SEPTEMBER 2010 P R O M O T I N G T H E
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The Stafford Knot
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EARLY NEUROLOGICAL STIMULATION
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Training Your Stafford the key, and it is this desire that needs feel well, think about what & how you to be channeled into training. want to teach a particular exercise. In the following exercises I have given the commands that I use, if you don’t like them use your own word and Firstly ensure you have a suitable stick to it. collar & lead, I find that a leather standard style collar with a 6’ lead Watch with adjustable clips is the most Teach your puppy that being with you appropriate, a good leather lead will is a nice thing, one of the first things I last you many years. teach is ‘Watch’ this is the basis of all future training, you are basically Many people think that a short lead teaching your puppy to give you his gives more control in fact you will attention, it is very easy to teach and have far less control and your Staﬀord yet so often overlooked. This can be will pull more, the chain link style achieved anywhere, by just using the leads are not suitable for any breed. command ‘Watch’ gaining puppies attention, leave for 3 seconds and Begin by getting your puppy used to praise, gradually building on the time. i t ’s co l l a r, p e r h a p s i n i t i a l l y b y introducing it just before a meal, your Walking To Heel puppy may well scratch at it, just Whilst realising that not everyone ignore the behavior, remove when wants competitive heelwork, with your puppy has accepted the collar. your dogs head glue to your left leg, This exercise should be repeated as you should however be able to walk often as needed, ensure that the collar with your dog rea sonabl y close is removed should your puppy need to without any undue pulling and to be crated. ignore any distractions. Collar & Lead Training
Whatever your reason for choosing the Staﬀordshire Bull Terrier, the most important consideration must be that of a family pet, indeed in today’s society it makes sense to teach your dog both social and ba sic obedience skills. The Staﬀord is not a breed usually associated with Obedience and other dog/owner related activities many Staffords howe ver are regularl y competing in these disciplines and doing very well. Whilst I would be the first to agree that not all Staﬀords could or indeed should compete at this level, we owe it to this great breed to teach them social skills. Many people do not understand the Staffords temperament, that they are second to none with people and yet their interaction with other dogs can leave a lot to be desired, the way forward for our breed is as ‘Good Citizens’. Dogs are creatures of habit and learn by repetition and association, remember that YOU are the main ingredient in the pie, you must understand your dog, think like your dog and know what you want to achieve and to make sure that you do get the result.
Basic Obedience Training The earlier your puppy commences his training the better, from the moment your puppy arrives home he is learning from you. A puppy copes remarkably well considering the huge Although not a traditionally working transition he has gone through. breed, your dog can be taught almost anything you purely need to break I would suggest training on an empty e a c h e x e r c i s e d o w n i n to s m a l l stomach, this will ensure that you components. The Staﬀord can be a have your dogs undivided attention, very stubborn breed but it is the initially keep training sessions short Staﬀords great desire to please that is especially for puppies, always end on a good note, forget training if you don’t
Begin with your dog on your left hand side, holding a slack lead in your right hand, your left hand is used to correct. You need to gain your dogs attention, using the command ‘Watch’ then command ‘Heel’ before stepping of on your left leg, ensure that your enthusiasm spills over into your dog, should your dog go wide, try stepping away from your dog, calling your dog to heel. Remember to talk to your dog, this is so often overlooked, you cannot initially expect your dog to know what you want of him. When turning left, I use the command ‘Back’ my left hand would then go down the length of the lead to slightly pull the dog into place before turning, when turning right, use the command ‘Close’ and encourage you dog round with you, keep it happy. Continued on next page
“Dogs are creatures of habit and learn by repetition...” (continued) Don’t walk for to long in the same direction, your dog will bore easily, break this up with left or right turns, try changing your pace from normal pace to slow and then to fast. Break the heelwork up with a little play session, then same happy mood back into it again.
Come Many people do not let there dog oﬀ lead for fear of them running oﬀ into the horizon, training your dog to ‘come’ should be started from as early as possible. When feeding your puppy call his name and add the command ‘Come’ he is learning to come at the ver y fundamental Eventually when walking at heel, get beginnings. your dog to sit when you stop, in time your dog will do this automatically, Keep your voice light and try calling which will be invaluable when walking him to you with toys or titbits, always your dog besides a road, stopping to make a fuss of him when he does give someone directions or even return, in the early stages train in a buying an ice cream! confined room, before moving on to an enclosed garden. Should he Sit disobey, do not shout – simply go to Using a titbit raise your left hand over your dog, hold him by the collar or your puppies head and command ‘Sit’ attach his lead take some steps back you will probably find that he sits repeating the command and praise.
...KEEP YOUR VOICE LIGHT AND TRY CALLING HIM TO YOU WITH TOYS OR TIDBITS... automatically, If not using your right hand push his bottom down and repeat the command, still leaving your left hand above puppies head. When your puppy has sat, bring your left hand containing the titbit down and reward, reinforcing the command. Ensure that you push the bottom and not your puppies back.
Down Using a titbit in your left hand put it in front of puppies nose before bringing it down to the floor in front of puppy, command ‘Down’, again puppy will probably go down automatically. If not using both hands on either side of puppies chest push backward repeating ‘Down’, reward and praise when successful
Stay ‘Stay’ means that you are commanding your dog to stay in one position until you return to your dog, which is diﬀerent to ‘Wait’ which means wait until I call you to me. Begin in your dogs favorite position either the sit or down, use the command ‘Stay’ in conjunction with your outstretched hand in front of your dogs face. Only do as much as you can, building up slowly, the main objective being that the dog understands what ‘Stay’ means, even if initially you are only working 12” away and literally holding the dog in place. Gr a d u a l l y wo r k f u r t h e r a w a y, b u t remember to build up slowly, don’t use your dogs name during this exercise, when returning to your dog wait a few seconds before praise, this will stop him anticipating when to move, additionally you could return to your dog and then step away again.
Coming back to you should be a pleasurable experience, when on a walk practice calling him back to you and praising, many dogs associate being called back as the end of their walk, so by doing this you will have a Should your dog move, do not scold simply step back into your dog, replace dog happy to return to you. him in his position repeat the command Should you dog decide that the and step away again, try standing side on horizon is where he wants to be and to your dog this way he won’t confuse it makes a run for it. You must of with a recall. course go after him but should you dog eventually return to you, he must be praised. If he needs to be chastised then you must go to him. Mostly when my dogs have done wrong they are ignored, they crave attention and I find that this works. However should they need to be disciplined then do this as the bitch would to her puppies, by the scruﬀ of the neck, and a few choice growled words will usually do the trick.
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Dogs love to use their noses...
Additional options can be brought into the training, alter the distances you leave your dog, add distractions such as walking round your dog, throwing a toy or people walking past. But remember never be afraid to go back a stage, my own bitch, Tammy regularly trains for 10 minute out of sight stays amongst many other breeds, but she would soon become stale if that is all we trained for, so use your imagination and var y the exercises. Nosework Dog’s love to use their noses, nature has given them a powerful tool and unfortunately many do not get to use theirs to their full potential, you will really see you dog come ‘alive’ when they get the hand of scent training. Begin with yourself kneeling on the floor with a favorite toy or piece of titbit hidden very easily, (in respect to the toy ensure this is a special toy that the dog loves and only bring it out during training). Let your dog watch you hide it and then send him to ‘Find’ when your dog finds the object lots of praise and play. Always ensure that your dog finds the article, should he struggle, help him and then lots of praise when he eventually finds it.
Ensure the toy is well handled before hiding it, gradually you can hide the toy further away with your dog still watching. Building upon this as your dog understands just what ‘Find’ means.
room, then move on to hiding his toy Training For Other Disciplines in your garden, as your training develops try hiding many diﬀerent Agility articles but remember all must be well handled before being hidden. The objective of Agility is to complete a course of designated numbered jumps and equipment in Basic Road Training the fastest time hopefully without Many Stafford’s do not seem to incurring any faults. display a fear of traﬃc, I remember a story of a Road traﬃc accident where The equipment is made up of jumps, the car came of worse, when in tyres, rigid and collapsible tunnels and collision with a Staﬀord. Thus said, t h e w e a v e s a s w e l l a s c o n t a c t tragically many Staﬀords are killed on equipment such as the see-saw, dog the road every year. walk and ‘A’ frame, these have painted contact areas which the dog must Always have your dog on the lead make contact with at the start/end of when near a road or any traﬃc, time the obstacle. Such things as missing a spent teaching your dog road manners contact, knocking down a pole from a may well save your dogs life. jump, or missing a weave pole will incur faults. As well as that you can I always take my puppies road walking also be eliminated for taking the to accustom them to traﬃc, just like wrong course or fouling the ring. It is all the other experiences I want them also well to remember that during to be comfortable with. Begin by competition titbits are not allowed teaching your dog to walk by your side and to remember that all collars must without any undue pulling, then move be removed. I recently lost out on 1st on to teaching your dog to sit at the place due to not remembering to kerb before you cross the road. You remove Tammy’s collar and was will need to ensure that you do this e l i m i n a t e d , e v e n t h o u g h s h e overtime, the more you put into your completed the course in the fastest dog the better your dog will be, your time with an otherwise clear round. dog needs to be well socialised and taught to ignore pedestrians, cyclists, Most Staﬀords will fit into the Mini bins and many other day to day (1’3” or under at the shoulder) or Midi distractions. Remember to carry your (1’3” – 1’5”) categories, you will pooh bags and teach your dog to sit probably have seen coverage of Crufts q u i e t l y w h i l s t y o u p i c k u p t h e Agility on the television, this however necessary’s. gives a very blinkered view of the sport as there are many breeds competing not just collies.
Initially you will need to oﬀer your dog lots of encouragement but as your training develops when sending him out after the initial command, keep quiet and let him work, only oﬀering encouragement when needed. Use your imagination with Nosework training try hiding his toy in another Continued on next page
The more you put into your dog, the better your dog will be... Continued There is quite a number of Staﬀord’s regularly competing and they generally do very well. The biggest problem they have is they have no respect for the equipment, my own bitch Tammy has broken poles with her head and not even altered her stride. Your dog needs to be at least 12 months old before beginning Agility training. Tammy was 17 months before she started training for Agility. The intervening time can be used socialising your dog and training basic obedience skills, as they will need to be trusted oﬀ lead with other breeds. I would recommend working through a puppy socialasation class before moving on to a regular basic obedience class. Ideally your dog should know all the basic commands such as come, sit, stay and wait, the more obedient and attentive to you your dog is, the easier the introduction of Agility classes will be, but above all your dog must be of a temperament to be trusted oﬀ lead with other dogs. Should you find that competitive Agility training classes are not for you, why not trying making some equipment for your garden. Keep the jumps to a height of 15” and I would suggest investing in a book such as ‘Agility is Fun’ by Ruth Hobday which has instructions for making equipment in the book as well as other training tips for the complete beginner.
