Page 1

FRONT COVER

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Nice Package

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Tiny But Mighty

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Source Facts

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Killer Meal

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Food Art

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Nutrition Over Consumption

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Price Of Perfection

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The Chocolate Problem

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The Art Of Eating

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What Does Adidas Have To Do With Food?

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Blood Pressure

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The Wolf

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Malnutrition

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Cheap Or Change

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Source Facts

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Only Dogs Go For Bones

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Contents

Letter From The Editors

The Source For The Sauce With The Sauce

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The Rise Of Craft

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Would You Like Some Atchar

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Lebatease

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Pop In The Kitchen

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This Little Piggy Went To Market, That Little Piggy Went To?

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Consumption

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Misteaken

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Dear Customers

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Temporary Tattoo’s

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The Last Supper

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Letter from The Editors


Hello, is it brie you’re looking for? Welcome to The Source Magazine! In this issue we’ve jam packed it full of saucy food fun. This magazine is about all things food related, from Poppin’ Cookin’ to malnutrition and everything in between. We've even included a few eggcellent temporary tattoos which are kind of a big dill so be sure to check them out in the back of the magazine. Third year design students produced this magazine as part of a project designed to provide us with valuable experience working in a design team. Each student applied for a role they felt most suited to and from there, were placed into different management teams. Working with only the title to kick-start this magazine, we all worked hard to develop the magazine’s concept and contents. Each student submitted both their own article and layout, as well as working within their design teams to perfect everything from grid layout and typography to the grammar and punctuation. As a team, we all worked alongside each other well. This was just as well because with such a tight deadline, we had little margarine for error. After 14 weeks of hard work, we are pleased to present to you the fruits of our labour. Hope to ketchup with you soon. Regards, Michelle and Lauren

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Nice Package

Food Packaging, our visual landscape and how it reflects society. By Leran Admoni

I wake up and walk to the kitchen. With tired eyes and all the arm strength I can summon I open the pantry door. At this point, it is as if four boxes are speaking to me, crying “Eat me!” The box to the left is dressed in earthy tones, telling me he’s healthy and just a little bit hipster. The next one is slightly louder, brighter and more aggressive, which makes my bed eyes squint. “I am so tasty someone even took a bite out of the box.” Despite the cereals being mildly self-absorbed; I look and I listen to them.

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Food packaging has an enormous impact on our visual landscape and how we experience the world on daily basis. These experiences range from the most obvious such as when we are in the supermarket, at home to the packaging waste we see everyday. It is not a new notion that we are bombarded with advertising images but a study done by The Future Company (2009) puts this idea into numbers. The study estimates that when in the supermarket a shopper may see as many as 1,000 different products per minute while walking through the aisles. This means we view about 17 images of product packaging a second. For some reason this does not even come as a surprise. I think it has just become a given that our world is filled with a massive about of visual noise. In our current world product packaging has gone beyond just being in the physical realm and has become a part of our online space. There are Pinterest boards wholly dedicated to food packaging designs, sponsored adds on Facebook and YouTube. This has become just another element of visual noise created by food packaging.


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A study estimates that when in the supermarket a shopper may see as many as 1,000 different products per minute while walking through the aisles Considering our visual landscape which is highly saturated with images

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of food packaging I began to consider how this is a reflection of society. After World War II Susan Strasser (Larice 248) suggests, disposable products and food packaging reflected the transition to modernity and a more liberal society. This got me thinking about the term, “liberal.” When did there become such an intrinsic link between consumerism and liberalism? Why as a modern society that we consider to be liberal do we believe it is our right to produce waste and not think about the repercussions of our actions? Hunt and Others (Marsh et al. 2007) conducted a study, which stated that “food packaging account for almost two thirds of waste by volume.” Despite this consumers purchasing decisions are primarly economical and visual rather than moral (Thogersen 442).


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Throgersen, John. “The Ethical Consumer. Moral Norms and Packaging Choice.” Journal of Consumer Policy 22 (1999): 439-460.

http://www.warc.com.ezproxy.uws.edu.au/Content/ContentViewer. aspx?MasterContentRef=10c49661-8c19-4b96-b10d-839f3b5682 8f&q=food+packaging+design&CID=A76532&PUB=ADMAP . Web 22 March. 2014.

The Futures Company. “Packaging: Take a Second Look at Your Product’s First Impression.” WARAC. June. 2009. http://www.warc. com/Content/ContentViewer.aspx?MasterContentRef=dbf2485d34ba-4a43-a291-d2f06253d714&q=food+packaging+design&CID= A91003&PUB=FUTURES. Web 22 March. 2014.

Reference

As I stare blankly at the top shelf of cereals thinking about consumerism, liberalism and societal trends, I opt for the box with the three weird elf like creatures looking at me, Snap Crackle and Pop and start my day.

Larice, M., & Macdonald, E., eds. The urban design reader. London: Routledge. 2007. PrintMarsh, Kenneth, and Betty Bugusu. “Food Packaging?Roles, Materials, And Environmental Issues.” Journal of Food Science 72.3 (2007): R39-R55. Web. 10 Apr. 2014.

Web. 10 Apr. 2014.

Van de Pasa, (2002) further looked into societies values as reflected through advertising, packaging and literature through time and concluded that trends, “can be viewed as a changeable expression of an unchanging value.” Through his study he identifies that there are only twelve enduring values that have been significant in society since the 1960’s. These enduring values identified include spontaneity, expressivity, protection, involvement, control, self-development and distinction. Personally reflecting on this I believe that these values contribute to the complexity of the visual landscape which consumers are often unconscious of.

Van de Pas, Lonneke, Van de Laar, Gaston “Packaging Design: Social Trends and Brand Design.” WARAC. June. 2002.

Van de Pas (2002) conducted a study looking at the relationship between societal trends and product packaging. In his study he explains, “For a brand to be regarded as relevant within a society, it is essential to create a bridge between the brands values and those of the society.” So what the study really suggest is that there needs to be a distinct link between product packaging and societal values and trends. I did a content analysis of 52 items in my pantry looking at the key words on the front of the packaging, it quickly became clear what the key current trends are. 18 products put “no artificial colours of flavours” on the front of the package. 10 products labelled themselves “natural.” 14 advertised being, “Australian made” products and 9 mentioned vague phrases about fat content including, “now 20% less fat” and “low fat.”

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Tiny But Mighty By Rawan Hazim

We always tend to make healthy choices in our diet, yet are unaware of the different super foods that surround us. Chia seeds? Flax seeds? They're so small but mighty super foods for keeping healthy and active.

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Taking care of your health starts with nutrition, and often the foods that do us the most good, are the ones we’re least tempted by. Strange super foods like chia seeds, flax seed, quinoa and hemp are natural unusual foods full of health enhancing benefits which give us a boost in our day to day activities. These are foods which you should be eating, They are rich in nutrients and work wonders in keeping your mind and body healthy. Once you consume super foods on a regular basis you will notice a big difference on how you feel and look.

They are so small but mighty super foods for keeping healthy and active

Eating these foods regularly, helps flush out toxins giving you that daily glow. More importantly it helps maintain your weight, living much more actively. These super foods are all so strange and uncommon in terms of including them in our diet. They’re unfamiliar to us in terms of how they taste and how they are eaten. They sound so strange and look so strange. So what are these super foods? What do they taste like? Chia Seeds

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The word chia comes from the aztec word which means 'oily'. The secret to its health benefit is the oil found in this small little round seed. The little seeds are rich in antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids, where it reduces the chance of heart disease and cancer. My experience of purchasing chia seeds from the health store was strange to me itself, so trying them was on another level. Why was it strange to me? I have never come across superfoods before, never knew exactly what it meant until I researched into them, and found them in a health food section in the supermarket. Being a natural super food, I needed to add it to a healthy meal or drink so I went for the basic and simply sprinkled a tea spoon of chia to my muesli with fruit and yogurt. It had a crunchy texture, yet tasteless. I also tried them as a pudding by soaking it over night in water, causing the seeds to puff up… making it soft. I simply added strawberries and honey, and it was a perfect afternoon treat.


Quinoa Quinoa is a grain like crop derived from South America. It is high in protein, has essential vitamins and minerals such as calcium, phosphorus & iron, not to mention the eight essential amino acids required for good health and repair. Quinoa has a unique, nutty taste that separates it from other grains. The outer hull of a quinoa seed is very bitter, so if it is not properly prepared, quinoa can have a strong flavour that is unpleasant. My experience eating quinoa for the first time was surprising. I had mistaken it to couscous, which tasted very similar when it was placed in a salad with pomegranate rocket and walnuts. The texture was very soft and fluffy, and was light on the stomach.

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Blueberries The reason to why blueberries are considered a superfood is because they are loaded with antioxidants and also enhance the functioning of the brain, they are great brain foods. Did you know a portion of blueberries contains fourteen percent of the suggested fiber and twenty four percent of the suggested daily intake of vitamin C? Consuming a cup of blueberries weekly can lower blood pressure and perhaps speed up metabolism. They can potentially reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and slow down the growth of breast cancer cells. Not only does it benefit our body but our brains too. Blueberries can enhance our memory and learning functiuon while decresing symptoms of depression.

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After taste testing all these different superfoods, blueberries were the most flavoursome especially eating them on its own. They tasted great when I washed them and ate them by the handful. However, I have tried them with my cereal, yogurt and smoothies they are full of flavour either way.

Blueberries are loaded with antioxidants


Flaxseed Flaxseed is one of the most concentrated plant sources of omega 3 fats. It is rich in antioxidants, protein and potassium. The seeds high fibre is beneficial for heart health and can help lower cholesterol and blood pressure. How do you eat Flax seeds? Flax sees are ideal for those who don’t east sufficienmt oily fish. So i bought the seeds whole and sprinkled them on my fruit , vegies, cereal and yogurt. They’er tastless, yet have an akward crunch to them which gives it that unsuual feel in the mouth. All these super foods are so easy to add to your diet where you can maintain a healthier active lifestyle as well as have the nutrition it provides. So why not add that teaspoon to your breakfast in the morning and tablespoon to your salad for lunch. Simple and easy. Byloos, M (2011), ‘What are chia seeds?’ laughing planet cafe, accessed on 25th march, 2014, http://www.planetmattersandmore.com/healthy-dieting/what-are-chia-seeds/ Kimberly, L (2012), ‘ Eat With Your Dollars: Superfoods gone local’, accessed on 25th march, 2014, http://clclt.com/eatmycharlotte/archives/2012/07/12/eat-with-your-dollars-superfoodsgone-local The Greatist Tea, 2013, ‘Superfood:Blueberries’ reatist, accessed on 7th May, 2014, greatist. com/health/superfood-blueberries

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The Kikkoman sauce spout design was inspired by an inverted teapot and more than more than 100 prototypes were tested in the making of its dripless spout.

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/17/magazine/who-made-that-soy-sauce-dispenser.html?_r=4&ref=magazine&

Source Fact:


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By Cassandra Dray


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People eat food everyday. They eat out at restaurants with friends, get takeaway or even cook it themselves. This is because food is an experience to be enjoyed and shared; it is more than simply sustaining our bodies. It is so intertwined into society’s fabric that the last thing a condemned prisoner can experience is a meal; something that is necessary to sustain life is also given before it is taken away. Being so integrated into daily life, most humans have a favourite food or meal they enjoy the most. This is also true for the condemned that often pick their own favourite meal as their last. When looking at food it is correctly understood that it is enjoyable and vital for life, but when examined closer, it can be seen how it provides a humanising and levelling effect. This effect can be seen through looking at the psychological reactions to food, which can be seen clearly through a prisoner’s last meal and the public’s reaction to it.

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Social scientist Kevin Kniffin states “The last meal throughout history was given as a peace offering so the condemned did not come back as a ghost and haunt the prison staff.” There was also the reverse ideology in London where food was only given to sustain the life of the condemned until execution. To feed a person that is going to die within hours, a special meal prepared specifically for them makes as much sense as to sterilise the lethal injection needle, yet society continues to do both. Texas located in the USA, has now discontinued the tradition of the Last Meal after the execution of Lawrence Russell Brewer. Brewer ordered an elaborate meal of two chicken-fried steaks with gravy and sliced onions, a triple-patty bacon cheeseburger, a bowl of fried okra with ketchup, a pound of barbecued meat with half a loaf of white bread, a portion of three fajitas, a

It is extremely inappropriate to give a person sentenced to death such a privilege meat-lover’s pizza (topped with pepperoni, ham, beef, bacon, and sausage), a pint of Blue Bell, a serving of ice cream, a slab of peanut-butter fudge with crushed peanuts, and a serving equivalent to three root beers. He did not end up eating this meal, stating he was not hungry. The senator for criminal justice, Senator John Whitmire, stated that “It is extremely inappropriate to give a person sentenced to death such a privilege”; one inmate even requested his last meal to be a plate of dirt. The public has taken an interest in what the final meals of the condemned were and there are multiple macabre websites dedicated to the publishing of this information. Why is this an interesting topic to people? The human race has natural voyeuristic curiosities coupled with the developing ‘wound culture’ of the 21st century. Mark Seltzer the author of Serial Killers: Death and Life in America’s Wound Culture describes the concept as “The convening of the public around scenes of violence—


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the rushing to the scene of the accident, the milling around the point of impact—has come to make up a wound culture: the public fascination with torn and open bodies and torn and opened persons, a collective gathering around shock, trauma, and the wound”. People look at the prisoner’s meal choice hoping to see something weird that confirms their suspicions that they are not like the rest of society, but majority of the time this does not happen as only some of the choices made are bizarre, while the majority are completely normal, and may even be your favourite food or something symbolic. Serial Killer John Wayne Gacy ordered a plate of KFC, which was reminiscent of his time spent as a manager there. Some of the condemned do not even choose a meal that is their favourite food, convicted murderer Victor Feguer had a single olive with the pit in it for his last meal, and he was then buried with the pit which he hoped will grow a tree above his grave. The public can compare their favourite foods with the condemned prisoner’s final meals but they cannot understand the feelings associated with them. The condemned sit by themselves in their cold cell, they know what time they will die the following day and yet it is assumed they will enjoy their final meal. A feeling of unease is created by liking the same favourite food as a serial killer but this is magnified when you can use the same recipe, which is the case with Dorothea Puente’s book ‘Cooking with a Serial Killer’ which is still available to purchase today and was written as she waited on death row. To take orders from her written words and eat the food created from the same recipe feels wrong, as you would have willingly created a very strong connection and culinary experience with her; a person that is unfathomably evil.

