Issuu on Google+

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

K

Sodium

Calcium

Strontium

137

38

226

56

Y

Yttrium

139

39

89

Scandium

21

Barium

88

Radium

90

Tantalum

Tungsten

Name f

60

144

74

1

1

Rhenium

101

26

Iron

Osmium

59

63.5

65

103

27

Cobalt 106

28

Nickel 108

29

Copper 112

30

Zinc

Gallium

152

77

Iridium

Ir

Rhodium 192

45

73

P

197

47

Silver

159

79

Gold

Mercury

Tc

Plutonium

94

Technetium

Neptunium

93 96

Curium

247

Gadolinium

64

Terbium

Berkelium

97

247

65

Californium

98

252

Dysprosium

66

Green outline artificially prepared Symbol colours, at room temperature: Black = Solid Green = Liquid Blue = Gas

Americium

95

243

Europium

63

162

80

201

Cadmium

48

204

49

Indium 207

50

119

Germanium

32

122

33

75

Phosphorus

15

N Nitrogen

79

16

32

8

O Sulphur

S

Oxygen

80

17

F Chlorine

Cl

Fluorine 35.5

9

19

7

84

18

40

10

20

2

Argon

Ar

Neon

Ne

Helium

He

Arsenic

Tin

Antimony

Thallium

Holmium

167

82

Lead

Bismuth

Erbium

Fermium

100

257

68

Thulium

Mendelevium

101

257

68

169

83

Receive Metals

Metals

Background colours:

Einsteinium

99

254

67

165

81

210

51

Tellurium

Ytterbium

Non-Metals

Nobelium

102

255

70

173

Polonium

84

210

52

128

Selenium

34

210

53

Iodine

I

Bromine 127

35

222

54

Xenon

Xe

Krypton 131

36

Astatine

Lutetium

86

Radon

Noble gases

Lawrencium

86

256

71

175

85

Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn

Platinum

157

78

195

Palladium

46

115

31

70

Si Silicon

31

6

16

6

U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr

Uranium

244

Samarium

62

150

76

190

Ruthenium

44

H

92

237

Promethium

61

147

75

186

Technetium

43

99

Manganese

25

Hydrogen

Protactinium

91

231

238

Praseodymium Neodymium

Th Pa

Cerium

59

141

73

184

Molybdenum

42

96

59

14

C Carbon

14

5

Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu

Thorium

232

58

Niobium

181

41

93

56

Al

28

6

12

4

4

Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr

Chromium

24

55

Hf Ta W Re Os

Hafnium

140

72

Mass Number (Atomic Mass) f Proton Number (Atomic Number) f

Actinoids

Actinium

89

227

Lanthanum

57

178

V

Vanadium

23

52

B Boron

Aluminum

13

27

5

11

3

NON-METALS

Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te

Titanium

Zirconium

40

91

22

51

TRANSITION ELEMENTS

METALS

Periodic Table

Lanthanoids

Francium

48

An Ice Molecule

Ca Sc Ti

45

Fr Ra Ac

Cesium

223

87

88

20

40

Magnesium

12

Cs Ba La

133

Rubidium

55

Berylium

Rb Sr

88.5

37

24

4

Na Mg

Lithium

Potassium

19

39

11

9

Li Be

Hydrogen

23

3

7

1

H

0

1

1

NOBLE GASES

GROUP

The e Key Learning Points


REEGULAR GULAR V VERBS ERBS: SINGLE SYLLABLE VERBS English Imperative Past Future Present Conditional Clean Glan Ghlan Glanfaidh Glanann Ghlanfadh Run Rith Rith Rithfidh Ritheann Rithfeadh Drink Ól D’ól Ólfaidh Ólann D’ólfadh Praise Mol Mhol Molfaidh Molann Mholfadh Leave Fág D’fhág Fágfaidh Fágfann D’fhágfadh Spend Caith Chaith Caithfidh Caitheann Chaithfeadh Ask Iarr D’iarr Iarrfaidh Iarrann D’iarrfadh Burn Dóigh Dhóigh Dófaidh Dónn Dhófadh Read Léigh Léigh Léifidh Léann Léifeadh Discuss Pléigh Phléigh Pléfidh Pléann Pléifeadh Modh Coinníollach endings: -finn, -feá, -feadh sé, -fimis, -feadh sibh, -fidis

