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CREATIVE COMMON GROUND RECLAIM THE IN-BETWEEN An Open-Source Approach to Public Space


CREATIVE COMMON GROUND RECLAIM THE IN-BETWEEN

An Open-Source Approach to Public Space


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Creative Common Ground Reclaiming the In-Between. An Open-Source Approach to Public Spaces by Chris Kline

Thesis document submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture at Portland State University Portland, Oregon June 2014

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PORTLAND STATE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE COLLEGE OF THE ARTS The undersigned hereby certify that the Masters thesis of Chris Kline has been approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture

Thesis Committee: Advisor B.D. Wortham-Galvin Professor of Architecture

Date

Rudy Barton Professor of Architecture

Date

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Acknowledgements Mallory, my family, my friends and my advisors.

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Abstract Opportunity exists in the landscape we have cultivated for our cities. The common result of modern urbanization and complex interaction of social, technological and economic processes have overlapped in the development of contemporary urban growth. Within the past century, a time of unprecedented growth and technological progress, effective spatial utilization, that values each parcel of land, has been forgotten. Policies and a value system that have encouraged low-intensity land-use and urban sprawl have led to a growth that has left behind margins and folds of vacant spaces. As cities fluctuate and density increases, people shift in and out of the urban core, the conditions of vacancies remain. This project aims to investigate how a design process can help reclaim and reactivate the under utilized and vacant spaces created by transit infrastructure along Portland’s Eastbank. With the Eastbank located adjacent to the Willamette River and across from Portland’s downtown core, transit infrastructure creates a margin between the natural ecology of the river and the small industrial, yet emerging, Central East side. Under utilized sites beneath elevated roadways currently consist of ad-hoc parking lots and city storage, with pedestrian and bicycle access being difficult or non-existent. These spaces exist in a state of stagnation. Participatory processes and community engagement are the activities which will support the overall design proposal, aiding in both the reactivation of these under utilized spaces and the means by which the public can be included in designing public space.

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Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction

Thesis Question������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������xiii

Territory�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������1

Highway Networks������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 17

Case Studies: An Architect’s Response������������������������������������������������������ 21

2.0 Site

Site Selection����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 29

3.0 System

System Introduction�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 38

Case Studies: Creativity of Everyday People������������������������������������������� 41

Modules����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 51

Redefining the Publics Role�����������������������������������������������������������������������������59

Open Source������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 61

Web Interface���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������63

Build Process�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������65

System Components������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 67

4.0 Site Application

Applying the System to the Site�������������������������������������������������������������������� 71

Module Adaptability������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 103

Attaching to the Overpass����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 105

5.0 Conclusion

Critical Questions��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������118

Roles Diagrams������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������119

What’s Next������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������126

References & Citations��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������127

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thesis question What new forms of urban public experience can emerge from the creative activation of seemingly under-utilized, vacant and residual urban space? How can the existing in-between condition created by highway infrastructure on Portland’s Eastbank be reactivated for public engagement?

Figure 1.0 : Taskscape of System Build

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territory

Figure 1.1 : Construction of Interstate 5, 1962

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vacant spaces Opportunity exists in the landscape we have cultivated for our cities. The common result of modern urbanization and complex interaction of social, technological and economic processes have overlapped in the development of contemporary urban growth. Within the past century, a time of unprecedented growth and technological progress, effective spatial utilization, that values each parcel of land, has been forgotten. Policies and a value system that have encouraged low-intensity land-use and urban sprawl have led to a growth that has left behind margins and folds of vacant spaces. As cities fluctuate and density increases, people shift in and out of the urban core, the conditions of vacancies remain. The idealized modern city is orderly: activities are categorized and assigned to particular zones intentionally designed to house them. Commerce takes place in shops, stores, malls and markets. Recreational activities take place in parks, gyms and sports fields. The routes between – streets, sidewalks and public transit – are intended for efficient vehicular and pedestrian traffic. This ideal guides architecture, urban design, zoning and other land use policies, with the goal of achieving a clean, safe, efficient and eminently predictable city. Where we stand now, resources are becoming more scarce, population pressures continue to expand and demands rise to create a better quality living environments. A re-evaluation has started to take place, changing the values of the recent past. We are moving beyond the simplistic birds-eye view of urban design, beyond the common master planning approach toward urbanism that has dominated for the past century. Spaces are starting to be evaluated from new perspectives and new points of view. Understanding the complex systems that exist which govern how we use space, the traditional top down regulations start to dissolve and open up, allowing a more inclusive and democratic planning processes. In this new planning process, the public is called upon to take part in shaping the landscape in which they live. Figure 1.2 : Map of vacant sites in Portland

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Expansive Industrial

INDUSTRIAL EXPANSIVE TERRITORY

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Waterfront Undeveloped

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DOWNTOWN CORE

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INFRASTRUCTURE RESIDUAL

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Hardscape

DOWNTOWN CORE

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investigating site typologies This project looks to investigate how architecture can identify the unused or under utilized spaces in the city. Within the city grid, overlap occurs leaving empty plats of land, brown-field sites, undeveloped and under-utilized spaces in the margins of urban development. The rising cost of living and land rates make it incumbent upon architects to develop programming for those spaces based on context and needs. This project looks to explore possibilities of temporary structures to pocket structures that identify with their immediate contexts. Possible sites for exploration include under freeways, adjacencies to infrastructure, brownfield sites, and undeveloped land in the city core. Exploring concepts of micro business, temporary business spaces and site based development. By examining the pattern and fabric of the city, we can understand how under-utilized spaces are created and exist. When residential density borders on the urban core, infrastructure tends to overlaps or leave margins in which the space become derelict, forgotten and unprogrammed. Through the mapping and categorization of under utilized sites, we can develop a better understanding of how to utilize the urban landscape.