Wound culture: the public fascination with torn and open bodies A condemned prisoner’s last meal is a choice that can range from either their favourite meal to something as symbolic as an olive. The public will always be interested in the final meals of the condemned due to the developing ‘wound culture’ of society. If you had to choose one final meal, what would it be? Have any condemned prisoners chosen the same? Blackstone, William, and Wayne Morrison. “Chapter the Fourteenth : Of Homicide.”Blackstone’s Commentaries on the Laws of England. London: Cavendish, 2001. N. pag. Web. 25 Mar. 2014. Karon, Tony. “Why We’re Fascinated by Death Row Cuisine.” Time 10 Aug. 2000: Web. 25 Mar. 2014. Kniffin, Kevin M. and Wansink, Brian, Death Row Confessions and the Last Meal Test of Innocence (December 31, 2013). Laws 2014, 3(1), 1-11. Morrison, Helen, and Harold Goldberg. My Life among the Serial Killers: Inside the Minds of the World’s Most Notorious Murderers. New York: William Morrow, 2004. Nelson, David. “Choosing a Last Meal.” Points in Case. N.p., 18 Mar. 2007. Web. 24 Mar. 2014. Schmid, David. Natural Born Celebrities: Serial Killers in American Culture. Chicago: University, 2005. Seltzer, Mark. Serial Killers: Death and Life in America’s Wound Culture. New York: Routledge, 1998.

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Food Art By L auren Hampson Food is no longer just food anymore. With the five star restaurants dishing up immaculate plates of food, neatly stacked with sauce artistically poured around the plate to be just so, food has crossed over from being a necessity to an art form. Today I present to you three artists and designers who are using food, not to eat, but to be the medium from which they create their art with. Also, follow along with me as I try my own experimentation to create art using food. There is even a recipe in the end to create your own typographic cookies.

London based designer Anna Garforth creates designs that appear to be heavily typography based. She has worked with an array of well known clients such as Saatchi and Saatchi, Nature Valley, Converse and Deutshe Bank, and has had her work featured in a number of publications. Garforth takes a multifaceted approach to her work, drawing from a plethora of well-honed skills. These include design, illustration and craft. She works with a variety of materials, most of them unusual, in order to create interesting designs. Materials she has used

include grass, moss, luminescent bacteria, cookie dough, wood and coloured sticky tape. In Moss Graffiti Grows On Walls, Garforth explains that she was inspired to “explore the more tactile and craft based side to graphic design.� Her designs are a tactile experience that reflects the textures found in the world around us. Following on from experimentation into moss typography, Garforth set forth in a self initiated design project- to experiment and create edible typography. Using

cookie dough, she hand cut each letter and flourish. After baking the cookies, she laid the typography out on black sheet of paper and photographed the results. The cookie dough creates an interesting texture, making the typography and the design a more fascinating piece to look at. Also, it is interesting to observe the change in texture and design as the artwork goes from raw dough into baked cookies.

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Small, simple ideas can be as effective and interesting as big, complex ones 32

Another person creating interesting art with food is Malaysian architect and artist Red Hong Yi. Known as the artist who “loves to paint, but not with a paintbrush” (Bio), Yi strives to create art using a variety of unconventional materials. For example, she uses flowers, candles, a basketball, books and food. In an effort to push herself creatively, Yi decided to set herself the challenge to create an artwork every day for a month. She limited herself to using a white, square dinner plate as a canvas and food as the medium. Each artwork is

created from only a few food items and then photographed before it is discarded. As a self initiated project, Yi noted in the TEDx talk posted to Youtube that these art pieces taught her “not to over think and over analyse things. That small, simple ideas can be as effective and interesting as big, complex ones.” Artist Sandra van den Broek, from Holland constructs edible creations out of food. These beautiful pieces of food art started when Sandra began making faces on her children’s sandwiches.

Seeing that she had a knack for creating these edible artworks, Sandra stopped making food art for her children and began creating for herself. Sandra usually begins with a slice of bread and adds an array of items found only in her kitchen. After she has assembled and photographed her work, she then eats it. Her only rule for her creations is that they must be delicious.


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She was inspired to explore the more tactile and craft based side to graphic design

Drawing inspiration from the above artists and their techniques, as well as other artists and their processes, I embarked on creating my own edible typographical food art. I chose to create edible typography as I have recently developed a love of typography, courtesy of my design degree. The medium I chose was cookie dough. It was pliable, easy to cut and if I made a mistake, it was easy to erase. On the opposite page is my step-bystep guide to creating your own delicious edible typography.

Batt, Jenny. Make Your Own Typography Cookies. Julep, 2013. Web. 24 Mar. 2014.

Moss Graffiti Grows On Walls. Design Boom, 2013. Web. 24 Mar. 2014.

<http://www.minted.com/julep/2013/11/11/ make-your-own-typography-cookies/>

<http://www.designboom.com/art/ moss-graffiti-grows-on-walls-by-annagarforth-09-30-2013/>

Garforth, Anna. Edible Poster. Anna Garforth, 2013. Web. 25 Mar. 2014. <http://www.annagarforth.co.uk/work/edibleposter.html> â&#x20AC;&#x153;GRAPHIC DESIGN: The Mossenger.â&#x20AC;? Creative Review (2008): 21. ProQuest. Web. 24 Mar. 2014. Keuben, Maike. Edible Art By Sandra van den Broek. Mood Kids, 2014. Web.12 Mar. 2014. <http://www.moodkids.nl/food/2014/01/20/ edible-art-sandra-van-den-broek>

TEDx Talks. So I Threw Away My Paintbrushes: Red Hong Yi at TEDx KL 2013. 15 Nov. 2013. Web video. 26 Mar. 2014. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0n8G5gAPkY> Yi, Hong. Bio. Red Hong Yi, 2014. Web. 12 Mar. 2014. <http://www.redhongyi.com/about/>


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Nutrition Consumption Over

By Scott Mcdonald

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GOING BANANAS Our food source generates from known materials which are plants and animals. We often decide on the types of foods we digest, but most people donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t put much consideration to the impact and consequences these foods have and the way in which they are affecting their bodies.

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Different foods offer types of nutritional sources that the human body digests. Healthy foods are considered to be natural fresh organic foods such as fruits and vegetables, which serve as a nutritional source of carbohydrates, protein, vitamins, and minerals. These help lower the risk of obesity, type two diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure and cancer. However, you might fall into a trap of thinking that natural organic healthy foods have a reputation to be a good food source, that it is okay to stuff your face, eating as much as you like. But it is easy to overindulge in these foods, especially drinks as theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re easier to digest.


PUTTING JUNK IN YOUR TRUNK Bad foods or as we so call it “junk food” offers little nutritional value and often are high in fat, sugar and salt, which produce more calories. These foods are normally processed foods or have been deep fried. Junk food offers little protein, vitamins or minerals which can affect concentration, performance and can cause you to be overall less productive and efficient. Your body doesn’t care whether the food is processed or grown naturally by nature. Some processed foods contain more nutritional value than natural organic foods. Don’t be fooled. Natural doesn’t mean that the food is healthy. Natural organic foods have their unhealthy foods that can be at risk to your health when over consumed.

WE ARE ASSAULTING OURSELVES Salt coming from the sea water and rock was used as a currency rate back in the Middle Ages and was often referred to as “white gold” (Frater, J 2009). Now in the twenty first century this only happens in Ethiopia. Back in the Middle Ages they wouldn’t of known the fact that too much salt can lead to the kidneys storing more water than they need. The effect of the extra stored water causes strain to your kidney, raising your blood pressure which then affects not only your kidney, but also your arteries, brain and heart.

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WHEN THE HEAT IS ON Chillies, which are a natural organic food resource has been linked with research showing that excessive consumption may cause stomach cancer. Studies have shown that if the average person consumes one chilli per day they can increase the risk of gastric cancer. Another risk factor to take into consideration is based on the fact that hot chillies produce an oil content that can burn your skin. The effects can often be similar to a sun burn and can take up to a few days to recover. There have been reported cases of people being tortured by chillies. The victims are forced to eat the hot chillies and also suffer by chillies being rubbed on them, burning their skin. The victimâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s private parts are the most targeted areas that the chilies are applied on. Caution must be taking into consideration when handing chillies by wearing gloves. When cooking, hot chillies can often produce fumes that can affect breathing, when inhaled. It is highly recommended to wear a respirator and safety eyewear to protect yourself from these fumes.

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FOOD ISNâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;T SO SWEET The most devastating natural food source is sugar. People on diets take notice and read food labels to see how much sugar intake the food contains. They think that if they reduce their level of sugar intake in their diet, it will help them burn more fat off their body which contributes to losing weight. However, if you minimalise limits of your sugar intake you can cause migraines, low blood pressure and a reduction in your energy levels, making it harder to exercise. The key result of sugar being a good or bad food source is dependent on how much you exercise and your sugar intake.


COUCH POTATOES People believe that if the food has been processed it must be bad for them, yet that’s not always the case. People like the convenience of processed food because it is a quick and easy meal. This is because most of the processed foods you can buy from your grocery store can be frozen to last longer periods of time as opposed to natural foods, which deteriorate quickly. Most processed foods are ready to eat or have to be heated to prepare a meal for eating, and is the most convenient choice. Processed natural foods mostly are prepared and cut, ready to eat and contribute to, “bagged vegetables and salads that are helping people eat more vegetables” Denny, S (2013). More people are getting lazier due to the convenience of processed food. It is also cheaper to buy processed as opposed to organic and more affordable in today’s economy. We are exposed to all types of food it is easy to obtain, all we have to do is go to our local grocery store and buy it. Buyers can be deceived by the packaging and labelling opposed to the content inside. Some labels are false advertisement, and people choose fat free meals believing the contents to be healthy, but some can contain high levels of sugar making an unhealthy choice of consumption. I believe that if we didn’t have grocery stores and we had to find or hunt for our own food or source our own supplies from farmers it would eliminate exposure of processed foods and the risk of health problems.

Health Foodie (2010). Retrieved March 22, 2014 from http://www.health-foodie.com/2010/03/good-food-vs-bad-food/ Cooking Recipes Food (2014). Retrieved March 23, 2014 from http://cooking-recipes-food.com/health-risks-and-chili-peppers/ Blood Pressure Asso ciation (2008). Retrieved March 24, 2014 from http://www.bloodpressureuk.org/microsites/salt/Home/ Whysaltisbad/Saltseffects Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne (2011). Retrieved March 24, 2014 from http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/ pages/Sugar Denny, S (2013). Reviewed April 2013 from http://www.eatright.org/Public/content.aspx?id=6442471055 Frater, J (2009). Reviewed MAY 11, 2009 from http://listverse.com/2009/05/11/15-fascinating-facts-about-salt/ Inquirer (1997). Retrieved March 25, 2014 from http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/563169/indian-maid-11-tortured-with-chillies-police

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By Annelisa Collins


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If asked to describe a person with an eating disorder, you’d probably think of a typical attention seeking adolescent girl starving herself to be even thinner than she already is. I believe that most of us have this impression of eating disorders, as we are not fully aware and educated on how serious this disease can be. Our society needs to understand that eating disorders is bigger than just teenage girls, as they can occur in both women and men; young and old, rich and poor. In fact, the National Eating Disorder Collaboration states that about one in twenty Australians have an eating disorder and the rate is rapidly increasing.

To have a basic understanding of this disorder everyone should be aware of the three main categories that eating disorders fall into. Beverley Hadgraft (48) states that these categories include:

When I was in high school, not a day would go by without me hearing another girl complain about her weight or appearance. Nothing has changed with finishing high school and getting older. In fact it has probably gotten worse. Being surrounded by young adults at university, work and friends on social media sites, I am constantly seeing or hearing people stress over trying to achieve the “perfect” look. I am guilty of this myself; no I do not suffer from an eating disorder and I guarantee half of those people that I hear complaining about their weight don’t either. However for the increasing percentage of people that do suffer from this disorder, it is important that as a society we should be more educated and create more awareness on how serious eating disorders can really be. So how serious are eating disorders and what should we really know as a society? If everyone were to have some basic knowledge on eating disorders perhaps this would decrease the pressure society places on body image and the price of achieving “perfection” would not be so harsh.