I have given Agility demonstrations at both the East Anglian and East Midlands Staﬀordshire Bull Terrier Clubs and all the Staﬀords really seem to enjoy having ago on the course after the display.
and is not exactly an athletic build, but because of her Agility training she will attempt to jump anything put in front of her. Should she not manage the jump and hit the last element, it is usually because she has taken oﬀ to soon and not that she cannot do it. Working Trials However with careful training all the Trials are split into stakes the first two jumps in this section are possible. being CD and UD, it is from these that it is possible to qualify a ‘small’ The 4’ Scale and 2’ high jump should dog as there are height allowances in cause no major problems for any dog the Agility section. To qualify you used to jumping, however care should have to score 80% or higher and be taken so as to avoid any accidents. what’s nice is that you aren’t in I would disagree with training for the competition with anyone else – if you Agility section for Working Trials achieve the marks, you qualify. After before 18 months, as the section is qualifying your dog, this then entitles very tough, especially with our breeds you to add letters after your dog’s construction. name ie; CDex, UDex. Ho w e v e r t i m e s p e n t i n t h e Dogs are not permitted to compete in intervening time will be invaluable, any trial until 18 months of age, as initially begin to feed your dogs before I would suggest using the enthuasim for jumping with maybe i n t e r n i n g t i m e t o i n s t i l l g o o d poles laid directly on the ground, they obedience skills in your dog. The c a n t h e n g r a d u a l l y b e r a i s e d , exercises are split into sections, from remember not to over phase your dog which you have to obtain a minimum to soon, it must be fun! amount of points per section to qualify overall. Control Section Agility Section 6’ Long Jump (for dogs upto 15” at the shoulder – this changes to 9’ for dogs over 15”) 2’ High Jump (for dogs upto 15” at the shoulder – this changes to 3’ for dogs over 15”) 4’ Scale (for dogs upto 15” at the shoulder – this changes to 6’ for dogs over 15”) These are completed under control conditions, the dog having been sent over an obstacle has to wait in that position until rejoined by the handler. The long jump is made up of 4 elements, which range from 3’ to 3’8” wide, each element graduates in height from 4-11”. The long jump at 6’ is rather punishing for the Staﬀord. My own bitch is 14.5” at the shoulder
Heelwork on lead Heelwork oﬀ lead Recall Sendaway
The heelwork is very different to obedience in that your dog should walk naturally, reasonably close to the left knee. The sendaway is where your dog must be sent towards any marker a minimum of 30 yards away, although in practice it is normally a much longer distance and the marker could well be a bag tied in a tree or a telegraph pole in the distance.
Continued on next page
Both stays are done out of sight...
Nosework Section Search Square Retrieve with a dumb-bell The search square is a 15-25 yard square, where a set number of small items are hidden, your dog must find and retur n al l the items in the stipulated time, the ground can be anything from stubble to grass of any length. Stay Section 10 minute down stay 2 minute sit stay Both these stays are done out of sight, all the dogs competing for the stake will be in the group, the dog must remain in the position until the s te w a r d e n d s t h e e x e r c i s e , a n y movement is penalized. Tracking The UD stake also includes steadiness to gunfire and a track from which the dog needs to follow a 30 minute old track set by a track-layer and find 2 articles, as the stakes get higher the tracks get longer and older.
shows, through to Limited, Open and and that the dog is wearing a suitable Championship shows. Classes start collar and lead with the appropriate w i t h t h e r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e p r e - identification tag. beginners class through to class C. From here the test moves on to a walk Exemption shows are a great way to on lead through people and dogs with learn it is at such as show that I first a control at a door or gate, the saw Biggles (Arad Llewelyn Bren of examiner will be looking for a dog C o p y h o l d ) w i t h Ma r n e y We l l s that is by their owners left side, competing in a scent discrimination without any undue pulling, the owner exercise and executing it perfectly. should be able to negotiate a gate or doorway without the dog barging There is nothing natural about through first, the dog must also be pedigree dogs, they have all been bred able to wait in a relaxed manner for a reason. The Staﬀord has been w h i l s t t h e h a n d l e r h o l d s a designed along quiet diﬀerent lines conversation for at least 1 minute, than typical working breeds, thus said where the owner will have to answer Staﬀords work very well and with s o m e general knowledge enthusiasm and it must be said responsibility and care questions. without the ‘drone’ type execution often seen in other breeds. The The owner must also be able to Staffords wonderful outlook and demonstrate that the dog can be temperament is because of it’s past released within a restricted area and not despite it, and we should be w i l l r e t u r n w h e n c a l l e d . T h e proud. remaining parts of the test are that you are able to show how and with Kennel Club Good Citizen Scheme what you groom your dog and that This test is part of the UK's largest you are able to present your dog for dog training three-part programme, examination, showing the mouth, which has been developed to provide teeth, throat, eyes, ears and feet this participants of the scheme with well- e x e r c i s e again shows the rounded and practical knowledge and commonsense aspect of the test. skills necessary to become 'Good Lastl y the dog must be able to Citizens' and responsible dog owners. complete a 1minute down stay the The scheme is divided into three owner having to be 5 paces away from parts, Bronze, Silver & Gold, each the dog. successful participant is issued with a Certificate and ‘Good Citizen’ rosette those who don’t succeed are simply deemed ‘not ready’ so that no one fails.
Obedience Staﬀord’s as I said earlier are ideal to train as they so want to please, this with their love of food can hopefully be channeled into training. The problem with competitive obedience is not in their lack of ability but in the Staﬀord’s construction. The chest being very broad and the neck being so short makes it almost impossible for both the dogs head and shoulder The scheme contains many basic to be in contact with your leg. common sense exercises varying in difficulty through the three stages Thus said some Staﬀord’s are doing consisting of situations one would very well at Obedience and whilst m e e t i n t h e n o r m a l d a y - to - d a y presently there aren’t any Obedience activities. Champions in the breed who knows what the future may bring. Bronze These exercises are all at a very basic Obedience shows are held at all levels level from ensuring that every handler from classes scheduled at exemption is carrying some form of poop scoop
Continued on page 13
The dog must be able to wait in a relaxed manner... Continued Silver To take part in this test, you must have passed the bronze test. The exercises again are all commonsense. You should be able to demonstrate that your dog will play with you, if using a toy this must be readily given up by the dog, a ver y important exercise as this demonstrates an extra dimension to the dogs life and makes training fun. A road walk is incorporated into this exercise, your dog should be walking naturally by your left hand-side, the test will include crossing over a road and executing a turn, any distractions should be incorporated into the test such as passing pedestrians and the highway code should be observed.
THERE ARE QUESTIONS ON RESPONSIBILITY AND CARE OF YOUR DOG AS WELL AS A FOOD MANNERS TEST... The test then incorporates leaving your dog for at least 10 paces before calling your dog, which should return when instructed to do so. This test being so important showing that your dog will return to you when oﬀ the lead, again a problem so many people have is that their dogs will not come back when let of the lead. The down stay for the Silver award is slightly longer than the Bronze award and is for 2 minutes with the handler at least 5 paces away. Part of the test is carried at the owners vehicle the object is for the dog to get in and out in a controlled manner and when the car engine is started with the owner and examiner sitting in the car that the dog remains quiet, relaxed and under control.
Again a ver y important exercise showing how imperative it is to make The down stay in this test is oﬀ lead, sure your dog is properly controlled during the test the handler will be whilst travelling on the roads. asked to move out of sight, but whilst in sight the handler should be at least The dog must be able to be examined 10 paces away from their dog. by the examiner who will need to inspect mouth, teeth, ears, throat, The test also includes being able to eyes and feet rather like the vet would stop your dog, which with your dog need to do, you will also need to oﬀ lead at least 10 paces away, you will answer some more general questions be instructed to stop your dog on the on your responsibilities and duties for spot in any position. caring for your dog. The handler should provide the dogs Lastly a controlled greeting and food bed which will be in a position manners, which may be the hardest determined by the examiner, standing part of this test for the average approximately 10 paces away the dog Staﬀord. The examiner will greet should be instructed to go to it’s bed, your dog as might be done when a where it should remain until the visitor enters your home, you dog examiner is happy that the dog has should not jump up and should be settled, able to be controlled should they do so, food will also be consumed while T h e r e a r e a l s o q u e s t i o n s o n the dog is on a loose lead, the dog responsibly and care of your dog as should not show any indication to beg well as a food manners test in which or steal the food. the dog will be oﬀered food either by hand or in a bowl, the dog must wait Gold for permission to eat, which will be To compete for this award, you must given after a 3-5 second pause, the have passed both the Bronze and handler will be asked to give the dog Silver awards. The test incorporates an eating command. the following exercises: Lastly another practical exercise so A lengthy road walk is incorporated useful in a well mannered dog, your into this test and you should be able dog will need to be in isolation for 2-5 to demonstrate that your dog will minutes normally shut in a room walk on a lead under control, you will where it can be observed without be expected to cross a road and being seen, the examiner will be execute turns , the handler should be looking for the dog to settle and not able to demonstrate slow, normal and to display any behavior problems such fast pace any distractions should be as whining, barking or any disruptive incorporated into the test. The dog activities. will also need to we walked oﬀ lead past other dogs and people although Interested? this latter exercise is not carried out To participate in the good citizen near a road. scheme you will need to find a training club that supports the The dog will then need to be oﬀ lead scheme, this can be done by enquiring with the handler a minimum of 10 directly with the club, alternatively paces away, before being called back some exemption shows hold the to the handlers side and both handler testing sessions, alternatively contact a n d d o g s h o u l d t h e n c o n t i n u e the Kennel Club Direct for details of together for approximately 10 paces. participating clubs. Continued on next page
Dogs bark for many reasons...
There is a similar scheme run in the USA called the Canine Good Citizen Program by the American Kennel Club. This is a 2-part certification program, which is designed to reward dogs that have good manners both at home and in the community, which is then recorded in the AKC’s canine good citizen archive. In Australia they run 2 Good Citizen schemes based on the UK version, which is administered by the Australian Kennel Club. PAT Dogs The Pets As Therapy visiting concept was originated and devised by Lesley Scott-Ordish, and they currently have over 4000 registered, active dogs (and a handful of cats) which with their volunteer owners make therapeutic visits to hospitals, hospices, nursing and care homes. Research continues to validate the very real value of this daily work.
ambassador for the breed. Gus was rescued by the RSPCA from a dog fighting ring, where he was used as a bait dog, he had his paws slashed and then strung up for the other dogs to attack. He s p e n t 6 m o n t h s undergoing treatment before being rehomed and now lives each day to the full, making his daily visits to hospices and hospitals. Behavior Problems Chewing I have never really experienced this problem with my Staﬀords, since all were crated as young puppies the situation was always monitored and never allowed to happen. However my German Shepherd did make quite a mess of my 3-piece suite, I have heard stories of Staﬀords, chewing through walls, so they can do a lot of damage. Firstly remove temptation, don’t expect your dog to know that chewing his toys are ok, but furniture, shoes etc, are not ok. Monitor the situation and don’t allow it to happen, should your dog need to be left invest in a crate, properly used they are invaluable as your dog learns the house-rules he can have his freedom, initially that freedom should be restricted to one room in the house.
Should you be interested you will need to contact Pets As Therapy direct. All dogs will be tested and their suitability to the role assessed. Your dog will need to be sociable and friendly without any overly boisterous behavior, the dog will need to be calm and gentle when being stroked and groomed and their attitude towards a sudden noise will need to be evaluated, such as a dropped walking stick. Use your common sense and don’t give your dog an old shoe to chew, he There are many Staﬀords who have should have his own toys. Invest in a successfully registered as PAT dogs. Ko n g , w h i c h w e r e e s p e c i a l l y At p r e s e n t t h e r e a r e 4 2 a c t i v e developed for Staﬀords, these can be Staﬀords that are working daily to stuﬀed with food and are essential help people by oﬀering unconditional when your puppy is teething. love, which is often one of the most missed aspects of a persons life which Only scold your dog when caught in should help life be more bearable and the act, there is no use scolding after to help speed recovery. the event, think about what has happened it may well be your own Then there are Staﬀords that show fault. what the temperament is all about. Gu s o w n e d b y Je a n B o n d , i s a Barking registered PAT dog and is a great Dogs bark for many reasons, first you
need to distinguish why your dog is barking before you can begin to look at curing the problem. Although barking is a normal means of communication, in excess it can be a nuisance not only for yourself, but also for your neighbours. Barking to deter people from entering your property is fine, but should the dog bark at every passerby, then it soon becomes a problem. Which unfortunately owners often attempt to cure by shouting at the dog, but as your dog does not understand English, your dog thinks you are joining in the barking. Some dogs discover barking makes their owner give them attention, if only to shout, often the dog will bark just to get a response from an owner, in which case your dog needs it’s mind stimulated. However most dogs are barking ‘territorially’ and this is reinforced as every person they bark at goes away. Your dog doesn’t realise that they didn’t want to come in anyway they assume that they have saved the day yet again. Unfortunately in todays society there is a real risk of falling foul to the environmental health department. Because your dogs barking is annoying one of your neighbours, maybe he barks when left alone, your dog barks to call you back and miraculously eventually back you come, the cause of this problem is anxiety.