Figure 1.3 : Vacant typologies in Portland

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g the pattern and fabric of the understand how under-utilized reated and exist. When ensity borders on the urban core, e tends to overlaps or leave hich the space become derelict, d unprogrammed. Through the d categorization of underutilized develop a better understanding lize the urban landscape.

RESIDENTIAL FABRIC

URBAN CORE

WATERFRON

WATERFRONT

INFRASTRUCTURE OVERLAP

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GROUNDS

c urban experience ative activation of , vacant, and

URBAN CORE

DEFINING UNDER [UTILIZED]

INFRASTRUCTURE OVERLAP

INDUSTRIAL

Factors

Factors of Under-utilization Little or no investment in program Lack of initiative Adjacencies Monetary values Ownership Zoning

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Typology Info

INFRASTRUCTURE OVERLAP

Mass transit threads through the urban landscape, causing margins and overlap. The spaces covered by the structuring of highways, bridges and other forms of transit offer opportunity on a horizontal and vertical plane. The existing cover and established structure provide a unique development opportunity

Typology Info

REMNANT SITE

Figure 1.4 : Vacant typologies study and exploration

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The forgotten, unfunded and abandoned site throughout the city fall into this typology. These sites contain partial, damaged or condemned structures, yet offer the opportunity for creative and useful programming.


Typology Info

INFRASTRUCTURE MARGINS

In areas of high transit and movement, such as the space in freeways and highways, the area in between is often rendered useless. These areas are often vast, centrally located, yet inaccessible and deemed unusable. There is an opportunity to develop these sites and beautify the city and surrounding areas.

Typology Info

WATERS EDGE

The river plays a vital role in the development of Portland and the experience in everyday city life, yet the borders remain relatively unused. The adjacencies to parks and boat docks provide the opportunity to engage with the water to enhance the usage of numerous spaces along the water's edge.

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Typology Info

HARD SCAPE

The wide expanse of city blocks and plains of pavement rarely operate at full capacity. These hardscapes support adjacent businesses, while parking spreads out more than necessary. In order to move toward a pedestrian based city, these spaces will have to change to accommodate future needs

Typology Info

EXPANSIVE INDUSTRIAL

Figure 1.5 : Vacant typologies study and exploration

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The borders of the industrial zone merge with the northern and eastern edges of the city and create expansive areas of land that go unused. Areas that operate within large scale zoning conditions, often lack the density of downtown and the residential fabric. This leaves under-developed spaces in a central location, full of potential.


initial project timeline

Typology Investigations Specific Typology Proposal Artifact Creation Graphic Proposal Per Selected Typology Comprehensive Mapping of [Underutilized] Sites Grouping of Typology Planning Documents Comprehensive Analysis of Sites for Public Consumption

Scale

Proposal Document for City Planning Regarding [Underutilized] Sites

Figure 1.6 : Proposed timeline for project, highlighting benchmarks for project success.

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investigating program possibilities

Figure 1.7 : Exploration looking at a retail program under the freeway

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Figure 1.8 : Exploration of how reclaiming abandoned spaces can be revitalized through human engagement.

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investigating program possibilities

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Figure 1.9 : (Right)Exploration of Planetarium under the overpass. (Above)Exploration of how sports and media can create collective spaces out of vacant spaces.

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With networks of highway systems becoming so ingrained into our cities fabric and an integral aspect of the city’s operation, is there opportunity to reclaim the highway as an asset in urban development?

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Figure 2.0 : Current overpass condition on the East side.

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highway networks Urban transit infrastructure, highways, freeways and the interstate, once the backbone of prominent growth of our cities, currently have left us with dividing lines embedded deep into city development. Once a solution for accessing the city, these structures have cut off the city from the inside, removing vast quantities of land to make way for the automobile. Where is the opportunity? With networks of highway systems becoming so ingrained into our cities’ fabric, being integral to the cities operation, is there opportunity to reclaim the highway as an asset in urban development? Examining the spatial conditions of the highway, we can find the vacancies, margins and inbetweens. Sites of vast potential, currently existing in states of adhoc under development, parking lots and city storage facilities, these spaces are too valuable to remain as leftover programs.

Figure 2.1 : Map looking at all the main automotive transit corridors running through Portlands Urban Growth Boundary

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establishing project goals & work timeline

Serve as a catalyst project to counterbalance the implementation of the highways, redefining areas for more meaningful public use. Engage the community in the design of public space through open-source design build programs. Create systems/practices that allow public space to be adaptable and change.

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Improve access to the river.

Mitigate the Highway: Issues of noise and scale

Improve safety in these areas.

Provide an easily accessed and understandable platform for the project.

Create a Portland specific space, but applicable and adaptable to similar conditions in other places.