3.EDNOS: A non specified eating disorder, which can encompass a range of problems, including binge eating, fasting without developing anorexia and purging.

1.Anorexia Nervosa: Where sufferers develop an obsession with losing weight to dangerous levels. 2.Bulimia Nervosa: Comes from the Greek “ox-hunger” and means to overeat followed by severe vomiting.

If someone asked you to describe the symbol for breast cancer I would imagine that you would immediately think of the pink ribbon. If someone asked you to describe the eating disorder awareness symbol, your mind might go completely blank like mine did. You might even respond with “ What? There is an eating disorder symbol?” Don’t worry you are not alone. In fact, if you were familiar with what it looks like then give yourself a pat on the back. This symbol was created by the National Eating Disorders Association (NEDA) and is used to symbolize recovery and awareness of these devastating disorders. After I had heard about this symbol, I did some personal research and found that this symbol is a simple design shaped like a heart with swooping curves.


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One in twenty Australians have an eating disorder and the rate is rapidly increasing


This symbol is used to symbolize recovery and awareness of these devastating disorders According to NEDA the symbol is “meant to remind people of the natural variation and diversity in both body size and shape as well as to invoke the feeling of movement, freedom and the beauty of curves”. Many sufferers of eating disorders are familiar with this symbol as they have gone and had it tattooed on their body to signify a reminder of their progress or recovery. Although some sufferers are aware of this symbol, I believe that the majority of our society is not, which emphasises the need for this issue to be addressed.

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A current social media trend happening at the moment is women posting “ no makeup selfie” pictures on their Facebook or Instagram accounts to create awareness for breast cancer. Personally, I think this is a clever and cool idea. However it has also left me feeling slightly disappointed due to the fact that eating disorders are being pushed aside and almost forgotten. I really do believe that as a society, we need to create greater awareness for eating disorders, just like how we are for other health issues such as breast cancer. Using the eating disorder symbol would be a great starting point for this. By getting this symbol out everywhere and anywhere, the symbol has the potential to make everyone acknowledge eating disorders. Works Cited: Colwell, Amy. “Eating Disorder Symbol” Eating Disorders Online . n.p., 24 Aug 2011 . Web. 25 March 2014 http://www.eatingdisordersonline.com/articles/eating-disorders/eatingdisorder-symbol “What is an Eating Disorder “ National Eating Disorder Collaboration .Web. 19 March 2014. http:// www.nedc.com.au/eating-disorders-explained Hadgraft, Beverley . “Our Midlife Eating Disorder Crisis “Womens Weekly Health March 2014: 46-49 . Print.


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Many chocolate lovers such as myself tend to turn a blind eye when it comes to fair trade and Rainforest Alliance. We are so caught up in our lives that we forget the hardships endured by those whose lives depend on chocolate.

Chocolate is a way of life for so many people around the world. For developed countries like our own we enjoy a smooth, creamy chocolate treat at least once a week. It has become a part of our culture whether it be; Christmas, Easter, Valentineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Day or Birthday, I can guarantee that chocolate will be present. But for the other half do we really understand their struggles in producing our favorite treat, and is the overall costs of chocolate worth it?

By Natasha Fordham

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90% of a Farmers income comes from the Cocoa Bean

60% of Cadburyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Cocoa export comes from Ghana in Africa

30 pods are required to make one 400g bar

52 5 cents per bar goes to the farmer


The average price for a Cadbury Dairy Milk chocolate weighing in at 200grams is between four to five dollars. After conducting a survey, 80% of people agreed that we are paying one dollar too much. But what are we really buying into every time we indulge in that chocolaty goodness? As many chocoholics know the main ingredient in chocolate is the cocoa bean, which is derived from the pod s grown on the cocoa trees. The majority of Cocoa Farmers are situated in developing countries such as Brazil, China, Amazon and West Africa. The choice chocolate brand, Cadbury, for example, import 60% of their cocoa from Ghana in West Africa where their farmers are living in poverty. For the majority of cocoa farmers, cocoa beans make up 90% of their profit and if weather has not been kind, then the crop will fail. To make matters worse, cocoa farms are usually small and run on just under five hectares. On average one cocoa tree produces 20-30 pods per harvest which equals to 450 grams of chocolate. Due to the small size of cocoa farms, the farmers sell cocoa beans by the kilo, and do not reach the tonne requirement for selling on the global market. To ensure a finer quality taste, farmers use techniques that have been passed down through the generations to process and ferment the cocoa beans. Due to the small size of farms and the level of poverty families are unable to send children to school and as a result end up working at the farms. The children participate alongside the community by collecting the pods (cutting them down from trees), breaking the pods open, and gathering the beans and drying them in leaves (among other processes).

Chocolate has been around for 200 years and only now we are making a change It is hard to imagine that chocolate has been around for more than 200 years and only recently Fair Trade, Rain Forest Alliance and UTZ (formally known as Utz Kapeh meaning â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Good coffee in Mayan, Quiche) has been introduced. Did you know that Cadbury, has sold chocolate as a powder form since 1650, with the first official eating chocolate released in 1859. In 2010, 151 years after the release of their first eating chocolate, that Cadbury announced their Fair Trade Certification. Mars and Cadbury, are both under Fair Trade, Rain Forest Alliance and UTZ allowing a 30 million dollars investment into cocoa sustainability. Following suit, Nestle adheres to their own supplier code, which includes standards in labor, sustainability, and health and safety, in conjunction with UTZ regulations. Nestle has been increasing their purchases of UTZ certified cocoa since 2010 - For example, in 2010, only 4% of purchases were UTZ certified. This then increased to 34% in 2011 and further increased to 54% in 2012 (See Mars. Sustainability, 2014).

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22% eat chocolate once a day

8% eat chocolate once in a while

13% eat chocolate once a month

56% of people surveyed eat chocolate at least once a week

54 10% will ensure they purchase Fair Trade certified

90% will not look for Rainforest Aliiance or Fair Trade

77% of those surveyed believed we are paying to much for chocolate


It is 2014, and though Fair Trade and UTZ among others are in place, the cocoa farmers are still receiving five cents to one dollar per chocolate (depending on the size). As a chocoholic indulging in this delicious treat we still tend to turn a blind eye and ignore Fair Trade Certification, or do we just presume all brands are certified? After surveying chocolate consumers it is surprising to notice that 90% of those surveyed knew of the certification but only 10% will ensure that the chocolate they are purchasing is certified. In reality all major brands appear to be under some Fair Trade certification, but less and less are displaying their certification on the packaging, besides Cadbury and Mars. So is it up to us as chocoholics to take the responsibility in ensuring that we help the farmers that supply the essential ingredient to our beloved treat? Or blame the major companies for not publicly displaying and educating consumers on the conditions of the cocoa farmers and Fair Trade? In the end there is a division between the developed world as a consumer and the workers of the developing. But it is up to us as chocolate lovers to learn about the food we love and fight for those who can’t to bridge the gap and create a world where both developing and developed countries can enjoy that smooth, creamy, rich treat that we have all come to love as chocolate.

To achieve meaningful change, we believe that farmer productivity needs to be the first priority - Mars

References Cadbury. Cocoa Growing Countries. Cadbury, 2014. Web. 22 Mar. 2014. < https://www. cadbury.com.au/About-Chocolate/Cocoa-Growing-Countries.aspx Cadbury. Discovering Chocolate. Cadbury, 2014. Web. 22 Mar. 2014.< https://www.cadbury. com.au/About-Chocolate/Discovering-Chocolate.aspx> Cadbury. Fairtrade Certified Cadbury Dairy Milk hits Australia. Cadbury, 2014. Web. 22 Mar. 2014.<https://www.cadbury.com.au/About-Cadbury/Fairtrade.aspx> Cadbury. What is Chocolate. Cadbury, 2014. Web. 22 Mar. 2014.< https://www.cadbury. com.au/About-Chocolate/What-is-Chocolate.aspx> ExpressoPartners. Cadbury Fair Trade. 07 April. 2012. Web Video. 22 Mar. 2014. <<http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=eRkmwA8Zuvw> Fair Trade Australia and New Zealand. Fairtrade Cocoa. Fairtrade, 2014. Web. 22 Mar. 2014.< http://fairtrade.com.au/farmers/fairtrade-cocoa> Fordham, Natasha. “Chocolate”. Survey Monkey. 24 Mar. 2014.Web. <https:// www.surveymonkey.com/MySurvey_EditorFull.aspx?sm=oVb6b7JJ616NNzsNf5uj IAIeF3wD6UvXu68yE%2fUPt5U%3d> Harris, Robin. How much do cocoa farmers receive per chocolate bar sold. Answers, 2014. Web. 22 Mar. 2014.<http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_much_do_cocoa_farmers_receive_per_ chocolate_bar_sol d?#slide=3> Mars. Chocolate. Mars Australia, 2014. Web. 22 Mar. 2014.<http://www.mars.com/australia/ en/brands/chocolate.aspx> Mars. Sustainability. Making Chocolate Better Mars Australia, 2014. Web. 22 Mar. 2014.< http://www.makingchocz z olatebetter.com.au/sustainability/sustainability/> Nestle. Rural Development and Responsible Sourcing. Nestle, 2014. Web. 22 Mar. 2014.< http://www.nestle.com.au/creating-shared-value/rural-development-and-responsible- sourcing> Rainforest Alliance. Rainforest Alliance. 2014. Web. 22 Mar. 2014.< http://my.rainforest- alliance. org/site/PageNavigator/2013_matchingchallenge.html?gclid=CJL7jtztpb0CFQk5pAodJUE ARw> Unknown “Ivory Coast cocoa farmers try chocolate for the first time.” News.com.au 01 March. 2014. Web. 21 Mar. 2014< http://www.news.com.au/finance/small-business/ivory-coastcocoa-farmers-try-chocolate- for-first-time/story-fn9evb64-1226842478853> UTZ Certified. What s UTZ Certified. UTZ Certified, 2014. Web. 22 Mar. 2014.< https://www. utzcertified.org/en/aboututzcertified> YTNewsChannel. Cocoa farmers taste chocolate for the first time. 25 Feb. 2014. Web Video. 22 Mar. 2014.< http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qVjpJHn9nqw

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The Art Of Eating â&#x20AC;&#x153;When you show yourself to the world and display your talents, you naturally stir all kinds of resentment, envy, and other manifestations of insecurity.â&#x20AC;? - Robert Greene

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By Michelle Filio


Having been brought up by two very traditional Filipino parents and growing up in such a household, has led me to believe that my knowledge of Filipino cuisine has reached its peak. Despite being born in Australia, my life in a culinary sense has been nothing short of someone that was born and raised in the Philippines themselves. I mean I grew up thinking a meal was not considered a meal without the accompaniment of rice! Not to say that this only goes for Filipinos, but it’s definitively influenced my perception of culinary customs. This paved way for some very notable party instances where the presence of rice needed to be clarified upon mealtime. But that’s another story. It wasn’t until I found myself walking the streets of the Philippines; casually getting my mind blown by what exactly was on offer from street vendors, that I realised I was in over my head. I guess you could say it was somewhat of a rude awakening; a real shot to my ego and particularly, my sense of cultural identity or (apparently) lack thereof.

I grew up thinking a meal was not considered a meal without the accompaniment of rice In an attempt to reacquaint myself with my culture, I thought I’d delve in further into the unpredictable world of Filipino street food and share my most memorable discoveries. Because when it comes to experiencing a country in its entirety, “the true flavor and character of the locale can be seen on the streets.” Although I should say, what you’re about to read next will have you asking the question, “How do people think of eating this?” multiple times throughout this article. You’ll also notice a particular fondness and appreciation for hot chicks and their body parts… Premature reference, it’ll all make sense in the end. Onto the food! Starting off with the meal closest to the conventional side of the spectrum, we have “Isaw” or chicken intestine. I thought I’d get the ball rolling with this one because intestines were originally used for incasing the meat for sausages, and well, sausages are pretty conventional so it seemed fitting. This can be grilled, fried or stewed but it is preferably curled on a barbecue skewer before being grilled. It is also usually paired with either vinegar, sweet or spicy sauce.

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Something I’ve noticed about Filipinos and their food is that they’re quite resourceful Next up is a food commonly known as “Adidas” amongst Filipinos, but otherwise known as chicken feet to the rest of the world. At first I thought the street name was just a cute word association with it being feet and a shoe brand and all, but the three toes apparently remind people of the three strips of the Adidas brand. Similar to the intestines, the chicken feet are usually skewered and grilled but can also be seen steamed or stewed at various Chinese restaurants around the Philippines. Something I’ve noticed about Filipinos and their food is that they’re quite resourceful. They like to make use of things others would usually discard, or wouldn’t ever think to consume willingly. This next street snack is one that shouldn’t have shocked me considering the sole ingredient is found in a dish I’m very familiar with, called “dinuguan”, but it shocked me all the same. It is chicken blood. Grilled chicken blood to be exact. Its street name, “Betamax”, derives from its small box shape resembling that of the old school Betamax tape. After being grilled, they are then cut up and then skewered. If the first three street foods weren’t enough for you, here’s one that’s sure to shock. Day-old chicks, as their name suggests, are darling, innocent little chicks left to live for just one day before coming to an unfortunate and crispy demise. Of course, not all new hatchlings are sentenced to such an untimely death. These particular chicks are actually farm rejects, a result of not being able to grow big enough to be sold as adult chickens. The day- old chicks are usually deep fried (body and all) and served with some vinegar.