Maybe your dog barks excessively at visitors and in an attempt to stop the behavior you put a hand down to stroke your dog, you are simply reinforcing the behavior.
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Clever Staffords Continued Many Staﬀordshire Bull Terriers are regularly competing in Agility, Working Trials and Obedience.
H OW TO S TO P T H E B A R K I N G
When thinking of Obedience Sandra Stredwicks, Chelsea (Hadendale Eternal Flame) springs to mind, this little bitch excels at Obedience and is regularly placed at open shows and was at Crufts representing the Midlands Obedience in 2000.
If every time your dog barks for attention you get up and walk out the room, or turn your back, your dog will eventually learn that barking is counter-productive. However more ingrained barking behaviourable problems may well take some well laid plans that may take many weeks to find a solution.
MANY STAFFORDSHIRE BULL TERRIERS ARE REGULARLY COMPETING IN AGILITY, WORKING TRIALS & OBEDIENCE
One of the simplest ways to teach your dog not to bark is to teach your dog to bark on command, by using ‘Speak’ the point is that after you dog associate this command with barking it is relatively easy then to introduce a word such as ‘Quiet’ while your dog is barking and then to reward the dog when the barking stops.
Marney Wells’ 3 Staﬀords have done tremendously well, competing in all 3 disciplines, and excelling in Working Trials. Both Bertie (Cyclone Sweetheart of Copyhold) and Trilby (Libellula Lass of Copyhold) have their CDex and UDex qualifications, the dogs have also had their 15 minutes of fame appearing in 101 Dalmatians and all are registered PAT dogs. Lorraine Walchester with Jess (Jessica Joe Lighly) this little bitch regularly competed at Agility finals at Crufts and only this year was placed in the pairs competition at over 9 years old. Chloe Gardner who is now 80 years old still competes in Agility, but was known for Rosie (Roxstaﬀ Helena) who was the Mini Agility dog of the year in 1987 and was a great ambassador for the breed and an inspiration for others to follow in her pawprints. My own bitch Tammy (Araidh Sweetest Taboo) competes in Agility, Obedience and Working Trials but it is in Agility that she excels, reckoned to be among one of the fastest mini dogs in the UK. She took to the sport with a passion and recently beat the fastest border collie over the same course by 3 seconds, she is also an Obedience demonstration dog at a local training club, one of only a handful of Kennel Club ‘Gold’ Good Citizens as well as a registered PAT Dog.
Reward is, of course, the best motivation, so it's important to praise the dog at the time it's doing the right thing, not afterwards. This means rewarding when it stops barking, and also remembering to praise when your dog doesn't bark in a situation which would normally set him off.
In the United States, Moose owned and bred by Margo Milde has recently gained an Obedience Trials Champion title or to give him his full title AKC OTCH Shady Grove’s Enchantment UDX, MX, MXJ and is only a relatively short way from gaining his Master Agility title. A dual champion, quite an achievement. Hopefully with Agility Championship status shortly available in the UK, we will soon see our first Agility Champion Staﬀordshire Bull Terrier. Whilst realising that not every Staﬀord could compete at this level. There are new dogs coming into the above disciplines that are showing what a versatile breed this can be. This coupled with Staﬀord clubs such as the East Anglian Staﬀordshire Bull Terrier Club and Western Staﬀordshire Bull Terrier Society taking the initiate and scheduling limited obedience shows, a Staﬀord penthalon and supporting the Kennel Club Good Citizen scheme, we are going in the right direction Wendy Clewley Author of the ‘Training your Staﬀord’ chapter in The Ultimate SBT book
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Following my presentation at the seminar hosted short. However, too short a neck inhibits flexibility in 2008 by the Potteries SBTC, I thought I would and manoeuvrability and would be detrimental to reiterate some of the points I put forward with a fighting dog. regard to the forequarters of the Stafford. FOREQUARTERS The forequarters are very important to the dog as they support 60% of his weight and need to be T h e S c a p u l a ( s h o u l d e r b l a d e ) m u s c l e anatomically sound to allow the dog - in particular configuration is somewhat complicated and all we the Stafford - to move with speed and agility and have to remember is that correct angulation and historically to sustain the rigours of battle. layback of shoulder ensures the muscles are of the correct structure, e.g. short upper arm and Before discussing the forequarters I must briefly upright scapula leads to bunchy shoulder touch on the head of a Stafford, not particularly musculature. the shape, but the physical size. It is of paramount importance that the head of a Stafford The scapula is sandwiched at the top by two is in balance with the body, as an overlarge head muscles: the trapezius and the rhomboideus, and upsets the kinematic balance and has a the lower part of the blade is carried in a wide detrimental effect on the speed and agility of a muscular band called the Serratus. These Stafford. It must be remembered that when a dog muscles are attached to the neck and rib cage, changes direction the first thing he moves is his and by extending and contracting in unison they head and the imbalance caused by an over large rotate the scapula in accordance with leg head is analogous to a Boxer going into the ring movement. The upper arm (humerus) is also with a bag of sand tied around his neck operated by a series of muscles and ligaments and by virtue of the shoulder joint (point of Just to remind us, the Breed Standard states with shoulder knuckle joint), movement of the foreleg is respect to the front assembly:transmitted to a rotation of the scapula. The foreleg is connected to the upper arm via the Neck: Muscular, rather short, clean in elbow joint and is also held together and operated outline, gradually widening towards shoulders by ligaments and muscle. The elbow joint leads to the radius and ulna â€“ the two main bones of the Forequarters: Legs straight and well boned, foreleg, which allow for a certain degree of set rather wide apart, showing no weakness at rotation. the pasterns, from which point feet turn out a little. Shoulders well laid back with no The next joint is the wrist which is made up of two rows of bone known as carpal bones. The wrist is looseness at the elbow. held together by ligaments and acts as another shock absorber. NECK The bones that form the pastern are called The neck with its 7 cervical vertebrae is an integral metacarpal bones and correspond with the part of the forequarters as the muscles which number of toes. move the front legs and scapula depend on the neck for support and anchorage. A general Finally we come to the toes, each one comprising observation is that short faced dogs have short of 3 small bones (phalanges) â€“ feet should be necks and long faced dogs have long necks. strongly knuckled and well padded. Length of neck and forequarter conformation are inherently connected, i.e. too short a neck may indicate an upright shoulder and too long a neck often points to excess layback of shoulder. The neck on a Stafford should be strong and muscular which often gives the illusion of being Continued on next page
Overloaded shoulders interferes with ...Balance... OVERVIEW/CONCLUSIONS 1
Head must be in balance with body. Most important for balance and speed. When a dog changes direction the head moves first;
Reasonable depth of brisket with good underline – not ‘herring gutted’.
Good length of sternum to give sufficient room for lungs with good spring of rib (not barrelled ribbed) to cater for inhalation and exhalation.
Neck must be strong, muscular, but not too short. Short neck results in less mobility, lack of flexibility and Mick Smith (Willowstaff, UK) © - 24 March 2009 manoeuvrability. Although the Standard says ‘rather short’, one must www.willowstaff.com remember that slender necks look long Willowstaf@aol.com and strong necks (required by a Stafford) give the impression of being short;
Layback of scapula: very important as it needs to act as a shock absorber, i.e. too steep: reduces ability to absorb vertical forces; too laid back: increases forces at withers and point of shoulder;
Overloaded shoulders: interferes with static balance, columns of support and forward locomotion;
Short upper arms have a deleterious effect on forward movement – paddling action;
Foreleg, i.e. radius and ulna: should be well boned. However, heavy set animals do not necessarily have strong bone – it is not size of bone but density of bone that is important;
Front pasterns should be angled, i.e. 15°-20° from the vertical; this ensures that weight is concentrated on the heel rather than the toes;
A tight, well padded foot is preferable to a loose, long toed foot as this is more vulnerable to damage;
Chest should be wide but not excessively wide as to upset static balance and columns of support. Sufficient width to give adequate heart room;
What Price Glory: What Happens When Winning is
Nearly twenty years later, I remember baiting Shadow with an empty hand in a Best in Match ring lit only by streetlights. I ignored the crisp November air as, with one eye on the judge, I concentrated presenting my dog at his best. Australian Shepherds were not AKC recognized. Only at matches like this could they go head-to-head with the other breeds. Shadow had a shot at the top prize in one of the largest all-breed matches in our area, and I’d run out of liver half way through Working Group.
more. The Borzoi lead off, followed by the Pointer. I moved Shadow out, easily keeping pace with the leggier beasts while the smaller dogs scribed a narrower circle behind us. The judge held her hand overhead, watching us intently. Shadow didn’t’ miss a beat. I hoped I wouldn’t. Her hand dropped. She was pointing to me! Shadow had won Best in Match.
Winning that show was one of the highlights of my years in conformation competition. I can relive those heady emotions a score of years later. To win, and win something big, is a wonderful experience. But it was, after all, only a dog show. Exhibition of purebred dogs started about a century and a half ago as an outgrowth of stock shows, where breeders Soon we were at the head of the would exhibit their finest cattle, line. The judge examined sheep and hogs. As with the Shadow and moved us. As we stock shows, the intent was to circled the ring to the end of the showcase fine breeding stock. line, the watchers applauded. But over the years the emphasis These were no semi-organized has changed from providing a group of friends and admirers. showcase to a major criterion for Most the Aussie people had long determination of “breeding since gone home. Shadow’s quality.” The old adage “breed progress was cheered by the best to the best” has subtly strangers who appreciated a changed in meaning toward good dog. breeding the best-looking to the best-looking. Success in the The judge continued with the conformation ring has become individual exams. I kept Shadow so important that a few will “on,” in case she glanced our subvert the process to ensure way. My handsome black tri kept greater success. his gaze intent on my liverless hand. I thanked the gods of dog Today, the conformation show shows that he was an incurable system in the United States has food-hound. spawned an entire industry. People can and do make a living The judge finished with the Toy producing canine competitions, Group winner then motioned us handling dogs and selling a wide all to gait around the ring once variety of goods and services
targeted at exhibitors. Breeders advertise major wins and publish lists of their titled dogs—too often with no mention of pedigree or health clearances. There is nothing wrong with celebrating a win or taking an opportunity to crow a little, but titles and wins, however prestigious, are not inherited by a dog’s puppies. A good judge will recognize physical quality in a dog, but due to its nature the conformation ring offers little opportunity to evaluate a dog’s mental acuity and physical stamina. Even in breeds where gait is emphasized, a few laps around the ring can only point out the extremely unfit. A good breeder should be equally competent to evaluate a dog’s physical attributes and shouldn’t require outside opinions, in the form of show wins, to bias his judgement. In addition, the wise breeder will make an opportunity to observe and interact with dogs away from the shows to gage their mental and physical mettle. Breed-oriented Internet discussion lists go on at length about the importance of breeding to titled, dogs, especially Champions . Special emphasis is put on pedigrees which feature the titled “greats” of the breed. Titles are the tail that wags far too many dog breeders.
