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NOV/DEC 2011 P R O M O T I N G T H E S T A F F O R D S H I R E B U L L T E R R I E R

The Stafford Knot

ISSUE #6 VOL 2 FREE

The Stafford Knot promotes Health Tested Staffords

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Cover Story on Page 4

!

THE SBT STANDARD – A PERSONAL INTERPRETATION

PAGE 8

BREEDING - THE BIG PICTURE PAGE 19

FOSTER Q&A MOM WHERE THE OSTRICH FINDS HAVE ALL THE HEAD OF HOCKS - LET SYNDROME REWAR DS DOWN THE PUREA STAFFORDSHIRE BREEDS PAGE 36 BULL PAGE 43 PAGE 38 GONE? TERRIER

PAGE 31

PAGE 40

BRAGS PAGE 44

HEALTH TESTING INFO PAGE 47

FEATURED

RESCUES

PAGE 50

ILLUSTRATED BREED STANDARD PROJECT

PAGE 61


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All historical and/or current photos and articles used in this publication were sent to us by our readers unless otherwise stated. In such instances all permissions were acquired prior to publication. We take no responsibility for use of images widely available on the internet or sent to us by owners or breeders of dogs mentioned in this publication. If you wish to have photo credit given it is the responsibility of the photographer to send to us in writing during the current issue publication your wish and we will do our best to accommodate. Full Color Ads of Top Staffords, Kennels & Vendors Dog/Kennel Ads, Brags, Breeder Directory, Club Announcements, Stud Gallery Litter Announcements & Informative Articles WORLDWIDE Publication 24/7 Accessibility, No Waiting For Delivery! DIRECT DISTRIBUTION to Stafford Judges Worldwide No PAID Subscriptions needed!

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Special thank you goes to those selfless people who assist with Stafford rescues on a regular basis - if you can help transport, foster, donate or adopt - there is sadly always a need! TSK is here to raise funds to aid in these rescues. Please be a part of the solution! We welcome Fundraiser representatives and article contributions from interested parties. Please contact us if for more information how you can get involved. Thank you also to our Rescue Coordinators Worldwide The Stafford Knot is an independent publication and not affiliated with any specific breed club. TSK is a collaborative effort from like minded Stafford enthusiasts whose common goal is to support the health testing of purebred Staffords. We reserve the right to approve or disapprove any material submitted. All material on this site is copyright protected & cannot be used unless indicated without the written consent of The Stafford Knot Thank you. Contact Us TSK benefits Stafford rescue worldwide Š 2009 - 2012 BD Design


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COVER STORY AKC/UKC CH JAYNEZE DIAMONDS AND GUNS, CGC, RA - “TIERNEY” AFTER PROVING HIMSELF IN THE CONFORMATION RING, WINNING THREE MAJORS INCLUDING TWO 5 PT MAJORS UNDER UK BREED SPECIALISTS, TIERNEY STARTED TRAINING FOR RALLY AND AGILITY. IN JUST 7 TRIALS HE EARNED HIS RALLY NOVICE AND HIS RALLY ADVANCED TITLES. HE ALSO HAS 2 LEGS TOWARDS HIS NOVICE AGILITY AND ONE TOWARDS HIS NOVICE AGILITY JUMPERS TITLES. ALL THIS HANDICAPPED BY A NOVICE OWNER/HANDLER! TIERNEY IS ALSO SIRING BEAUTIFUL, INTELLIGENT, DRIVEY PUPS WHO ARE HOLDING THEIR OWN IN BOTH PERFORMANCE VENUES AND THE CONFORMATION RING. HIS OLDEST DAUGHTER, GR CH DAYDREAM SIN WITH A GRIN, IS #2 STAFFORD BITCH IN THE COUNTRY WITH EXTREMELY LIMITED SHOWING. THANK YOU JAYNE FOR LETTING ME HAVE THIS WONDERFUL DOG, I HOPE HE'S DOING YOU PROUD!   DAYNA LEMKE DAYDREAM STAFFORDS

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L 2 - H G A & H C DATA B A S E P RO J E C T THE STAFFORD KNOT ONLY ACCEPTS ADS FROM OWNERS AND BREEDERS OF DOGS WHO HAVE BEEN HEALTH TESTED. THE MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS ARE L2-HGA & HC TESTING. WE PROVIDE INFORMATION ON WHERE TO GO TO HAVE THESE SIMPLE AND INEXPENSIVE TESTS PERFORMED. DOCUMENTATION IS REQUIRED TO BE SCANNED AND SENT IN TO THE EDITORS FOR APPROVAL. FURTHER HEALTH TESTING (CARDIAC, CERF, PHPV, HIPS, ELBOWS, PATELLA, ETC) IS ALSO ENCOURAGED. IT IS HIGHLY RECOMMENDED TO BUYERS THAT THEY SEE THESE DOCUMENTS PRIOR TO PURCHASING THEIR NEW STAFFORD. IF ALL BREEDERS AND OWNERS WERE TO TEST, STAFFORDS WOULD ALL BE BETTER OFF SIMPLY BY THE FACT THAT WE WOULD HAVE MORE INFORMATION REGARDING WHERE THIS BREED IS GOING AS FAR AS HEALTH MATTERS ARE CONCERNED. TO FURTHER THIS POINT, IF ONLY CLEAR TESTED (L2-HGA & HC) STAFFORDS ARE BRED FROM THESE TWO GENETIC DISEASES COULD BE ERADICATED IN THREE GENERATIONS OF BREEDING. THAT’S CERTAINLY SOMETHING TO THINK ABOUT. SOME ARGUE THAT THIS WOULD NARROW THE GENE POOL TOO MUCH AND IS NOT A NEEDED STEP TO IMPROVING THE FUTURE OF THIS BREED. TO THOSE I SAY, POSSIBLY, HOWEVER - IS THAT CARRIER STUD DOG SO STRUCTURALLY SUPERIOR TO HIS CLEAR TESTED BROTHER THAT YOU WOULDN’T CONSIDER USING THE BROTHER INSTEAD? JUST SOMETHING ELSE TO THINK ABOUT. TSK IS COMPILING REGISTERED NAMES AND SCANNED DOCUMENTS OF ALL TESTED (CLEAR, CARRIER AND AFFECTED) STAFFORDS FOR A FUTURE DATABASE PROJECT SO THAT DOCUMENTATION WILL BE ON HAND FOR FUTURE GENERATIONS. IN THE U.S. OUR REGISTRIES DO NOT DOCUMENT THESE TEST RESULTS AS THE K.C. DOES IN THE U.K. THEREFORE TOO MANY PEOPLE WHO OWN ‘CLEAR BY PARENTAGE’ STAFFORDS HAVE NO PROOF IN HAND SEVERAL GENERATIONS DOWN THE LINE. IN TIME, WE AT TSK HOPE THE DATABASE WILL HELP THOSE WHO WISH TO KNOW THE STATUS OF A PARTICULAR DOG OR LITTER. IF YOU HAVE A TESTED STAFFORD - PLEASE SEND ONE EMAIL TO HEALTH@THESTAFFORDKNOT.COM CONTAINING THE FULL REGISTERED NAME, REGISTRATION NUMBER, SIRE AND DAM REGISTERED NAMES AND SCANNED COPIES OF ALL HEALTH TESTING DONE ON YOUR DOG. PLEASE ONLY SEND ONE EMAIL PER DOG. IN TIME, WE HOPE TO BUILD A NAME ONLY DATABASE WITH THIS INFORMATION. THANK YOU FOR SUPPORTING

We are also working on a database of semen stored from health tested stud dogs. If you have semen stored from a tested dog and wish to have him included, please email HEALTH@THESTAFFORDKNOT.COM with health scans, pedigree information and contact information. Also please indicate whether or not the semen is available for use.


THE SBT STANDARD – A PERSONAL INTERPRETATION by Mick Smith (Willowstaff) The Standard would appear to be self explanatory and a blue print for the ideal specimen, however it is open to interpretation and as a result a variety of types according to people’s preferences occur. Variations are inevitable but exaggeration to the detriment of the breed must be avoided, particularly with respect to health and functionality.

less bulky animal than we tend to see in the show ring.

MISINTERPRETATION OF THE STANDARD AND THE EMPHASIS ON A NUMBER OF FEATURES HAVE OVER TIME PRODUCED A CARICATURE OF THE ORIGINAL ANIMAL ON WHICH THE STANDARD WAS BASED (I.E. JIM THE DANDY).

The head and skull on examination should be more oval in shape than round with clean lines and no surplus flesh and no excess of flews (i.e. clean lipped). The skull should be proportionately deep through and the muzzle should be broad with no evidence of ‘snipeyness’ with a strong under jaw. The ‘stop’ should be distinct but not vertical and the eyes, preferably dark, should be round, not overly large, and

!

Rather than go through the Standard in detail clause by clause – because these are basically self explanatory – I will describe the features I look for in a Stafford in accordance with my interpretation of the Standard. Misinterpretation of the Standard and the emphasis on a number of features have over time produced a caricature of the original animal on which the Standard was based (i.e. Jim the Dandy). “Great Strength for Size” has been taken too literally and although a Stafford should be robust, they should not be ‘heavy/cloddy’. In essence, a Stafford should be balanced with an athletic outline. The old timers I am sure were referring to the physical capability rather than physical size, and this together with the height to weight ratios should point to a

The temperament and characteristics are clearly described and we look for a confident dog with a friendly disposition that easily adapts to a variety of situations and does not exhibit nervous aggression. Staffords that are well socialised can mix with other dogs but caution should be exercised at all times.

set wide apart, thus avoiding an untypical expression. Although dark eyes are preferable purely for cosmetic reasons, the colour has no effect on functionality and should be judged accordingly. Too deep a stop results in overly large and prominent eyes susceptible to damage, whereas too shallow a stop produces the almond shaped eye and a foreign expression. Over-round heads should be avoided for in order to maintain the desirable 2:1 ratio of length of skull (occiput to stop) to length of muzzle (stop to tip of nose), the muzzle invariably has to be over-short. Over round eyes giving the all too common ‘surprised’ look should be avoided, as they are not conducive to what was once a dog bred for combat.

Continued on Page 11


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Continued from Page 8

THE SBT STANDARD – A PERSONAL INTERPRETATION CONTINUED It is of paramount importance that the head is in

faults should be judged on their severity and a dog

balance with the body, as an over-large head upsets the

should not be condemned if it has a minor dentition

kinematic balance and has a detrimental effect on

fault.

manoeuvrability and agility. One must remember that the first thing a dog moves to change direction is the head, and an imbalance would be analogous to a boxer carrying a heavy weight around his neck affecting speed and agility.

Ears – with adequate width between them – can be rose or half-pricked, as long as they are not overly

THE CANINES SHOULD BE BIG AND THE POINTS OF THE LOWER CANINES SHOULD BE VISIBLE AND NOT IMPEDE THE UPPER GUMS OR PALATE. MOUTH FAULTS SHOULD BE JUDGED ON THEIR SEVERITY AND A DOG SHOULD NOT BE CONDEMNED IF IT HAS A MINOR DENTITION FAULT.

large or thick. Ears that are too big are easily gripped and damaged and invariably bleed profusely as they contain an abundance of tiny blood vessels.

! Neck and forequarter conformation are inherently Teeth should be large and the bite should be correct, not only at the incisors (scissor bite), but the premolar and molars should interface correctly. Over-short

connected as the muscles which move the front legs and scapula rely on the neck for support and anchorage.

muzzles often introduce misalignment of molars and premolars are often missing. The canines should be big and the points of the lower canines should be visible and not impede the upper gums or palate. Mouth Continued on Page 12


Continued from Page 11

THE SBT STANDARD – A PERSONAL INTERPRETATION CONTINUED Length and width of neck should be complimentary and the weight of the dog is concentrated on the heel, too long and slender a neck is often weak and is

rather than the toes of the foot. Feet should be well

invariably associated with excess layback of scapula

padded and strong, not thin and flat with long toes (i.e.