Fall

Winter

Spring

Advisor or Committee Member Meeting Literary Research Artifact Creation Case Studies Process Interviews Site Analysis Production of Data Gathering Interventions Social Media Links QR Coding ‘Chair Bombing ‘or Similar Site Campaign Inhabitant Interviews Local Business Data Logging

Data Review Revisit Site Investigations Initial Proposal Idea Iteration Process Iteration Process Programming Material Investigation Design Studies Final Book Production Conclusive Proposal Graphic Production Map Making Model Building

Final Presentation


case studies an architect’s response to the highway condition

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Figure 2.2 : Buffalo Bayou Promenade. Houston, Texas.


buffalo bayou promenade SWA

The Buffalo Bayou Promenade is the 1.2 mile critical link, tying the pastoral Buffalo Bayou Park to the West, with the Theater District and Houston’s downtown to the East. The prior site of the promenade had become a trash-soaked eye-sore, with towering freeway structures crossing overhead and flooding the area with runoff during rainstorms. Previously, the water running through the bayou was filled with debris and trash as it is located at a major flood point for downtown Houston. Pedestrians in the area would drop 30’ below grade of surrounding streets, making it dangerous as visual connections were lost. The Buffalo Bayou Partnership, a non-profit organization, aimed at revitalizing the Buffalo Bayou, commissioned landscape architecture firm SWA to provide early conceptual master plans transitioning the existing site into a more pastoral and pedestrian based one. Major regarding took place to both help in reconnecting sight-lines, and reduces the impact of erosion and flooding issues. Creating access points and incorporating lighting along with public art installations provide beneficial elements to regaining pedestrian access.

Using materials that contained qualities of durability, cost effectiveness and displayed contextual relevance, SWA was intricate in the details of the project. Recycled concrete swales were placed atop new berms, absorbing the runoff from the highways up above and helping reduce further flooding in the Bayou below. Mixing a variety of new plants replaced old mono-cultures, that were riparian and flood-resistant helped improve wildlife habitat, and soften the harsh urban infrastructure and mitigate the scale of the freeways. Gabion edge treatments were placed along the edges, allowing for filtering of drainage from downtown Houston, along with creating safer and visually clear elements as one steps down towards the water. Place specific lighting was installed that had the ability to be submersed and stand up to potential vandalism. There is also lighting redundancy, to make sure that the park was consistently illuminated, especially in the dark corners and under the freeway passes,

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which is a paramount element in creating a feeling of safety on the promenade. A specific set of lights, designed by consultants, carefully locates floodlights under major bridge structures; change from blue to white to blue in accordance with the lunar cycle radiating from Allen’s Landing, the birthplace of Houston.

Relevancies Buffalo Bayou Promenade is a valuable case study as its offers valuable insight into designing public space on a site that was once considered undesirable. Prior existing site conditions were similar to site conditions and issues I currently face on potential sites I am evaluating for further thesis study. The elevated highway condition at Buffalo Bayou created undesirable space by means of visual access, noise and water runoff, however the design tactics taken by SWA to remediate those issues offer insightful strategies into how to approach these types of site complexities. The conscious choice of materials along with systems that protected the ecology of the river are subtle yet celebrated features in the design. Issues of safety and vandalism are dealt with in the same manner, with specific lighting choices and materials chosen for durability, allow the space to continue to function and avoid degradation. The large scale of the project offers insight into how to create specificity and detail in a project that is somewhat of a master planning project. The implementation of open space and small but effective program allows the space to operate as a public asset yet it offers more reason for people to travel to the site. Understanding the balance of programming public space is a difficult and complex task, as in designing a public space you want it to create equitable ground, yet you want to create a reason for people to want to reside in this space. This issue is potent in the Pioneer Courthouse Square, where as it offers open space to occupy, it also has numerous programs throughout the year to maximize the utility of the grounds and its function. [1]


Figure 2.3 : Masterplanning by SWA Buffalo Bayou Promenade. Houston, Texas.


viaduc des arts + promenade plantee Patrick Berger

The Viaduc des Arts or Paris Viaducts reclaims an abandoned and derelict rail line no longer in use by the city and reactivate them by way interventions of local businesses and pedestrian based activities. The historic urban railway, was conceived in 1858 as part of Napoleon III and Baron Haussman’s plans for Paris improvements. The rail line, or Bastille line, ran off of the Petite Cienture, a line circling much of central Paris, running from the Bastille terminus to the Bois de Vincennes of the Eastern side of the city. In 1969 the Bastille terminus was closed, but the rail line continued to be used until the mid 1980’s due to its access to the access of a prominent storage yard. Upon its full closure, the city of Paris’s planning department sought to re-develop the rail line that existed within the city limits, but with other public works projects moving to the fore front, the project constantly became sidelined and postponed any real development to the area. With a revision of the cities redevelopment policy and the creation of Atelier Parisian d’Urbanism (APUR) – Paris’s urban design agency- the under utilized rail line underwent a greater analysis which allowed the development of a more sensitive approach to the ailing and vacant rail line. In 1981, the newly elected socialists government proposed new plans to rationalize and simplify the rail network running through Paris, thus leading to the sale of the Bastille line to the city. With the sale to the city and grand projects being proposed by President Mitterrand, a new Opera was to be built on the existing site of the Bastille terminus, the idea of turning the Bastille line into an urban asset started to come into play. With APURs desire to green the city, and the new Opera being constructed at the Bastille terminus, the old Bastille line held enormous potential, being that the retained viaduct arches could provide spaces for small business, and the viaduct itself was elevated above the streets, which could be converted for reactivation by landscape and pedestrian movement. With the sale of the land to the city being final, a few more small adjacent