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Continued Conformation shows have become an end rather than a means. People are breeding dogs to win dog shows instead of using the shows to present their breeding efforts. If a dog does not win, is it without question unworthy of breeding? If it wins a lot, should it necessarily be bred a lot? While on the surface this might seem to make sense, the reasoning is flawed. A dog’s worth as a breeding animal is dependent upon its genetic makeup. It’s appearance and behavior in the ring can give an indication of its potential, but all the ribbons and trophies in the world won’t help if it doesn’t pass those qualities to its offspring. In the US, considerable emphasis is placed on presentation and, in coated breeds, grooming. An inept handler or groomer can make the best dog look bad. Conversely, a talented handler or groomer can present a mediocre specimen in a manner that distracts from its weaknesses. Good handlers can school a dog with the proper temperament to exude presence: The kind of dog which makes bystanders say, “Look at him! He’s asking for the win.’ Ring presence is at least as much nurture as nature. Is a dog that “asks for it” a better breeding candidate than the one with better structure but a less showy attitude? A dog’s grooming or show presence may be a credit to the person who put the work into creating them, but they won’t go with the puppies unless the breeder includes the groomer’s or handler’s business card along with the papers.
the current winning fashion, taping or gluing of ears to correct the set, dying of coats to cover color faults, tattooing pink skin that should have been pigmented, straightening crooked teeth, surgically altering tail sets or other physical features, and a variety of other practices. All of these alterations disguise the dog’s phenotype—the look that his genes gave him. In spite of this, the genes remain what they are. The prick ears, gay tail or bad bite will come out in the progeny. Unfortunately, the person who bred to the dog or bought its pup may be ignorant of the alterations and assume she is buying genes to produce what she sees in the ring. Even when a top winner is equally outstanding as a sire, the emphasis on his wins can lead to the popular sire syndrome. No matter how good the dog, he will have a few bad genes. The wide use of a popular sire and subsequent inbreeding and linebreeding on him will increase the frequency not only of the genes everyone wants, but those they don’t want as well. If a dog and his near kin are used too extensively, particularly in breeds with small populations, there may be few places to go when the unwanted genes make their presence known.
And what of the dog that doesn’t win, or maybe never sees the inside of a ring? Is it, of necessity “not breeding quality?” Dogs are as individual as people. Some do not like shows and will not show well. If the animal is in other respects an excellent example of the breed, why pass it by? What of the bitch scarred by some accident, precluding her from any chance at a Winning has become so important win? That scar or injury won’t be to some people that they employ a inherited. If she’s a good quality, number of practices to improve their why not breed her? Occasionally a odds of winning. Some are as fine animal will belong to someone simple as carefully studying judges who hasn’t ever shown it and and choosing which to exhibit a dog doesn’t want to. In most cases, under. Others will alter their dogs to such dogs will belong to people better conform to the standards or who acquired them as pets. Pet
status is not synonymous with poor quality. A knowledgeable breeder who knows the dog’s pedigree background and how it’s near relatives have produced may be able to make excellent use of that dog in his breeding program. The relative success of any two dogs in the ring has no dependable correlation with their success as breeding animals. The big winner can be a dud stud while the dog with a more modest competitive record may throw marvelous puppies. The youngster who seems to be winning everything and has thrown puppies with promise is a greater gamble than the mature dog with a less stellar career. You will know what that older dog is and probably what he has produced, but a few years down the line that bigwinning wunderkind could mature into mediocrity or develops a lateonset hereditary disease. Winning is great fun and it doesn’t come easy. Those who are successful deserve to be congratulated for their efforts. But those wins should never be a prime consideration when making breeding decisions. What that winner is, what he does and what he produces outside the ring are far more important to breeding than even the highest titles or top honors from the most prestigious events. First published in Double Helix Network News, Fall 1999
by C.A. Sharp Copyright 1999 C. A. Sharp. All rights reserved. C.A. Sharp is editor of the "Double Helix Network News", the quarterly newsletter for those interested in genetics and hereditary disease in the Australian Shepherd. Reproduced in TSK with permission.
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Early Neurological Stimulation Surprising as it may seem, it isn't capacity that explains the differences that exist between individuals because most seem to have far more capacity than they will ever use. The differences that exist between individuals seem to be related to something else. The ones who achieve and outperform others seem to have within themselves the ability to use hidden resources. In other words, it's what they are able to do with what they have that makes the difference. In many animal breeding programs, the entire process of selection and management is founded on the belief that performance is inherited. Attempts to analyze the genetics of performance in a systematic way have involved some distinguished names such as Charles Darwin and Francis Galton. But it has only been in recent decades that good estimates of heritability of performance have been based on adequate data. Cunningham, (1991) in his study of horses, found that only by using Timeform data, and measuring groups of half brothers and half sisters could good estimates of performance be determined. His data shows that performance for speed is about 35% heritable. In other words, only about 35% of all the variation that is observed in track performance is controlled by heritable factors, the remaining 65% is attributable to other influences, such as training, management and nutrition. Cunningham's work while limited to horses, provides a good basis for understanding how much breeders can attribute to the genetics and the pedigrees. Researchers have studied these phenomena and have looked for new ways to stimulate individuals in order to improve their natural abilities. Some of the methods
discovered have produced life long lasting effects. Today many of the differences between individuals can now be explained by the use of early stimulation methods. Man for centuries has tried various methods to improve performance. Some of the methods have stood the test of time, others have not. Those who first conducted research on this topic believed that the period of early age was a most important time for stimulation because of its rapid growth and development. Today, we know that early life is a time when the physical immaturity of an organism is susceptible and responsive to a restricted but important class of stimuli. Because of its importance many studies have focused their efforts on the first few months of life. Newborn pups are uniquely different from adults in several respects. When born, their eyes are closed and their digestive system has a limited capacity requiring periodic stimulation by their dam who routinely licks them in order to promote digestion. At this age they are only able to smell, suck, and crawl. Body temperature is maintained by snuggling close to their mother or by crawling into piles with other littermates. During these first few weeks of immobility, researchers noted that these immature and under-developed canines are sensitive to a restricted class of stimuli which includes thermal and tactile stimulation, motion and locomotion.
each day during the first five to ten days of life causes body temperatures to fall below normal. This mild form of stress is sufficient to stimulate hormonal, adrenal and pituitary systems. When tested later as adults, these same animals were better able to withstand stress than littermates who were not exposed to the same early stress exercises. As adults, they responded to stress in "a graded" fashion, while their non-stressed littermates responded in an "all or nothing way." Data involving laboratory mice and rats also shows that stress in small amounts can produce adults who respond maximally. On the other hand, the results gathered from non-stressed littermate show that they become easily exhausted and are near death if exposed to intense prolonged stress. When tied down so they were unable to move for twenty-four hours, rats developed severe stomach ulcers, but litter mates exposed to early stress handling were found to be more resistant to stress tests and did not show evidence of ulcers. A secondary affect was also noticed. Sexual maturity was attained sooner in the littermates given early stress exercises. When tested for differences in health and disease, the stressed animals were found to be more resistant to certain forms of cancer and infectious diseases and could withstand terminal starvation and exposure to cold for longer periods than their nonstressed littermates.
Other mammals such as mice and rats are also born with limitations, and they also have been found to demonstrate a similar sensitivity to the effects of early stimulation. Studies show that removing them from their nest for three minutes Continued on next page
Each workout involved handling the puppies once each a day... Continued Other studies involving early stimulation exercises have been
rather than physical or psychological superiority.
successfully performed on both
The U.S. Military in their canine program developed a method that still serves as a guide to what works. In an effort to improve the performance of dogs used for military purposes, a program called "Bio Sensor" was developed. Later, it became known to the public as the "Super Dog" Program. Based on years of research, the military learned that early neurological stimulation exercises could have important and lasting effects. Their studies confirmed that there are specific time periods early in life when neurological stimulation has optimum results. The first period involves a window of time that begins at the third day of life and lasts until the sixteenth day. It is believed that because this interval of time is a period of rapid neurological growth and development, and therefore is of great importance to the individual.
cats and dogs. In these studies, the Electrical Encephalogram (EEG) was found to be ideal for measuring the electrical activity in the brain because of its extreme sensitivity to changes in excitement, emotional stress, muscle tension, changes in oxygen and breathing. EEG measures show that pups and kittens when given early stimulation exercises mature at faster rates and perform better in certain problem solving tests than non-stimulated mates. In the higher level animals the effect of early stimulation exercises have also been studied. The use of surrogate mothers and familiar objects were tested by both of the Kelloggs and Dr. Yearkes using young chimpanzees. Their pioneer research shows that the more primates were deprived of stimulation and interaction during early development, the less able they were to cope, adjust and later adapt to situations as adults.
The "Bio Sensor" program was also concerned with early neurological stimulation in order to give the dog a superior advantage. Its development utilized six exercises which were designed to stimulate the neurological system. Each workout involved handling puppies While experiments have not yet once each day. The workouts produced specific information about required handling them one at a the optimal amounts of stress time while performing a series of needed to make young animals five exercises. Listed in order of psychologically or physiologically preference, the handler starts with superior, researchers agree that one pup and stimulates it using stress has value. What also is each of the five exercises. The known is that a certain amount of handler completes the series from stress for one may be too intense beginning to end before starting for another, and that too much with the next pup. stress can retard development. The results show that early stimulation The handling of each pup once per exercises can have positive results day involves the following but must be used with caution. In exercises: other words, too much stress can cause pathological adversities
1. Tactical stimulation (between toes): Holding the pup in one hand, the handler gently stimulates (tickles) the pup between the toes on any one foot using a Qtip. It is not necessary to see that the pup is feeling the tickle. Time of stimulation 3 - 5 seconds. (Figure 1) 2. Head held erect: Using both hands, the pup is held perpendicular to the ground, (straight up), so that its head is directly above its tail. This is an upwards position. Time of stimulation 3 - 5 seconds (Figure 2) 3. Head pointed down: Holding the pup firmly with both hands the head is reversed and is pointed downward so that it is pointing towards the ground. Time of stimulation 3 - 5 seconds(Figure 3) 4. Supine position: Hold the pup so that its back is resting in the palm of both hands with its muzzle facing the ceiling. The pup while on its back is allowed to sleep. Time of stimulation 3-5 seconds. (Figure 4) 5. Thermal stimulation: Use a damp towel that has been cooled in a refrigerator for at least five minutes. Place the pup on the towel, feet down. Do not restrain it from moving. Time of stimulation 3-5 seconds. (Figure 5) These five exercises will produce neurological stimulations, none of which naturally occur during this early period of life. Experience shows that sometimes pups will resist these exercises, others will appear unconcerned. In either case a caution is offered to those who plan to use them. Continued on next page
The 1st stage is called Early Neurological Stimulation & the 2nd stage is called socialization ...
Do not repeat them more than once per day and do not extend
normally expected, the result being an increased capacity that
the time beyond that
later will help to make the
recommended for each exercise. Over stimulation of the
difference in its performance. Those who play with their pups
neurological system can have adverse and detrimental results.
and routinely handle them should continue to do so because the
These exercises impact the
neurological exercises are not
neurological system by kicking it into action earlier than would be
substitutions for routine handling, play socialization or bonding.
Benefits of Stimulation
early neurological stimulation and the second stage is called socialization. The first two (early neurological stimulation and socialization) have in common a window of limited time. When Lorenz, (1935) first wrote about the importance of the stimulation process, he wrote about imprinting during early life and its influence on the later development of the individual. He states that it was different from conditioning in that it occurred early in life and took place very rapidly producing results which seemed to be permanent. One of the first and perhaps the most noted research effort involving the larger animals was achieved by Kellogg & Kellogg (1933). As a student of Dr. Kellogg's, I found him and his wife to have an uncanny interest in children and young animals and the changes and the differences that occurred during early development. Their history-making study involved raising their own newborn child with a newborn primate. Both infants were raised together as if they were twins.
Five benefits have been observed in canines that were exposed to the Bio Sensor stimulation exercises. The benefits noted were:
1. Improved cardio vascular performance (heart rate)
2. Stronger heart beats 3. Stronger adrenal glands 4. More tolerance to stress 5. Greater resistance to disease.
In tests of learning, stimulated pups were found to be more active and were more exploratory than their nonstimulated littermates over which they were dominant in competitive situations. Secondary effects were also noted regarding test performance. In simple problem solving tests using detours in a maze, the non-stimulated pups became extremely aroused, whined a great deal, and made many errors. Their stimulated littermates were less disturbed or upset by test conditions and when comparisons were made, the stimulated littermates were more calm in the test environment, made fewer errors and gave only an occasional distress sound when stressed. As each animal grows and develops, three kinds of stimulation have been identified that impact and influence how it will develop and be shaped as an individual. The first stage is called
E AR LY S T IMU L AT I O N EXERCISES F I G # 1 TAC T I C A L
FIG #2 HEAD HELD ERECT
F IG #3 HEAD PO INT ED DOWN
FIG #4 SUPINE POSITION
FIG #5 THERMAL STIMUL ATION
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Over mothering also has its detrimental effects...