(shoulder blade). Conversely, a too short and thick

hare footed), as these are susceptible to damage.

neck lacks flexibility and generally indicates an upright scapula. The neck should be strong and muscular and be of such a length to facilitate adequate reach and flexibility. The forequarters are very important as they support 60% of a dog’s weight and need to be anatomically sound to allow the dog to move with speed and agility, and historically to sustain the rigours of combat. When examining a dog from the front, look for a clean shoulder line and adequate width of chest. The front should be neither too narrow nor too wide, as these upset static and kinematic balance, agility and stability. A smooth contour around the shoulder indicates correct layback of scapula. Angulation of the scapula is very important as this acts as a shock absorber. For example: too steep an angle reduces the ability to absorb vertical forces and too laid back increases the resultant forces at the withers and point of shoulder. An overloaded shoulder is indicative of an upright shoulder blade, often accompanied with a short humorous (upper arm) and invariably the dog has restrictive movement at the front and exhibits the classical ‘paddling’ action. The elbow should be level with the brisket so as not to impede front action, remembering a good length of upper arm should not be accompanied by looseness at the elbow. Ample width of the chest also ensures the legs are not inset (i.e. pinched chest), and provides sufficient heart room. Finally the pasterns and feet, which are also integral and important features of the forequarters, need to be

! Overall balance will always be subjective, but generally the height (floor to withers) should be approximately equal to the length of the dog (forechest to croup). Front and rear angulation is well documented and should be equal to facilitate good movement. In general, upright shoulders accompanied by an overangulated rear, or lack of stifle together with a well laid shoulder blade inevitably result in poor movement and the basic rule is comparable front and rear angulation.

considered. The pasterns should be strong and correctly angled (15°-20° from the vertical) to ensure Continued on Page 13


Continued from Page 12

THE SBT STANDARD – A PERSONAL INTERPRETATION CONTINUED For example: over-angulated and sickle hocked animals exhibit a “bobbing up and down” rear action, and dogs with straight stifles roll about the hip and exhibit a stilted action. Lack of reach of fore and aft movement is a result of poor angulation, and in particular a lack of upper arm when considering the forehand. Restricted movement at the rear is again poor angulation and with excessive angulation more often than not the dog is too short in the back, causing the dog to take short steps in order to avoid contact with his front feet. There is no reason why a Stafford should not move well; all that is required is to avoid exaggeration and adhere to

!

the Standard. A well balanced Stafford built along athletic lines will fulfill the active and agile requirement. The cosmetic appearance of the Stafford, i.e. coat, colour, etc., is self explanatory. The main ingredients are balance and lack of exaggerations. Mick Smith (Willowstaff Kennels, UK) © May 2011

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Continued from Page 12

THE SBT STANDARD – A PERSONAL INTERPRETATION CONTINUED A well laid shoulder blade and good length of upper

The topline should be level with a slight rise over the

arm are conducive to correct front action. In general a

croup and a gentle slope towards the rump to facilitate

short upper arm and too wide front indicates a low

extra drive from the rear. Front legs should be slightly

centre of gravity which although stable introduces lack

behind the forechest and the dog should not appear

of flexibility and agility. Adequate rear angulation and

“pigeon chested”.

good bend of stifle are required for good rear

Depth of brisket and length of sternum should provide

movement. When the hind feet are positioned approximately in line with the rump, the topline/ backline should be level. If the feet have to be placed too far back then the rear angulation/bend of stifle are excessive and the hip joint and patella are being subjected to adverse strain. Remember: bend of stifle is the bend at the “true knee”, i.e. the angle between the femur and tibia.

ample room for the heart and lungs and benefit inhalation and exhalation. However the interpretation that a “barrel” rib is required is a fallacy. The “barrelled” rib is akin to an already expanded pair of bellows, whereas the requirement is for a good ‘spring’ of rib to facilitate efficient breathing. A discernible tuck-up is required, however a “herring gut” is highly undesirable as this restricts the diaphragm and reduces lung room. A Stafford should look balanced even when viewed from above; the neck should not be too short or wide and the shoulders should not be much wider than the rib cage. The rib cage should not be ‘slab sided’ but well sprung. “Tuck in” or a definite waist should be apparent and the dog should be ‘light in the loins’ but not so much as to exhibit the “tadpole effect”. Hindquarters should be muscular and the first and second thigh muscles should be well developed. The Stafford should move fluidly with economy of effort and with discernible drive from the rear. Movement should be a straight, parallel driving action and a level topline should be maintained. Single tracking, not to be confused with close movement (i.e.

!

a product of misaligned limbs – for example: “pin toed” or “turned in” hocks) is acceptable, however plaiting/ crossing of legs front and/or rear and the all too familiar “paddling” action should be penalised. Stilted, awkward movement indicates a structural fault.

Concluded on Page 16


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BREEDING - THE BIG PICTURE! By Dan Astibus sharplaninec.com (republished with permission from the author) Many articles have been written about dog breeding,

two or three full generations you find yourself having

with the better ones usually covering some aspect of

to resort to inbreeding to further increase the

canine genetics as well. However, even those latter

numbers of specimens. So what exactly happened? And

manuscripts merely revolve around Mendelian genetics. why could this development potentially be a bad thing? While this is undoubtedly valuable for the

And what is inbreeding anyway?

understanding of inheritance when breeding individual dogs, I have seldom encountered resources, where the authors tried to put dog breeding into a broader context. The question is, would our perception increase, if we took the focus away from single dogs or even individual breeding programs and started looking at breeds in their entirety? Is there any tangible benefit to interpreting our breeding efforts in the light of the impact on the complete breed? Whenever we consider a dog breed as a whole, the

Before we proceed, let us first briefly discuss the terms inbreeding and linebreeding. In the canine world, inbreeding is defined as breeding closely related dogs to each other, i.e. parent to offspring (vertically) or brother to sister or half-brother to half-sister (horizontally). Let me stress right away that inbreeding in itself can be a valuable tool to ‘fix’ certain desired genes and should not be quickly discarded as the works of unethical breeders.

term Population Genetics should come to mind right away. But what exactly is Population Genetics? Well, it

This writing is really not supposed to become an

essentially describes a discipline within genetics, where

argument for or against inbreeding, rather a plea that a

quantitative tools are applied to understand global genetic drift, gene migrations, allele frequencies of

full appreciation of its broader implications should be

certain desired or undesired traits etc. This outlook -

paramount before even considering such a breeding strategy. When we now look at the term linebreeding, it

as I will try to illustrate here - has far reaching and I

is traditionally referred to as a relaxed form of

believe fascinating implications.

inbreeding, meaning the matching of distant cousins or aunts to nephews, grand-uncles to grand-nieces etc.

Let us dive into this matter with a little thought experiment at the beginning. Suppose you decided to recreate a breed of antiquity, which to all accounts has been extinct for centuries. To your own amazement, you were able to identify say 4 unrelated males that express this presumably ancient phenotype and another 7 females, all hidden away in various remote areas of the world. This basically becomes your foundation – or in genetics terms comprises the gene pool of your new breed. So far so good. But once you

In reality, the distinction between those two forms of inbreeding is just arbitrary, as genetically speaking there isn’t a fundamental difference between them. Emotional reservations aside, the actual genetic relationship of two individuals is scientifically determined by Sewall Wright's Coefficient of Relationship (RC), which basically computes a percentage of relatedness by derivation from the Coefficient of Inbreeding (COI).

start breeding them methodically, you soon realize that your breed quickly becomes tightly related. After only Continued on Page 20


Continued from Page 19

BREEDING - THE BIG PICTURE!

CONTINUED

I’ll spare you the math. But it turns out that solely

to limit the variability of a given gene pool in order to

based on their four generation pedigrees, apparently

create a coherent type of dog, that performed well

unrelated or only remotely related dogs from the same above average in the respective niche. In this breed can share a substantial amount of common

procedure, an initial dog population of some intrinsic

genes, resulting in a notably high inbreeding coefficient,

diversity would be progressively “pruned”, until a new

when mathematically verified over the past 10

dog population of superior working quality had been

generations. This is actually the case for the vast

obtained. Just as the consistency in phenotype

majority of today’s purebred dogs.

improves, the variability in the offspring decreases over time, meaning that the range of available alleles in the gene pool narrows over time.

Inheritance is not as straight forward as many believe. Oftentimes, people mention percentages of “blood” in their dogs as if these were absolute certainties,

A while ago, I started a MolosserDogs thread with the

whereas in reality the percentages beyond the actual

title “What is a mutt?”, only to illustrate how people

parents rather describe only probabilities. Believe it or

would struggle to clearly define what the criteria for

not, this is an important distinction. There is no physical being a mutt would be. I believe that there is no clear law that makes sure that a pup is 25% genetically

cut definition. If anything in that regard can be said with

identical with its grandfather. This is only the

confidence, then it is probably that purebred dogs

probabilistic mean, to be observed if one would fully

display a tighter genetic variability than “mixed” dogs.

genotype thousands of puppies and their respective grandparents, then calculate the average similarity; it’s just a convenient simplification that works somewhat well in practical terms – nothing more. Please keep in mind that these numbers are only an abstraction of reality. Ok, now that I sufficiently clouded the neat and cozy Mendelian approach, let us get back to quantitative genetics, or at least a global viewpoint.

By the way, the consistent phenotypes due to limited gene pools with homozygosity for many alleles in pure breeds are of fundamentally different composition (and quality) than those of wild pariah dog populations. This has to do with masking of recessive genes, which unfortunately is beyond the scope of this topic. Only this much, in gene pools of pariah dogs, recessive genes can be carried along without being frequently

As various dog breeds evolved over time, people had primarily the same principal objective – to obtain sufficient consistency in the progeny of their dogs with regard to some defined labor task. They strived for a distinct conformation in phenotype as well as certain favored personality traits; in short, the optimal dog for a given task. When we really think about this from a

expressed nor completely eliminated from the gene pool; only to pop up, if and when they prove advantageous. Anyway, as far as we are concerned for now, whenever we study the gene pool of a particular dog breed, it is safe to say that we are dealing with a more or less isolated subset of available gene alleles from the generic gene pool.

genetic perspective, the underlying objective really was Continued on Page 24


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Continued from Page 20

BREEDING - THE BIG PICTURE!

CONTINUED

Now, narrow and isolated gene pools aren’t an

remember our initial thought experiment. Let us switch

exclusive phenomenon of dog breeds created by man.

into the next gear. Suppose we are dealing with a rare

Small wolf packs in nature for example aren’t exactly

breed of about 400 specimens total, which are

fully transparent either, their sexually mature members

unrelated. (I use 400 as this is the number that Gary

are certainly not available to every potential mate out

Sicard came up with in a recent discussion. I will

there but restricted to selected specimens even within

demonstrate shortly, how the exact amount of

their own family. While close incestuous pairings seem

specimens in a breed is almost irrelevant.) For

to be the rare exception in wolves, this arrangement

simplicity, we will assume that about 50% of these dogs

still meets the criteria for loose inbreeding. If what we

are male, the other half obviously female; none of them

call “linebreeding” constantly occurs in nature itself, it can’t be all that bad in breeding programs either, right?

spayed or neutered. How long do you think, will it take before all dogs are related to each other? If you

Yes, of course. But there’s more to it. Let us come back guessed after eight generations, you are right. This to this issue a little bit later.

seems so counterintuitive, doesn’t it? The reason for this rapid decline in unrelatedness is that the genetic

When linebreeding is performed in a meaningful

convergence follows a logarithmic function. For those

manner of strategic breeding efforts, the objective is to

who are interested, the equation to determine the first

emphasize desired features or to eliminate undesired

generation of inbreeding is Gi= |(ln(n)/ln(2))+0.5|+1 ,

genes. Inbreeding is used to ‘fix’ specific genes,

where n is the amount of dogs from the less

essentially an attempt to concentrate the allele

represented gender. What this really means is that the

frequency of a targeted trait. This is a science in itself and the subject has been satisfactorily discussed in

possible number of available unrelated specimens is cut in half with each generation. So, if we had just 16 studs

other threads already. I would only like to discuss the

and equally as many females, we’d experience

“side effects” here. Due to affects of gene linkage, we

unintentional inbreeding within only 5 generations. And

cannot pretend that we are solely tinkering with the

keep in mind that this would only hold true, if one

targeted gene, when we try to modulate an allele

employed every specimen equally in the breeding

frequency of a population to our advantage. When we

program. If any stud were to be favored as a show

fix one gene, we affect others in their relative

champion for example and all bitches were bred to that

occurrence as well. Without even realizing it, we are

one stud, then complete relatedness would obviously

likely to increase the rate for infrequent recessive

be achieved much sooner; this could be considered as a

defects that just happen to be closely linked to our original gene of interest.

founder’s effect. The subsequent unintentional inbreeding would further amplify unwanted traits – or more precisely, genetic diseases. And in fact, this is

One might now hastily conclude that all inbreeding

precisely what happens in so many ‘novel’ breeds. The

(whether incestuous or linebreeding) is “evil” and

genetic base is so thin that it usually takes only 10 years

simply resort to selecting very distantly related

or less in a breeding program, until more and more

specimens from the same breed. Let us investigate this

problems surface within the breeding stock. A perfect

potential strategy for a moment. I hope you still

Pandora’s box, as far as I am concerned. Continued on Page 25


Continued from Page 24

BREEDING - THE BIG PICTURE!