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sites adjoining the viaduct were also acquired, allowing for access points to be developed. Upon this APUR had started work on its master plan for the old viaduct. Patrick Berger, a French architect and planner, worked with APURs master plan, and saw the potential in the existing forms of the vaulted aqueducts. The original structure was to be respected and restrained from as much change as possible. Using the large vaults as a base for development, each was developed into spaces for small business and local shops, catering to the market that existed with the Bastille Opera nearby. Atop the vaulted viaduct, the leftover rail line was turned into a linear park, Promenade Plantee, removing pedestrians from the traffic noise and exhaust of the street and providing unexpected views into the city. The Promenade Plantee, created in 1988 by Philippe Mathieux, and Jacques Vegely, and architect and landscaper, mixed areas of vegetation and landscaping paralleled pedestrian paths was inaugurated in 1993, making it the only existing elevated park until the arrival of the High Line Park in 2010. The route of the Promenade, passes between modern buildings along with open sections which offer excellent views of the city runs for about 3 miles, connecting the Bois de Vincennes on one end to the Place de la Bastille on the other, opening to the Bastille Opera. One mile of the Promenade is elevated above the Viaduct des Arts, with the majority of the line running at various elevations from 30 feet to ground level, offering pedestrians and cyclists a green linear path through Paris’s 12th arrondissement.

Relevancies This project is relevant to its reuse of vacant space in terms of transit infrastructure. The conversion of old, derelict transit structure into spaces for local business and the addition of a elevated linear park, while maintaining the historical context in which it is built offers valuable insight into how to design for sites with such complexities. Looking at what these

sites offer in terms of opportunity instead of just focusing on what the current issues and problems are, allow the design to thrive and embrace the existing infrastructure as a means for both social and economic sustainability. With the addition of the Bastille Opera, the linkage became an important to how people would get to the it, this offered a reason for developing the viaduct as it would capture the existing movement passing through the site. This is something that exists in a sense in the current site of my thesis, with the Eastbank Esplanade circulating around the river, already having a high pedestrian and cyclist activity. However the challenge lies in the general speed and activity already taking place, people heading to the opera or going to the building as possible tourists travel at slower paces, often wandering and in a state of exploration. Whereas at the current site of East Portland under the I-5 Freeway, the pace is much faster, people are running and cycling and sometimes walking, they are operating in a state of fitness, so creating program that operates to current adjacent activity could be a more plausible proposal. However, creating new program could bring in new types of pedestrians, leading to a greater reactivation of space. [2]


Figure 2.4 : Reclaiming the old transit line for new activation by retail and park spaces.


atlanta beltline

Ryan Gravel & Perkins+Will The Atlanta BeltLine, a 22 mile loop reclaiming old infrastructure with new transit, tied into 33 miles of pedestrian trails and connection to 45 neighborhoods, started as a Georgia Tech Thesis project by Ryan Gravel. Proposing the reclamation of a mostly abandoned and under used rail corridor and transforming it into a new public transit system combining connective strategies of economic development and ties to natural ecology, the project found rooting in Atlanta’s Development Commission. Atlanta currently faces challenges of uneven and low-density growth, along with a separation of land uses, there has grown an increasing dependence on the automobile to accomplish even the simplest of daily tasks as the sprawl of the city has reached limits leading to some of the worst commute times in the nation. This ultimately leading to any sort of sustainable growth becoming a real problem as the city keeps expanding its borders, and constantly developing low density sites. With several transit networks and rail lines fragmenting the city, large tracts of under utilized land have emerged further disconnecting neighborhoods and disrupting any sort of urban street network. The railroad line has also dividing many neighborhoods, both in terms of its physical development and also in terms of social or economic status, segregating neighborhoods creating a city that lacks any sort of comprehensive social feeling. Seeing some of these issues, Ryan Gravel, along with his coworkers at the time, took his thesis (a few years after) along with packages and letters from local residents about the current conditions and sent them to the regions elected officials and transportation offices. Cathy Woolard, City Council President and Chair of the Transportation Committee, received Gravel’s thesis and saw the potential the project held. Meeting with Gravel, they organized a series of neighborhood groups, and begin gathering the public support for the proposed BeltLine. Seeing the opportunity for new public transit connectivity, green amenities and new jobs, neighborhoods saw the need for the project to get of the ground.

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The grassroots approach, lead to the project gathering numerous partners such as The Trust for Public Land and the PATH Foundation, who previously saw potential in the abandoned trail. Upon further partnerships the Trust for Public Land commissioned Alexander Garvin, an urban designer to study the concept. Garvin proposed introducing parks into the concept, which lead to greater support for the project.

from partnering with local agencies to its base of a grassroots support system, helps to locate where I want my current thesis development. Engagement of the public and create easy and simplified means in which they can become part of the process allows them to connect to the policy makers and designers, which can often become disconnected to the people they are proposing projects for.

Currently the project has more than 50 new developments completed, creating more than 700,000 square feet of new commercial space and more than 9,000 new residential units. The current master plan calls for more compact and dense urban development which promote pedestrian and cycling activity, and a framework for urban growth that is more sustainable for the city and the region.

The base of advocates and volunteers that embraced the BeltLine almost guaranteed that the project moved forward, creating a demand for the everyday problems facing the people of Atlanta. Along with the movement, looking at the features of the design from implementing public transit overlaid onto green corridors creates a spine for adjacencies of new housing and business operations.