This study, like others that followed attempted to demonstrate that among the mammals, there are great differences in their speed of physical and mental development. Some are born relatively mature and quickly capable of motion and locomotion, while others are very immature, immobile and slow to develop. For example, the Rhesus monkey shows rapid and precocious development at birth, while the chimpanzee and the other "great apes" take much longer. Last and slowest is the human infant. One of the earliest efforts to investigate and look for the existence of socialization in canines was undertaken by Scott-Fuller (1965). In their early studies, they were able to demonstrate that the basic technique for testing the existence of socialization was to show how readily adult animals would foster young animals, or accept one from another species. They observed that, with the higher level animals, it is easiest done by hand rearing. When the foster animal transfers its social relationships to the new species, researchers conclude that socialization has taken place. Most researchers agree that among all species, a lack of adequate socialization generally results in unacceptable behavior and often times produces undesirable aggression, excessiveness, fearfulness, sexual inadequacy and indifference toward partners. Socialization studies confirm that one of the critical periods for humans (infant) to be stimulated are generally between three weeks and twelve months of age. For canines the period is shorter, between the fourth and sixteenth weeks of age. The lack of adequate social stimulation, such as handling, mothering and contact with others, adversely affects social and psychological development in both humans and animals. In humans, the absence of love and cuddling increases the risk of an aloof, distant, asocial or sociopathic individual. Over-mothering also has its detrimental effects by preventing sufficient exposure to other individuals and situations that have an
important influence on growth and development. It occurs when a parent insulates the child from outside contacts or keeps the apron strings tight, thus limiting opportunities to explore and interact with the outside world. In the end, over-mothering generally produces a dependent, socially maladjusted and sometimes emotionally disturbed individual. Protected youngsters who grow up in an insulated environment often become sickly, despondent,lacking in flexibility and unable to make simple social adjustments. Generally, they are unable to function productively or to interact successfully when they become adults. Owners who have busy life styles with long and tiring work and social schedules often cause pets to be neglected. Left to themselves with only an occasional trip out of the house or off of the property they seldom see other canines or strangers and generally suffer from poor stimulation and socialization. For many, the side effects of loneliness and boredom set-in. The resulting behavior manifests itself in the form of chewing, digging, and hard- tocontrol behavior (Battaglia). It seems clear that small amounts of stress followed by early socialization can produce beneficial results. The danger seems to be in not knowing where the thresholds are for over and under stimulation. Many improperly socialized youngsters develop into older individuals unprepared for adult life, unable to cope with its challenges, and interactions. Attempts to re-socialize them as adults have only produced small gains. These failures confirm the notion that the window of time open for early neurological and social stimulation only comes once. After it passes, little or nothing can be done to overcome the negative effects of too much or too little stimulation.
Enrichment is a term which has come to mean the positive sum of experiences which have a cumulative effect upon the individual. Enrichment experiences typically involve exposure to a wide variety of interesting, novel, and exciting experiences with regular opportunities to freely investigate, manipulate, and interact with them. When measured in later life, the results show that those reared in an enriched environment tend to be more inquisitive and are more able to perform difficult tasks. The educational TV program called “Sesame Street” is perhaps the best known example of a children's enrichment program. The results show that when tested, children who regularly watched this program performed better than playmates who did not. Follow-up studies show that those who regularly watch “Sesame Street” tend to seek a college education and when enrolled, performed better than playmates who were not regular watchers of the “Sesame Street” program There are numerous children’s studies that show the benefits of enrichment techniques and programs. Most focus on improving self-esteem and self-talk. Follow-up studies show that the enriched “Sesame Street” students, when later tested were brighter and scored above average, and most often were found to be the products of environments that contributed to their superior test scores. On the other hand, those whose test scores were generally below average, (labeled as dull) and the products of underprivileged or nonenriched environments, often had little or only small amounts of stimulation during early childhood and only minimal amounts of enrichment during their developmental and formative years. Many were characterized as children who grew up with little interaction with others, poor parenting, few toys, no books and a steady diet of TV soap operas.
The third and final stage in the process of growth and development is called enrichment. Unlike the first two stages it has no time limit, and by comparison, covers a very long period of time.
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A similar analogy can be found among canines. All the time they are growing they are learning because their nervous systems are developing and storing information that may be of inestimable use at a later date. Studies by Scott and Fuller confirm that non-enriched pups, when given free choice, preferred to stay in their kennels. Other litter mates who were given only small amounts of outside stimulation between five and eight weeks of age were found to be very inquisitive and very active. When kennel doors were left open, the enriched pups would come bounding out while littermates who were not exposed to enrichment would remain behind. The non-stimulated pups would typically be fearful of unfamiliar objects and generally preferred to withdraw rather than investigate. Even well-bred pups of superior pedigrees would not explore or leave their kennels, and many were found difficult to train as adults. These pups, in many respects, were similar to the deprived children. They acted as if they had become institutionalized, preferring the routine and safe environment of their kennel to the stimulating world outside their immediate place of residence. Regular trips to the park, shopping centers and obedience and agility classes serve as good examples of enrichment activities. Chasing and retrieving a ball on the surface seems to be enriching because it provides exercise and includes rewards. While repeated attempts to retrieve a ball provide much physical activity, it should not be confused with enrichment exercises. Such playful activities should be used for exercise and play or as a reward after returning from a trip or training session. Road work and chasing balls are not substitutes for trips to the shopping mall, outings or obedience classes most of which provide many opportunities for interaction and investigation. Finally, it seems clear that stress early in life can produce beneficial results. The danger seems to be in not knowing where the thresholds are for over and under stimulation. The absence or the lack of adequate amounts of stimulation generally will produce negative and undesirable
results. Based on the above, it is fair References: to say that the performance of most individuals can be improved, • Battaglia, C.L., "Loneliness and including the techniques described Boredom" Doberman above. Each contributes in a Quarterly, 1982 cumulative way and supports the next • Kellogg, W.N. & Kellogg The Ape stage of development. and the Child, New York: McGraw Hill Conclusion • Scott & Fuller, (1965) Dog Behavior -The Genetic Basics, University Chicago Press Breeders can now take advantage of • Scott, J.P., Ross, S., A.E. and King the information available to improve D.K. (1959) The Effects of and enhance performance. Generally, Early Enforced Weaning genetics account for about 35% of Behavior of Puppies, J. the performance, but the remaining Genetics Psychologist, p 5: 65‰ (management, training, nutrition) 261-81. can make the difference. In the About The Author management category, it has been shown that breeders should be guided by the rule that it is generally Carmen L Battaglia holds a Ph.D. and considered prudent to guard against Masters Degree from Florida State under and over stimulation. Short of University. As an AKC judge, ignoring pups during their first two researcher and writer, he has been a months of life, a conservative leader in promotion of breeding better approach would be to expose them to dogs and has written many articles children, people, toys and other and several books. Dr. Battaglia is animals on a regular basis. Handling also a popular TV and radio talk show and touching all parts of their speaker. His seminars on breeding anatomy is also a necessary part of dogs, selecting sires and choosing their learning which can be started as puppies have been well received by early as the third day of life. Pups that the breed clubs all over the country. are handled early and on a regular Those interested in learning more basis generally do not become hand- about his seminars should contact shy as adults. him directly. Because of the risks involved in under-stimulation, a conservative approach to using the benefits of the three stages has been suggested based primarily on the works of Arskeusky, Kellogg, Yearkes and the "Bio Sensor" program (later known as the "Super Dog Program").
Permission to post this article in The Stafford Knot has been specifically granted by author, Dr. Battaglia. Permission is also granted by the Canine Chronicle. Feedback from our readers is welcome. CLICK to offer Feedback http://www.breedingbetterdogs.com
Both experience and research have dominated the beneficial effects that can be achieved via early neurological stimulation, socialization and enrichment experiences. Each has been used to improve performance and to explain the differences that occur between individuals, their trainability, health and potential. The cumulative effects of the three stages have been well documented. They best serve the interests of owners who seek high levels of performance when properly used. Each has a cumulative effect and contributes to the development and the potential for individual performance.
Dr. Battaglia would like to call your attention to the world wide survey they are doing on bloat. Your readers can find it at www.breedingbetterdogs.com Dr. Carmen L. Battaglia
The Stafford Knot Brags, Shows, Litters Send us your BRAGS, Litter Announcements, Seminar and Show announcements and we can post them here. Be sure to fill out the BRAGS form found HERE
KEIRA NEW TITLE ANGYLES
Toramyn Annalea TD (Ch Satiety Horace Whitesox ex Jackaranne White Dove ) Keira has recently started to learn tracking at the age of 12. She recently gained all 3 passes towards her new tracking title near Ballarat, Victoria, Australia! Well done Keira! She will be 13 in September.
LONDON SHOW WIN RUGBY
CH Rugby's Steeleye London TT (Bradoc Travelling Solo RN CGC (UK import) X Steeleye Tanqueray TT (UK Import) )
London won Best of Opposite Sex in Veteran Sweepstakes at the 2010 Potomac Stafford Club show & SBTCA National under UK judges. DNA Tested for L2-HGA, DNA Tested for HC. Link to OFA test page OFA Hips--Good/OFA Elbows--Normal/PHPV--unaffected/CERF--normal - documents available by request
The Stafford Knot is an independent publication and not affiliated with any specific breed club. TSK is a collaborative effort from like minded Stafford enthusiasts whose common goal is to support the health testing of purebred Staffords. We reserve the right to approve or disapprove any material submitted. All material on this site is copyright protected & cannot be used unless indicated without the written consent of
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BRIGHTON Show Win Rugby AKC CH/UKC CH Rugby's Brighton Rock By Izumis (CH Rave Reviews Here At Izumis (UK Import) x CH Rugby's Steeleye London TT) Brighton went to UKC's 2010 Premier in Richmond, Indiana & won the Award of Excellence in the Top 10 Competition. She also won Best of Breed twice. Clear by parentage L2-HGA, HC. Link to OFA test page OFA Hips & Elbows/OFA Cardiac--Normal/PHPV--Unaffected/CERF--Normal - documents available by request
RO S & B E A Show Win - New Champions Cresstock CH Cresstock Roisin - owned by Bonnie Cresse (Cresstock Con Brio x Cresstock Faerie Cu O'Daleigh) DNA Tested for L2-HGA, DNA Tested for HC - documents available by request
CH Cresstock American Beauty - owned by Stephanie Crawford/Bonnie Cresse (Ch Cresstock Bitter Pill x Ch Cresstock Roisin)
presented by Valerie McGraw Clear by parentage L2-HGA & HC- documents available by request
FOXY Four Venues L-Belle FO URO3 UCD UWPO UWPCHX UAGII UNJ GRCH Dynamo Sureshot Smart as a Fox CD RE OA NAJ SPD NJ-N TT CGC, (UKC SUPERDOG) (CH Sureshot's King Louie X Karma's Edna Mae Leedee) Fox has a BIG brag from UKC Premier! She hung tough in multiple venues in 4 days, representing the Staffords well! She ended up #2 Weight Pull All-Stars "all others" 4 out of 4 Qs in agility, all 200s, even picked up a 1st out of Div2 AG2. 2 for 2 Qs in Rally, finishing her URO3 title! She got a 92 on Sat(due to handler error) Sunday she got a 98 & 4th place. In UKC Dock Jumping, she earned her United Novice Jumper, with a personal best jump of 8'1"! DNA Tested L2-HGA & HC, PennHIP 0.39/0.39, OFA Hips Good, OFA BAER/Cardiac (Echo)/Patellas/Elbows/ShouldersNormal, CERF, DNA - documents available by request
Each month TSK will take questions from our readers and present them to breed specialists, experienced breeders, veterinarians, geneticists or experts in the field of the particular questions being asked. We hope you enjoy the information provided based upon YOUR feedback! Send your question to ASK TSK
Ask TSK - Q & A Question: Dear Stafford Knot, I have been offered a Staffordshire Bull Terrier puppy that was from a singleton litter. Is this puppy prone to having behavior/socialization problems when he reaches adulthood? What should I look for if considering this puppy for my family? Thank you and I look forward to your reply.