CONTINUED

I have previously mentioned that narrow gene pools

it to young adulthood, regardless of how many puppies

are not bound to man-created dog breeds but also

the dam actually gave birth to. Well, these were

occur in wild populations of canidae. If these effects are different times and not all dogs in a litter were as detrimental as I make it sound, why aren’t wolf

necessarily allowed to live long and prosper lives. Even

populations riddled with genetic diseases? Why do

at older ages, dogs that didn’t perform as expected,

breeders and dog owners experience problems more

were simply culled – no questions asked. Such a strict

frequently in recent decades and not as severely in the

breeding regime ensured that only the toughest dogs

early days of breeding for type? The answer to that is

survived; those with genetic impairments didn’t make

that “linebreeding” is only one half of the story, only

the cut. Almost like the unfit wolves.

one part of a truly successful strategy. When we look at wild predator populations, one thing becomes Today, mentioning the word culling is almost a strict immediately apparent. Let’s assume an ecosystem of

taboo.Yet, it is necessary to complement systematic

stable equilibrium between a population of some sort

breeding efforts, whether we like it or not. Now, before

of prey and a pack of wolves. A female wolf comes in

breeders rush off into the garage and get their big axe

heat only once a year, and even then on average she

out, I would like to stress that I am IN NO WAY

produces around 25-30 young wolves throughout her

suggesting any killing of puppies. While people in the

life. However, in order to maintain that aforementioned past supposedly did not know any better or didn’t have perfect equilibrium (I will refrain from harmony, as the

the means, today we have the privilege to have modern

prey would probably beg to differ), statistically

tools at hand that would allow breeders to cull without

speaking, all she really needs to produce are two new wolves, one to replace herself and one to replace the

actually harming the individual dog. Recall that the real objective here is only to eliminate unfit phenotypes

sire. This progeny would maintain the wolf population

from the gene pool, not to harm dogs. The overall goal

stable, until the next generation eventually takes over.

of such an endeavor really should be to improve the

So the legitimate question is, what happens to the

health of the intact population as a whole. Modern

other wolves? It is well documented that the majority

tools could be comprised of spaying/neutering, limited

of the offspring will simply starve or die prematurely of registration, withholding pedigrees until breeding age, other cause. Bluntly stated (and statistically of course),

shared ownership etc. Responsible breeders should

only the fittest survive. Nature “recalls” those that

first and foremost keep the well-being of the breed in

didn’t make the cut – for whatever reason.

mind. Such an effort can only be a bottom-up approach and not dictated by breed registries.

I was recently asked, if it was true that historically livestock guardian dogs such as the Sarplaninac truly had only very few puppies in a litter? The suggested 2 or 3 puppies per pregnancy would indeed be

In conclusion, linebreeding techniques are unquestionably useful in a breeder’s aspirations to produce better dogs. Incestuous inbreeding, if applied

correctly, can be very effective in fixing genes of remarkably low, considering that those sheep guardians interest. However, these techniques require very close are pretty large dogs. My response was that I’m sure monitoring of the offspring, in particular for undesired that in many cases only very few puppies officially made traits – and harsh culling.

Continued on Page 29


KIMB ASTAFF C ASANOVA, CD, ET ‘DOOEE’ DOOEE WAS A TRUE AMBASSADOR OF THE STAFFORDSHIRE BULL TERRIER. HE WAS A LOYAL, TRUSTWORTHY AND LOVING COMPANION.  HE HAD MANY ADMIRERS AROUND THE WORLD WHO THANKS TO MODERN TECHNOLOGY WERE ABLE TO   FOLLOWED HIS ANTICS.  HE LOVED THE SHOW RING , WIN OR LOSE HE ALWAYS CAME HOME THE BEST DOG KNOWING   IN HIS HEART (AND MINE) HE WAS A WINNER. HE COULD BE HEARD SCREAMING ‘IT’S MY TURN NOW’ AT BOTH SHOW AND OBEDIENCE COMPETITIONS.    HE DESTROYED MANY A CRATE WITH HIS IMPATIENCE, ONCE HE EVEN ESCAPED WHILE A FLYBALL DEMONSTRATION WAS BEING HELD AND HAD HIS GO BEFORE THEY HAD FINISHED SETTING IT UP.     DOOEE WAS A COMPLETELY BALANCED DOG WHO ENJOYED ALL FACETS OF CANINE SPORTS INCLUDING SHOWING, OBEDIENCE, ENDURANCE, AGILITY, FLYBALL, WEIGHT PULL, LURE COURSING, SWIMMING, AND EVEN JUST PLAYING WITH OTHER DOGS.  HE HELPED RAISE MANY PUPPIES AND COULD OFTEN BE FOUND IN THE WHELPING BOX WITH THE PUPS JUMPING ALL OVER HIM.  IN HIS LATER YEARS WE BEGAN RESCUE WORK AND DOOEE WAS ALWAYS HAPPY TO SHARE HIS BED, HIS HOME AND HIS MUM WITH THE MANY RESCUES WHO SPENT TIME WITH US.   DOOEE WAS BORN VIA CSECION AND I WAS LUCKY ENOUGH TO HELP HIM COME INTO THE WORLD AND WAS THERE AT THE END TO SAY GOODBYE, THE HARDEST THING I’VE EVER HAD TO DO.  HE WAS MY BEST BUDDY   AND LIFE WILL NEVER BE THE SAME WITHOUT HIS TOUCH, HIS SILENCE,  HE GAVE THE BEST SNUGGLES. RIP SCOOBY DOO, WAIT FOR ME AT THE RAINBOW BRIDGE I CAN’T WAIT TILL WE CAN SNUGGLE AGAIN.


www.ramstaffkennels.com ramstaff@earthlink.net


www.staffordwelfare.com

rescue@sbtca.com


BREEDING - THE BIG PICTURE!

CONTINUED

People are frequently unaware of how quickly a given dog population converges into a single cluster of interrelated specimens. This occurs at a much accelerated rate, when breeders all eagerly breed to the same show champion. This can cause problems rather sooner than later. It is therefore a myth that all puppies from reputable breeders will be of outstanding quality. This viewpoint may be lucrative for the individual breeder, but let’s face it, not all puppies should be bred down the road. If culling is omitted for financial or emotional reasons, all that people are really doing is to support the increase of genetic problems for future dog generations. I realize that I have only scratched the surface of many issues. I did not aspire to achieve even remotely thorough coverage of this complex matter. But I hope that I could at least provide some rationale, why breeders should start seeing the breed in a big picture, and especially the potentially detrimental effects that their own actions might have for the entirety of the breed. There will surely be those who will utterly refuse to accept the importance of culling as part of a comprehensive breeding strategy and I understand that this can be a controversial issue. Nevertheless, IMHO it is part of the equation. Or just as the novelist and philosopher Ayn Rand put it, "The way to kill greatness is to elevate mediocrity." By Dan Astibus sharplaninec.com (republished with permission from the author)

nozac.hubery@googlemail.com


w w w. c a f e p re s s . c o m / t h a n k d o g

jo@scruffydogs.co.uk OR ProSBTHealth@aol.com

easbtc@thedoghouse89.freeserve.co.uk


Where have all the pure-breeds gone? This seems like a rather strange question to ask as I sit writing this and beside me, curled up on the sofa and at my feet are 6 purebred dogs of various sizes. I am not going to deny that I am a pure breed fancier, exhibitor and occasional hobby breeder or as I like to refer to myself a breed 'preservationist’. As of late however, I have not participated in two of those venues. Dog shows have not been a large part of my life in the last year or so quite simply because I have lost the luster to show. All of my show dogs have

A DOG THAT IS BUILT TO DO A JOB IS BEAUTIFUL NOT BECAUSE IT HAS LONG EYELASHES AND A PARTICULAR COLOR BUT BECAUSE IT HAS CORRECT STRUCTURE AND MOVEMENT THAT ENABLES IT TO DO THE JOB IT WAS BRED TO DO. either finished their show careers or have simply carried on my lack of enthusiasm for showing. Not that I do not enjoy showing, I do, it is my greatest passion and my meaning in life but the sad fact is nobody appreciates a well bred dog anymore. It used to be such an important part of breeding. To show your well bred animals to judges that in turn compared them to the ideal standard of the breed. Breed

standards that take years to be written and perfected. It takes a lot of hardcore consideration on the part of the breed secretaries and other breed preservationists. SO many people have so little knowledge of what goes into developing a breed standard that the explanation here will simply be lost. I will say however that contrary to popular belief by the lay people it is not simply based on looks and beauty. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder and to those with the untrained eye beauty may be the first thing you see. Let me tell you though that beauty comes from form and function. A dog that is built to do a job is beautiful not because it has long eyelashes and a particular color but because it has correct structure and movement that enables it to do the job it was bred to do. Now before I carry on and take flack for calling them it’s instead of he or she. I will explain that even though I am a breeder, I am not so cold as to not recognize that they are indeed male and female and I certainly do refer to my dogs and he and she. However, for the sake of the article, I am simply referring to them as ‘it’ for sake of being nonsexist. I hope you all can accept that. Now so far as to refer to us show people and breeders as callous and

greedy I must wholeheartedly defend that description for those of you who know us know very little. Responsible breeders hardly ever actually make any money. We, breed preservationist, are at best dog poor and some of us are dog tired of defending our desperate plea to have our beloved breed be in our grand-children’s futures. When I grew up I read every book there was on dogs. There was Lad of Sunnybrook, a series about a fantastic Rough Collie, Big Red - a gorgeous Irish Setter, Rin Tin Tin - a German Shepherd, The Littlest Hobo - another GSD, The Shaggy Dog - An old English Sheepdog and later a Bearded Collie. Of course nobody will ever forget Lassie.

You didn’t see many cockapoos, labradoodles, shipoos, chi weenies or puggles back then! What on earth has the world come to when it is considered a crime to buy a purebred dog from a responsible breeder? A person that has years and years of pedigree information, genetic testing, DNA samples, conformation and obedience titles and heaven knows what else under their belt.Y et it is perfectly acceptable to pay some inexperienced nobody that decided to make a little money off breeding mutts and labeling them designer dogs. An interesting and fitting description. Continued on Page 32


Continued from Page 31

Where have all the pure-breeds gone? CONTINUED These are the sad victims of the greed and selfishness of human beings and to have their fads satisfied even at the expense of animal! The purebred dogs are those that have been in existence and perfected for hundreds of years through the blood, sweat and tears of dedicated, committed and knowledgeable people. I had an excellent story told to me once by a long time respectable breeder. She was walking on a beach one day when an individual with the same breed of dog as herself approached her. He inquired

“...FORM MUST REFLECT FUNCTION. EACH AND EVERY DOG IS UNIQUE IN ITS PHYSICAL APPEARANCE.  EACH BREED WAS DEVELOPED TO DO A CERTAIN JOB...”