Atlanta BeltLine Facts and Figures * 1,300 acres (527 hectares) of new green space and parks * 33 miles (53 kilometers) of shared-use paths * $20 billion of new economic development * 30,000 new permanent jobs from new businesses in retail, entertainment, education, health care, professional services, hospitality, light industry, and the arts * 5,600 new workforce housing units * 50,000 new housing units anticipated along the corridor * 45 neighborhoods gain new and greater connectivity * 8 percent of the city’s land mass covered in the planning area and 25 percent of Atlanta’s residential population

This all creates improved economic conditions on top of something that was in a state of stagnation, using up resources with no valuable output. Creating the social sustainability of reconnecting neighborhoods and developing smarter land use policies enforcing more dense development leads Atlanta out of the current sprawl condition that has created these problems and into a more sustainable, productive and viable city. [3]

Relevancies This project contains valuable insight into how a student’s idea can evolve into a movement that changes the way a city develops. Evaluating how a simple yet articulate thesis, looking at similar aspects of reclaiming and reutilization of redundant and under utilized transit infrastructure can reconnect neighborhoods, provide new jobs, boost economic production and initiate sustainable growth is inspirational to say the least. Looking at how the project gained momentum


Figure 2.5 : Proposal for re-using desolate train lines into new pedestrian pathways and connective strands.


site selection The specific site that my thesis examines exists on Portland’s East Side, where a margin of highways overlap one another to create a divide between the natural resources of the river and the small industrial landscape. A complex arrangement of elevated transit infrastructure creates difficult access to the river along with potent spaces filled with under utilized parking and storage. With vacancies adjacent to one of the most active pedestrian and cycle lines, the East bank Esplanade, the in-between of the elevated freeways have become transitional zones, moving people through them as quickly as possible.

Figure 2.6 : Site map highlighting Portland’s East side highway conditions.

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site issues To reside in this space currently seems dangerous and unsafe. Issues of scale, safety and the high number of transient dwellers, create a space that encourages users to quickly move through the space. The potential of this site is frustrating, yet exciting.

FIGURE 1

FIGURE 2

UNWELCOMING ACCESS POINTS

FIGURE 3

PROHIBATIVE POINTS OF ENTRY

MULTI-MODAL ISSUES

INTERNAL CUTOFFS

Access Points & Issues Access points and issues

Figure 2.7 : Photographs highlighting the various conditions at the site.

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FIGURE 1

FIGURE 2

HOMELESS COMMUNITY

FIGURE 3

LEFT-OVER PROGRAM

POOR LAYOUT

Left-Over Progam & Current Residents Access points and issues

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site comparative scale intro

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SITE, EASTBANK Figure 2.8 : FigureFABRIC ground maps examining the comparative scale of the site to RESOURCES other well known sites.

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site opportunities

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Figure 2.9 : Mapping created to examine and isolate the various opportunities the site offers.


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Vacant Parcel In Neighborhood

Community as Advocates

RedeďŹ ning the Publics Role This diagram highlights how the general public becomes both designer and builder as well as owner and operator. This method helps facilitate more meaningful public spaces that truly holds community investment.

General Public

Rethinking Public Space

Public as Designers

ART STUDIO

This diagram explores how new public users can help the vacant spaces under the overpass can help it become a vibrant space through their design/build interventions.

ART STUDIO

www

Vacant Spaces Under Freeway

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New Public Users

Web Interface

Design-Build Interventions


Designs by Community + Partners

Build by Community + Partners

Community Builds Investment

rethinking public space

PLAY GROUNDS MICRO BUSINESS

Public as Builders

ART STUDIO

URBAN FURNITURE

Public as Owner/Operators

The purpose of this thesis is to define a system that facilitates place-making and create a methodology in which every person had the means to design, build, participate and invest in PLAY their cities. This system creates public spaces, GROUNDS by the public and for the public, filled with URBAN FURNITURE interventions, crafted and designed by the very MICRO BUSINESS same users. This thesis also rethinks public spaces to include not only discarded sites but to the creativity of everyday people.

New Public Roles

OTHER USERS ARCHITECTS & PLANNERS

PARTNERS

Share Designs Via Web Interface

Modify, Adapt, Change, Build

Vibrant Public Spaces

Figure 3.0 : Diagram showing how the process takes public intervention to go from vacant sites to vibrant sites.

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tactical action This thesis explores the complex systems that govern how we use space, the traditional top down process can start to be dissolved and open itself up to more inclusive and democratic planning process, in which the public is called upon to take part in shaping the landscape they live in. We must evaluate the detachment that has occurred from how people interact with the everyday built environment and the planning processes guiding the designs. Understanding potential and limitations are imperative to developing potent spaces that currently exist in a state of stagnation. In order to transform these spaces, we must make a shift to reclaim the land as a valuable asset, as it was historically viewed, leads to more intense and creative development in the urban core, the once forgotten spaces are foregrounded through the movements of tactical urbanism, insurgent actions or guerilla methods of reclaiming city space. City dwellers have begun to act, displaying the desire to utilize the left-over, to make something from the nothing, to make creative use of the canvas of the cities spatial conditions.

Figure 3.1 : Reclaiming the street through tactical action.

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case studies: creativity of everyday people What happens when design is handed over to the end users? Examining how architects and planners can help foster creativity in the public is imperative to people being invested in their cities. Embracing the creativity of the everyday person can produce beautiful outputs and create ownership at even the smallest scales.

