blake Sgamba Bryce Goeking Carnevale Family Cathy Chapman Chavez Family Chris Holden-Wingate Christopher Gate Cynthia Koehler and Gordon Cynthia Samson Cynthia Stone Dana Pepp Daniel & Judy Katsin David & Elaine Freed David & Nancy Bishop David Tarpinian Dawn Dobres & Eric Swergold Debbie & Ed Faubel Diane Worley
Elaine Gebhard Eli Rosenthal Elizabeth Brown Elizabeth Tosaris Ellen Rosenthal Eric Lagier Erika Shern Figuerdo Finn Taylor Ford Family Fullerton Family Gary Ferroni Gill Kemp Gillian & Richard Reilly Goldman Family Gregory Bell Gretchen Boyle Gustav Penther Harold and Elinor Oertell Heather Hawkins In Honor of Sebastian Agati Ingrid Lin J Rosgen Jack Figueirinhas Jack Murphy James and Lilah Goodman James G Finn & Janice Vorfield Jan & Steve McDougal Jan Hudson Jane A Garsson Jane Gould Jaydee Jordan Jeff, Ingrid, & Celia Francis Jen & Ward Flad Jennifer Klopfer Jennifer Murr Jon & Gale Love Jon Duncanson Jonathan Cheung & Zoe Blair Joy Connors Judith Weaver & Steven Julie & Michael Knight Justine & Paul Whitehead Karen Jernstedt Katherine Cope Kathy & Dave McMahon Kathy Piombo
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Volume XII, Issue No. IX - June 2017
June 2017 â€” The Tam News