Answer: #1 The question of a singleton pup and behavioral issues is multi-faceted and not something that has a simple answer. First, Â there are certain behaviors that may be genetically "hardwired". Those behaviors make each pup an individual - whether it is a singleton or a member of a healthy litter. Definitely something that should be considered before taking a singleton into your household. No doubt the dog-dog information that a pup gleans about communicating with other dogs while in the litter Â is something that cannot be replaced or duplicated. However, that said, a dedicated and diligent owner can provide education and experiences that will go a long way toward providing the information ... Continued on next page
the pup lacks for want of litter mates. It won't be quite the same, but it will be helpful. Very early training and carefully supervised socialization is one key to helping provide your pup with the in-litter education he lacks. My personal experience has been with two very different singleton pups. The first had a very "stable" easy going mother. As this pup grew up his basic genetic make up was confident and low key. I have a very large multi-dog household so the "family" provided him with lots of social interaction within my family pack. I started puppy classes at 8 weeks of age and continued his schooling through adulthood, He is a well-rounded adult with no undesirable behaviors. He is now a 7 year old intact male with agility and obedience titles - still a confident and easy going dog. My other pup has just turned a year old. Her breeding is from the same lines, but she is a completely different dog. Both her parents are high drive, excitable individuals. Her genetic "hardwiring" seems to have gone to this side of her pedigree. I basically followed the same program of early training, exposure and socialization. She is non aggressive, but is highly reactive to any new situations. She does not seem to possess the ability to process what other dogs (and sometimes people) are conveying through their posture, eye contact, etc. She is great in my family pack and plays well with all of my dogs. But she completely lacks the confidence of my older singleton pup. She is going to be an awesome performance prospect, but she is going to take a lot more work to develop her social skills than my first singleton puppy. I have known two other singletons on a personal basis. Neither had the extreme exposure I offered my pups. Both were males and both grew up to be highly dog aggressive. In short I think there is a genetic component to a singleton's potential, but a dutiful owner can go a long way to providing a singleton pup the experiences that will help them to grow into a well rounded adult dog.
#2 I would not recommend taking on a puppy who was an only child unless he has previous experience owning a Staffordshire Bull Terrier. And by this I mean real experience with the breed, not just knowing people who own them etc. I found The Bean(as we called him) to be very demanding of both Angels and my time - obviously as he had no litter mates to play with. Whilst I didn't mind this, nor did Angel, I feel that a solitary puppy would be very prone to separation anxiety. The other problem that comes with being an only child is the social side of things. They do not learn manners from litter mates, so for example there is no off switch when biting - as he had never been in play with another puppy he did not have any grasp of how hard was too hard, or when to stop. Angel (bless her) would not tell him off like a litter mate would. They also do not learn any social order. In his world he was King. When he was around 6 weeks we tried to socialise him with some other staffords (mine and Angels breeder), all of which were very polite well socialised Staffords. He would be up on his toes trying to take on the lot of them. No amount of work was going to change this. Hope some of this makes sense - In brief, I feel that an only puppy needs a very very special, patient, experienced home. Without this sort of home, I feel things could get very out of control very quickly and then they will be left with a Stafford that cannot be homed at all. So very careful consideration needs to be taken by both the breeder and new owner.
The Stafford Knot wishes to provide the following information for your convenience. TSK encourages health testing of all Staffordshire Bull Terriers, especially those used for breeding purposes and/or performance events. The testing is made available to be used as a tool to eliminate certain diseases from a breeding program. Used wisely, this can be accomplished. The following testing information is provided as a service to you, however should not be used as the only health checks your Stafford receives. There are many more health issues to be considered when breeding dogs, caring for dogs and when looking to buy a purebred dog. As always, please seek the advice of your personal veterinary specialists for your day-to-day needs of your dogs. Thank you!
* * * Please note - a CERF or PHPV test done by a canine ophthalmologist is NOT the same test as the one done to check for HC. BOTH tests should be carried out * * * ***PLEASE send in your test results for the databases. Accurate records are valuable to the breed*** Remember, if you choose to breed from a carrier you must test the entire resulting litter to determine clears & carriers. Thus if you choose to keep a carrier from that litter, the same must be done for each subsequent litter resulting from breeding carriers. If you sell carrier pups, please consider spay/neuter so that more carriers are not produced. With the advent and ease of genetic testing many of these diseases could be eliminated by only breeding clear to clear. To use a known carrier requires an extra step of responsibility. There is no excuse to breed an untested dog.
Testing Facility For L2-Hga & HC
Testing Facility For L2-Hga Only
Animal Health Trust Lanwades Park, Kentford New Market, Suffolk CB87UU Phone: 01638 751000 Fax: 01638 750410
Canine Genetic Diseases - University Of Missouri
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.aht.org.uk Direct Link: www.aht.org.uk/genetics_tests.html#canine
321 Connaway Hall Columbia, Missouri 65211-5120 USA Phone: 573-884-3712 Fax: 573-884-5414 Email: HansenL@missouri.edu Website: www.caninegeneticdiseases.net Direct Link: www.caninegeneticdiseases.net/DNAtests/Testsnow.htm
Testing Facility For HC Only VetGen 3728 Plaza Drive,Suite 1 Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48108 USA Phone: 734-669-8440 Toll Free: 800-483-8436 (US & Canada) Fax: 734-669-8441 Website: www.vetgen.com Direct Link: www.vetgen.com/ordertests.aspx?id=StaffordshireBullTerrier (Can also test for HC from stored semen)
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Other labs offering L-2-HGA test in Europe: France www.antagene.com Czech Republic www.genomia.cz Germany www.laboklin.de / www.laboklin.co.uk Testing Facility For Hip, Elbows, Patella and Cardiac Certifications * Orthopedic Foundation For Animals (OFA) 2300 E Nifong Boulevard Columbia, Missouri, 65201-3806 USA Phone: 573-442-0418 Fax: 573-875-5073 Email: email@example.com Website: www.offa.org *Note: A Board Certified Cardiologist must perform all Cardiac exams. A qualified licensed Veterinarian can provide X-Ray films for hips, elbows and Patella. Testing Facility For Eye Certifications* Canine Eye Registration Foundation (CERF) 1717 Philo Rd P O Box 3007 Urbana, IL 61803-3007 USA Phone: 217-693-4800 Fax: 217-693-4801 Email: CERF@vmdb.org Website: www.vmdb.org/cerf.html *Note: A Board Certified Canine Ophthalmologist must perform all CERF exams. CERF exams are annual exams for breeding stock. Continued on next page
You can now search online for breed specific health information on the Kennel Club website. The Breed Information Centre includes all recommended health tests, breed clubs, Kennel Club Accredited Breeders, breed standards and breed rescues. http://www.thekennelclub.org.uk/breedhealth
==================================== Understanding Recessive Genes Recessive genes are responsible for many aspects in dogs, such as the production of blue or liver coats, and most do not affect the dog’s physical well-being. A few however do cause health problems. Two have been described in Staffords – hereditary cataract (HC), causing blindness in young dogs, and L-2-Hydroxyglutaric Aciduria (L-2-HGA), a metabolic condition that affects the brain, causing seizures that may be misdiagnosed as epilepsy. All dogs have two copies of every one of their thousands of genes with the exception of those on the sex chromosomes in the case of males. One copy of each comes from the sire and the other from the dam. The copies of each gene may not be identical but each will be at the exact same position on the appropriate chromosome. Differences between pairs of genes, mutations, are the result of little biochemical errors occurring somewhere in the replication process between generations. With recessive genes the ‘original’ variant, let’s call it ‘X’, produces the ‘normal’ effect as long as one copy of ‘X’ is present. If a mutation has occurred at some point, resulting in a recessive variant, ‘x’, then the normal effect will be produced as long as it is paired with ‘X’. ‘X’ is thus considered to be dominant to ‘x’, or putting it another way ‘x’ is recessive to ‘X’. X/X will naturally produce the normal effect but if x/x is produced then the resultant effect may be totally different. With both HC and L-2-HGA three gene combinations are possible as you will have realized already – X/X – the dog is clinically unaffected and is not a carrier of the condition, as it does not possess ‘x’, and thus cannot pass it to its off-spring. X/x – the dog is clinically unaffected but is a carrier as it possesses ‘x’ which, on average, it will pass on to half its progeny. x/x – the dog is affected with the appropriate condition and were it used for breeding it must pass the defective ‘x’ gene to all its progeny. The aim of any control measures must be simply to prevent any clinically affected animals being born and eventually to eliminate the defective ‘x’ from the breeding population. With the development of laboratory tests for the recessive genes that cause the two conditions (tests for L-2-HGA are already available) the first step must be not to breed two carriers together – ensuring both sire and dam are tested prior to mating should guarantee this. Previously the only way of knowing a dog is a carrier is when it has produced affected off-spring. With careful selection, breeders, who have lines affected with either condition should be able to get rid of the defective genes within two or three generations while hopefully maintaining the quality of stock they desire. Clearly not using any carriers at all in breeding programs would soon eliminate the recessive genes for HC and L-2-HGA and some may advocate this. However, this would cause a possibly serious reduction in the gene pool, even in a breed like the Stafford that has a comparatively large pool, and could inadvertently permit the emergence of other genetic defects. Continued on next page
Balance = Lack of Exaggeration
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With regard to faults - Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the â€˜SERIOUSNESSâ€™ with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its DEGREE.
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It is possible that some breeders and exhibitors do not completely understand what a correct scissors bite should look like. If in doubt, ask your veterinarian or spend some time with an experienced mentor who can give you some hands-on education with a variety of dogs. Remember that bad bites are hereditary and breeding Staffords with incorrect bites will assure the continuation of the problem for generations to come. As breeders, it is our job to let judges know that correct bites are important to us. Similarly judges can let us know that they will accept no less.
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“Heights Being Related to Weights” Size, Proportion, Substance Height at shoulder: 14 to 16 inches. Weight: Dogs, 28 to 38 pounds; bitches, 24 to 34 pounds, these heights being related to weights. Non-conformity with these limits is a fault. In proportion, the length of back, from withers to tail set, is equal to the distance from withers to ground.