REGULAR VERBS: TWO SYLLABLE VERBS English Buy Greet Arrange Rise Question Help Tie Banish Threaten Pull

Imperative Past Future Present Conditional Ceannaigh Cheannaigh Ceannóidh Ceannaíonn Cheannódh Beannaigh Bheannaigh Beannóidh Beannaíonn Bheannódh Socraigh Shocraigh Socróidh Socraíonn Shocródh Éirigh D’éirigh Éireoidh Éiríonn D’éireodh Ceistigh Cheistigh Ceisteoidh Ceistíonn Cheisteodh Cabhraigh Chabhraigh Cabhróidh Cabhraíonn Chabhródh Ceangail Cheangail Ceanglóidh Ceanglaíonn Cheanglódh Díbir Dhíbir Díbreoidh Díbríonn Dhíbreodh Bagair Bhagair Bagróidh Bagraíonn Bhagródh Tarraing Tharraing Tarraingeoidh Tarraingíonn Tharraingeodh Modh Coinníollach endings: -óinn,-ófá, -ódh, -óimis, -odh sibh, -oidis

SÉIMHIÚ AGUS ÚRÚ Put a séimhiú (h) in a word in the following cases: after

Put an urú on a word in the following cases: after

Séimhiú sa sa phictiúrlann mo mo chóta do do chóta ar ar chapall Urú ár ár mbróga bhur bhur mbróga a(their) a mbróga ar an ar an mbord ag an ag an ngeata tríd tríd an ngloine

den don a(his) ó

den bhord don chailín a chóta ó Bhríd

i ón go as an thar faoi(n)

i dtrioblóid ón bhfarraige go hÉirinn as an mbosca thar an ngeata faoin mbord


tán a u r c g i a r a c Aithnítear

Key Learning Points

IRRREGULAR REGULAR V VERBS ERBS English Imperative

Past

Future

Present

Conditional

Be

Bhí Ní raibh An raibh?

Beidh

Tá Níl An bhfuil?

Bheadh

Catch

Beir

Rug

Béarfaidh

Beireann

Bhéarfadh

Come

Tar

Tháinig

Tiocfaidh

Tagann

Thiocfadh

Do/make

Déan

Rinne Ní dhearna An ndearna?

Déanfaidh

Déanann

Dhéanfadh

Eat

Ith

D’ith

Íosfaidh

Itheann

D’íosfadh

Get

Faigh

Fuair Ní bhfuair An bhfuair?

Gheobhaidh Ní bhfaighidh An bhfaighidh?

Faighim

Gheobhadh Ní bhfaigheadh An bhfaigheadh?

Give

Tabhair

Thug

Tabharfaidh

Tugann

Thabharfadh

Go

Téigh

Chuaigh Ní dheachaigh An ndeachaigh

Rachaidh

Téann

Rachadh

Hear

Clois/Cluin

Chuala

Cloisfidh Cluinfidh

Cloiseann Cluineann

Chloisfeadh

Say

Abair

Dúirt Ní dúirt

Déarfaidh Ní déarfaidh

Deir Ní deir

Déarfadh

See

Feic

Chonaic Ní fhaca An bhfaca?

Feicfidh

Feiceann

D’fheicfeadh

AR

orm, ort, air, uirthi, orainn, oraibh, orthu

DO

dom, duit, dó, di, dúinn, daoibh, dóibh

AG

agam, agat, aige, aici, againn, agaibh, acu

Ó

uaim, uait, uaidh, uaithi, uainn, uaibh, uathu

LE

liom, leat, leis, léi, linn, libh, leo

FAOI

fúm, fút, faoi, fuithi, fúinn, fúibh, futhu

Ní bhíonn saoi gan loch t!


Francais L E PR RÉSENT ÉSENT: I DO / I AM DOING Regular verbs donner = donn je donne tu donnes il / elle / on donne nous donnons vous donnez ils / elles donnent

finir = fin je finis tu finis il / elle / on finit nous finissons vous finissez ils / elles finissent

Vendre = vend je vends tu vends il / elle / on vend_ nous vendons vous vendez ils / elles vendent

Common Irregulars Avoir (to have) J’ai tu as il / elle / on a nous avons vous avez ils / elles ont

Être (to be) Je suis tu es il / elle / on est nous sommes vous êtes ils / elles sont

Faire (to do/make) Je fais tu fais il / elle /on fait nous faisons vous faites ils / elles font