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Figure 3.2 : City dwellers repainting as part an effort to reclaim the street, creating more inviting and vibrant street conditions.


dreamhamar

ecosistema urbano Dreamhamar, a project by Ecosistema Urbano, utilizes the participatory process as a main design development tool for Hamar square located in Norway. The participation process uses a network of actions to include the community in what the design should be for Hamar square. The network includes; Urban Design, a technical and urban approach to the square. A Physical Lab, an on-site pop up office where the community can engage in workshops and exhibitions. Urban Actions, a way for citizens to experience the square directly and imagine future possibilities of the square. A Digital Lab, which uses the web as a platform and social network channels to follow the weekly broadcasts and a mobile application. An Academic Network links universities into the project, for participative brainstorming. The project is outside the traditional method of urban design, as this participatory system provides the main avenue for design generation. [4]

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Figure 3.3 : DreamHamar project by Ecosistema Urbano, highlighting the public engagement process.


opensource : wikihouse Architecture 00

“Wikihouse is an open source construction set. The aim is to allow anyone to design, download and “print” CNC-milled houses and components, which can be assembled with minimal formal skill or training” - wikihouse.cc Starting as an experiment by a small group of designers at the Gwangju Design Biennale in South Korea, the idea is based on the open source mentality applied to housing. The system allows anyone to download and essentially print their own house. A free library allows users to choose certain types of houses, and a cut list is created. The user buys the appropriate amount of materials, and can partner with a local mill shop to have the pieces cut. New designs can be created by anyone, but they go through a design process and structural analysis to ensure safety and constructability. [5]

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Figure 3.4 : Wikihouse, an opensource construction set, allowing users to download and cnc their own dwellings. Images show prototypes as well as build process.


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passage 56

Various

In a thoroughfare between dense residential development, Passage 56 embeds a collectively manage and created space for meetings, screenings, workshops and activities focused on horticulture. Rue Saint Blaise, an area of dense residential development in the 1980’s, led to unfit sites for construction, ultimately leading to closed off and unused voids in the residential fabric. Through collective engagement, materials and labor donated by the residents themselves the spaces was reclaimed, providing a simple yet powerful program that promoted education and community engagement. [6]

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Figure 3.5 : Series of images showing how public engagement transformed the once vacant alleyway into a vibrant space for public meetings, gardening and community gatherings.


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49


This thesis is about empowering non-designers and giving them the necessary tools to create a sense of pride and ownership in their city

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This artifact used a series of blocks which were able to rotate around a central axis. On each side of the blocks there is an image of; existing site, the site for housing, the site for workspaces and the site for recreation spaces. The images were cut up and tiled on to the blocks, this allowed the user to manipulate and modify the site to have various combinations of programs and activities taking place on the same site.

existing conditions

housing site

working site

recreation site

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Figure 3.6 : Miniature taskscapes focusing on different possibilities under the freeway. Each was used for a side of the module turnstyle.


Figure 3.7 : Module turnstyle artifact in various positions showing its adaptability.


module index The system I am proposing produces vibrant public spaces through the means of hundreds of individualized interventions or modules. For the purposes of this thesis, I define modules as being additive, adaptive and easy to construct The modules I am proposing include modules for play, modules for living, and modules for eating, drinking and relaxing. There are also modules that enable someone to becoming a business owner, through micro business opportunities, or modules that allow Portlander’s to engage with the river. There will also be modules that attach to the freeway, utilizing the existing structure as a means for new engagement.

Micro-Structure Module

Food Cart Module

Urban Furniture Module

Garden Box Module

Skate Park Module

Multi-Sport Module

Restaurant Module

Playspace Module

Figure 3.7 : Module options and possibilities.

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Protected Sleep Module

Pavilion Module

Vantage Point Module

Bio-swale Module

Urban Equipment Module

Parklet Module

Lighting Strategy Module

Swingset Module

Rock Climbing Module

Water Deck Module

Stage Module

Painting Kit Module

Open Library Module

Movie Theater Module

Artistic Installation Module

River Pool Module


module example: microstructure Creating easily constructible, maintainable and reusable modules are key to the success of the project. Providing simple base modules at the introductory phase, such as this microstructure allow it to find many purposes and programs and each user with build, modify and occupy the module in different ways. This is one example out of many that show how construction process to adaptability to it being used on the site.

EXTERIOR CLADDING

WEATHER BARRIER & FLASHING

STRUCTURALLY INSULATED PANELS

SUB-FLOOR

STRUCTURAL WOOD FRAMING

SUPPORT BEAMS TEMPORARY FOUNDATION SYSTEM

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Figure 3.9 : Exploded Axonometric of a micro-structure and its components.


5. 0 GR EE

NH

OU

SE

SP AC E 4. 0 CO VE

3. 0 DW

EL

LIN

G

FF LO AL 2. 0 SM

D

IC

E

IC E RV SE 1. 0 FO OD

RE

Figure 4.0 : Adaptability of micro-structure over time

Figure 4.1 : Partnership with OMSI on module construction and options.


module example: water parklet These two sample modules show how simple construction can create new programs on the Willamette River. Simple dock modules can be used as individual park modules for people to go out and engage with the water. The same parklet module can be multiplied and attached to create safe swimming spaces in the waters of the Willamette.

module example: river pool

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Figure 4.2 : Water parklet dock Figure 4.3 : Water parklet modified to make swimming space.