about using her very accomplished male dog as stud for his female in waiting. The lady asked him if he had performed any health testing on the female and as to whether or not she was registered with a purebreed registry. He replied “oh I am not a professional, I am not doing it for the money, I simply want to have a litter to sell.” In turn the lady breeder replied back with the simple comment. “In fact sir you are the professional breeder as I never make money breeding my dogs, I am lucky at best if I ever

break even, I do it for the love of the breed.” So while this inexperienced individual would sell his puppies for the same amount as “the going rate” A.) he would not have spent the thousands it takes to finish his dog in a dog show, which helps keep the standard in place and how we make sure that a Poodle looks like a Poodle and a Setter looks like a Setter. B.) He has not spent the average thousand or more on health testing his potential breeding bitch (yes folks female dogs are called bitches and I don’t care how many of you have bastardized the name by referring to your ex wife or mother-in-law as one. Also parents it really is not a bad word when used in the proper context.) If you haven’t seen the point so far keep reading. So many people are under the illusion that they do not need registration papers for their “pet” or they don’t want to spend what a well-bred dog costs. That the costs incurred by a breeder when importing new lines or better dogs into their breeding program are of no concerns of theirs. What many people fail to realize is that eventually these dogs will be the very foundation of what the future holds for these breeds. Great breeders do not contribute to the warping and mutations that appear in certain breeds. The public does so by buying from irresponsible greedy dog brokers, the ones that

get named ‘breeders‘, in which we get painted with the same brush. It is then responsible breeders who have to clean up the mess. These backyard breeders are the very people that move away from the breed standard and breed less quality animals both in structure and in health. Chihuahuas start to look like Rat Terriers, Great Danes start to look like Mastiffs, Border Collies like Aussies and so on. Most backyard breeders start their breeding “programs” on the dogs that are meant to be scratched from the breed ring. Not up to the standards for that breeding. Dogs that were sold on non-breeding contracts with their registrations withheld until proof of spay or neuter. For those of you that have ‘purchased’ a dog without papers this is what you have contributed to. As mentioned earlier form MUST reflect function. Each and every dog is unique in its physical appearance.  Each breed was developed to do a certain job, from Terriers to Mastiffs, these breeds look the way they do based on the job they were bred to do.  German Shepherds had to have long strides to cover much ground comfortably while droving their sheep, Terriers have to be tenacious and able to go to ground to get in and out of tight spots while chasing vermin, Rough Collies needed thick coats to keep warm in harsh weather.   Continued on Page 34


www.sbtcv.org.au

http://forum.bullbreedsonline.com


Continued from Page 32

Where have all the pure-breeds gone? CONTINUED Not only do you take in physical attributes but you also have to consider temperaments. This includes tenacity, affection, loyalty or aloofness. Imagine how much emptier all the shelters could be purchasers of dogs would simply promote a responsible breeder. How you say? Responsible breeders insist on responsible homes. Spaying and Neutering pets to not allow for unwanted/unplanned puppies Intensive interviews of potential pet homes to weed out and to help people make the right decision for them. Continuous support throughout the life of the puppy so people never feel frustrated and alone to leave them to do something desperate and potentially inappropriate for the animal. Being involved in groups, organizations, clubs that promote and take on issues which face their particular breed. Continuous education and learning. Eliminating, to the best of their ability, many health issues. A responsible breeder would never breed a litter if they didn’t have room to keep the entire litter if suitable homes couldn’t be found.

Breed preservationist would never

THE NUMBER ONE REASON THAT SHELTERS COULD BE EMPTY IS THAT A RESPONSIBLE BREEDER WOULD NEVER ALLOW A PUPPY OF THEIRS TO EVER BE SURRENDERED TO AN ANIMAL SHELTER.

sell to a puppy broker or pet store. Responsible breeders only breed to better the breed and to offer something for the future. A responsible breeder always strives to remain within the breed standard and would never purposely breed away from the breed's original purpose. The number one reason that shelters could be empty is that a responsible breeder would never allow a puppy of theirs to ever be surrendered to an animal shelter. The door of a responsible breeder is always open for one of their dogs to be returned.

from animal shelters almost NEVER stay in their adoptive homes. 70% of adopted animals are returned within the first month!!! Why? Simply because people are impulsive. Humane societies are just as irresponsible as pet stores because the play on the emotions of people. There are never enough questions asked and no one will tell people to go away and sleep on it. Come back in the morning, if you still feel this is the right pet for you then we will be happy to help. Never adopt or purchase an animal as a gift. Living things should never be considered for this purpose. Buy an inanimate object and make getting an animal a learning and educated decision made by everyone in the family not just a single individual, it makes for a much more harmonious experience. Enjoy your Dogs! Erika Phillips

Did you know that pets adopted A student of Animal Behavior/Nutrition and Alternative Medicine since 1990. She has studied at Guelph University in Canada, Glasgow University in Scotland and attended the British institute of Homeopathy. Erika has bred, raised and competed with many breeds of dogs in all aspects of dog sport. She currently consults on Animal Nutrition, Animal Behaviour and Alternative Health , including herbs and homeopathy and owns The Controversial Canine. She currently resides in Ontario, Canada.


www.thecontroversialcanine.ca controversialcanine@gmail.com

http://www.psbtc.org

staffordtimes@psbtc.org

Issue out now!


The Ostrich Syndrome (Reprinted from the Double Helix Network News - First published in the 1994 Australian Shepherd Annual - Please substitute for Staffordshire Bull Terrier -- it all applies).

In the decade and a half I have spent informing and educating breeders about genetics and hereditary disease in Australian Shepherds, the most common ailment that has come to my attention is also the most serious. Ironically, it is not hereditary. Dogs never get it.You wont find it in any text or resource manual. But its out there, and its presence can make controlling hereditary disorders difficult to impossible. I call it the "Ostrich Syndrome." According to legend, an ostrich will shove its head down in the sand when confronted with something unpleasant. I have encountered more than a few dog breeders who take a similar stance when faced with even a possibility that their dogs might have or carry hereditary disease. What you dont know wont hurt you, they seem to think. It may not hurt you, but it can hurt your dogs. The Ostrich Syndrome can damage dogs in a number of ways. The ignorance, denial and fear it fosters in breeders can prevent genetic diseases from being identified and studied early enough to keep them from becoming widespread. Breeds which develop a reputation for being disease-ridden risk rejection by the public --

by C. A. Sharp

including that part of it engaged in agriculture. No farmer or rancher wants a sickly or crippled working animal.

Ostrich Syndrome sufferers is the tendency to shun those free of the disorder. I once heard of a case where one breeder refused to sell a dog to another because The Ostrich Syndrome has its the second breeder tested for a effect on individual dogs too. In particular disease. In other cases some cases dogs which are ill breeders who have stepped will not get the care they need forward and said "this dog of or will be euthanized and forgotten as quickly as possible. mine has/carries such-and-such disease" have been vilified by Even healthy dogs can die from their peers. I cannot fathom why the Ostrich Syndrome. More than one high-quality animal has someone would heap scorn upon the breeder who makes an died an unexpected and tragic honest admission that he has had death -- always of something distinctly non-hereditary -- when a problem. too many of its descendants have This latter reaction is a form of been diagnosed with genetic shooting the messenger. Should disease. some poor soul discover that his dog has a problem and try to A few Ostrich Syndrome share this information with its afflicted breeders avoid testing Ostrich Syndrome infected their dogs for one problem or breeder, he may find that the another because "its never breeders holds him responsible. happened in this line." Well, theres a first time for everything Responses can range from unreturned phone calls to and if no one is checking there abusive language and even may be a lot of it before you threats. As a person who is realize what has happened. something of a full-time Others will excuse an animal messenger, I’ve experienced this which suffers from something more than once. very like a hereditary problem Humans have an unfortunate with any number of flimsy compulsion for assigning blame. If excuses, most of which boil something is wrong, somebody down to "its a fluke so I can (other than me) must be at fault ignore it." But a rose by any and that somebody should pay. other name can have nasty thorns. Convincing yourself they When the Ostrich Syndrome were caused by too much or too breeder shoves his head deep in the sand and still finds a problem little ozone will not make their glaring him in the face, he is apt prick less painful. to explode in a flurry of pointing An interesting and dangerous fingers. symptom exhibited by some Continued on Page 37


Continued from Page 36

The Ostrich Syndrome Breeders with Ostrich Syndrome are not bad people intent on destroying our breed. They are frightened people faced with something they dont fully understand, something which threatens the considerable emotional and financial investment they have in their dogs. Denial in the face of the unthinkable is a normal reaction. It gives us a little breathing space in which we can marshal our inner resources to face an unpleasant reality. The Ostrich Syndrome is the refusal to step beyond that initial state of denial. Hereditary disease is no ones fault. The genes which cause it have been there since before there were dogs one could call Australian Shepherds. Even in the very rare case of a genetic mutation, the owner and breeder of the animal are not responsible for its occurrence. Accepting this fact would go a long way toward "curing" the Ostrich Syndrome. Such a cure would free breeders to discuss hereditary problems openly and rationally, leading ultimately to better control of genetic disease.

CONTINUED by C. A. Sharp

If we fail to cure the Ostrich Syndrome, we are putting at risk the breed we all claim to love. We must pull our heads out of the sand, stifle our tendency to deny and blame, and face facts. Genetic diseases occur in Australian Shepherds, as they do in all other breeds. Overall we are not in bad shape, but we could get there. Every one of you reading this can think of at least one other breed so riddled with a hereditary disease that it has become irredeemably associated with that disease. We dont want this to happen to our Aussies. Facing facts can be painful, but the alternative is far worse. (Please substitute for Staffordshire Bull Terrier -it all applies -- ed.). An Ostrich sticks his head in the sand, and thinks that he cant be seen because he cant see. Now picture the Ostrich in this humorous, vulnerable, thinks he’s safe position, as something big and bad bites him in the ass. Grimms Fairy Tails


FOST ER M OM E N JOYS R E WA RDS OF F OSTERI NG BY JOSEPHINE MCMULLEN WHEN I TOLD JERRY THAT I WANTED TO FOSTER A STAFFIE, HIS FACE FILLED WITH WORRY. WE HAD NEVER FOSTERED A DOG BEFORE, AND THE PROSPECT OF DOING SO SEEMED FRAUGHT WITH DISASTER. BUT WE ALSO HAD A CHANCE TO MAKE A REAL DIFFERENCE IN A DOG’S LIFE, WHICH IS WHY WE FINALLY DECIDED TO BRING ATTICUS INTO OUR HOME. THESE PAST FEW WEEKS HAVEN’T ALWAYS BEEN EASY. BUT THEY HAVE BEEN SOME OF THE MOST ENJOYABLE AND REWARDING IN MY LIFE. BEFORE HE CAME TO US, ATTICUS HAD SPENT THE FIRST YEAR OF HIS LIFE CRATED ALMOST 24 HOURS A DAY. HE WAS UNDERWEIGHT. HE WASN’T HOUSE TRAINED. HE DIDN’T EVEN KNOW HOW TO WALK UP STAIRS. AND HE WAS STARVED FOR AFFECTION. OUR CHALLENGE WAS TO GET HIM READY FOR ADOPTION. OUR TEMPORARY TENANT NEEDED A LOT OF TRAINING BEFORE HE WOULD BE READY TO GO TO HIS FOREVER HOME. THE FIRST TWO WEEKS WERE THE HARDEST. IN MANY WAYS, TAKING CARE OF ATTICUS WAS LIKE HAVING A YOUNG PUPPY. HE HAD NO EXPERIENCE LIVING AMONG HUMANS AND NO KNOWLEDGE OF THE WORLD OUTSIDE OF HIS DOG CRATE. FORTUNATELY FOR US, ATTICUS WAS VERY INTELLIGENT AND A VORACIOUS LEARNER. WE HAD HIM HOUSETRAINED IN TWO WEEKS. HE LEARNED TO SIT IN ONLY 30 MINUTES. AND, HE GREW CALMER AND MORE SECURE WITH HIMSELF WITH EACH PASSING DAY. OUR INITIAL CONCERNS ABOUT FOSTERING A DOG QUICKLY DISSIPATED. THEY WERE REPLACED BY OUR JOY AT SEEING THIS ONCE COWERING, TIMID PUPPY TURN INTO A WELL-BEHAVED, SELFCONFIDENT ADULT DOG. ATTICUS FILLED OUR HOME WITH HIS BOUNDLESS LOVE. HIS EXUBERANT ENERGY PERMEATED EVERY ASPECT OF OUR LIVES. IT DIDN’T TAKE US LONG TO CONCLUDE THAT THE BENEFITS OF FOSTERING HIM FAR OUTWEIGHED THE COSTS. OUR 32-POUND BUNDLE OF JOY IS NOW READY FOR HIS FOREVER HOME. KNOWING THAT HE WILL SOON LEAVE US FILLS ME WITH BOTH PRIDE AND SADNESS. HE QUICKLY STOLE OUR HEARTS AND EACH TIME I THINK ABOUT HIM LEAVING US, I HAVE TO CHOKE BACK THE TEARS. BUT I ALSO TAKE GREAT PRIDE IN KNOWING WE PLAYED SUCH A PIVOTAL ROLE IN THIS DOG’S LIFE. HE WILL BE LOVED. HE WILL BE CARED FOR. HE HAS A SECOND CHANCE AT A GREAT LIFE. AND HE WILL MAKE SOME FAMILY VERY, VERY HAPPY. IF YOU ARE INTERESTED IN ADOPTING ATTICUS, PLEASE CONTACT JOSEPHINE MCMULLEN AT 864-561-7979 OR JMCMULLEN@PRATTLEON.COM.