Aller (to go) Je vais tu vas il / elle / on va nous allons vous allez ils / elles vont

LE FUTUR: I WILL DO Regular formation Donner Finir Vendre je donnerai nous donnerons je finirai nous finirons je vendrai nous vendrons tu donneras vous donnerez tu finiras vous finirez tu vendras vous vendrez il/elle donnera ils/elles donneront il/elle finira ils/elles finiront il/elle vendra ils/elles vendront


Key Learning Points

LE CONDITIONNEL: I WOULD DO Regular formation donner

finir

vendre

je donnerais

nous donnerions

je finirais

nous finirions

je vendrais

tu donnerais

vous donneriez

tu finirais

vous finiriez

tu vendrais

nous vendrions vous vendriez

il/elle donnerait ils/elles donneraient il/elle finirait ils/elles finiraient il/elle vendrait

ils/elles vendraient

Irregular verbs in the Future and Conditional Infinitive Future ending Infinitive Future ending 1) aller j’ir 9) pleuvoir il pleuvr 2) avoir j’aur 10) pouvoir je pourr 3) courir je courr 11) recevoir je recevr 4) devoir je devr 12) savoir je saur 5) envoyer j’enverr 13) tenir je tiendr 6) être je ser 14) venir je viendr 7) faire je fer 15) voir je verr 8) falloir Il faudr 16) vouloir je voudr E.g. J’irai / tu iras / il ira etc. = I will go / you will go / he will go, etc. J‘irais / tu irais / il irait etc. = I would go / you would go / he would go, etc.

LE PASSÉ COMPOSÉ: I DID / I HAVE DONE FORMATION In order to form the passé composé you need to use either the verb ‘avoir’ or ‘être’.

TAKE THE INFINITIVE AND MAKE THE FOLLOWING CHANGES Infinitive ending donner (er) finir (ir) vendre (re)

Avoir J’ai Tu as Il/Elle a donné/fini/vendu Nous avons Vous avez Ils/Elles ont

Passé Composé é i u

Example donné fini vendu

Être Je suis Tu es Il/Elle est allé(e)(s)/arrivé(e)(s) Nous sommes Vous êtes Ils/Elles sont


Francais IR RREGULAR REGULAR VERBS WITH AVOIR Infinitive avoir boire connaître construire courir croire détruire devoir dire écrire être faire lire

Passé Composé eu bu connu construit couru cru détruit dû dit écrit été fait lu

Infinitive mettre ouvrir pouvoir prendre recevoir rire savoir sourire suivre tenir vivre voir vouloir

Passé Composé mis ouvert pu pris reçu ri su souri suivi tenu vécu vu voulu

Most verbs in the passé composé take ‘avoir’ except for the following : Dr. & Mrs. P.Vandertramp is a good way to learn the verbs that go with être !!! Devenir devenu* Descendre descendu Revenir revenu* Entrer entré Monter monté Rentrer rentré Rester resté Tomber tombé Sortir sorti Retourner retourné Passer passé Arriver arrivé Venir venu* Mourir mort* Aller allé Partir parti Naître né* NB: Add extra ‘e’ (fem) & ‘s’ (plur) NOTE: Passer can take avoir and être – with avoir = spend (time) / with être = pass / go by

L’IMPARFAIT: I WAS DOING / I USED TO DO In order to form the Imparfait you need to: Take the ‘nous’ form of the present tense Drop the ‘ons’ and add: donner nous donnons = donn je donnais tu donnais il / elle / on donnait nous donnions vous donniez ils / elles donnaient

Finir nous finissons = finiss je finissais tu finissais il / elle / on finissait nous finissions vous finissiez ils / elles finissaient

Vendre nous vendons = vend Je vendais tu vendais il / elle / on vendait nous vendions vous vendiez ils / elles vendaient


Key Learning Points

Deutsch

BASIC GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURES OF GERMAN The definite article – ‘The’ Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative

Masculine der den des dem

Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative

Masculine ein einen eines einem

Feminine die die der der

Neutral das das des dem

Plural die die der den

The indefinite article – ‘A’ Feminine eine eine einer einer

Ich spiele Hockey

Neutral ein ein eines einem

jeden Montag nach

Plural -

der Schule

be!! ab gab fg Aufg Auf t Au ute gute Ich möchte in der Zukunft eine g Declension D De eclen l sion i off the h regular verb Spielen- ‘To Play’ Ich spiele Du spielst Er spielt Sie spielt Es spielt Wir spielen Ihr spielt Sie spielen