Males 14”...... 28lbs 14 1/2”..30.45lbs 15”........32.85lbs 15 1/2”...35.5lbs 16” ....... 38lbs
Females 14” ........24lbs 14 1/2”...26.25lbs 15”.........28.80lbs 15 1/2”...31.31lbs 16”.........34lbs
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A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is ﬁt for function. Absolute soundness is essential. Breeders and judges should at all times be careful to avoid obvious conditions or exaggerations which would be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed. From time to time certain conditions or exaggerations may be considered to have the potential to affect dogs in some breeds adversely...If a feature or quality is desirable it should only be present in the right measure. The head should appear clean. No wrinkle or bunched up expression. One should strive for 2/3 to 1/3 ratio head to muzzle with a definite stop but not an EXAGGERATED stop or lack of stop. The stop itself should be almost vertical. The easiest way to determine accurate stop is to place your thumb on the stop and look at the angle of your thumb. Do not be fooled by the profile view of the eye socket and mistake this for the stop. The lip should be very clean, thin and tight to the teeth meeting top and bottom with no flews or wrinkled, fleshy or spongey excess thus giving the Stafford a somewhat serious expression at times. The lip should not turn down at the end or be excessive. Exaggerations of under jaw include total lack or under jaw, weak under jaw or too strong an under jaw. None of these are correct. Depending upon the cleanness of the lip - this can be difficult to asses without a hands on going over. The nose itself may turn up slightly at the tip, but keep in mind the plane of the muzzle and the head - they should be parallel to one another. When the muzzle turns up more than the plane of the top skull the dog has a dish face and if the planes dip downward - a down face - neither is clean, balanced and will be exaggerated in expression. When the muzzle is too short or too long they will lack balance. Ears can deceive on a glance so best to get your hands on the dogs head and feel for placement, thickness of leather and size. More on heads in a later article. Does the dog have sufficient length of leg? Can you see daylight under him/her? If not is it due to a short upper arm or just overall shortness of leg all around? A balanced Stafford should measure the same from the withers to the ground - as it does from the withers to the base of the tail set. Staffords are a square breed. They are not low to the ground or squatty. They are not way up on leg either. Enough leg, enough back - not too much, not too little. Is there massive bone or fine bone? Neither is balanced. Staffords are square - BALANCED with no EXAGGERATION.. Is the animal wider in front than looks natural or is it pinched in front? Neither is correct. The front legs should appear to drop directly down from the shoulder. The front shouldn't appear to be ‘in’ or ‘out’, and MOST CERTAINLY certainly shouldn't look like a bulldog. The legs straight, no weakness at pastern but the tight well padded feet DO turn out a little. Not a lot, and not straight as in other terrier breeds. The rear should appear strong - not HUGE and not weak and narrow - somewhat even to the front when viewed from above. There should be a definite waist line with approximately 4 fingers width between the last rib and the hip bone. One should see that last rib as well, showing no fat or wrinkle and sufficient tuck up from the profile. A Stafford is certainly well muscled, yet not bunched muscle - long and lean muscle is much more suited to the breed and its original intended purpose. Not a heavyweight boxer but more like a middleweight. It must be able to move easily, be active and agile. Too much bunched muscle is exaggeration and the dog will lack balance. Not enough and he will appear soft and will not function correctly. Exaggeration of muscle in either direction will affect movement as well. Its all about a balance. NO EXAGGERATION. Continued on next page with written Breed Standards
Staffordshire Bull Terrier Breed Standards Breed Standard (AKC version) Terrier Group General Appearance The Staﬀordshire Bull Terrier is a smooth-coated dog. It should be of great strength for its size and, although muscular, should be active and agile. Size, Proportion, Substance Height at shoulder: 14 to 16 inches. Weight: Dogs, 28 to 38 pounds; bitches, 24 to 34 pounds, these heights being related to weights. Non-conformity with these limits is a fault. In proportion, the length of back, from withers to tail set, is equal to the distance from withers to ground. Head Short, deep through, broad skull, very pronounced cheek muscles, distinct stop, short foreface, black nose. Pink (Dudley) nose to be considered a serious fault. Eyes--Dark preferable, but may bear some relation to coat color. Round, of medium size, and set to look straight ahead. Light eyes or pink eye rims to be considered a fault, except that where the coat surrounding the eye is white the eye rim may be pink. Ears--Rose or half-pricked and not large. Full drop or full prick to be considered a serious fault. Mouth--A bite in which the outer side of the lower incisors touches the inner side of the upper incisors.The lips should be tight and clean. The badly undershot or overshot bite is a serious fault. Neck, Topline, Body The neck is muscular, rather short, clean in outline and gradually widening toward the shoulders. The body is close coupled, with a level topline, wide front, deep brisket and well sprung ribs being rather light in the loins. The tail is undocked, of medium length, low set, tapering to a point and carried rather low. It should not curl much and may be likened to an oldfashioned pump handle. A tail that is too long or badly curled is a fault. Forequarters Legs straight and well boned, set rather far apart, without looseness at the shoulders and showing no weakness at the pasterns, from which point the feet turn out a little. Dewclaws on the forelegs may be removed. The feet should be well padded, strong and of medium size. Hindquarters The hindquarters should be well muscled, hocks let down with stifles well bent. Legs should be parallel when viewed from behind. Dewclaws, if any, on the hind legs are generally removed. Feet as in front. Coat Smooth, short and close to the skin, not to be trimmed or de-whiskered. Color Red, fawn, white, black or blue, or any of these colors with white. Any shade of brindle or any shade of brindle with white. Black-and-tan or liver color to be disqualified. Gait Free, powerful and agile with economy of eﬀort. Legs moving parallel when viewed from front or rear. Discernible drive from hind legs. Temperament From the past history of the Staﬀordshire Bull Terrier, the modern dog draws its character of indomitable courage, high intelligence, and tenacity. This, coupled with its aﬀection for its friends, and children in particular, its oﬀ-duty quietness and trustworthy stability, makes it a foremost all-purpose dog. Disqualification Black-and-tan or liver color. Approved November 14, 1989 Eﬀective January 1, 1990
Staffordshire Bull Terrier Breed Standards Breed Standard (KC version) General Appearance Smooth-coated, well balanced, of great strength for his size. Muscular, active and agile. Characteristics Traditionally of indomitable courage and tenacity. Highly intelligent and affectionate especially with children. Temperament Bold, fearless and totally reliable. Head and Skull Short, deep though with broad skull. Very pronounced cheek muscles, distinct stop, short foreface, nose black. Eyes Dark preferred but may bear some relation to coat colour. Round, of medium size, and set to look straight ahead. Eye rims dark. Ears Rose or half pricked, not large or heavy. Full, drop or pricked ears highly undesirable. Mouth Lips tight and clean. Jaws strong, teeth large, with a perfect, regular and complete scissor bite, i.e. upper teeth closely overlapping lower teeth and set square to the jaws. Neck Muscular, rather short, clean in outline gradually widening towards shoulders. Forequarters Legs straight and well boned, set rather wide apart, showing no weakness at the pasterns, from which point feet turn out a little. Shoulders well laid back with no looseness at elbow. Body Close-coupled, with level topline, wide front, deep brisket, well sprung ribs; muscular and well defined. Hindquarters Well muscled, hocks well let down with stifles well bent. Legs parallel when viewed from behind. Feet Well padded, strong and of medium size. Nails black in solid coloured dogs. Tail Medium length, low-set, tapering to a point and carried rather low. Should not curl much and may be likened to an old-fashioned pump handle. Gait/Movement Free, powerful and agile with economy of effort. Legs moving parallel when viewed from front or rear. Discernible drive from hindlegs. Coat Smooth, short and close. Colour Red, fawn, white, black or blue, or any one of these colours with white. Any shade of brindle or any shade of brindle with white. Black and tan or liver colour highly undesirable. Size Desirable height at withers 36-41 cms (14 to 16 ins), these heights being related to the weights. Weight: dogs: 13-17 kgs (28-38 lbs); bitches 11-15.4 kgs. Faults Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog. Note - Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum. Last Updated - September 2000
The Stafford Knot
Below are TSK Featured Staffords currently in rescue and in need of homes. We list these dogs as a courtesy. The dogs are NOT here with us. They are in different parts of the world. We have NO connection to any of them, TSK lists them in order that they may gain more exposure and find great permanent homes. Please do not send us questions about these dogs as we have no further information than what is listed below. There are links and contact info on each dog. We encourage sponsorship of these dogs in order to lessen the burden of foster care and kenneling. Thank you for considering rescue!
===================================== Please help us find Rippley the forever home she deserves - not a kennel run at the shelter -
Rippley is a 10 year old female Staffordshire Bull Terrier. She ended up at the National Animal Welfare Trust Cornwall (N.A.W.T.) as her previous owners circumstances had changed and was no longer able to care for her. She has now been with us here at the Cornwall branch of the National Animal Welfare Trust for the best part of a year and a half bless her. We know that she has had at least 2 homes before coming into us, so we really want to get her into her forever home. She is a very loving girl and would suit a quieter home or maybe a 1-1 type home, that has had experience with rescue dogs or SBT. She could live with children 12yrs plus as long as they are sensible and used to dogs. She will need to be the only animal in the home as she doesnt get along with other animals. She LOVES water and could paddle/swim all day if you let her although she isnt to keen on going out when its raining. She is good to walk on the lead and loves being out and about or having a good play. She loves her grub but then what staffy doesnt. She is your typical staffy and has a lot of the 'staffy' traits. She just loves human company and she has been here far to long now so your help is much appreciated. If you would like or need any more information just let us know.
To sponsor Rippley click HERE. To make a donation click HERE Let them know you saw her on TSK. Thank you!
Please e-mail or the centre's phone number is: 01736 756005. CORNISH ANIMAL RESCUE CENTRE Wheal Alfred Kennels Wheal Alfred Road HAYLE Cornwall TR27 5JT Continued on next page
The Stafford Knot
Fred is looking to come home with YOU! He deserves to be in his own home with a loving forever family! Will that be you? Fred came to us originally named 'Ted'. He had lived with a couple since a puppy and as he'd grown up they had realised that like many other Staffords, he doesn't tolerate other dogs. When he was about four years old the couple found they were having their first baby and were warned by various family members that there could be problems with Ted and the new baby. They rang our rescue and asked if we would re-home him. We explained that just because Ted didn't like other dogs didn't mean that he wouldn't adore the new baby and that given sensible advice about how to handle the introductions everything should be fine. Sadly, whatever we said they would not be reassured so they took to shutting the dog outside in anticipation of the baby's arrival. We said we would look for a new home for him so long as they could keep him meanwhile, which they agreed to. A while down the line a couple got in touch who had lost their old Stafford. They were undecided whether to have a new puppy but as they were an older couple we suggested perhaps a rescue may be better for their situation. Because they had had a male Stafford and assured us of their experience with the breed we suggested Ted. One of our rescue helpers who had been to assess Ted, so knew of his full history, went to homecheck the prospective new owners and decided they would be suitable so Ted was duly taken to them for a trial period. Despite the advice we always give to new owners that the dog needs a little time to 'settle in and adjust' the new folk decided they would take him straight out on a walk and to the vet for a checkover. On the walk Ted encountered an off lead Labrador, who came straight up, invading his space. The inevitable happened and Ted reacted as a male Stafford can but unfortunately his lead became undone and in the ensuing melee the Labrador got bitten as did the people who put their hands in the way! So sadly, within an hour of arriving at his new home we had a call from the couple saying that we had to take Ted back as he was 'vicious' and 'their old dog had never behaved like that'. It would appear that despite their years of living with a male Stafford, and the warnings they had been given by us about the potential 'nature of the beast' they didn't truly understand the breed. At this stage, because we had taken Ted from his original home, they now refused to take him back - we had no alternative than to take Ted to kennels. Fortunately, the kennels we occasionally use do understand Staffords and Ted lives as pleasant a life as possible there, but it isn't a home life. He has now been at the kennels for over 18 months as we just haven't had any interest in him. After his details had been on our website for a few months, and with no interest, in a desperate attempt to 're-invent' him we changed his name to 'Fred' and put new photos of him on the site. To no avail, we still have had no interest. Fred's only crime is that he doesn't like other dogs - he is good in the kennel, is no trouble for the kennel staff and although he is a strong dog, he would respond well to training from an experienced owner. Probably the reason Fred is overlooked is because he is a middle-aged, brindle male that is intolerant of other dogs. If he were a cute puppy or maybe even a sad oldie, if he were a flashy colour or dog friendly, no doubt we would've found him a home by now. Meanwhile, Fred languishes in the kennels. We are very fortunate in that we have some regular donations from some of our members that help towards his kennel costs but of course it still costs a handsome sum to keep a dog permanently in kennels. Any help for Fred would be so much appreciated - whether that is financial, in spreading the word about his plight in the hope of finding somewhere for him or ultimately finding that wonderful, experienced forever home that he so deserves! To sponsor Fred by making a donation click HERE and send your email asking how you can help. Let them know you saw him here on TSK. Visit EASBTC Rescue page HERE
The Stafford Knot
The Stafford Knot lists health tested stud dogs in the gallery, however, it is up to you to verify this testing by asking to see the certificates for each test if they are not made available here for download. We have screened this to the best of our ability, but cannot guarantee dogs listed have been tested. PLEASE ask for copies of certificates before using dogs at stud for the health and the future of our breed. Thank you. Form to advertise in Stud Gallery is found HERE
======================================= DayDream Ch. Slam Dance, CGC (Imp UK) “Nigel” DNA - AKC - #P24384 L2-HGA, HC, PHPV Unaffected, OFA/PennHip Hips, Patella, CERF http://www.offa.org/display.html?appnum=678935#animal firstname.lastname@example.org www.daydreamsbt.com Tel 530-306-0305 Frozen semen available to health tested bitches only. More photos of Nigel available. Health documents available by request.