Featured on numerous TV shows, from Fear Factor and Survivor, to Amazing Race Australia

Last but not least, we have come to the most infamous Filipino street food there is. This renowned delicacy has been featured on numerous TV shows, from Fear Factor and Survivor, to Amazing Race Australia! What could it possibly be, you may ask? It is none other than “Balut” or fertilised duck egg. Yes, you read that correctly; fertilised. Meaning inside that egg is an almost fully formed duckling complete with legs, a beak, and other distinguishable body parts (although this varies with each batch, depending on how lucky or unlucky you are… whichever way you see it). These duck embryos are cooked the same way you boil any ol’ egg, and are served in the shell accompanied with a saltshaker. If there is one Filipino street food that you should eat, be sure that it is this one. It will definitely be an experience you never forget.

Golangco, Vince. The Dirty Dozen: Top 12 Must Try Street Foods in Manila. When In Manila, 2013. Web. 20 March 2014. <http:// www.wheninmanila.com/the-dirty-dozentop-12-must-try-street-foods-in-manila/> Harlan, Jeremy. Chefs on Food as Cultural Identity. Wordpress, 2011. Web. 20 March 2014. <http://eatocracy.cnn.com/2011/07/11/ cook-from-where-you-are-chefs-on-food-ascultural-identity/> The Importance of Culture, Language and Identity. NSW Government, Education and Communities, 2013. Web. 20 March 2014. <http:// www.racismnoway.com.au/about-racism/ understanding/culture-language-identity.html>

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By Gabrielle Costanzo


Anaemia is a red blood cell deficiency, commonly caused by a lack of iron. One in five menstruating women, and half of all pregnant women are affected by anaemia, according to the State Government of Victoria. Other causes include deficiency, malabsorption, inherited disorders, blood loss, drugs and infection.

It’s not as horrible as it sounds or as brutal as I’m making it out to be

As a twenty year old female with an iron deficiency caused by carrying the Thalassemia gene, I have struggled with anaemia all of my life. It’s not as horrible as it sounds or as brutal as I’m making it out to be. The truth is, anaemia is something I don’t remember living without. As far back as I can remember, I’ve always had regular blood tests (that have become less regular as I got older) and I was always forced to drink a horrible garlic flavoured medicine for good measure. When I was younger, I never really noticed, but as I grew up the symptoms of anaemia started taking their toll. I’m still learning to live with fatigue, weakness, tiring easily, being easily irritated and concentration issues. These are only a few of many symptoms that sufferers of the condition can experience. Throughout high school, I was extremely sleep deprived. As a young adult, I find myself doing not much else but sleep. My personal relationships are affected because of how easily irritated I get, and I’ve been uncoordinated for as long as I can remember, which is great for an aspiring roller derby player. While my condition will always be linked to the fact that I carry the Thalassemia gene, my diet is a major player in how I control my symptoms. My diet was a lot easier to control when I was a kid eating at home every night. Once I discovered my independence and started working night shift, my eating habits spiralled out of control and I started to burn out really easily. At first I thought it was just the effects of doing the midnight shift, until I found I could not wake up without a minimum of twelve hours sleep. I did not need a blood test to tell me that my iron levels were getting low.

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Growing up in an Italian family, my diet used to consist mainly of red meat. As a twenty year old who has very little experience cooking, I decided to experiment with different diets. A meat-based diet was proving both difficult to maintain and expensive. Under the direction of my derby coach, I experimented with a vegetarian diet. I found that by paying very close attention to how much iron I was taking in on the vegetarian diet, my symptoms improved significantly. I upped my intake of nuts and leafy greens, and started taking iron supplements daily under the direction of my doctor.

I decided to experiment with different diets

I have since found a balance between a meat and vegetarian based diet, and my sleeping issues are back to normal. I still have really off days, and many people struggle to understand unless they have experienced the same issues themselves. Anaemia is definitely not the worst thing I could have to deal with, but so many young women experience these issues every day and have no idea why. Anaemia isn’t difficult to manage with a bit of planning, and if you think any of these symptoms are affecting you, I urge you to get a blood test.

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Do you have anaemia? If you notice you are a lot more tired than usual, worn out much easier, a little more pale than usual (or a little pale at all), you should enquire about having a blood test. Being a little tired here and there might not seem like much at first, but anaemia is a slippery slope. Take care of yourself.

Better Health Channel. “Anaemia.” 2011. Web. 23 March 2014. <http://www.betterhealth.vic. gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Anaemia>. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. “How is Anemia Treated?” 2012. 23 March 2014. <http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/anemia/treatment.html>.


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By Blake Morris Food keeps us alive, as we all know. Nourishment allows us to grow and be healthy, although good cooking not only keeps our bodies in good condition, but it takes us beyond survival and into the sacred territories of culture and tradition. Just by tasting a small sample of life and cuisine within a certain culture, offers a world of knowledge from how the people prepare their meals, to what attitudes they bring to the table. One culture in particular that have a distinct lifestyle are Native American Indians. The Native American people are extremely religious and are heavily inspired by nature. This inspiration is evident through their various foods, hunting techniques, animal spirits, and symbolism in which all provide a deep spiritual connection and profound relation to Mother Nature. Symbolism, in particular, is a unique aspect of the culture as it operates like a tightly woven web, connecting and providing profound meaning to all living, non-living, seen and unseen objects within the culture.

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Surrounding local foods and traditional ways of preparing food have always been important sources of spirituality and community for the Native American people. These food sources and traditions have strong spiritual connections, which continuously run through natureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s resources and into the paths of surrounding tribes. Native Americans were well respected for being resourceful people. When it came to hunting and gathering for food, the respect for nature was always present. Native Americans survived from the abundance of resources nature had readily available in order to create an array of different foods. The three staples of Native American food were corn, squash, and beans. Ingredients that have also been commonly used in Native American culture include greens, deer meat, berries, pumpkin and wild rice. Besides deer meat, the Native American diet also consists of the resourceful use of meat from rabbits, beavers, lamb, buffaloes, and pigs. You may be thinking that these animals were violently slaughtered, but this is not the case. Animals were respected as equals to humans. Yes they were hunted, but only for food not for pleasure or recreational purposes. The hunter would first ask permission for the animalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s spirit and only take what was needed to survive.

Amongst the unique features of the Native American culture are various Animal Spirits. An animal spirit is believed to be a supernatural power that embodies, attaches or transfers influence empowering a person with the trait of the animal. These spirits hold special meaning, characteristics and significance in the history of Native American culture. Animal Spirits can be called upon by either an individual or an entire tribe, for its special powers to serve as a guardian or protector when facing adversity. Some examples of this include:

The Wolf: intelligence, leadership and a strong sense of family Deer: healing, gentleness, kindness and compassion Bear: strength, solitude, motherhood, teaching, humility Raven: creation, knowledge and the bringer of the light The idea and concept behind Animal Spirits reinforces the spiritual connection and profound respect Native American people have for all creatures and objects within nature. This further highlights that the hunt was not a brutal act, rather a respectful ritual recognising and honouring the life and soul of the creature.


Another unique feature that directly reflects Native American culture is the profound use of symbolism; remember that tightly woven web I was talking about before? Symbols were specific to individual families and passed down from one generation to another. While others had a more practical purpose such as providing directions, indicating a good hunting ground or designating an area for a specific purpose. These symbols were constructed drawings representing objects like arrows, or more commonly animals. One animal in particular, held in high regard for centuries in Native American culture, was The Wolf. It is because of the strong respect for this beautiful and powerful animal that symbols of the wolf frequently appeared in art, mythology and historical stories. This strong respect for the animal lead to native tribes of North America comparing themselves to wolves both in the terms of the characteristics of wolves and the lifestyle of a wolf pack. Native American hunters would strive to mimic the wolf when hunting by being stealthy and patient while having the stamina to stay with the hunt until successful. Since it was considered the highest praise for a hunter to be compared to a wolf, I know if I was an animal I’d be that magical creature they call The Wolf. Tribes that used wolves as symbols wanted to portray numerous characteristics including freedom, individuality, attentive to the responsibilities of the pack, a protector, intelligence, strength, courageous and yet mysterious… yep that’s me.

Native American hunters would strive to mimic the wolf As a result it is evident that the Native American people have a unique lifestyle, which may need clarifying. Bobby Lake-Thom, author of Spirits Of The Earth writes about the reciprocal relationship between the Native American people and the animals of the land. Lake-Thom (pp.8) writes, “We realise that we cannot survive or live without our ‘relations’. We also realise they cannot live without us.” This quote provides insight to how Native American people perceived and respected animals as equals to humans. All forms of life walked in balance and beauty. Lake-Thom (pp.8) explains, “They are not only our ‘relations’ but are also considered our teachers, protectors, guardians, supernatural aids, and source of power and knowledge.” Again the quote provides evidence that the Native American people not only relied on the creatures of Mother Nature as a consistent food source, but also through all aspects of life and culture; honouring all who shared and walked the Earth. How do you view Earth?

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“Animal Totems ***.” www.warpaths2peacepipes.com. Native-Indian-Tribes, 2012, Web. 24 March. 2014 <http://www.warpaths2peacepipes.com/native-american-culture/animal-totems. htm> Divina, Marlene, and Fernando. Foods of the Americas: native recipes and traditions. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press, 2004. Print. Harrison, Paul. “Native American Indians: the spirituality of nature.” www.pantheism.net. World Pantheist Movement, 1997 – 2013 Web. 24 March. 2014 <http://www.pantheism.net/paul/ history/native-americans.htm>

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Lake-Thom, Bobby. Spirits of the Earth: a guide to Native American nature symbols, stories, and ceremonies. United States of America: The Penguin Group, 1997. Print Mart, Colleen. “Native Americans and Wolves by Colleen Mart | Life Paths 360” www. lifepaths360.com. Helium, Inc., 2002 - 2014 Web. 23 March. 2014 <http://www.lifepaths360. com/index.php/native-americans-and-wolves-7715/> “Native American Food.” Indians.org. The American Indian Heritage Foundation, 1995 - 2014, Web. 23 March. 2014 <http://www.indians.org/articles/native-american-food.html> “Native American Quotes About Nature : Unahi Mindanao Inc.” www.unahi.org. Unahi Mindanao Inc., 2003-2008. Web. 23 March. 2014 <http://www.unahi.org/quotes/native-americanquotes.htm>


Mother Nature Honour the sacred.
Honour the Earth, our Mother.
Honour the Elders.
Honour all with whom we share the Earth:-
 Four-leggeds, two-leggeds, winged ones,
 swimmers, crawlers, plant and rock people.
Walk in balance and beauty
 - Native American Elder.

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MALNUTRITION Both sides of the same coin By Andrew Stanley


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Malnutrition, WAIT! Before you picture this article as another World Vision, hungry children ad, just read it first. Malnutrition extends beyond starvation, which is the most renowned form of malnutrition but not the only form. Malnutrition is defined as “a condition resulting when a person’s diet does not provide adequate nutrients for growth and maintenance…” in the book Road to Good Nutrition (5), which is further backed by the International Committee of the Dannon Nutrition Leadership Institute Alumni Association which defines it as “poorly or wrongly fed” in the article Poverty, Obesity, and Malnutrition: An International Perspective Recognizing The Paradox. Working with this, it isn’t hard to look at a starving child of Africa in comparison to an obese American and seeing them both as malnourished. The key is to understand that access to food won’t guarantee the nutrition that a person requires to lead a healthy life.

Both are caused by the circumstance within which they live. Starvation, a result of poverty and unequal balance in the distribution of land ownership and assistance in financial or societal form, and obesity, a product of a society that is controlled by the sale of the product high in added fats and sugar (a vicious cycle of advertising to boost sales in order to spend that money on more product advertising) as Gary Gardner and Brain Halweil put forward in their research paper Overfed and underfed: The Global Epidemic of Malnutrition (16-21 &28-34.) Foods that are higher in energy value are inherently valued more at an evolutionary level (because hunting and gathering would often lead to episodes of hunger. Like bears eat fat to hibernate for the winter). Gardner and Halweil further claim that it is the “policymakers... neglected nutrition education” that allow those in low-income positions to become obese.

While we (historically) as a species, need to eat a lot of energy to be able to get through the day (although this is changing with more people doing less), that doesn’t mean we are getting the right level of nutrients. We need low levels of iodine for brain development along with a whole host of other vitamins and minerals for our bodies to continue working.