Ending e st t t t en t en

Some common irregular verbs in the perfect past tense Essen (to eat) Fahren (to travel) Gehen (to go) Haben (to have) Rennen (to run) Schreiben (to write) Sehen (to see) Trinken (to drink)

Ich habe gegessen Ich bin gefahren Ich bin gegangen Ich habe gehabt Ich bin gerannt Ich habe geschrieben Ich habe gesehen Ich habe getrunken


Espanol VERBS Regular Verbs Infinitive Present I speak

Future I will speak

Conditional I would speak

Preterite I spoke

Imperfect I was speaking / I used to speak

AR verbs

ER verbs

IR verbs

Hablar To speak

Comer To eat

Vivir To live

Key Irregular Verbs Ser To be

Estar To be

Tener To have

Ir To go

Hacer do/make

hablo hablas habla hablamos habláis hablan

como comes come comemos coméis comen

vivo vives vive vivimos vivís viven

soy eres es somos sois son

estoy estás está estamos estáis están

tengo tienes tiene tenemos tenéis tienen

voy vas va vamos vais van

hago haces hace hacemos hacéis hacen

hablaré hablarás hablará hablaremos hablaréis hablarán

comeré comerás comerá comeremos comeréis comerán

viviré vivirás vivirá viviremos viviréis vivirán

seré serás será seremos seréis serán

estaré estarás estará estaremos estaréis estarán

tendré tendrás tendrá tendremos tendréis tendrán

iré irás irá iremos iréis irán

haré harás hará haremos haréis harán

hablaría hablarías hablaría hablaríamos hablaríais hablarían

comería comerías comería comeríamos comerías comerían

viviría vivirías viviría viviríamos vivirías vivirían

sería serías sería seríamos seríais serían

estaría estarías estaría estaríamos estaríais estarían

tendría tendrías tendría tendríamos tendríais tendrían

iría irías iría iríamos iríais irían

haría harías haría haríamos haríais harían

hablé hablaste habló hablamos hablasteis hablaron

comí comiste comió comimos comisteis comieron

viví viviste vivió vivimos vivisteis vivieron

fui fuiste fue fuimos fuisteis fueron

estuve estuviste estuvo estuvimos estuvisteis estuvieron

tuve tuviste tuvo tuvimos tuvisteis tuvieron

fui fuiste fue fuimos fuisteis fueron

hice hiciste hizo hicimos hicisteis hicieron

hablaba hablabas hablaba hablábamos hablabais hablaban

comía comías comía comíamos comíais comían

vivía vivías vivía vivíamos vivíais vivían

era eras era éramos erais eran

estaba estabas estaba estábamos estabais estaban

tenía tenías tenía teníamos teníais tenían

iba ibas iba íbamos ibais iban

hacía hacías hacía hacíamos hacíais hacían

coma comas coma comamos comáis coman

viva vivas viva vivamos viváis vivan

sea seas sea seamos seáis sean

esté estés esté estemos estéis estén

tenga tengas tenga tengamos tengáis tengan

vaya vayas vaya vayamos vayáis vayan

haga hagas haga hagamos hagáis hagan

Present Subjunctive hable hables that I speak hable hablemos habléis hablen

la vid a es gra n!


Key Learning Points

Indefinite Article a / some

Definite Article the Sing el (m) la (f)

Plural los (m) las (f)

Sing un (m) una (f)

Plur unos (m) unas (f)

Subject Pronouns yo tú él / ella / usted

I you he / she / you (formal)

nosotros vosotros ellos / ellas / ustedes

we you (plural) they / you (formal plural)

Possessive Adjectives my / your / his / her / our / their mi tu su nuestro vuestro

mis tus sus nuestra vuestra

nuestros vuestros

nuestras vuestras

su

sus

Demonstrative Adjectives this / that / these / those

Masc Fem

This

These

That

Those pl esos

That (over there) sing aquel

Those (over there) pl aquellos

sing este

pl estos

sing ese

esta

estas

esa

esas

aquella

aquellas

Common Interrogative words ¿Qué? ¿Cuándo? ¿Dónde? ¿adónde? ¿Cuánto? ¿Quién? ¿Quiénes? ¿a quién? ¿a quiénes? ¿Cómo? ¿Cuál? ¿Cuáles? ¿Por qué?

what? when? where? to where? how much / how many? who? whom? how? which? why?