Atticus (now called Spud) shows off his beautiful brown eyes.

FLASH - Since the writing of this article Atticus has been adopted!


The Stafford Knot is an independent publication and not affiliated with any specific breed club. TSK is a collaborative effort from like minded Stafford enthusiasts whose common goal is to support the health testing of purebred Staffords. We reserve the right to approve or disapprove any material submitted. All material on this site is copyright protected &Â cannot be used unless indicated without the written consent of The Stafford Knot Thank you. Contact Us


The Head of a Staffordshire Bull Terrier By W. A. Boylan (written around 1950) Reprinted from Staffordshire Bull Terriers – A Dog Classic reprint – Nimrod Press LTD, Edited by Major Count V. C. Hollender 1952, 1988 reprint

Although fifteen years have elapsed since our breed was placed upon Kennel Club register, I have not seen any marked tendency toward getting a definite type of head for the Staffordshire. We still see different types of head –

make weight, and when our maximum is 38 lbs., we have to be very sparing in size and build to obtain this. This brings us to the Terrier-type

WE STILL SEE DIFFERENT TYPES OF HEAD – NAMELY, BULL, TERRIER, AND EVEN A TYPE THAT RESEMBLES THE MASTIFF, IN FAWNS.

namely, Bull, Terrier, and even a type that resembles the Mastiff, in fawns. The former two types even break up

head. Here we have the head more finely made and usually carried on a

again and vary. This is caused by either too blunt or too sharp a

lighter neck, body, and with lighter bone. But this type of specimen does

foreface, or is due to lack of stop.

not lack agility that is usually found

Well, what is the correct head? It is obvious that the Bull-type head must of necessity be carried with a Bulltype neck, accompanied by a body built to carry it, and that, in turn, on four well-boned legs. This all goes to

C H G E NT L EMA N JI M ( PU P) & GAME BILL

with the Bull type. Although we have this Terrier-type head, quickness and strength, it is not just enough if one was in battle, to overcome an opponent who was built with the correct Stafford head.

L A DY O " L I N 1 9 4 8

GAME LADDIE

ONE OF JOE MALLENS DOGS

Continued on Page 41


Continued from Page 40

The Head of a Staffordshire Bull Terrier - CONTINUED My own personal idea of the correct head is described as follows:

Looking from the top, it should look pear-shaped, foreface neither long, thin or square at the front, but of about one-third of total overall length of head from tip of nose to occiput bone, which is found at the top and at the back of the skull. Sideways, the

TO U G H G U Y

foreface is about as deep as it is wide. This type of head, with a good stop and set with neat rose ears, is the ideal. It can be quick to punish, with

and correct and strong for her size. If we have a dog carrying a bitches head he would be automatically penalized. I maintain that the same should apply if the bitch has a dogs head.

“...WE MUST REMEMBER THAT THE MAXIMUM WEIGHT FOR A BITCH ACCORDING TO THE STANDARD IS 34 LBS., SECONDLY, THAT A BITCH MUST BE FEMININE.”

ease of movement. The circumference of skull should be about the approximate height at the shoulder. This should also coincide with the circumference of the neck.

I should like to mention a few words about the size of a bitches’ head. In TO U G H G U YS L I T T E R B ROT H E R

considering this we must remember that the maximum weight for a bitch according to the standard is 34 lbs., secondly, that a bitch must be feminine. If we are to encourage a skull of seventeen inches for bitches, then they will either be overweighted or out of balance. For a 34 lb. bitch, I think a skull of sixteen inches is ample

BOY LAN'S B R IN S TO C K B ED G E BE R RY C H I EF TA I N 19 5 0’ S

If we can get a definite type of head encouraged we shall then, I think, give the newcomer a clear picture of what is wanted, and avoid much confusion as we see when a full-sized dog gets his C.C., and next to him, with res. C.C., a small animal who is of different type entirely, just because head properties are so much different, when in spite of size, the smaller one should, in fact, be a replica of his C.C. winning brother.

Let us hope that the new standard will help us to obtain our objective.


tommypl77@yahoo.com


Each month TSK will take questions from our readers and present them to breed specialists, experienced breeders, veterinarians, geneticists or experts in the field of the particular questions being asked.

Question:

Ask TSK - Q & A

The Stafford Knot, I enjoyed last issues Q & A on slipping hocks. I have a question regarding hocks taken from the Staffbull breed standard from the AKC website where it says ‘The hindquarters should be well muscled, hocks let down with stifles well bent’ what exactly is the purpose of a ‘well let down hock’? Thank you for shedding any light on this part of the written standard for me. Look forward to another interesting issue. Thank you.

Answer: Thank you for your comments and your question. Many people do not exactly understand why our early Stafford breeders would have desired a well let down hock, nor do they understand what this means. The easiest way to explain this is to compare the Stafford hock to that of a rabbit. A rabbit must have an overlong hock because it must be able to quickly and purposefully get away from its prey. It does so by a very long and quick hopping motion so that it removes itself from danger by making several leaps very quickly. A Stafford was bred for endurance, & strength of rear movement - the purpose of a well let down hock allows for this endurance with ease - a dog with a well let down hock can move, run and chase for a long time very easily but perhaps not in as quick order as that of the hare. This of course will also enable the dog to achieve greater drive off his rear. As well, when viewed from the rear, the hocks should be perpendicular with no turning in or out. The metatarsals are short in well let down hocks. We hope this helps answer your question.


The Stafford Knot Brags, Shows, Litters Send us your BRAGS, Litter Announcements, Seminar and Show announcements and we can post them here. Be sure to fill out the BRAGS form found HERE

DAY D R E A M NEW TITLES EMAIL INT CH UCDX RO1 AG1 DayDream Talk Dirty To Me CDX RE OA NAJ (Aust CH Taureg Murphy’s Law x Am Ch DayDream When In Rome) ‘Mikey’ completed his Novice Jumpers with Weaves title and Open Standard titles in one weekend. He qualified 5 out of 6 times running. ‘Mikey’ Likes It! Owner: Judith Brecka Clear by parentage L2-HGA, HC

WAVEMAKER NEW TITLES EMAIL Wavemaker Dardevle FD, FDX, FDCH (AI) (Sabahouse Touch of Class at Zoellies x UWP UKC GrCH Cazomic Look Busy CGC)

‘Madoc’ gained his first flyball title at his debut trial weekend. He easily earned his 2nd title of FDX at his 2nd trial and then went on to earn FDCH that same weekend at the CanAm Flyball Nationals! So proud of the “Madman” Owner: Lisa Skorija Clear by parentage L2-HGA, HC, PHPV tested clear - Health certificates available by request


The Stafford Knot Brags, Shows, Litters Send us your BRAGS, Litter Announcements, Seminar and Show announcements and we can post them here. Be sure to fill out the BRAGS form found HERE

MAT-STAFF SHOW WINS WEBSITE Sebsonic Shakira at Mat - Staff (Ch. Stormbull Solo JW x Sebsonic Damarkos Pearl JW) ‘Phoebe’ was Best 12-18 Month Bitch, Winners Bitch, Best of Winners & BEST OF BREED at STAFFORD CLASSIC 2011 under judge Eric Galvin -"Scousious" UK Type, Temperament & Soundness Since 1992 Clear by parentage L2-HGA, HC, Health certificates available by request

CIERA SHOUT OUT EMAIL Hey ‘Daphne’ We are not sure if you have access to TSK but just in case please know we miss you very much and we think you are just wonderful. Keep being a good girl! XOXOXO Lorelei & Yanni

Health certificates available by request


The Stafford Knot Brags, Shows, Litters Send us your BRAGS, Litter Announcements, Seminar and Show announcements and we can post them here. Be sure to fill out the BRAGS form found HERE

MEDCITY LITTER ANNOUNCEMENT WEBSITE Healthy and Happy Staffords from the Heartland (CH LondonStaffs Call Me Mr. Logan x Staffmax Bronx Cat) MedCity Staffords are thrilled to announce their planned litter expected on October 15, 2011 All pups spoken for - Owners/Breeders: Brenda, Fred and Katherine Holmen Clear by parentage L2-HGA, HC, Health certificates available by request

BLUGRASS WELCOME WEBSITE Donellas Prada Gent (Donnellas CP Company Boss x Donnellas Posh Pooch) Welcome! Ben, Donnellas Prada Gent, into our lives. Thank you Donna & Richard for this wonderful Boy. BluGrass Staffords is Dedicated Breeding Quality not Quantity! L2-HGA Normal - certificate on file, HC pending


Wanted Samples for PHPV/PPSC Research. If you own or have bred a dog diagnosed with either of these eye conditions, could you help by supplying mouth swabs from the affected dog plus its parents and litter-mates.

Any PHPV positives found in litter screenings are not reported in the Breeds Record Supplement, nor are any cases of PPSC - hence this appeal.

If sufficient samples from affected cases can be obtained, it is hoped that research to determine the inheritance of both conditions may be commenced, possibly leading eventually to DNA tests similar to those available for HC and L-2-HGA.

A copy of the eye test certificate and a copy of the dogs pedigree would also be appreciated. All samples and information will of course be confidential just in case anyone has any concern's about that.

If you can help with this and thus help the Stafford , can you please contact one of the following who can supply swabs and any information required.

Diane Taylor - 01670 823635 email - taylor@niatona.fsnet.co.uk Lesley McFadyen - 01205 871762 email - easbtc@thedoghouse89.freeserve.co.uk Archie Bryden - 01772 715807 email - archie.bryden@yahoo.co.uk Many thanks for your co-operation.


The Stafford Knot wishes to provide the following information for your convenience. TSK encourages health testing of all Staffordshire Bull Terriers, especially those used for breeding purposes and/or performance events. The testing is made available to be used as a tool to eliminate certain diseases from a breeding program. Used wisely, this can be accomplished. The following testing information is provided as a service to you, however should not be used as the only health checks your Stafford receives. There are many more health issues to be considered when breeding dogs, caring for dogs and when looking to buy a purebred dog. As always, please seek the advice of your personal veterinary specialists for your day-to-day needs of

* * * Please note - a CERF or PHPV test done by a canine ophthalmologist is NOT the same ***PLEASE send in your test results for the databases. Accurate records are valuable to the breed*** Remember, if you choose to breed from a carrier you must test the entire resulting litter to determine clears & carriers. Thus if you choose to keep a carrier from that litter, the same must be done for each subsequent litter resulting from breeding carriers. If you sell carrier pups, please consider spay/neuter so that more carriers are not produced. With the advent and ease of genetic testing many of these diseases could be eliminated by only breeding clear to clear. To use a known carrier requires an extra step of responsibility. There is no excuse to breed an untested dog.

It is now being suggested to DNA test every third generation. Testing Facility For L2-Hga & HC Animal Health Trust Lanwades Park, Kentford

Testing Facility For L2-Hga Onl y Ca nine Genetic Diseases - University Of Missouri

New Market, Suffolk CB87UU Phone: 01638 751000

321 Connaway Hall

F ax: 01638 750410

Columbia, Missouri 65211-5120 USA

Ema il: info@a ht.org .uk We bsite: http://www.aht.org.uk/

Phone: 573-884-3712 

Direct Link:

F ax: 573-884-5414

www.a ht.org .uk/ genetics_tests.html#ca nine

Ema il: HansenL@missouri.edu We bsite: www.caninegeneticdiseases.net

Testing Facility For HC in USA:

Direct Link:

http://www.animalgenetics.us/Canine/HC.htm

www.caninegeneticdiseases.net/DNAtests/Testsnow.htm

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Other labs offering L-2-HGA test in Europe: France www.antagene.com Czech Republic www.genomia.cz Germany www.laboklin.de / www.laboklin.co.uk Testing Facility For Hip, Elbows, Patella and Cardiac Certifications * Orthopedic Foundation For Animals (OFA) 2300 E Nifong Boulevard Columbia, Missouri, 65201-3806 USA Phone: 573-442-0418  Fax: 573-875-5073 Email: ofa@offa.org Website: www.offa.org *Note: A Board Certified Cardiologist must perform all Cardiac exams.   A qualified licensed Veterinarian can provide X-Ray films for hips, elbows and Patella.   Testing Facility For Eye Certifications* Canine Eye Registration Foundation (CERF) 1717 Philo Rd P O Box 3007 Urbana, IL 61803-3007 USA Phone: 217-693-4800  Fax: 217-693-4801 Email: CERF@vmdb.org Website: www.vmdb.org/cerf.html *Note: A Board Certified Canine Ophthalmologist must perform all CERF exams. CERF exams are annual exams for breeding stock.