Many attempts to create a less malnourished world often come unstuck because of the neglect and lack of support of the policy makers, seen in Gardner and Halweil’s example The Green Revolution which saw cereal crops (corn, wheat and rice) grown in place of more nutritional legumes and other root crops. This hindered access to such nutrients, as well as creating an imbalance of power with

An imbalance of this can be seen in obesity, with many more diseases and illnesses stemming from the lack of nutrition. Many whom talk about the link between obesity and starvation, talk about obesity being a hidden hunger, often having signs of nutrient deficiency not develop at all or for a long time into the their life.

emphasis on more modern and costly techniques of farming which saw the increase of few farmers holding more wealth and eventually more land. (18) The article Poverty, Obesity and Malnutrition, put forth this notion arguing that as “income increased and people became more educated, prevalence of obesity decreased” in regards to studies focused on Jamaican Families.


With less amounts of this chemical in the body and more access to high calorie foods, the body will continue to store energy. The article featured in How Obesity Causes Diabetes: Not a Tall Tale by Mitchell A. Lazar continues this argument and explains that the body “store energy most efficiently as fat”. This absence also increases insulin resistance, which affects the body’s ability to produce insulin. Lazar reinforces this argument by discussing an increase in the number of obese children diagnosed with type two diabetes as being more prevalent than those diagnosed with type one, which is associated with being born with diabetes(373).

This argument is put forth and backed by Gardner and Halweil, stating that when the low socio-economic gain more income, “one of the highest priorities is to broaden their diet… by consuming greater quantities of food high in fat” ( 24). They continue to cement this argument with the idea that it continues to get cheaper to have a high fat and sugar diet, thus becoming more accessible to the poor.

It is clear that being obese and overweight, as well as starving is to be malnourished. Quite simply, without the proper nutrition of vitamins to maintain the body on top of small amounts of high energy foods will lead to malnutrition, whether it be the overfed, obese variety or the underfed, starved one. Tanumihardjo, Sherry A., et al. “Poverty, Obesity, and Malnutrition: An International Perspective Recognizing the Paradox.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 107.11 (2007): 1966-

Malnutrition is costly on the health of those whom suffer from it, often causing life long aliments that cut short their life span and their quality of life. This is seen easily in both obesity and starvation, with the former causing problems later in life such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, etc. The latter does its damage in the early years of development; stunted growth and mental disabilities often being the outcome. Looking at these health problems and how they could be avoided is proof that both are forms of malnutrition. Diabetes, specifically type two, is considered to be caused by obesity because of the absence of leptin. Leptin is a chemical that tells the rain when to stop storing energy and increase the metabolism.

72. Web. Gardner, Gary, And Halweil, Brain. “Overfed and Underfed: The Global Epidemic of Malnutrition.”World Watch Paper Mar.2000. Web. 20 march 2014. <http://www.worldwatch. org/node/840> Mitchell A. Lazar “How Obesity Causes Diabetes: Not a Tall Tale”Science New Series, Vol. 307, No. 5708, Type 2 Diabetes (Jan. 21, 2005) , pp. 373-375, Jstor. Web 20 Mr. 2014 <http://www.jstororg/stable/3840045> Road to Good Nutrition. Eds. M. Eggersdorfer, K. Kraemer, and M. Ruel. Beijing, CHN: S. Karger AG, 2013. Web. Wells, J. C. K. “Obesity as Malnutrition: The Dimensions Beyond Energy Balance.” European journal of clinical nutrition 67.5 (2013): 507-12. ProQuest. Web. 25 Mar. 2014.

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Cheap Or Change By Nicole Borg

Australian media and health advocacies have poured thousands of dollars into the campaign against unhealthy junk foods containing high amounts of saturated fats. So how is it that at a time when public knowledge and interest in food and nutrition has never been greater, are we fatter than ever?

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Although statistics from www.healthyfoodguide.com.au have revealed that based on the daily energy intake for the average adult diet of 2000 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2600 calories per day for men and 1600-2000 calories per day for women, (individual dietary requirements may be higher or lower depending on your age, gender, height, weight and physical activity levels) however, Australianâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s are really consuming on average 2640 calories per day for men and 1785 calories per day for women. Due to this the percentage of Australians who are overweight has risen to 3 in 5 adults and 1 in 4 children. This equates to over 12 million people. The Sydney Morning Herald wrote that â&#x20AC;&#x153;Initial results from the 2011-12 health survey, released by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, show 63 per cent of adults are overweight (35 per cent) or obese (28 per cent). This figure was up from 61 per cent in 2007-08, an increase experts said was concerning.


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The data shows more men were overweight or obese (70 per cent) than women (56 per cent), but rates have increased for both genders over the past four years.” What was also concerning was that 16% of adult Australians were daily smokers and 19.5% of Australians exceeded drinking guidelines of more than two standard drinks a day.

If the price of healthy, “clean” food wasn’t so expensive, do you really think that people would still choose fast food over healthy food? These statistics may seem high but in all honesty lets take a quick look at society- McDonalds has had a “Cheaper Change” menu in for a while now where you can buy a small chips for $1, a burger similar to the McChicken for $2 and a small drink for $3. Where as their healthy options menu consists of $10 salads with no drink, or a wrap which also has no drink for $8. Adding to this the fact that they have recently introduced the $3 breakfast menu where you can get a Sausage and Egg McMuffin or Bacon and Egg McMuffin with a hash brown and small drink or coffee for $3. How is healthy and or organic food meant to compete against the powerhouse of McDonalds cheaper and more convenient menus. Add to this that now other fast food chains are in competition with this and will lower their prices to compete with McDonalds for business.

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If the price of healthy, “clean” food wasn’t so expensive, do you really think that people would still choose fast food over healthy food? Currently I feel like the answer is no. I firmly believe that if clean food were a reasonable price then there would be a drop in fast food/unhealthy food sales. While fast food provides more convenience, eating healthy food or “clean eating” has become somewhat of a trend. Young women especially are becoming more and more concerned with their looks and therefore taking a stand as to what goes into their bodies as well. Clean eating and exercise has recently become the new trend amongst young adults. Instagram fitness and clean eating pages are plentiful and on the rise. For example, a page named “factsofhealth” which promotes health, fitness and wellbeing has over 1 million followers. People who follow such pages are constantly being reminded that they should make healthy choices and exercise all while simply being on social media.

Clean eating and exercise has recently become the new trend 82

However, because clean eating is more of a trend for some people to follow rather than an actual lifestyle change, they will be more enticed to take up their old eating habits and become lazy again, which I’m sure we all know is an easy trap to fall into. Although, if clean eating does become a culture changing trend then we will see the fall of obesity in the next generation of adults and children and maybe fast food will one day be a fad of the past. Even though I don’t see that happening any time soon, I am hopeful that through “clean eating” people will become more educated about nutrition and make wiser choices when it comes to food and health. If this does happen we will see the reduce in adults with high cholesterol and blood pressure issues and a new wave of healthy, nutrition conscious society members.


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Only dogs go for bones. By Sami Mills Zero is not a size... itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a disorder. Real women have curves. A woman without curves is like jeans without pockets; you donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know where to put your hands. These and similar sayings have been very common over the past few years.

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I have never been fat, but I know exactly what it is like to be judged for my size. I am often the target of unkind comments about my appearance. We all know that “fat-shaming” is wrong. No one should be ridiculed for his or her weight. In recent years, high-profile cases of fattism have caused public outrage. Positive progress, certainly. But what about the flip side: why is skinny-shaming OK, if fat shaming is not? Recently actress Angelina Jolie has been criticized for her weight, with critics calling her “emancipated” and “stick thin”. But as Dr. Gail Salts, writes “Skinny-shaming, calling someone, celebrity or otherwise, ‘emaciated’ or ‘stick thin,’ or telling the person to ‘eat a sandwich,’ as the cliché goes, is as unhelpful as fat-shaming. It is our skewed view as a society obsessed with being thin that left us open to commenting on Jolie, forgetting that any extreme in appearance can be a difficult and painful place to be (just ask any adolescent).”

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Think about how we describe thinness: skinny, angular, emaciated, bony, skeletal, lollipop-head. These terms are batted about in the media quite casually, without the caution we must now use in our references to fat. I happen to find the term “skinny” offensive, but of course that’s foolish. You’re lucky to be thin, you think, rolling your eyes. As a 21-year-old girl, who currently weighs 45kg, I am pretty happy in my skin. I come from a long line of naturally petite people and I eat like an ordinary person. I am healthy but I’ve always been very thin. I was bullied a lot growing up, because I was so thin; everyone made fun of


me. The girls in my grade would taunt me for having an eating disorder, which I did not. It became so bad that I couldn’t even go near the bathroom after lunch because they would say that I was throwing up my food. I would come home crying and look at myself in the mirror thinking something was wrong with me. My doctor even told me I needed to gain weight, but I just couldn’t. I don’t know how the metabolism and all that science works, but it’s simply hard for me to gain weight. Growing up I thought that if I was a bigger size I would be normal, and that was all I wanted. As I got older, my body started to even out but I was still super thin, so the comments continued into adulthood. People would say, “You’ve got a string hanging off your dress. Oh wait, that’s your leg,” “Eat a burger”, “Only dogs go for bones”, “You need meat on your bones” and the worst “Real women have curves” as if the number on the scale somehow makes me less of a womanI have to ask, if we’re so quick to blame our genes for making us fat, why wouldn’t genes be responsible for women being skinny? Why, if someone is naturally thin do people automatically assume they have an eating disorder? We aren’t sick; we just look different than some of you. Naturally thin people can eat good meals and still look the same. Eating more food does not necessarily equal gaining weight, and frankly, telling someone they have an eating disorder and look like they need a good meal is just as rude as telling someone they look like they could afford to lose a few pounds. I was appalled to find out that the same

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thing happened to Miley Cyrus after her VMAs performance last year. Mika Brezinski from Morning Joe commented on Miley’s performance, “That young lady, who is 20, is obviously deeply troubled, deeply disturbed…probably has an eating disorder.”

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I personally didn’t like Miley’s performance because I didn’t think it was good on a talent level, but it is downright offensive to assume that she has an eating disorder. Where did that even come from? Is there any proof that Miley has an eating disorder? How can you just look at someone and say that she probably has a serious health condition? And if she does have an eating disorder, why is it okay to mock her because of it? I have been on the Miley end of similar comments, and it is so hurtful to hear those things. Eating disorders are not a joke. They are very serious issues that cause very real harm. I have a lot of insecurities from comments like that even though I’ve never had an eating disorder. Even as an adult, I get insecure if I look too thin. I avoid wearing high heels because it makes me look taller and thinner and I


worry that people will look at me and think, “She’s probably got an eating disorder.” I can’t imagine how someone who is actually suffering from one feels when his or her condition is made a mockery of. It is so concerning that size six means that you have an eating disorder. We all have different genetics, metabolism types, and workout regimes. These factors cause us to be different sizes, and that’s how it’s always going to be. Registered dietician, Nora Norback says “While genetics and ethnicity play major roles, there is no one-size-fits-all reason why some people are slim and remain so without really trying.” See? There is no “one size fits all” reason why people are thin, just as there is none for people that are over weight, some people are just naturally built that way and they shouldn’t be criticised for that.

Coates, Erin. “Skinny Shaming. Is It Okay?” The Healthy Apron RSS. N.p., 7 Mar. 2012. Web. 26 Mar. 2014. <http://thehealthyapron.com/2012/03/07/skinny-shamingisit-okay/>. Corsetti, Caitlin. “Thin Body Shaming: I’ve Been Accused Of Having An Eating Disorder.” Gurlcom Just Because Im Skinny Doesnt Mean I Have An Eating Disorder Comments. N.p., 28 Aug. 2013. Web. 26 Mar. 2014. <http://www.gurl.com/2013/08/28/thin-body-shaming-accused-eatingdisorder/# ixzz2x3ALRSbY>. Isaacs, Tracey. “Fit, Feminist, and (almost) Fifty.” Fit Feminist and Almost Fifty. N.p., 21 Jan. 2014. Web. 26 Mar. 2014. <http://fitisafeministissue.com/2014/01/21/revisiting-the-thigh-gap-thin-bodyshamingisnt-okay-either/>. Yardegaren, Jessica. “Naturally Skinny People Have Their Own Challenges.” Naturally Skinny People Have Their Own Challenges. N.p., 15 Dec. 2009. Web. 26 Mar. 2014. <http://phys.org/news180125109.html#jCp>.