TRIGONOMETRY Special angles: 45°, 30° and 60° There are three special angles whose sines, cosines and tangents ratios can be p p fractions or surds. expressed as simple sin 45o = cos 45o =

1 2

45°

2

1

l

2

tan 45o = 1

45° l

1 2

sin 60o =

3 2

sin 30o =

cos 60o =

1 2

cos 30o =

tan 60 = 3

tan 30 = o

o

30°

3 2 1

2

3 60°

3

l

Th ti are given i h llog ttables. bl H These ratios on page 9 off th the However, on thi this page th the angles are measured in radians. Use this table to convert radians to degrees knowing that: π radians = 180°

Thus:

2

radians = 90°

3

radians = 60°

4

radians = 45°

6

radians = 30°

Notation The diagram shows the usual notation for a triangle in trigonometry: Vertices Angles Length of sides

a A

c

a, b, c A, B, C a, b, c b

B

b

a

C

c

The lengths of the sides are denoted by a lower case letter and named after the angle they are opposite, i.e. a is opposite angle A, b is opposite angle B, and c is opposite angle C.


Key Learning Points

Area of a Triangle

a A

Area of Δabc

c

1 1 1 = ab sin C = ac sin B bc sin A 2 2 2

B

b

C

a

Sine Rule

c

a A

In any Δabc

c

a b c = = sin A sin B sin C

or:

b

sin A sin B sin C = = a b c

b

B

b C

a

c

(The first form is given on Page 9, of the log tables)

VOLUME & AREA Cylinder πr 2

Volume, V = r h Curved Surface Area, CSA = 2 rh Total Surface Area, TSA = 2 rh + 2 r 2

2πr

2

2πrh

h

h

r πr 2

Cone

1 2 r h 3 Curved Surface Area, CSA = rl Total Surface Area, TSA = rl + r 2 Volume, V =

Pythagoras’s Theorem: l2 = r2 + h2

h

l

r


Rectangle

Square b

l

l

l

Area, A = lb Perimeter, P = 2l + 2b = 2(l + b) Triangle

Area, A = l2 Perimeter, P = 4l Parallelogram

h

h

b

Area, A =

b

1 bh 2

Area, A = bh

Circle (Disc)

Sector of a circle Area, A =

r

θ × πr 2 360

Length of arc = Area, A = πr2

Sphere

Volume, V =

4 3 πr 3

r

θ × 2πr 360 θ

Similar to circle with

Circumference, C = 2πr

arc arc

360

Volume, V =

2 3 πr 3

Curved Surface Area, CSA = 2πr2 Total Surface Area, TSA = 2πr2 + πr2 = 3πr2

r

in front of formulas

r

Curved Surface Area, CSA = 4πr2 Hemisphere

θ°

r


Key Learning Points

ALGEBRA (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2

(a + b)3 = a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3

(a – b)2 = a2 – 2ab + b2

(a – b)3 = a3 – 3a2b + 3ab2 – b3

(a – b)(a + b) = a2 – b2

(a – b)(a2 + ab + b2) = a3 – b3

TYPES of FACTORS Type 1.

Take out the HCF

2.

Example

Factors

20xy – 4x

4x (5y – x)

Factors by grouping

3ax – 6ay – 2bx + 4by

(x – 2y)(3a – 2b)

3.

Quadratic trinomials

5x2 – 9x – 2

(5x + 1)(x – 2)

4.

Difference of two squares

9x2 – 4y2

(3x – 2y)(3x + 2y)

2

USING EQUATIONS to SOLVE PROBLEMS For example, if x represents an unknown number, then: Words

Expression

4 more than the number

(x + 4)

3 less than the number

(x – 3)

5 times the number

5x

3 times the number, less 2

(3x – 2) x 1 x or 4 4

a quarter of the number the number subtracted from 7

7–x

the difference between two numbers is 2

x and (x + 2)

two numbers add up to 9

x and (9 – x)

x+5 2

the number plus 5, then divided by 2

INEQUALITIES The four inequality symbols:

> ≥ < ≤

means greater than means greater than or equal to means less than means less than or equal to


c.3500 BC c.3000 BC c.2900 BC c.700 BC c.214 BC 79 AD 432 AD

Sumerians invent the wheel Megalithic tombs like Newgrange built in Ireland The Sphinx in Egypt is completed The Celts arrive in Ireland The Great Wall of China is completed Volcanic eruption destroys Pompeii in Italy Traditional date for arrival of St. Patrick into Ireland and Ireland becomes one of the largest centres of Christianity istianityy c.800 AD in Europe, often referred to as The Golden en Age 1014 AD Brian Boru defeats Vikings at Battle of Clontarf ontarf 1066 Norman Conquest of Britain 1095 Pope Urban II calls for the Crusades 1100’s Angkor Wat is built 1169 Normans arrive in Ireland 1271 Marco Polo begin travels to Asia Bubonic Plague (Black Death)spreads in Europe uro ope 1347 It kills a third of the population of Dublin 1438 Inca Empire formed in Peru 1492 Columbus reaches the New World 1509 Michelangelo begins painting the Sistine Ch Chapel pell 1517 Martin Luther initiates Reformation 1522 Magellan’s expedition circumnavigates the globe obe 1558 – 1603 Reign of Elizabeth I, plantations in Munster and nd Ulster 1601 Shakespeare writes Hamlet 1607 Flight of the Earls 1643 Taj Mahal built in India 1649 Cromwell invades Ireland 1690 Battle of the Boyne 1760 Industrial Revolution begins in Britain 1764 Mozart (aged 8) writes his first symphony ony 1776

US Declaration of Independence

“History will be kind to me for I intend to write it.” –Winston Churchill


Key Learning Points

1789 1798 1815 1845 – 48 1859 1879 1879 – 82 1880’s

French Revolution begins Wolfe Tone’s uprising crushed Battle of Waterloo results in defeat for Napoleon The Great Famine (2 million die) Darwin’s, On the Origin of Species Edison invents electric light The Land War in Ireland Europe colonises African Continent Gaelic Athletic Association founded 1884 in Thurles, Co. Tipperary 1886 First Bill for Irish Home Rule defeated orld New Zealand becomes first country in the world 1893 to grant women the right to vote anguage 1893 Gaelic League is founded to revive the Irish language 1903 Wright brothers fly first motorised airplane 1911 Amundsen discovers the South Pole 1912 The Titanic sinks on her maiden voyage ommons Third Irish Home Rule Bill passes House of Commons 1912 but is defeated in House of Lords World War I begins (The Great War) d 1914 Implementation of Irish Home Rule postponed because of outbreak of World War I 1916 The Easter Rising 1917 Lenin leads the Bolshevik Revolution in Russiaa 1918 World War I ends. Global Spanish Flu epidemicc 1918 Women in Ireland granted the vote ed d 1919 – 21 The War of Independence – Ireland partitioned 1922 Joyce’s Ulysees published 1922 – 23 Irish Civil War US stock exchange – Wall Street crash 1929 precipitates global depression 1932

De Valera elected head of government

“The past does not repeat itself, but it rhymes.” –Mark Twain


1936 1937 1939 1939 1945 1948 1953 1955 1957 1963 1969 1969 1973 1981 1985 1989 1990 1991 1994 1998 2001 2002 2004 2004

Spanish Civil War begins Irish Free state adopts a new constitution, the country’s official name is now Éire Hitler invades Poland, World War II begins Dublin is bombed by Germany but Ireland remains neutral t tral Atomic bombs are dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan. World War II ends The Republic of Ireland Act Watson, Crick and Franklin discover DNA’s structure re Ireland is admitted into the UN Russia launches first satellite into space – Sputnik 1 US president John F. Kennedy visits Ireland in April. He is assassinated in Texas in November Armstrong and Aldrin walk on the moon. Internet goes online Violence between Catholics and Protestants breaks aks out in Northern Ireland. British troops called in Ireland joins EU (known then as EEC) Scientists identify AIDS Anglo-Irish agreement signed Fall of communism in Eastern Europe Mary Robinson is elected Ireland’s first female president resident Breakup of Soviet Union. Apartheid ends in South th Africa The IRA announces a ceasefire Good Friday Agreement. John Hume and David Trimble win Nobel Peace Prize Terrorist attacks on Twin Towers in New York on September ptember 11 Euro is introduced into Ireland Irish government passes smoking ban in all public indoor spacess Tsunami in South East Asia kills thousands

“I have but one lamp by which my feet are guided, and that is the lamp of experience. I know no way of judging of the future but by the past.” –Edward Gibbon


MODULE 2 - Key Learning Points