The Stafford Knot

Featured Rescues

PLEASE consider rescuing a Stafford needing a home before purchasing a puppy. SBTCA always has wonderful dogs who have been screened and are looking for permanent homes. All the applications can be found on the rescue pages of the National club website. We list these dogs as a courtesy. The dogs are NOT here with us. They are in different parts of the country. Thank you for considering rescue. Donations and advertisements in TSK benefit Stafford rescue.

===================================== Baby Girl - Female - CA This is a pretty, sweet, & young Stafford that was brought to the shelter as her owner had to be hospitalized due to mental illness. She has no training and knows nothing about the world. She seem to be ok around other dogs. She is very social with people and like a normal Stafford wants to be with someone. We believe with socializing and training and she would be a nice pet. We really need to get her out of the shelter so if anyone can take her on it would be great. A few weeks of training will go wonders to making her a great pet. At this time we need a qualified forever home or foster. CONTACT

===================================== Susie - 6 Year Old Female - S.C. Adoption Pending Susie is a very sweet girl. She walks nicely on lead - even with a total stranger - always wags her tail. She is happy but shy and unsure of herself. She lacks confidence but friendly so with a little love and care she would blossom into a fantastic pet. She also looks to have some obedience potential. Susie needs to go to an experienced home with someone who has lots of love to devote to her!  CONTACT photographybyjoan@yahoo.com

===================================== Denver - 12 Year Old Female - CA Denver loves to play fetch with the ball, she also loves all people and especially children. She has been to obedience class, and is very eager to please. She loves getting scratched. She loves to take walks, but since she is older, she does not need long walks. She also loves to eat. She is a very loving dog. She is not food aggressive. She got a check-up in July 2011, and the vet said that she is doing good for an older dog. In the past, I always considered her dog aggressive. But very recently, she has been to the kennel 3 times last month, and although this is not an "open" kennel, the staff said that she does not show any signs of dog aggression when she is walking past other dog's cages.  Also during walks now, she shows no interest in other dogs. CONTACT


The Stafford Knot

Featured Rescues

Staffords In Need - Victoria AU Staffords in Need is a small Victorian based group of volunteers helping to connect people who love the Staffordshire Bull Terrier breed and wish to make a difference to those in need. It grew as the number of Staffordshire Bull Terrier and crosses appeared in pounds and shelters across Victoria. Our aim is to save one dog at a time, we foster them ourselves until a suitable home can be found. This ranges from one day to several weeks. During this time each dog is vet checked, socialised and prior to being rehomed vaccinated, microchipped and desexed. They live with their foster carer as part of their family. The temperament of each dog is then assessed so that we can match dog and owner according to both of their needs. Our aim is to help dogs who, for reasons wide and varied, are looking for their forever homes. We can also offer help with transport and other requirements to assist in the rescue or the rehoming of any Stafford who finds themselves in desperate need. For some of these dogs it is a matter of life or death.   Together we can make a difference - one dog at a time. CONTACT

===================================== CoCo - Female - AZ CoCo is a lovely fawn, born November 29, 2008, with a docile seal face, a sweetheart, lives with a full family of parents, three children and they have five staffords total. All staffords run happily together (2 males and the three females). They must move and can only take two of them with them. They do not like cats, but are fine with people, dogs, children, all are house-trained, crate-trained, knows commands like sit, stay, come and down. CoCo is very loving and caring for her family and loves being in the house and has a great temperament. We have till mid-october to find forever homes for each of the three and if not will need to be fostered and placed still. Located in Arizona. CONTACT

===================================== Sadie - 5.5 Year Old Female - MD. Sadie is VERY playful and very active. She knows some tricks and gives very good attention so would be super easy to train. Sadie needs an experienced and active home with lots of time to devote to her. She needs a job! She is an escape artist – will get out of most any crate or fence – cannot be left alone if not extremely secured - Sadie is currently being fostered by a trainer who is teaching her more appropriate behaviors so that she will learn to control herself. Her favorite game is playing with the water hose! Sadie is in her foster home but will soon be looking for her forever home. Will that be with YOU? CONTACT


The Stafford Knot

Stud Gallery

The Stafford Knot lists health tested stud dogs in the gallery, however, it is up to you to verify this testing by asking to see the certificates for each test if they are not made available here for download. We have screened this to the best of our ability, but cannot guarantee dogs listed have been tested. PLEASE ask for copies of certificates before using dogs at stud for the health and the future of our breed. Thank you. Stud Gallery Ads run annually - Form to advertise in Stud Gallery is found

HERE

TIME TO RENEW FOR 2012!

======================================= DayDream Ch. Slam Dance, CGC (Imp UK) “Nigel” DNA - AKC - #P24384 L2-HGA, HC, PHPV Unaffected, OFA/PennHip Hips, Patella, CERF http://www.offa.org/display.html?appnum=678935#animal daydreamsbts@cox.net www.daydreamsbt.com Tel 530-306-0305 Frozen semen available to health tested bitches only. More photos of Nigel available. Health documents available by request.

======================================= DayDream AKC/UKC CH Jayneze Diamonds And Guns CGC RA (Imp UK) “Tierney” DNA - AKC - #V567946 L2-HGA, HC, PHPV Unaffected, CERF 2011, OFA Hips good, OFA Elbow normal, OFA Cardiac http://sunnycrest.vmdb.org/CerfWebSearch/Search/Results.aspx daydreamsbts@cox.net www.daydreamsbt.com Tel 530-306-0305 Available to health tested bitches only. Health documents available by request.

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TIME TO RENEW FOR 2012!

Absolute BIS BISS CH Belnore Dream Keeper OFA ‘Beau’ AKC DNA - V426729 Clear of L2-HGA, HC, OFA/PennHip Hips, OFA/PennHip Elbows, Patella, OFA Cardiac - documentation available upon request AbsoluteAST@aol.com www.absoluteamericanstaffordshireterrier.com Tel 337-255-3508

======================================= Ramstaff Richmax Dreamcatcher “Eddie”

L2-HGA, HC, OFA Cardiac Ramstaff@earthlink.net www.ramstaffkennels.com Tel 770-888-5255

Available to clear tested bitches only Health documents available by request


Ramstaff Ch Ramstaff American Ikon, TT “Ike” L2-HGA, HC, OFA Cardiac Ramstaff@earthlink.net www.ramstaffkennels.com 770-888-5255

Available to clear tested bitches only Health documents available by request

======================================= Moonstruck Moonstruck Blue Asher, TT “Asher” L2-HGA, HC, PHPV Unaffected jlhellr@me.com www.moonstruckstaffords.com 301-261-4202 "Available to Heath Tested Bitches with Correct Stafford Temperaments Only" Health documents available by request

======================================= Moonstruck CH Moonstruck The Stamler Express, TT “Stamler” L2-HGA, HC, PHPV Unaffected jjlhellr@me.com www.moonstruckstaffords.com 301-261-4202 "Available to Heath Tested Bitches with Correct Stafford Temperaments Only" Health documents available by request


======================================= The Stafford Knot is an independent publication and not affiliated with any specific breed club. TSK is a collaborative effort from like minded Stafford enthusiasts whose common goal is to support the health testing of purebred Staffords. We reserve the right to approve or disapprove any material submitted. All material on this site is copyright protected &Â cannot be used unless indicated without the written consent of

The Stafford Knot Thank you. Contact Us

Merchandise now available - proceeds benefit Stafford rescue worldwide!

CLICK to shop and donate to SBT Rescue!


The Stafford Knot

Classified Advertising

The Stafford Knot is offering classified advertising of goods and services which are dog related. Ads are limited to 20 words, no images. For larger ads please consider gallery advertising. The Stafford Knot cannot be held responsible for any items sold through this page. All sales are between seller and purchaser. TSK makes no warranties either written or implied. Information on how to advertise in TSK classifieds can be found HERE TIME TO RENEW!

===================================== Bait Me Treats Dehydrated treats for dogs & cats. Nothing added. 100% natural. USA sourced. Hand cut. Hand packed. Wholesale bulk available info@baitmetreats.com www.baitmetreats.com

Happy Staffy shop for tough & fun dog products tested by staffys for staffys. 5% donated to Staffie Rescue. www.happystaffy.co.uk

Bull Breeds Online Your online forum for all Bull Breed lovers and canine enthusiasts! www.bullbreedsonline.com ‘Like� us on Face Book

Thankdog - All Breeds Equal Help fight BSL promote responsible dog ownership. T-shirts, Calendars, Stickers, & more. Proceeds benefit Stafford causes. thankdog@gmail.com www.cafepress.com/Thankdog

Scentsy Wickless Candles - safe for pets and children, environmentally friendly. Contact Lori Divine, 678-516-7567 http://divinelori.scentsy.us, lori_divine@yahoo.com Avail in UK

Young Living Experience therapeutic benefits of essential oils for your family - pets too! Use Independent Distributor Referral #1166695 CLICK for more info

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Take advantage now of this incredible deal on classified advertising! These prices wont last long!


The Stafford Knot

Breeder Directory

The Stafford Knot cannot be held responsible for the breeders listed below. Please do your homework and ask to see health certificates, discuss terms and decide whether the Stafford is the correct breed for you prior to purchasing a puppy. Remember, Stafford rescues are also available and make be wonderful pets in the right homes! A Stafford is not the breed for everyone. Please be responsible dog owners and take responsibility for you and your dog in all situations. Contact us with questions.

We reserve the right to approve or disapprove any material submitted Form to advertise in Breeders Directory can be found HERE North America Alabama Cornerstone The Folmars Alabama http://www.cornerstonestaffords.net 205-966-8114 L2-HGA, HC

TIME TO RENEW FOR 2012! Florida Cloverdale Staffordshirebull Terriers Amy O'Brian & Jeff Markey Sarasota Florida EMAIL www.cloverdalestaffords.com 941-377-9294 L2-HGA, HC

"Staffords that are exemplary in type & balance" California Camelot Staffords Joan Ganz Sacramento, California EMAIL http://www.camelotstaffordshirebullterriers.com 916-342-0854 L2-HGA, HC

Georgia Wavemaker Staffords Jim & Lynn Caswell GA, USA EMAIL www.wavemakerstaffords.com 770-666-6121 L2-HGA, HC, Hips, Elbows, Patella, Cardiac, CERF

“Breeding for temperament and standard.”

“Naturally reared - Promoting health, exercise & the Breed Standard - Wavemaker Staffords....naturally”

California Chavier Staffords Kim Washington-Smith Southern California EMAIL 213 - 760-9081 L2-HGA, HC, CERF

Georgia Ramstaff Staffords Angie & Kevin Beezley Georgia, USA EMAIL www.ramstaffkennels.com 770-888-5255 L2-HGA, HC, Hips, Elbows, Cardiac, CERF

"Breeding Staffords with Charm" “Ramstaff...focusing on the standard blend of bull & terrier with true stafford temperament...always” California Gemini Kennel Beth Lloyd Southern California EMAIL www.angelfire.com/ca2/geminikennel L2-HGA, HC, Hips, Elbows, Patella, Cardiac, CERF

Illinois 1 of a Kind Staffords Andrew Currier Peoria Il EMAIL 309-691-7134 L2-HGA, HC, Hips, Elbows, Patella, Cardiac “Unequalled in type, balance, fitness & health”

“From show dogs to GO dogs.”