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In today’s society we are flashed with graphic images of Don’t Drink and Drive, and the increasing dominance of alcoholic adverts such examples can be seen in the sponsorship deals with sporting codes and the special docket coupons from food markets. Our society has become concerned about the dangers of excessive alcohol consumption it’s affect on us, as a community, as well as individuals has required changes to current laws in addition to new ones in order to combat these issues. Although in doing this, we have uncovered a broader issue that is linked with society’s alcoholic dependency. It is not the obvious abuse of alcohol in short periods of time but rather, the use of it in culinary dishes. The holistic dependence on alcohol by the hospitality industry alone is a major contributing factor to passive alcoholism the continual

that alcoholic depends allows you to be more socially accepted

suggestion of have a red wine with dinner has well has the addition of alcohol already in the food adds to this social depends to alcohol. It is also propagated by every single advertisement on the issue of alcohol; even the ones you think paint it in a negative light. This idea that we are unknowingly supporting an alcoholic society through food consumption, and alcohol pairing, is an interesting debate. With results of studies such as the “Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research” conducted by Sabine Vollstädt-Klein et al., alcoholic dependency allows you to be more socially accepted and ensures this social security with a continual fixation. This is reaffirmed with an article from the International Journal of Hospitality Management by Carl and Henrik Borchgrevink where they suggest that the heavy influence of alcohol among the younger population increases within the hospitality industry, which leads them to become more dependent on the drugs due to the high contact with alcohol weather it is serving it to customers or consuming it after

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works because it is the social norm (Borchgrevinka). This leads to the need to be socially active and well versed in alcoholic beverages and foods as it is the selling point of the industry. This all underlines the main point that we as a society have a need to lower our inhibitions in order to become sociable and accepted. It seems as if not engaging in this routine of eating and drinking, we are somehow considered different and then alienated because of it. This is where the use of alcohol in food becomes crucial; by thinking that we need to consume alcohol in order to be sociable, we decide to use it in the dishes we prepare for friends, family and ourselves and have it accompany that same meal.

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Why do we need to use alcohol to have an enjoyable experience with food and social events? The answer lies in this need to feel like we’re a part of this growing trend of drinking and the social connotation of relaxing with society, as a means to unwind from the worries and stresses of life. Our concern with this relaxation ideal with friends and family that cannot be met without the use of alcohol, is a dominate feature in society and will continue to be for a time to come.

Carl P. Borchgrevink, Henrik C. Borchgrevink “Self-selection and alcohol consumption”, International Journal of Hospitality Management Volume 33,( June 2013), Pages: 389–396 http:// www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278431912001417Sabine Vollstädt-Klein, Derik Hermann, Juri Rabinstein, Svenja Wichert, Oliver Klein, Gabriele Ende and Karl Mann “Increased Activation of the ACC During a Spatial Working Memory Task in Alcohol-Dependence Versus Heavy Social Drinking” , Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research Volume 34, Issue 5(May 2010), pages 771–776, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01149.x/ fullPatrizia Thoma, Christine Friedmann, Boris Suchan “Empathy and social problem solving in alcohol dependence, mood disorders and selected personality disorders” , Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews Volume 37, Issue 3, (March 2013), Pages 448–470 http://www. sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0149763413000316?via=ihub Damien Brevers, Xavier Noël, Elsa Ermer, David Dabiri, Paul Verbanck, Charles Kornreich “Unfairness sensitivity and social decision-making in individuals with alcohol dependence: A preliminary study” , Drug and Alcohol Dependence Volume 133, Issue 2, (1 December 2013), Pages 772–775 http://www. sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0376871613003293?via=ihub Nancy Milio, “Nutrition and health: Patterns and policy perspectives in food-rich countries” , Social Science & Medicine Volume 29, Issue 3,( 1989), Pages 413–423 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/ pii/0277953689902906?via=ihub Asli F. Ceylan-Isik , Shawna M. McBride, Jun Ren “Sex difference in alcoholism: Who is at a greater risk for development of alcoholic complication?” Life Sciences Volume 87, Issues 5–6, (31 July 2010), Pages 133–138 http://www.sciencedirect.com/ science/article/pii/S0024320510002432?via=ihub\ JEFFRY H. LARSON & BRAD M. REEDY “Family Process as a Mediator of the Negative Effects of Parental Alcoholism on Young Adult Dating Relationships” The American Journal of Family Therapy Volume 32, Issue 4,( 2004), pages 289-304 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01926180490454665#.UzNvbo0yauI http://search.proquest.com/docview/1319181190?accountid=36155


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Australians are purveyors of great foods and all things tasty, and with beer it is no exception. The lifeblood for many has strayed away from being just a staple for after finishing work but more of a tasty delicacy to be enjoyed like a fine wine. This has become apparent in today’s drinking culture as many are making the switch from the big brands such as VB, Carlton Draught and Hahn to the hand crafted microbrewery scene. With such a vast range of beer available, why would we stick to just the handful you see on every tap in Australia? First of all, what is a microbrewery? A microbrewery is usually a smallscale independent brewery focusing on flavour and technique rather than mass production. It started in the United Kingdom in the 1970s and has since been adopted by many countries as regular practice all around the world. Today, there are over 100 microbreweries established within Australia, which amounts to roughly only 2% of the total Australian beer market. Yet a surge in popularity has skyrocketed craft brands onto the major beer scene.

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Micro brewed beer is more about attitude than size of distillery. It’s all about flavour and the love of beer. Which is why big businesses can’t rely on the generation that grew up drinking their beer and overpopulating the taps of every pub, to attract new customers. Local craft brewers are experimenting with new techniques and styles to entice people and the “locally produced” label goes further than the mass produced lagers you see currently. Australians are big drinkers with beer consumption levels at around 1762.4 million litres per year. But why the curiosity for trying new independent concoctions at usually a higher price, than the cheaper mainstream equivalent? According to australiancraftbeer.org, the reproduced article from James Smith, the answer is in the access to available information about the types of beer and brewing techniques. What’s happening on the forefront of the beer industry also plays a part in educating people about what are the latest trends and options available. People are willing to pay a bit more money for a beer that they really enjoy. They want new flavours and styles other than the usual lager. The increase in craft beer popularity is due to the rising

availability of various brands. Local taps outside the breweries are featuring more craft beer, creating a statement and new access for the general public. Usually what your drinking goes with where you’re drinking. Beer is versatile and can be drunk anywhere, however the location is important. Whether it’s brewery location or the venue the beer is being consumed at, customers will find it affects what beverages are on offer. For example, people drinking at inner city venues are

The new license means more people will be able to open and own bars. It also means our drinking culture is going to change.


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usually spoilt for choice as the city provides more options due to the large range of clientele. Venturing into a trendy bar you don’t want to see VB on tap, instead people want exclusive tasty drops. The bar hoppers of today, especially the youth, have a smorgasbord of beers available in new bars and clubs and are becoming educated with beers that taste better, not to mention a disposable income lifestyle. New South Wales and Victoria play host to the biggest number of microbreweries established in state as you may expect. But the size of a city may not be playing as big a part in this as you think. Western Australia is not far behind which leads us to wonder; is it the culture rather than the size of state? In 2008, Sydney’s alcohol license reform changed the game allowing smaller bars to open due to lower application fees and the compulsory need to serve food where there is alcohol was removed. People now have more access to bars where they can have a good tasting drink in a quieter setting. TimeoutSydney. com states “the new and much more flexible license means more people will be able to open and own bars. It also means our drinking culture is going to change. For many, it’ll be less about drinking in Upon talking to the head brewer of the the 4 PInes Brewery; Andrew Tweddell, it was understood that generating the rise in popularity of the 4 Pines craft was no easy task - “The 4 Pines success story started with relying on the tourism generated from the Manly location along with a clientelle in need for good local beer.” When asked about the rise in craft/microbrewed beer he said; “with the government taxing alcohol so much these days its no wonder craft beer has taken off. People dont just want to get pissed on beer any more, they want to get pissed on good beer and when its so expensive you may as well drink the best.”

Young Henrys Brewery resides in the heart of Newtown Sydney where its head brewer; Richard Adamson and his team create exciting new brewing innovations in the form of delicious lagers, ales and ciders.

Sourced from: from:www.4pinesbeer.com.au/

Sourced from: www.younghenrys.com/

Much like 4 Pines, Young Henrys started by realising that Sydney has not seen new inspiring beer produced within the industry in recent times - “...it was lovers of great beer getting together to discuss hopes and dreams for the Australian craft beer industry, particularly it’s growth and development in Sydney. For too long, Sydney had been seen to be lagging the rest of the country in terms of new, innovative and exciting breweries.”

After travelling around Canada part owner of Mountain Goat Beer Cam Hines, found that Australia was missing out in terms of good tasting craft beer - “...When I turned up in Vancouver a friend took me out to some local bars serving a host of local microbrews on tap. I just suddenly got the picture and realised what Dave was striving for back home. My perception of beer got turned upside down right then and there. So I sent Dave a postcard that said something like “Dave, we gotta talk, we need to start a microbrewery in Melbourne…”

Sourced from: http://www.goatbeer.com.au/

beer barns and pokie dens and more about choice. The new laws promote flexibility for licensees, with simplified liquor license categories and special arrangements for small bars, live music venues, wineries and tourism operators”. In saying this, those who wish to start a microbrewery have a better chance of offering their craft to the people in Sydney due to public accessibility and cheaper establishment costs.

Hefeweizen and Extra Special Bitter (ESB). The company follows German beer purity laws which states that no beer should consist of anything but malt, yeast, hops and water.

Like wine, beer breweries and especially microbreweries, are usually set up in tourist locations. Well-established companies such as Young Henrys in the middle of Sydney, Stone and Wood from Byron Bay and 4 Pines, Manly, have great access to tourists and where there are little to no craft beers available. In 2008, the 4 Pines Brewing Company set up shop in the beach suburb of Manly. With origins from Western Australia, co-owners Jaron Mitchell and Nick D’Espeissis and the support of Jarons family, started up the business after realising there was no good beer around Sydney. 4 Pines are a classic success story, creating a great tasting spread of beers with no close competition. The company thrived and couldn’t keep up with demand starting with only 4 types of beer; Kolsch, Pale,

This method made it possible for them to win many awards such as gold at the Sydney Beer Competition and the Sydney Royal Fine Foods Festival (not to mention the hearts of local beer lovers.) Today, 4 Pines have a large craft selection with specialty brews being released throughout the year, including a cider that has


People dont just want to get pissed on beer any more, they want to get pissed on good beer become part of the regular crew due to an influx of Australian popularity in recent years. 4 Pines have cracked a market where there was a need for great tasting beer, produced locally and having an attitude to reflect, “Kegs of 4 Pines beer have found a niche market at the likes of the Local Taphouse, Australia Hotel and Arthouse Hotel” (4pines.com.au). This local microbrewery has played a part in why craft beer has found a place in the local drinking culture. Craft beers are no longer for the old retiree working in his garage; they have grown to be decent competition with mainstream brands. To name just one reason for the rise of craft beer within Australia in recent years is impossible. A combination of access to information about brewing techniques and ingredients, the growing availability of craft beers in venues and festivals, and the general shift in consumer taste palettes play a big part. Australia has taken a while to get to this position in regards to micro brewed beer, but is now showing promising signs that it’s not going away any time soon. “Australian Beers & Beer Brands in Australia.” - Yahoo!7. N.p., 13 Oct. 2010. Web. 26 Mar. 2014. <http://au.totaltravel.yahoo.com/travel-info/about-australia/a/-/8127866/australianbeers-beer-brands-in-australia/>. “Australian Bureau of Statistics.” 4307.0.55.001. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 May 2014. <http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/4307.0.55.001main+features42012-13>. “Crafty Pint.” 4 Pines (NSW) -Beer -. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2014. <http://craftypint.com/beer/brewery/4-pines-nsw/>. “Mountain Goat Beer.” Mountain Goat Beer. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 May 2014. <http://www.goatbeer.com.au/>. “RISE UP!.” Craft Beer Rising. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2014. <http://www.craftbeerrising.com.au/>. Rigby, Myffy, and Annette Ekin . “Sydney’s Liquor licensing laws.” Time Out Sydney. N.p., 25 Mar. 2008. Web. 26 Mar. 2014. <http://www.au.timeout.com/sydney/bars/features/1531/sydneys-liquor- licensing-laws>. Simpson, Willie. “Article 01.” 4 Pines ». N.p., 11 May 2010. Web. 26 Mar. 2014. <http://www.4pinesbeer.com.au/blog-board/article-01>. “Young Henrys Newtown Brewery.” Young Henrys. N.p., n.d Web. 2 May. 2014. <http://www.younghenrys.com/>.

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By Beatrice Parfait Usually when I tell someone that I’m Mauritian, I either get “Where’s that?” or “I thought you were South American…” Though considering how small Mauritius is, it isn’t too surprising. Mauritius is a small island republic located east of Madagascar, and its land mass is smaller than the Australian Capital Territory. Mauritian food is a combination of French, Creole, Indian, Chinese, African and European influences due to being colonised by both the French and the British; with the Chinese and Indians immigrating to Mauritius to work in the sugar cane fields. This diversity shaped the cuisine of Mauritius. My family migrated to Australia in the 80s, so they brought their food and customs along with them. Though nowadays it’s done in a more subtle way. Funnily enough, most of the time when we have Mauritian food, it’s actually at my grandparents’ house rather than at home. Whether it’s the atchar (atchar is a side dish of pickled vegetables though how it’s made varies depending on who makes it), which is always on the table, or the horribly overcooked roasts they make for family lunches, there’s always something that reminds them about home.

103 Unfortunately that meant that their roasts would look like a rock so no one would eat it


Sadly, my grandparents tend to severely overcook their meat out of a habit their parents developed while they were younger. In Mauritius, most of their meat was imported frozen. Since the origin of the meat was not always clear, they would thoroughly cook any meat to prevent food poisoning. Unfortunately that also meant that their roasts would look like a rock so no one would eat it at our family gatherings. At least my grandfather is the master of pickles in my part of the family.