Figure 4.4 : Section with parklet swimming space.

Figure 4.5 : New swimming spaces perspective.


Cully Park Process Cully Park located in NE Portland’s Cully neighborhood evolved out of the community advocating for park space. This example highlights how community gets involved in all phases from design to construction to help build investment in their neighborhoods.

!

!

!

NO

EN

TRY

Vacant Parcel In Neighborhood

!

NO

EN

TRY

Community as Advocates

RedeďŹ ning the Publics Role This diagram highlights how the general public becomes both designer and builder as well as owner and operator. This method helps facilitate more meaningful public spaces that truly holds community investment.

General Public

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Public as Designers


redefining the publics role This system would have to change the way the public is involved. What if the opportunity to design was more accessible and the architects and engineers help foster creativity in the public. This system would evolve the current roles of the public as and end user, allowing the general public to become public designers, public builders and public facilitators of city space. This system grants access that allows anyone to create, access, design, upload, build and download other users designs and it provides the ability to share and contribute to a larger design process that fosters placemaking.

+

+

+

Designs by Community + Partners

Build by Community + Partners

PLAY GROUNDS MICRO BUSINESS

Public as Builders

ART STUDIO

URBAN FURNITURE

Public as Owner/Operators

Community Builds Investment

PLAY GROUNDS MICRO BUSINESS

URBAN FURNITURE

New Public Roles

Figure 4.6 : Diagram of new public roles.


what is open source? Open source is a model of development that provides open and free access to code, design and other fundamentals for a projects blueprint. Originally stemming from the software industry, open source has allowed users to access and improve upon the base code to make improvements and modifications to software. It takes away the proprietary methodology and replaces it with an open collaborative model that has taken over industries from technology to medicine. Applying this methodology to public space design, allows each person to modify, add and adapt the central design in their own ways, creating unique and vibrant spaces as a result.

“In open source, we feel strongly that to really do something well, you have to get a lot of people involved.� Linus Torvalds Primary Developer of the Linux Kernel

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OT

CON

CON

R ISSU HE

AL COMMUNI OB TY L G

RE

CC

CON

FURTHER DEVELOPMENT

IBUT TR

R O

R O

IBUT TR

NED I FI

A DE

CENSE LI

CON

?

ES

R O

R O

IDEA

IBUT TR

IBUT TR

Figure 4.6 : Diagram of open source process.

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Coffee

Module Adaptability This diagram highlights how modules can be reused, re-purposed and retroďŹ tted, also allowing modules to be adapted to seasonality.

Thai

Coffee

Program Reuse

Adaptive Reuse

Availability & Open Spaces

Creative CommonGround About

Hipster Coffee

RetroďŹ tting

What Do You Want to Build? People Who Can Help

Modu Libra Browse Designs

Site 1 About Skills Modules Assisted

?

About Skills Modules Assisted

Zoning Terms

What are Modules?

About Skills Modules Assisted About

Web Interface A potential layout of the web interface.

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Get Involved

Type 1

Type 2

Type 3

Type 4

Project Overview

Site Conditions & Availability

Skills Modules Assisted

Design Assistance

Mod Libr


web interface Oktoberfest on the Water

Seasonal Summer

ule ary

Seasonal Fall

Micro Shop Design Review

Funding Links

Seasonal Winter

Architect123

Are you an ...?

Material Providers

Woodworker5 Seesaw

Registration

Blog

Comments Micro Shop

This process would have to challenge the way we traditionally design, in which design is owned. It would take on the open source methodology and apply it to design. Through a web interface, designs can be uploaded, curated, shared and reviewed. Users could connect with local financial partners for funding and people to help with construction. Architects and engineers can log on and aid with current issues, to earn Continuing Seasonal Education Credits. Interns can log hours on the IDP with drafting Spring and modeling assistance. We can tap into Portland’s professional design community to help facilitate a sense of community and ownership.

Architect

Log CEU credits for design assistance

Engineer

Log credits for design assistance

Intern

Builder Networks

Log hours for IDP

Builder

Volunteer your time

Business

Sponsor a build, help the community

CityDweller Parklet

Overview -

Educator/ School

Other Partners

Conicts Playground

dule rary

Solutions -

Upload Your Images Back

Next

Module Design Review

Partnerships & Connections

Community Forum

Interested City Dweller

Get your students involved Get Involved & help build your public space

User Registration

Figure 4.7 : Diagram of web interface.

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Rethinking Public Space

ART STUDIO

This diagram explores how new public users can help the vacant spaces under the overpass can help it become a vibrant space through their design/build interventions.

ART STUDIO

www

Vacant Spaces Under Freeway

New Public Users

Web Interface

DESIGN DESIGN GENERATION REVIEW

Design-Build Interventions

x1 x7

PARTNERSHIPS

Build Process This diagram displays the process from idea to module build-out.

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FUNDING METHODS

x2 x4

Module Idea

Web Interface

Module Materials Assembled Off-Site

Cont Pac


OTHER USERS ARCHITECTS & PLANNERS

tainer cked

build process

PARTNERS

Share Designs Via Web Interface

Module Parts Delivered

Modify, Adapt, Change, Build

Module Assembled On-Site

How can this process work? An idea can quickly move from concept to realization using the new public process. This idea can be uploaded to the web interface and partners can start to connect with the users; from interns getting hours for drafting help, local business providing funding and high school students volunteering hours to help build the module. Parts can be listed and packaged from local vendors or self-assembled, delivered to the site through from shipping containers to box trucks of varying sizes. Then the module can Vibrant and finalized on site. The end be constructed product be shared via the web interface, Publiccan Spaces and when the life cycle of the module is at its end, a marketplace allows the re-use and reclamation of previous modules.