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TIME TO RENEW FOR 2012! Maryland Hi-Impact Staffords (Reg) Rich Newberger Baltimore http://hiimpactstaffords.com 410-323-4141 L2-HGA, HC, PHPV, Hips, Elbows, Cardiac, CERF “Bred to standard not by design” Maryland Moonstruck Staffords Judy Heller Edgewater, MD 21037 EMAIL www.moonstruckstaffords.com 301-261-4202 L2-HGA, HC Quality Staffordshire Bull Terriers of Correct Type & Temperament for Show, Performance & Companion "The Ultimate Nanny Dog” Michigan Blessings' Kennel Cathy Micallef Southeastern MI EMAIL www.blessingskennel.org 734-634-9328 L2-HGA, HC, Hips, Elbows, Patella, Cardiac, CERF “Wonderful companions with show & working potential!” New York Stephanie Crawford Binghamton, NY EMAIL 607-775-1996 L2-HGA, HC, Hips Washington ANGEL ROCK Staffordshire Bull Terriers Spokane, Washington www.angelrockdogs.com “SBT educational articles, tons of photos and rescue info too!"

Wisconsin MSLF Kennels Cindy Bundy EMAIL 262-857-9412 L2-HGA, HC, Hips, Elbows, CERF, Other “We strive to promote sound minds and bodies.”

Wellington, New Zealand Battleaxe Grant & Louise Blackwood DGLKBLACK@xtra.co.nz http://www.battleaxekennels.com 0064 478-9313  L2-HGA, HC, PHPV


WHAT DOES IT MEAN? WHAT IS THE STAFFORD KNOT?   The origin of the Stafford Knot is a distinctive threelooped knot that is the tradition symbol of the English county of Staffordshire and of its county town Stafford. Although not heraldic in its own right, the Stafford Knot is an ancient symbol that is steeped in history. The earliest recording of the Stafford Knot is the shaft of a stone cross located in Stoke-on-Trent churchyard. The cross itself is traceable to between 750 and 850 AD. However, the knot device could have been added at a later date. There is a seal existing in the British Museum London which was the property of Lady Joan Stafford (later Lady Wake). It would seem that Lady Wake used on her seal a border made up from her husband's badge, the Wake Knot, made up from the initials W and O (for Wake and Ormond) intertwined. The seal quite clearly depicts a cordon of four knots in the shape of the Stafford Knot. The knot was passed down through the Earl's family, and it was gradually used by the citizens and freemen of Stafford, until it was eventually included in the Stafford Borough Coat of Arms. It is incorporated into the badges and symbols of many organizations and companies, viz., Staffordshire Police, Staffordshire Fire Service, Staffordshire Ambulance Service. A popular romantic notion of the Stafford Knot is that it was used in barbaric times by a Stafford County Sheriff who invented it to hang three criminals at the same time, but the evidence above clearly contradicts this idea. The motto of the arms of the County of Stafford is "The Knot Unites".


We are seeking volunteers to help update this project. Please email editor@thestaffordknot.com if interested. Knowledge of the breed, structure, genetics and movement is suggested.

Please view online version at www.thestaffordknot.com

Balance = Lack of Exaggeration

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We are seeking volunteers to help update this project. Please email editor@thestaffordknot.com if interested. Knowledge of the breed, structure, genetics and movement is suggested.


We are seeking volunteers to help update this project. Please email editor@thestaffordknot.com if interested. Knowledge of the breed, structure, genetics and movement is suggested.

With regard to faults - Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the ‘SERIOUSNESS’ with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its DEGREE.


We are seeking volunteers to help update this project. Please email editor@thestaffordknot.com if interested. Knowledge of the breed, structure, genetics and movement is suggested.


We are seeking volunteers to help update this project. Please email editor@thestaffordknot.com if interested. Knowledge of the breed, structure, genetics and movement is suggested.

Correct Bites

Faulty Bites

It is possible that some breeders and exhibitors do not completely understand what a correct scissors bite should look like. If in doubt, ask your veterinarian or spend some time with an experienced mentor who can give you some hands-on education with a variety of dogs. Remember that bad bites are hereditary and breeding Staffords with incorrect bites will assure the continuation of the problem for generations to come. As breeders, it is our job to let judges know that correct bites are important to us. Similarly judges can let us know that they will accept no less.


We are seeking volunteers to help update this project. Please email editor@thestaffordknot.com if interested. Knowledge of the breed, structure, genetics and movement is suggested.

“Heights Being Related to Weights” Size, Proportion, Substance

Height at shoulder: 14 to 16 inches. Weight: Dogs, 28 to 38 pounds; bitches, 24 to 34 pounds, these heights being related to weights. Non-conformity with these limits is a fault. In proportion, the length of back, from withers to tail set, is equal to the distance from withers to ground.

Males 14”...... 28lbs 14 1/2”..30.45lbs 15”........32.85lbs 15 1/2”...35.5lbs 16” ....... 38lbs

Females 14” ........24lbs 14 1/2”...26.25lbs 15”.........28.80lbs 15 1/2”...31.31lbs 16”.........34lbs

Ideal Stafford ears should be


We are seeking volunteers to help update this project. Please email editor@thestaffordknot.com if interested. Knowledge of the breed, structure, genetics and movement is suggested.


We are seeking volunteers to help update this project. Please email editor@thestaffordknot.com if interested. Knowledge of the breed, structure, genetics and movement is suggested.


We are seeking volunteers to help update this project. Please email editor@thestaffordknot.com if interested. Knowledge of the breed, structure, genetics and movement is suggested.

A Breed Standard is the guideline which describes the ideal characteristics, temperament and appearance of a breed and ensures that the breed is fit for function. Absolute soundness is essential. Breeders and judges should at all times be careful to avoid obvious conditions or exaggerations which would be detrimental in any way to the health, welfare or soundness of this breed. From time to time certain conditions or exaggerations may be considered to have the potential to affect dogs in some breeds adversely...If a feature or quality is desirable it should only be present in the right measure. The head should appear clean. No wrinkle or bunched up expression. One should strive for 2/3 to 1/3 ratio head to muzzle with a definite stop but not an EXAGGERATED stop or lack of stop. The stop itself should be almost vertical. The easiest way to determine accurate stop is to place your thumb on the stop and look at the angle of your thumb. Do not be fooled by the profile view of the eye socket and mistake this for the stop. The lip should be very clean, thin and tight to the teeth meeting top and bottom with no flews or wrinkled, fleshy or spongey excess thus giving the Stafford a somewhat serious expression at times. The lip should not turn down at the end or be excessive. Exaggerations of under jaw include total lack or under jaw, weak under jaw or too strong an under jaw. None of these are correct. Depending upon the cleanness of the lip - this can be difficult to asses without a hands on going over. The nose itself may turn up slightly at the tip, but keep in mind the plane of the muzzle and the head - they should be parallel to one another. When the muzzle turns up more than the plane of the top skull the dog has a dish face and if the planes dip downward - a down face - neither is clean, balanced and will be exaggerated in expression. When the muzzle is too short or too long they will lack balance. Ears can deceive on a glance so best to get your hands on the dogs head and feel for placement, thickness of leather and size. More on heads in a later article. Does the dog have sufficient length of leg? Can you see daylight under him/her? If not is it due to a short upper arm or just overall shortness of leg all around? A balanced Stafford should measure the same from the withers to the ground - as it does from the withers to the base of the tail set. Staffords are a square breed. They are not low to the ground or squatty. They are not way up on leg either. Enough leg, enough back - not too much, not too little. Is there massive bone or fine bone? Neither is balanced. Staffords are square - BALANCED with no EXAGGERATION.. Is the animal wider in front than looks natural or is it pinched in front? Neither is correct. The front legs should appear to drop directly down from the shoulder. The front shouldn't appear to be ‘in’ or ‘out’, and MOST CERTAINLY certainly shouldn't look like a bulldog. The legs straight, no weakness at pastern but the tight well padded feet DO turn out a little. Not a lot, and not straight as in other terrier breeds. The rear should appear strong - not HUGE and not weak and narrow - somewhat even to the front when viewed from above. There should be a definite waist line with approximately 4 fingers width between the last rib and the hip bone. One should see that last rib as well, showing no fat or wrinkle and sufficient tuck up from the profile. A Stafford is certainly well muscled, yet not bunched muscle - long and lean muscle is much more suited to the breed and its original intended purpose. Not a heavyweight boxer but more like a middleweight. It must be able to move easily, be active and agile. Too much bunched muscle is exaggeration and the dog will lack balance. Not enough and he will appear soft and will not function correctly. Exaggeration of muscle in either direction will affect movement as well.

Its all about a balance. NO EXAGGERATION.


Staffordshire Bull Terrier Breed Standards Kennel Club (KC version) General Appearance Smooth-coated, well balanced, of great strength for his size. Muscular, active and agile.

Hindquarters Well muscled, hocks well let down with stifles well bent. Legs parallel when viewed from behind.

Characteristics Traditionally of indomitable courage and tenacity. Highly intelligent and affectionate especially with children.

Feet Well padded, strong and of medium size. Nails black in solid coloured dogs.

Temperament Bold, fearless and totally reliable.

Tail Medium length, low-set, tapering to a point and carried rather low. Should not curl much and may be likened to an old-fashioned pump handle.

Head and Skull Short, deep though with broad skull. Very pronounced cheek muscles, distinct stop, short foreface, nose black. Eyes Dark preferred but may bear some relation to coat colour. Round, of medium size, and set to look straight ahead. Eye rims dark. Ears Rose or half pricked, not large or heavy. Full, drop or pricked ears highly undesirable. Mouth Lips tight and clean. Jaws strong, teeth large, with a perfect, regular and complete scissor bite, i.e. upper teeth closely overlapping lower teeth and set square to the jaws. Neck Muscular, rather short, clean in outline gradually widening towards shoulders. Forequarters Legs straight and well boned, set rather wide apart, showing no weakness at the pasterns, from which point feet turn out a little. Shoulders well laid back with no looseness at elbow. Body Close-coupled, with level topline, wide front, deep brisket, well sprung ribs; muscular and well defined.

Gait/Movement Free, powerful and agile with economy of effort. Legs moving parallel when viewed from front or rear. Discernible drive from hindlegs. Coat Smooth, short and close. Colour Red, fawn, white, black or blue, or any one of these colours with white. Any shade of brindle or any shade of brindle with white. Black and tan or liver colour highly undesirable. Size Desirable height at withers 36-41 cms (14 to 16 ins), these heights being related to the weights. Weight: dogs: 13-17 kgs (28-38 lbs); bitches 11-15.4 kgs. Faults Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog. Note - Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum. Last Updated - September 2000


Staffordshire Bull Terrier Breed Standards American KC (AKC version) Terrier Group General Appearance The Staffordshire Bull Terrier is a smooth-coated dog. It should be of great strength for its size and, although muscular, should be active and agile. Size, Proportion, Substance Height at shoulder: 14 to 16 inches. Weight: Dogs, 28 to 38 pounds; bitches, 24 to 34 pounds, these heights being related to weights. Non-conformity with these limits is a fault. In proportion, the length of back, from withers to tail set, is equal to the distance from withers to ground. Head Short, deep through, broad skull, very pronounced cheek muscles, distinct stop, short foreface, black nose. Pink (Dudley) nose to be considered a serious fault. Eyes--Dark preferable, but may bear some relation to coat color. Round, of medium size, and set to look straight ahead. Light eyes or pink eye rims to be considered a fault, except that where the coat surrounding the eye is white the eye rim may be pink. Ears--Rose or half-pricked and not large. Full drop or full prick to be considered a serious fault. Mouth--A bite in which the outer side of the lower incisors touches the inner side of the upper incisors.The lips should be tight and clean. The badly undershot or overshot bite is a serious fault. Neck, Topline, Body The neck is muscular, rather short, clean in outline and gradually widening toward the shoulders. The body is close coupled, with a level topline, wide front, deep brisket and well sprung ribs being rather light in the loins. The tail is undocked, of medium length, low set, tapering to a point and carried rather low. It should not curl much and may be likened to an old-fashioned pump handle. A tail that is too long or badly curled is a fault. Forequarters Legs straight and well boned, set rather far apart, without looseness at the shoulders and showing no weakness at the

pasterns, from which point the feet turn out a little. Dewclaws on the forelegs may be removed. The feet should be well padded, strong and of medium size. Hindquarters The hindquarters should be well muscled, hocks let down with stifles well bent. Legs should be parallel when viewed from behind. Dewclaws, if any, on the hind legs are generally removed. Feet as in front. Coat Smooth, short and close to the skin, not to be trimmed or de-whiskered. Color Red, fawn, white, black or blue, or any of these colors with white. Any shade of brindle or any shade of brindle with white. Black-and-tan or liver color to be disqualified. Gait Free, powerful and agile with economy of effort. Legs moving parallel when viewed from front or rear. Discernible drive from hind legs. Temperament From the past history of the Staffordshire Bull Terrier, the modern dog draws its character of indomitable courage, high intelligence, and tenacity. This, coupled with its affection for its friends, and children in particular, its offduty quietness and trustworthy stability, makes it a foremost all-purpose dog. Disqualification Black-and-tan or liver color. Approved November 14, 1989 Effective January 1, 1990