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But at home, Mauritian influences appear in a different way. All the cultures that have mixed together in Mauritius constantly make appearances on the family dinner table, although without the atchar. However we used to make other pickles that we ate with everything as well. This includes our consumption of rice on an almost daily basis, which was introduced by Chinese immigrants in the late 19th Century and has become a staple in Mauritius.

Personally, I find one of the more interesting things is the mix of Creole and French with English when it comes to certain food related terms. Some words which were originally part of my parents and grandparents vocabulary was the word “Gajack” which is a similar word to snacks and usually the fried kind, which we don’t always eat because it makes the house smell sometimes after you’ve fried food. It’s also a habit of my grandparents and relatives to make so many (maybe too many) snacks that you end up feeling full before the actual meal. So full that you end up wanting to roll yourself out the door because you’re stuffed. “Piment” is another word commonly used in my grandparents’ house, which translates to chilli but is really used as a word to describe any sort of heat or spice, usually in some of the side dishes and other pickles that would occasionally appear on the dinner table on rotation. In the end, I think that after almost 25 years of my family living in Australia, instead of making it a priority to preserve their culture, they’ve decided to use the influences of their background to enhance the food we eat today. And I hope it stays like that for many generations to come.


African Development Bank Group. “Open Data For Mauritius.” 2014. 23 March 2014. ion. “Mauritius Produces More Fish But Less Food In 2013.” 21 March 2014. Ion News. 23 March 2014. Knoema. “Mauritius - Food Exports - Meat.” 2012. March 20 2014. Matusky, David. “Every Culture.” 2006. 10 March 2014. Statistics Mauritius. “Agriculture and Fish Production: Year 2012.” March 2013. Statistics Mauritius. 23 March 2014. Wikipedia. “Australian Capital Territory.” 2014. Wikipedia. 20 March 2014. Wikipedia. “Cuisine of Mauritius.” 2014. Wikipedia. 20 March 2014. Wikipedia. “Culture of Mauritius.” 2014. Wikipedia. 23 March 2014. Wikipedia. “Mauritius.” March 2014. Wikipedia. 20 March 2014.

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L E B AT E A S E By Kristina Hekeik

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When you are younger, food says a lot about who you are and where you’ve come from. Between my grandmother and my mother there was no escape from my culture. Growing up in primary school 20 years ago, where I felt i was outnumbered by my fellow Aussie friends, although I was born in Australia and so to where my parents, coming from a strong Lebanese background, wasn’t the easiest of things, particularly when the bell rang out for recess or lunch time. It was a break from the regimen of the day where vegemite sandwiches were the brown bag standard, and anything other than that was regarded plain old weird. As soon as I heard the bell, I felt that I had to run for cover. I can remember attempting to find a hidden place in the playground to eat my recess which usually consisted of Sao biscuits smothered with humus (boiled and crushed chickpeas mixed with tahini-a sesame seed extract) whilst my pig tailed friends indulged in fairy bread or a packet of chips. Lunch time was much the same, back to my little hole because I usually had some kind of Lebanese flat bread, rolled

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like a Cuban cigar, packed, dripping in oil, and oregano, whilst everybody else was eating either canteen food or “regular” sliced bread sandwiches smothered with vegemite, peanut butter or jam. The problem with my lunch was that once you found the hiding place, you could smell that fragrant oregano sauce a mile away. Nowadays, the sauce on my sandwich I was hiding is known as “Zatar”! Perhaps more commonly referred to as “Dookah”. A combination of dried oregano, parsley, mint and sesame combined together with oil. Extra virgin of course! In true Middle Eastern fashion. And if that wasn’t enough, the remnants of the finely chopped parsley stuck in my teeth and crushed wheat replacing my fillings after hewing into a bowl of tabouli would last until brushing my teeth at bed time. I distinctly recall on many occasions when I would come home to my mum in tears, begging her to pack the same triangular cut sandwiches for me so that I might be spared the embarrassment by my cruel friends. I even told her that I was dumping my lunch and was going hungry. “Be proud of your “heritage” she would explain. It only took her another two years to finally relent where I would be holding the famous triangles in hand in the playground. By the time I had reached my mid-teens, my pig tailed friends had changed their views, and were now asking me to bring the Lebanese food to school.

The problem with my lunch was that once you found the hiding place, you could smell that fragrant oregano sauce a mile away


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The Lebanese cuisine is a fragrant and savoury mix of Mediterranean and Middle Eastern traditions. As I look back at those early years it struck me that whilst my country has many obstacles, it seems that we as a society are embracing the ingredients that go into the melting pot of Australian culture. I have personally learnt an important lesson from my Lebanese roll. Today I am still proud of my Lebanese roots. I have told that little girl in the playground to be proud of herself and her culture.

“20 Top Middle Eastern Foods -- Which Is the Best?” CNN Travel. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 May 2014.

There’s clearly a reason why so many chefs and people around the world have grown fond of cooking in the true Lebanese fashion. It is hailed internationally as the go- to cuisine when it comes to simple yet nourishing and tasty meals. Unlike many other culinary styles found in the middle east, it is also surprisingly vegetarian friendly and makes extensive use of all its healthy ingredients such as extra virgin oils, mixed spices, fresh in season vegetable’s and a variety of dried legumes to tantalize your very tastebuds. There are many meals within the Lebanese cuisine which will tease your imagination, and from which you can draw your culinary inspirations for healthy but creative cooking.

“Lebanese Cuisine.” Lebanese : Food Safari : SBS Food. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 May 2014.

How time, food and people have changed over the years! No longer do I feel the need to hide, but rather stand proud of my family traditions and culture. Standing in a queue waiting for a freshly carved kebab roll is now the norm. People are flocking from everywhere and venturing into Lebanese restaurants around the world to sample the best and healthiest of culinary delights.

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Pop in the Kitchen

Poppin’ Cookin is the weirdest phenomenon I’ve ever experienced. You receive a box plastered in colourful pictures of food and cute cartoons. All the text and instructions are in Japanese. You open the box to find a foil packet to cut up and use as food wrappers. Inside the foil packet is a plastic tray that also needs to be cut up, a whole bunch of different powders in small foil packets and a spatula to be used for mixing and cutting. The idea is to mix the strange powders with water to make food. Under the strict direction of a few youtube videos, I set out to make the weirdest food I’ve never eaten.

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Cheeseburger Meal

The novelty of this was not lost on me. I took great care in assembling the chip packet and the drink cup. It even came with cheeseburger wrappers. The entire process was alot messier than youtube had lead me to believe, and a great deal more difficult than I thought. As a twenty year old, I struggled to completely mix the powders with the prescribed amount of water. It is clear that this product is marketed towards children and tweens, though I fail to see how a child could complete this kit successfully. The meat patty smells like real meat and it is more than slightly disturbing. The kit’s redeeming quality is the real fizz that occurs when adding water to the cola powder. The cheese was incredibly difficult to create, and the texture and consistency was very unrealistic. The buns came out of the microwave rock hard, which baffled me. Overall, this kit was fun, but I probably wouldn’t recommend it for children. I most definitely wouldn’t recommend eating anything from it, either.


Donuts

This kit came packaged almost exactly the same as the cheeseburgers, without the wrappers to be cut up. The powders definitely smelled much better. I had the same struggles with mixing in the water, and most of the mixtures ended up extremely crumbled, but the process was slightly cleaner. Ideally, you would make approximately six donuts from this kit. I only managed to get four. The moulds were hard to use, and due to the crumbled nature of the mixtures, it was incredibly difficult to get good looking donuts, and to get them out of the moulds. This kit did not require microwaving, so the dough was much softer, and could atleast be remodelled once removed. The icing was extremely runny and did not want to stay on top of the donuts. While this kit is probably more suitable for children, I would recommend parental supervision while icing. The high point of this kit was the super adorable â&#x20AC;&#x153;crushed nutsâ&#x20AC;? and sprinkles that were included. I would have much more attractive donuts if the icing would participate.

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This Little Piggy Went to Market, That Little Piggy Went to? By Katy Osmond

The fresh produce that we expect to only be on our plates, may unexpectedly not only be there but around us. When is food not used for purely food purposes, and what might have been waste is given a new purpose?

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Perhaps being a healthier cigarette and taking the meaning of smoked bacon to a whole new level

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Everyday we consider what we put into our bodies, but do we ever stop to wonder what we surround ourselves with, or what our objects are made out of? Each day we make conscious health choice, whether it be low fat, low sugar, no carb, lactose free or even vegan or vegetarianism, but sometimes what is placed on our plates at dinner time can turn up in other places throughout our day to day routine without even realising it. The by-products of a number of animals that are not necessarily used solely for food purposes but are also found in the most unexpected places, and the fruit and vegetables we are told are good for us from the get go might be better then what we expected.


Our furry friends have come to be a lot more than just a means of survival as they were in primitive time, perhaps not necessities but contribute to our lives being easier. Ever had a shower with a pig? Thought not, but to your surprise you actually have, a wide number of bathroom products such as body lotion, soap, shampoo, conditioner and tooth paste contain boiled down fatty acids from pork bone and fat, used as a hardening agent and to give off a pearly shine. A company in Greece produces cigarettes containing pigâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s haemoglobin in the filter, according to them creating an artificial lung, perhaps being a healthier cigarette and taking the meaning of smoked bacon to a whole new level. After your shower you might go into your living room which you have just painted, the paint in which contains pig fat to add texture and glossiness, that you painted with a paint brush made of pigs hairs, used due to their hard, durable, wiry nature. You might sit at your natural timber table which has been sanded with sand paper, the sand being stuck to the paper with glue that is made of bone glue. Sitting at your table you might drink a beer, which in its brewing process uses a gelatin filter that rids the beer of cloudy elements and compounds. This is also done in wine making and fruit juice production.

on film may just not be ideal if youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re a vegan photographer. Why you might ask? Because just about all photographic film and paper are made with some trace of animal parts in it. This mainly is due to the thickness of film being made out of gelatin, which is used to infuse silver halide crystals in a bond. Many have tried inventing a substitute for this process, but have not been able to find anything that is as stable or as cheap as gelatin. Though with all this Though pigs are not the only animals that are used in the production of in mind, it is only some products not food used for non-food purposes, cattle too are used for a wide number all that contain animal products. of things. Despite being an almost dated process of photography, shooting

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For all the crafty folk out there, fruit and vegetables can too be used to create something other than a tasty salad. Naturally dyed fabrics have been known to date back to the Neolithic period (the new stone age, around 10,000 BCE), but have been faded out since the introduction of synthetic dyes since the 1860â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Despite this, some eco-friendly, environmentally conscious brands still carry out the practice through the use of vegetables, fruits, teas and spices.

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We all know eating what is good for us can increase your life span or low chances of obtaining a life threatening illness, but when put into that situation of actually having an illness such as cancer, can food really help us? Perhaps eating an apple a day might not keep the doctor away but a peach seed? It has been found that the seeds of a peach, apricot, nectarines, plums and almonds contain a high concentration of a chemical laetrile or know as B-17, that has been said to kill cancer cells whilst being non-toxic to normal cells and an alternative treatment to cancer, helping patience stay in remission and also provide pain relief from cancer. Although not being seen as a viable treatment in places such as the USA, it is seen in cultures such as Hunza and the Karakorum (of the region bordering Pakistan, India, and China), where their diet is rich in laetrile are known as â&#x20AC;&#x153;cancer-free peopleâ&#x20AC;?. Becoming aware of what surrounds us in our day to day life can be quite confronting. To think that the food we consume without really thinking where the produce, the crops, the livestock, and the non-renewable materials comes from, to where it ends up in the world around us. In a wasteful society, it is somewhat of a comforting notion that the products we use as food are used to the full extent.


Joliate, Julie. ‘PIG 05049 : Christien Meindertsma’. Christienmeindertsma.com. N. p., 2014. Web. 13 Mar. 2014. Meindertsma, Christien. ‘How Pig Parts Make The World Turn’. http://www.ted.com/ talks/christien_meindertsma_on_pig_05049/ transcript. 2014. Presentation. Meindertsma, Christien. ‘PIG 05049 : Christien Meindertsma’. Christienmeindertsma.com. N. p., 2014. Web. 13 Mar. 2014. Meindertsma, Christien. ‘Transcript Of “How Pig Parts Make The World Turn”’. Ted.com. N. p., 2014. Web. 11 Mar. 2014. Pell, Sania. ‘Sania Pell At Home – The Blog » Blog Archive » The Colour Of Food: Homemade Fabric Dyes’. Saniapell.com. N. p., 2013. Web. 14 Mar. 2014. Pell, Sania. ‘Sania Pell At Home – The Blog » Blog Archive » The Colour Of Food: Homemade Fabric Dyes’. Saniapell.com. N. p., 2013. Web. 13 Mar. 2014. Zhang, Michael. Did You Know: Film And Photo Paper Are Made Using Animal Parts. 2011. Web. 14 Mar. 2014 Cancer.org,. ‘Laetrile’. N. p., 2012. Web. 15 Mar. 2014.

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CON UM P ON II O By Nick Mudge

S T .