======================================= DayDream Jayneze Diamonds And Guns (Imp UK) “Tierney” DNA - AKC - #V567946 L2-HGA, HC, PHPV Unaffected, CERF, OFA Hips good, OFA Elbow normal http://sunnycrest.vmdb.org/CerfWebSearch/Search/Results.aspx email@example.com www.daydreamsbt.com Tel 530-306-0305 Available to health tested bitches only. Health documents available by request.
Continued on next page
Gamepit Ch Carnig Positive Profile “Frank“ Clear of L2-HGA, & HC, PHPV Unaffected - documentation available upon request firstname.lastname@example.org Tel 0208 401 8182 Clear Tested bitches only need apply.
======================================= Zoellies Sabahouse Touch of Class At Zoellies “Tyler” Clear of L2-HGA, HC, PHPV Unaffected - documentation available upon request email@example.com www.zoellies.co.uk Tel 01994427484 Tel 07817432866
© Stu Coates 2010 www.showstaffs.co.uk
======================================= Absolute BIS BISS CH Belnore Dream Keeper OFA ‘Beau’ AKC DNA - V426729 Clear of L2-HGA, HC, OFA/PennHip Hips, OFA/PennHip Elbows, Patella, OFA Cardiac - documentation available upon request AbsoluteAST@aol.com www.absoluteamericanstaffordshireterrier.com Tel 337-255-3508
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Sajojistaff CH Sajojistaff Back In Black ‘George’ L2-HGA, HC, PHPV Unaffected firstname.lastname@example.org http://sajojistaff.webs.com Tel 01608 659869 Only clear tested bitches may apply. Health documentation available by request
======================================= Ramstaff Ch Ramstaff American Ikon, TT “Ike” L2-HGA, HC, OFA Cardiac Ramstaff@earthlink.net www.ramstaffkennels.com 770-888-5255
Available to clear tested bitches only Health documents available by request
======================================= Moonstruck CH Moonstruck The Stamler Express, TT “Stamler” L2-HGA, HC, PHPV Unaffected email@example.com www.moonstruckstaffords.com 301-261-4202 "Available to Heath Tested Bitches with Correct Stafford Temperaments Only" Health documents available by request
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Moonstruck Moonstruck Blue Asher, TT “Asher” L2-HGA, HC, PHPV Unaffected firstname.lastname@example.org www.moonstruckstaffords.com 301-261-4202 "Available to Heath Tested Bitches with Correct Stafford Temperaments Only" Health documents available by request
======================================= The Stafford Knot is an independent publication and not affiliated with any specific breed club. TSK is a collaborative effort from like minded Stafford enthusiasts whose common goal is to support the health testing of purebred Staffords. We reserve the right to approve or disapprove any material submitted. All material on this site is copyright protected & cannot be used unless indicated without the written consent of
The Stafford Knot Thank you. Contact Us
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The Stafford Knot is offering classified advertising of goods and services which are dog related. Ads are limited to 20 words, no images. For larger ads please consider gallery advertising. The Stafford Knot cannot be held responsible for any items sold through this page. All sales are between seller and purchaser. TSK makes no warranties either written or implied. Information on how to advertise in TSK classifieds can be found HERE
===================================== The Whole Dog Your Premier Resource For Natural Dog Care, Consultations, products, articles. Dr. Jeannie Thomason veterinary naturopath. email@example.com http://www.thewholedog.org/
Thankdog - All Breeds Equal Help fight BSL - promote responsible dog ownership. T-shirts, Calendars, Stickers, & more. Proceeds benefit Stafford causes. firstname.lastname@example.org www.cafepress.com/Thankdog
Natural Rearing Breeders Association Breeders, natural animal health care providers, individuals actively contributing to increasing health and longevity of our dogs. http://www.nrbreedersassociation.org/
Frogge Dog Shop Art, crafts, natural health care products for pets. All handmade! email@example.com Froggedogshop.com
My Staffy For the Love of Staffordshire Bull Terriers. Staffordshire Bull Terrier merchandise & gifts. T-shirts, plush toys & collectibles. www.mystaffy.com.au
aecollars Handcrafted SBT Collars, Leads & Harnesses Tel 01981 241488 or Int. +44 1981 241488 www.aecollars.co.uk for made to measure service www.staffordleather.com for ready made items
Young Living Experience therapeutic benefits of essential oils for your family - pets too! Use Independent Distributor Referral #1166695 CLICK for more info
Take advantage now of this incredible deal on classified advertising! These prices cant last long!
The Stafford Knot
The Stafford Knot cannot be held responsible for the breeders listed below. Please do your homework and ask to see health certificates, discuss terms and decide whether the Stafford is the correct breed for you prior to purchasing a puppy. Remember, Stafford rescues are also available and make be wonderful pets in the right homes! A Stafford is not the breed for everyone. Please be responsible dog owners and take responsibility for you and your dog in all situations. Contact us with questions.
We reserve the right to approve or disapprove any material submitted Form to advertise in Breeders Directory can be found HERE North America Alabama Cornerstone The Folmars Alabama http://www.cornerstonestaffords.net 205-966-8114 L2-HGA, HC
Florida Cloverdale Staffordshirebull Terriers Amy O'Brian & Jeff Markey Sarasota Florida EMAIL www.cloverdalestaffords.com 941-377-9294 L2-HGA, HC
"Staffords that are exemplary in type & balance" California Camelot Staffords Joan Ganz Sacramento, California EMAIL http://www.camelotstaffordshirebullterriers.com 916-342-0854 L2-HGA, HC
Georgia Wavemaker Staffords Jim & Lynn Caswell GA, USA EMAIL www.wavemakerstaffords.com 770-666-6121 L2-HGA, HC, Hips, Elbows, Patella, Cardiac, CERF
“Breeding for temperament and standard.”
“Naturally reared - Promoting health, exercise & the Breed Standard - Wavemaker Staffords....naturally”
California Chavier Staffords Kim Washington-Smith Southern California EMAIL 213 - 760-9081 L2-HGA, HC, CERF
Georgia Ramstaff Staffords Angie & Kevin Beezley Georgia, USA EMAIL www.ramstaffkennels.com 770-888-5255 L2-HGA, HC, Hips, Elbows, Cardiac, CERF
"Breeding Staffords with Charm" “Ramstaff...focusing on the standard blend of bull & terrier with true stafford temperament...always” California Gemini Kennel Beth Lloyd Southern California EMAIL www.angelfire.com/ca2/geminikennel L2-HGA, HC, Hips, Elbows, Patella, Cardiac, CERF
Illinois 1 of a Kind Staffords Andrew Currier Peoria Il EMAIL 309-691-7134 L2-HGA, HC, Hips, Elbows, Patella, Cardiac “Unequalled in type, balance, fitness & health”
“From show dogs to GO dogs.”
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Maryland Hi-Impact Staffords (Reg) Rich Newberger Baltimore http://hiimpactstaffords.com 410-323-4141 L2-HGA, HC, PHPV, Hips, Elbows, Cardiac, CERF “Bred to standard not by design” Maryland Moonstruck Staffords Judy Heller Edgewater, MD 21037 EMAIL www.moonstruckstaffords.com 301-261-4202 L2-HGA, HC Quality Staffordshire Bull Terriers of Correct Type & Temperament for Show, Performance & Companion "The Ultimate Nanny Dog” Michigan Blessings' Kennel Cathy Micallef Southeastern MI EMAIL www.blessingskennel.org 734-634-9328 L2-HGA, HC, Hips, Elbows, Patella, Cardiac, CERF “Wonderful companions with show & working potential!” New York Stephanie Crawford Binghamton, NY EMAIL 607-775-1996 L2-HGA, HC, Hips Washington ANGEL ROCK Staffordshire Bull Terriers Spokane, Washington www.angelrockdogs.com “SBT educational articles, tons of photos and rescue info too!"
Wisconsin MSLF Kennels Cindy Bundy EMAIL 262-857-9412 L2-HGA, HC, Hips, Elbows, CERF, Other “We strive to promote sound minds and bodies.”
The Stafford Knot
Back Issues Archive downloads will be made available very soon. For now if you would like TSK to email you a free archive PDF file - please feel free to contacts us at:
January 2010 Issue #1, Vol #1 Articles include: Joseph Dunn - Hints to the Novice SBT=Bulldog+Terrier
February 2010 Issue #2, Vol #1 Articles include: SBT Breed Seminar, Raymond Crilly - Judges Ed Breeders Code of Silence SBT Exhibition Center (Past Crufts Wnners story NOT included)
March 2010 Issue #3, Vol #1 Articles include: Info on Health Testing Illustrated Breed Standard Balance & Movement - Judges Ed PHPV - Tala’s Story - Health Demodectic Mange - Alternative Therapies for Treatments - Health (WKC stories NOT included) April 2010 Issue #4, Vol #1 Articles include: Info on Health Testing Illustrated Breed Standard RX For Whelping & Caesarians Breeders Ed What You See is What You Get The Tragic Loss of Bloodlines & Mentoring in America - Breeders Ed A Very Special Boy Meets His 1st Stafford
May 2010 Issue #5, Vol #1 Articles include: Info on Health Testing Illustrated Breed Standard Tan Point Markings - AKA Black & Tan Judges/Breeders Ed Staffords in Working Trials Fibro Cartila....what? - Health How to Select Against Genetic Disease with Knowledge, Not Hope - Breeders Ed June 2010 Issue #6, Vol #1 Articles include: Info on Health Testing Illustrated Breed Standard GDC Genetics Interview Breeders Ed Balance in the SBT Judges/Breeders Ed One By One - What YOU can do! The Disappearing Sperm - Breeders Ed/ Health SBT Breed Record Holders, Part 1
July 2010 Issue #7, Vol #1 Articles include: Illustrated Breed Standard Dogs Who Fly - Dock Diving Judging My Way - Judges/ Exhibitors Ed The Holy Grail How to Weight Pull with your Staffordshire Bull Terrier Track Training - Starting Out Flyball - “Organized Chaos”
August 2010 - Veterans! Issue #8, Vol #1 Articles include: Illustrated Breed Standard Grey Muzzles & Puppy Dog Tales Staying in the Game My Sunshine Tammy Alf ALSO may be viewed HERE
The Stafford Knot
The Back Page
From the Editor
1. LIVING WITH CUSHINGS DISEASE BY HARRY & MARY COBLE
I am thrilled to announce that the TSK team has been hard at work making many improvements to this publication. If you are reading this, then you are already aware that we are changing formats. We will no longer simply be a website, but more of a digital publication. Improvements also include more live links and easy downloads, printing capabilities and easy sharing. All these improvements do come with a price, however. We recently began to charge the Paypal fees but have kept our advertising rates the lowest in the business. We hope that you will continue to support TSK and in doing
2. MIRACLES DO HAPPEN BY ARCHIE & MARLENE BRY DEN 3. THE VERSATILE STAFFORD BY WENDY CLEWLEY 4. USING GENETIC PEDIGREE TO SELECT AGAINST GENETIC DISEASE - 3RD IN A SERIES BY G. PACKARD
so you help support Stafford Rescue and promote health testing in this breed. Also, a HUGE thank you goes out to those who gave me extra support during the publication of the September issue that last week in August as we welcomed the first litter with the Wavemaker affix. We are proud and grateful to those who supported us along the way. Donâ€™t miss our puppy cam! We have met some terrific friends in Staffords who continue to amaze us with all they do. Thank you! Lynn Caswell, Editor