Staffordshire Bull Terrier Breed Standards Australian National (ANKC version) Group: Group 2 (Terriers) General Appearance: Smooth coated, well balanced, of great strength for his size. Muscular, active and agile. Characteristics: Traditionally of indomitable courage and tenacity. Highly intelligent and affectionate especially with children. Temperament: Bold, fearless and totally reliable. Head And Skull: Short, deep though with broad skull. Very pronounced cheek muscles, distinct stop, short foreface, nose black. Eyes: Dark preferred but may bear some relation to coat colour. Round, of medium size, and set to look straight ahead. Eye rims dark. Ears: Rose or half pricked, not large or heavy. Full, drop or pricked ears highly undesirable. Mouth: Lips tight and clean. Jaws strong, teeth large, with a perfect, regular and complete scissor bite, i.e. upper teeth closely overlapping the lower teeth and set square to the jaws. Neck: Muscular, rather short, clean in outline gradually widening towards shoulder. Forequarters: Legs straight and well boned, set rather wide apart, showing no weakness at the pasterns, from which point feet turn out a little. Shoulders well laid back with no looseness at elbow. Body: Close coupled, with level topline, wide front, deep brisket, well sprung ribs; muscular and well defined. Hindquarters:

Well muscled, hocks well let down with stifles well bent. Legs parallel when viewed from behind. Feet: Well padded, strong and of medium size. Nails black in solid coloured dogs. Tail: Medium length, low set, tapering to a point and carried rather low. Should not curl much and may be likened to an old fashioned pump handle. Gait/Movement: Free, powerful and agile with economy of effort. Legs moving parallel when viewed from front or rear. Discernible drive from hindlegs. Coat: Smooth, short and close. Colour: Red, fawn, white, black or blue, or any one of these colours with white. Any shade of brindle or any shade of brindle with white. Black and tan or liver colour highly undesirable. Sizes: Weight: Dogs 13-17 kg (28-38 lbs) Bitches 11-15.4 kg (24-34 lbs) Desirable Height: 36-41 cms (14-16 ins) at withers (these heights being related to the weights) Faults: Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog. Notes: Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.


Staffordshire Bull Terrier Breed Standards United Kennel Club (UKC version) Terrier Group Copyright 1992, United Kennel Club, Inc. Revised April 15, 2007..

History The Staffordshire Bull Terrier is a descendant of the Bull and Terrier crosses made in Great Britain in the late 1700's. It was given the name "Staffordshire" in reference to an area where it was very popular, to differentiate it from the other Bull and Terrier breeds. The Staffordshire Bull Terrier was recognized by the United Kennel Club in 1975. General Appearance The Staffordshire Bull Terrier is a smooth coated dog that possesses great strength for its size. Although muscular, it is active and agile. Characteristics This breed has indomitable courage, high intelligence and tenacity. Coupled with its affection for its friends, and children in particular, its quietness and trustworthy stability make it an all-purpose dog.

Forequarters The shoulders are well laid back. FORELEGS - The straight, well-boned forelegs are set rather far apart at the shoulders, but show no looseness at the elbow. The pasterns are strong, and the feet turn out slightly. Body The body is close-coupled with a broad, deep chest and well-sprung ribs. The loins are fairly light and the topline is level. Hindquarters The hindquarters are well-muscled. HIND LEGS - The stifles are well-bent. The hocks are well let down. The legs are parallel when viewed from behind. Dewclaws are generally removed from the hind legs. Feet The strong, medium-sized feet are well padded. Tail The medium-length tail is not docked. It is low-set, carried rather low and tapers to a point. It does not curl much, and may be likened to an old-fashioned pump handle. Faults: Too long or badly curled tail. Coat

Head The head is short and deep throughout with a distinct stop. SKULL - The skull is broad and the cheek muscles are very pronounced. MUZZLE - the foreface is short, with strong jaws and clean, tight lips. TEETH - A full complement of strong, white teeth meet in a scissors bite; the outer side of the lower incisors touching the inner side of the upper incisors. Serious Faults: Badly overshot or undershot bites. EYES - Dark eyes are preferred, but may bear some relation to coat color. The round, medium size eyes are set on to look straight ahead. Dark eye rims are preferred. NOSE - The nose is black. EARS - The rose or half-pricked ears are not large. Serious Faults: Full drop ear. Full prick ear. Neck The muscular, rather short neck is clean in outline and widens gradually toward the shoulders.

The short, smooth coat is close to the skin. Neither the coat nor the whiskers are to be trimmed. Color Acceptable colors include red, fawn, white, black, any shade of brindle, and blue, with or without white. Serious Faults: Black and tan or liver. Height & Weight Height, measured at the shoulders, ranges from 14 to 16 inches. Weight ranges are as follows: dogs, 28 to 38 pounds; bitches, 24 to 34 pounds. Weight depends on the height of the individual dog. Gait The free, powerful, agile movement is accomplished with an economy of effort. When viewed from the front or the rear, the legs move parallel. There is a noticeable drive from the hind legs. Disqualifications Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid. Viciousness or extreme shyness. Albinism.


The Stafford Knot

Back Issues

email editor@thestaffordknot.com for copies of articles if not linked here January 2010 Issue #1, Vol #1 Articles include: Joseph Dunn - Hints to the Novice SBT=Bulldog+Terrier

February 2010 Issue #2, Vol #1 Articles include: SBT Breed Seminar, Raymond Crilly - Judges Ed Breeders Code of Silence SBT Exhibition Center (Past Crufts Wnners story NOT included)

March 2010 Issue #3, Vol #1 Articles include: Info on Health Testing Illustrated Breed Standard Balance & Movement - Judges Ed PHPV - Tala’s Story - Health Demodectic Mange - Alternative Therapies for Treatments - Health (WKC stories NOT included)

April 2010 Issue #4, Vol #1 Articles include: Info on Health Testing Illustrated Breed Standard RX For Whelping & Caesarians Breeders Ed What You See is What You Get The Tragic Loss of Bloodlines & Mentoring in America - Breeders Ed A Very Special Boy Meets His 1st Stafford

May 2010 Issue #5, Vol #1 Articles include: Info on Health Testing Illustrated Breed Standard Tan Point Markings - AKA Black & Tan Judges/Breeders Ed Staffords in Working Trials Fibro Cartila....what? - Health How to Select Against Genetic Disease with Knowledge, Not Hope - Breeders Ed

June 2010 Issue #6, Vol #1 Articles include: Info on Health Testing Illustrated Breed Standard GDC Genetics Interview Breeders Ed Balance in the SBT Judges/Breeders Ed One By One - What YOU can do! The Disappearing Sperm - Breeders Ed/ Health SBT Breed Record Holders, Part 1

July 2010 Issue #7, Vol #1 Articles include: Illustrated Breed Standard Dogs Who Fly - Dock Diving Judging My Way - Judges/ Exhibitors Ed The Holy Grail How to Weight Pull with your Staffordshire Bull Terrier Track Training - Starting Out Flyball - “Organized Chaos”

August 2010 - Veterans! Issue #8, Vol #1 Articles include: Illustrated Breed Standard Grey Muzzles & Puppy Dog Tales Staying in the Game My Sunshine Tammy Alf ALSO may be viewed HERE

September 2010 Issue #9, Vol #1 Articles include: Illustrated Breed Standard Training Your Stafford Forequarters What Price Glory Early Neurological Stimulation ALSO may be viewed HERE

October 2010 Issue #10, Vol #1 Articles include: Illustrated Breed Standard Living With Cushings Dont Steal My Joy What is Natural Rearing Using Genetic Pedigree ALSO may be viewed HERE


The Stafford Knot

Back Issues

November 2010 Issue #11, Vol #1 Articles include: Illustrated Breed Standard Miracles Do Happen Nostalgia The Versatile Stafford The Genetic Pedigree Arnica Montana Also may be viewed HERE

March - April 2011 Issue #2, Vol #2 Articles include: Illustrated Breed Standard Cherish Every Moment Importance of Nutrition in Natural Healing What is CERF? Competitive Obedience Understanding Judging Consistency How Diatomaceous Earth Works Q&A - Underjaw Also may be viewed HERE

December 2010 Issue #12, Vol #1 Articles include: Illustrated Breed Standard The Breed Today Puppies For Christmas Pets As Therapy Understanding Recessive Genes A Tribute To Trilby When Things Don’t Go As Planned Also may be viewed HERE

May - June 2011 Issue #3, Vol #2 Articles include: Illustrated Breed Standard Tally Ho - Lure Coursing The Topline of the SBT The Rule of Fives Interview - Norman Berry (Rendorn) Renal Disease in Canines Hereditary Cataracts in Staffords Q&A - Bites Also may be viewed HERE

January-February 2011 Issue #1, Vol #2 Articles include: Illustrated Breed Standard Arthritis How Cassie Became an Australian Obedience Champion What is L2-HGA? Teaching Bite Inhibition The Truth About Vaccines The Eukanuba Experience Q&A - Toplines Also may be viewed HERE

July - August 2011 Issue #4, Vol #2 Articles include: Illustrated Breed Standard Breed Specific Legislation Hip Dysplasia Preferred Breed Type The Problem with Dog Parks What Veterinarians are Saying About the Raw Diet Interview with Tony Brindley (Cabrindle) How It All Began Also may be viewed HERE

Sept - Oct 2011 Issue #5, Vol #2 Articles include: Illustrated Breed Standard Got Itch? The Backyard Puppy Sportsmanship, Part 1 Sportsmanship Revisited Dog Showing Q&A - Slipped Hocks Also may be viewed HERE


The Stafford Knot

TSK WANTS YOU! SEND US YOUR ARTICLES, EXPERIENCES, IDEAS PLUS QUESTIONS FOR OUR Q&A PAGE! TSK BENEFITS STAFFORD RESCUES WORLDWIDE BUT WE CANT HELP WITHOUT YOUR HELP THINK ABOUT A GALLERY AD, STUD AD, BRAG, CLASSIFIED OR BREEDER DIRECTORY AS AN AFFORDABLE WAY TO HELP RESCUE PLUS ADVERTISE YOUR DOG, KENNEL, COMPANY OR PRODUCTS.

The Back Page

From the Editor Soundness of Construction and Movement In order not to reinvent the wheel - I share with you the following paraphrased from Tom & Julie Bridge “The best way to look at dog construction is through function. What is the function of the breed, what is the characteristic movement for that breed and so on.

Take an overall view of the animal. How does the animal appear to you? Does it look like a representative of its breed? Is it balanced in its angulations front to rear? When moving, is your impression one of all parts flowing harmoniously, or three dogs trying to move at the one time? Before one can asses soundness and movement it is important to understand the 'parts' that make up the dog. Every dog has the same type and number of bones (apart from length of tail)

but the relative lengths of the bones give the great variation of appearance to the breeds. There are ideal proportions written down for each breed (the 'standard'), but the basic bone structure is similar. Ideal proportions for each breed usually relate to two main areas: 1. height (at the wither) to length (from the point of the chest or prosternum to the rear edge of the pelvis or ischium) and 2. depth of chest (wither to the lower edge of the chest) to length of leg (usually measured from the point of the elbow to the ground). The proportions combined with the angulations that are ideal for the breed combine to produce the characteristic movement of the breed. Think of the dog as a system of levers and pulleys. The back acts as a bridge connecting the front and rear assemblies. If the ratio of the lengths of the bones of the front and rear are even, then the dog is balanced for that breed. The ideal lengths vary between breeds, but the principle always holds.� Thank you for another year of success in helping promote health testing in the breed and raising money for Stafford rescues - Share TSK with someone! Thank you to all of you for supporting TSK! Go hug your Staffords! Lynn Caswell, Sr. Editor

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The Stafford Knot Nov/Dec 2011, Issue 6, Vol 2  

The Stafford Knot is an independent publication and not affiliated with any specific breed club. TSK is a collaborative effort from like min...

The Stafford Knot Nov/Dec 2011, Issue 6, Vol 2  

The Stafford Knot is an independent publication and not affiliated with any specific breed club. TSK is a collaborative effort from like min...

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