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World hunger stands as a major issue where people living in third world or developing countries are dying from starvation and lack of nutrition every day. This issue has prompted questions such as ‘why don’t the rich people in the world just donate money to buy food and help these people?’. This could be a plausible concept, however what if this epidemic could be solved in a much simpler way, which is beneficial for everyone involved. Food waste and food over consumption, especially in developed countries is at a peak. “Roughly one third of the food produced in the world for human consumption every year - approximately 1.3 billion tonnes - gets lost or wasted.” (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). What if simply being sensible and constricting the amount of waste and reducing over consumption

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Roughly one third of the food produced in the world for human consumption every year - approximately 1.3 billion tonnes gets lost or wasted could then be converted into delivering nutritious food goods for those dying of starvation. There is an extreme contrast in terms of food consumption and income spent on food in first and third world countries which, if reduced could be used to bring a much needed boost to starving communities. When comparing the United States of America to areas such as Angola and Tanzania, the US spends only 6.9% of their income of food, where Tanzanian’s spend on average 75-80%. In addition to this, “the US consumes 85% more food than Angola / Tanzania” (DiSanto), despite that food only occupies a small portion of income for the US. To further communicate this vast difference between first and third world countries, the infographic adjacent demonstrates the consumption rates of the highest and lowest 5 countries in the world. The left image conveys the over consumption of first world countries such as the US, Portugal and Greece which exceed thousands of calories over the daily recommendation. The infographic to the right demonstrates the same information for the lowest 5 countries, where severe under consumption occurs, thousands of calories shy of the daily recommendation.


TOP 5 CONSUMERS

BOTTOM 5 CONSUMERS

5. GREECE

5. ETHIOPIA

4. ITALY

3. IRELAND 4. ANGOLA

2. PORTUGAL 3. TAJIKISTAN

1. USA 2. ZAMBIA

1. CONGO

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Information such as this however proposes the question, ‘what is the reason for such over consumption in first world regions like the United States?’. The answer lies in food cost and food quality. According to DiSanto, the US only consumes an extra 100-200 calories per person per day more than European countries, while having to pay less than half the cost in comparison. This comes down to the mass amount of cheap, processed, fast food outlets in developed countries which severely impact on the health of a mass number of citizens, hence recent rises in obesity levels. However, this situation seems quite reversed, shouldn’t the developed world be healthier? Rather than using the world class technologies available to progress health further, developed countries have become lazy, falling into habit where using technology is not always for the benefits of the user, but more so for convenience. It is this laziness which leads to a higher consumption of fats and sugars, contrasting the cleaner, healthier eating of countries less established and malnourished.

“Today, the United States, Belgium, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Costa Rica, and Mexico are among the countries with the highest per capital consumption of sugar in the world. Another big change in diet that has occurred over a similar timeframe is fat consumption. In the developing world, the highest per capital fat consumption rates are in East Asia and Southern Africa, but these are not even half that of industrialised nations.”

It is concerning to understand that the developed world can in some respects be so far ahead, yet at the same time blinded to the fact that consumption has reached a point beyond where it should. Perhaps it is time to to reflect on what is important; people are starving because they are physically and economically unable to provide the needed food for themselves, while others are eating themselves to death. What do we need to change? Food for thought.

In the developing world, the highest per capital fat consumption rates are in East Asia and Southern Africa, but these are not even half that of industrialized nations.

DiSanto, Bryan. “What The World’s Food Consumption Looks Like [Infographic].”What The World’s Food Consumption Looks Like [Infographic]. N.p., 10 May 2012. Web. 26 Mar. 2014. http://www.leanitup.com/what-the-worlds-food-consumption-looks-like-infographic. “Key Findings.” Save Food: Global Initiative on Food Losses and Waste Reduction: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2014. http://www.fao.org/save-food/key-findings/en/. “Nutrition guidelines.” Australian Healthy Food Guide. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Mar. 2014. http://www.healthyfoodguide.com.au/resources/nutrition-guidelines. Paddock, Catharine. “Overweight and obesity in developing countries ‘alarming’.” Medical News Today. MediLexicon International, 6 Jan. 2014. Web. 26 Mar. 2014. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/270803.php


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Misteaken By Michaela Parry

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If I got a vegetable for every time someone questioned or mocked my vegetarian diet choices, I would have enough food to feed a small town. So, this statement may be a tad dramatic and unrealistic, but I’m just trying to keep up with the trends of most meat eaters. I can’t help but laugh when people feel the need to tell me being a vegetarian must be really shit. It’s not as if I walk around and tell people they shouldn’t eat meat, instead, only when asked, I explain to them why I don’t eat meat. I’ve noticed that some meat eaters can never be satisfied with this, and feel that they must educate me on how dangerous it is for my body. As Jonathan Safran Foer (33), author of ‘Eating Animals,’ believes, “I have often felt that my vegetarianism matters more to such people than it does to me.” When discussing vegetarianism with a friend, his response included, “You have to eat more


I can’t help but laugh when people feel the need to tell me being a vegetarian must be really shit to get the same protein as I can from one delicious, juicy steak.” When I asked how much protein we actually need, he responded, “I know most vegetarians suffer from iron deficiency due to the constraints of the amount of protein we need to consume… You need a balance of foods.” So, according to some meat eaters, humans need meat in order to avoid an iron deficiency. The last time I checked, I don’t have one. I am not here to rant on about how close-minded some people are, but it would be nice to let people know that their assumptions are nothing more than just that- assumptions. There are a number of reasons as to why people choose a vegetarian or vegan lifestyle, and many myths regarding this topic. Before addressing my lifestyle choices, I feel it is important to share some information commonly hidden from the public eye. Even I myself am still learning things. Areas such as environmental issues, animal welfare and health bare the most significant ignorance and misconception. When people think of vegetarianism, people don’t automatically think it has positive benefits on the environment. With the population continuously growing, it is easy to forget that the demand for meat is also growing. As author of ‘Vegetarianism,’ Justin Healey (3) states, “The stress this [places] on food resources is enormous.” It’s shocking to discover that to produce only one kilogram of beef requires between 50,000 to 100,000 litres of water. Not only this, but just one cow can produce around 4,000 kilograms of carbon dioxide per year. Comparing this to one human only producing 300 kilograms (Healey 4-9). Making these facts known to the general public may just put their eating habits into a new perspective.

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Having respect for animals is not a requirement for most in the meat industry. And the process from birth to plate rarely seems to be questioned by meat eaters. As Healey (7) puts it, “Hidden from public view is the death-driven meat industry that treats sentient life forms as an economic production company.” It’s what happens literally behind closed doors and is something that I will never be able to understand. Even today, most Australian animals are raised in factory farming. This means they may never see the sun shining, and never taste or feel the grass beneath their feet. Instead, they are kept in sheds, and only fed processed foods that normally contain growth-promotants. As people tuck into their chicken wings, are they actually going to know that chickens are bred to grow three times faster than their natural rate? Just because I don’t eat meat doesn’t mean I am malnourished and riddled with deficiencies. Foer (144) investigated the health benefits of vegetarianism, and found that the American Dietetic Association (ADA) summarise vegetarian diets to be “…Lower in saturated fat and cholesterol, and have higher levels of dietary fibre, magnesium and potassium, vitamins C and E, folate, carotenoids, flavonoids, and other phytochemicals.” In response to the perceptions of my meat eating friend, Foer (144) also discovers, “Despite some persistent confusion, it is clear that vegetarians and vegans tend to have more optimal protein consumption than omnivores.” So, why have I chosen this lifestyle? The three issues that I just covered all have some significance towards my dietary choices, but animal welfare was my original reason. Years ago, I was browsing the Internet for a vegetarian recipe which eventually lead me to a video called ‘Meet


Healey, Justin. Issues In Society: Vegetarianism. The Spinney Press: Thirroul NSW, 2012. Print.

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The term ‘vegetarian’ contains so many negative connotations, and I will probably never understand why the majority of people I meet enjoy crafting flaws in my lifestyle. Through my experiences, I am posing a challenge: Open your mind to new things, and try educating yourself on topics before you react. And if you still perceive my life to be shitty, then the shitty life is for me. Foer, Jonathan S. Eating Animals. Hatchette Book Group: New York, 2009. Print.

your Meat.’ This video revealed the truth behind how animals are treated in factory farming. I was so ashamed and upset, that I started crying. It was obvious that I could not take part in eating animals again. Some could argue that I am a hypocrite, as I still eat animal by-products, such as eggs. This is an issue that I am working on, and I am making more conscious decisions towards these products. I also believe that everyone has a choice in how they want to live. I am not going to tell people how to live their lives, just as I wouldn’t want in return.


DEAR CUSTOMERS By Shayle Bromfield

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“Hi everyone, my name is Shay and I work in hospitality”. This is what I will say when I make it into therapy, you know, one of those group therapy sessions like Alcoholics Anonymous or those ones for trauma victims. I love when people ask me what I do, however , I usually reply with “Oh, I work in hospitality, front of house staff”. The long version of what I really do would be something along the lines of “Oh, I am a order taker, wine pouring, kitchen communicating WARRIOR, whom also dabbles in being a children’s entertainer, cleaner, marathon runner, heavy weight lifter, and dog minding MACHINE. Amongst many other things. The hospitality industry is brutal. It can pull you in, absorb your soul and sooner or later you will be dumped out of the other end, exhausted and hating people. However, people who have never worked in hospitality do not understand this. They do not understand why things are done the way they are done or why I can’t change this one thing for them when we are busy. (Side note: I work in a restaurant that seats 120 people at one time). So my dear customer, this is for you.

131 I do not have four arms. I think this point is self explanatory in the sense that NOBODY has four arms or even three arms for that matter. There is a limitation for what I can do for you at one time. Let me use an example to help me illustrate this concept a tad more colourfully for you; when both of my arms are shaking from the weight of holding twenty plates at one time, I can NOT take you order. Do not even bothering calling me over (that includes you, waving your hands in the corner, I do see you by the way). All that is going through my mind is how heavy these god damn plates are and “do not drop them” repeating itself over and over in my head. This all happens whilst I dodge that one customer that does not sit in their seat. Also on this point, whilst I can carry five plates when setting you up for you meal (I’m lazy and don’t really have time to come back to you a second time), when the plates have food on them THREE is the maximum I can carry. So if I get to a table of four people and one of the dishes is not with me chances are I am going back to get it or someone is following with your dish (Side note: Do NOT ask where it is or mention that I don’t have it in my hands). I am not a MONSTER! Do not wave me down. Ever. You should also refrain from whistling, clicking or getting out of your seat to ask me for something when I am with another table. I run a section, let me put emphasis on the word SECTION, which basically means you are not my only table. I need to split my time evenly amongst all tables and when you become an attention hogging douche bag, it impacts on your experience and the experience of other customers. (Side note: it also pisses me off, resulting in me not wanting to come back to your table). I promise I am coming to you and I will get there in good time. Also on this note I would just like to point out that I am not a dog, whistling does not make me come to you, so please restrain yourself as you are the one looking like a fool.


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If you are not ready to order- tell me! Also, if you want me to take your order but the rest of your table hasn’t made up their minds yet, you are not ready to order. This concept is hard for people to get, however let me start by telling you that time is precious in the hospitality industry. There is also a major difference between your concept of time and my concept of time. For starters, when I ask if you need a minute I literally mean a minute. I AM A MACHINE and therefore can power through a minute whilst completing ten things for others to be back at your table. If you need five please tell me. Whilst on this topic of time, my time is just as precious as yours and everyone else’s, even though you don’t see you are wasting my time when you are ‘umming’ and ‘ahhing’, you are and you are also wasting everyone else’s time on top of that. Efficiency is a major part of my job therefore if you waste my time all I am thinking about is all of the four hundred other things I could have done whilst waiting for you to order. (Side note: I am lazy, I don’t want to come back to your table five times for one thing as I already take enough steps in one day, therefore to combat this I have learnt to work efficiently and do more than one thing at one time.) Keep your children in check. I am not a babysitter and in reality I do not like children. I do not like them standing on the chair. I do not like them anywhere. Part of my job is to carry food in which the chefs have prepared from the kitchen to the table. It is hard enough to carry steaming hot plates without your children running around the table and climbing on things. (Side note: I regularly think about dropping hot lasagna on small children.) We are busy and your child is a hazard to us; they get under our legs and under our feet, running riot and causing chaos. MAKE THEM SIT THE HELL DOWN IN THEIR CHAIR. (Side note: Whilst I don’t like children, even hospitality staff whom love kids want to back hand you child into oblivion when they are getting in our way.)

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Lastly, WE ARE A FAMILY, meaning that you do not stand up and scream in the face of one of my collogues as you are yelling at the equivalent of my brother or sister and I do not take that very lightly at all. We are people too. I am not employed to meet every single demand that you may have and neither are any of my colleagues. We are there to give you the best experience we can and meet your expectations within reason. As a team we stand together; so next time you think about bad mouthing one of my sisters whom may struggle with understanding you Australian Idioms (as she is Italian), think again as I love her to bits and think you are a douche bag. Family rules apply to this. (Side note: We work at least forty hours a week with one another in a highly stressful environment; we become family due to the time we spend together and the fact that our hours are out of whack with the rest of the world.) If I want to pick on my sister or brother it is okay, if you want to, I will punch you in the nose.


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The Source  

THE SOURCE is a publication created, designed, written and published by Visual Communication students from University of Western Sydney. Our...

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