Module Completed

Design Shared

Figure 4.8 : Diagram of build process.

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HOW DO I FIND OUT ABOUT THIS PROJECT?

1.0 PROJECT AWARENESS

The project awareness component looks at what entities or elements can facilitate involvement of future participants.

HOW DO I COME UP WITH A MODULE? IDEA GENERATION

2.0

IDEA GENERATION

Coming up with what you want to build can be tough, these components help provide a starting point for idea generation.

HOW DO I PRODUCE A MODULE DESIGN?

3.0 DESIGN GENERATION

Once you have the idea, figuring out the means to build it is the next step. These components help direct generating your design.

CITY OF PORTLAND

The City of Portland is a great resource for advertising and promoting the project. As the site is currently city land, promoting this project as a new means of engaging its citizens benefits both the city and the city dweller.

Through architecture firms, design studios and other architecture-related media, the project can be shared as a response to what to do with these left-over spaces under the freeways that exist throughout the country.

ARCHITECTURAL OUTREACH

SCHOOLS

CREATIVE ADDITION

SITE ISSUES

SITE NEEDS

SELF BUILD

CURRENT DESIGNERS

ARCHITECTS & PLANNERS

Modules can almost be anything and everything, all ideas are worth exploring.

4.0

DEMOCRATIC REVIEW PROCESS

HOW LONG CAN I STAY?

5.0 LEASE & ZONING

Whether you’re building a small project for a day or an installation for a season, these set of zoning rules help regulate how long your module operates on site.

HOW CAN I PAY FOR THIS? IDEA GENERATION

6.0

FUNDING OPTIONS?

Your module could be something you can afford out of pocket, but if not there are plenty of options to help fund your module.

WHO CAN HELP ME?

7.0 PARTNERSHIPS & CONNECTIONS

Getting funding is one step, but figuring out who can help you out in other areas is the next. These components can help you from volunteers to sponserships of your module.

DO I HAVE TO GO GET ALL MY OWN STUFF? IDEA GENERATION

8.0

MATERIALS

Now that you have your design, funding and help, these components help outline options for getting materials together.

HOW DO MODULES GET TO THE SITE?

9.0 MODULE DELIVERY

10.0

CONSTRUCTION

BUILD COMPLETION

Next step-building it. These components look at who can help you put your module together if it’s to much to go alone.

Module completed! These components look at the steps that take place once your module is in place.

HOW DO I PROMOTE MY MODULE? IDEA GENERATION

12.0

PROMOTION

Why not share and show off your creativity and look at how your expierence can benefit others.

WHAT ABOUT WHEN THE LEASE IS UP?

67 13.0 REVIEW & REDISTRIBUTE

MICRO LENDERS

AGENCIES

To find more out about how the project could communicate itself to outside groups and members the text here is completly filler text, not talking about anything specific.

SELF ASSEMBLY

Compiling all the materials on your own is a great option if you know exactly what you need.

BY HAND

Once you’ve picked out your modules options / materials, here are some options on how to transport it to the site.

WHAT HAPPENS NOW?

11.0

OUT OF POCKET

Your module might be completly afforadble out of pocket!

Here’s the last step, when the module is done, it doesn’t have to go to waste. Share the design, allow others to re-use it or donate materials to future builds.

SOLO BUILD

If your module is easily to construct, why not try a solo build?

AGENCIES

UNIVERSITIES

PRE PACKED

Parts and peices can be pre-packed from partnering vendors in various containers and easily delievered to the site.

BY BIKE

Hitched on back or in the front basket, the parts can be delievered by bike!

VOLUNTEER

Volunteers such as students, designers and other city users can help you build your module, all accessible through the web interface.

MAINTENANCE

TIMELINE & LEASE

ON SITE

SOCIAL MEDIA

DOCUMENT

UPLOAD TO WEB

Taking care of your module and maintaining it is the first step in the program remaining successful for future uses and users.

People running or biking by, others building modules or just passersby, your module can start to get attention the day the materials arrive on site.

Documenting your process is key to helping others out with similar builds, or issues they may be currently having, save all photos, documents, drawings and modules on the web interface.

Your zoning determines the amount of time you can occupy the site, from one day to one year.

Promote your project and process through media such as facebook and twitter.

Upload your designs and drawings to the web interface for storage and re-use.

REFINEMENTS PROTOTYPING PROTOTYPING

Maybe your module is based around a seasonal activity, this type of zoning is perfect for that!

UNIVERSITY GRANTS

PRIVATE LENDERS

University grants can be an option to provide funding for students to participate in design build programs for the site.

UNIVERSITIES

LOCAL BUSINESS

To find more out about how the project could communicate itself to outside groups and members the text here is completly filler text, not talking about anything specific.

Private lenders such as business can be willing to help out as they may also be a sponser for your module as well.

LOCAL BUSINESS

ice

off

BY CONTAINER

BY TRAILER

PROGRAM BASED

OPERATIONS

Whether your module is a micro business or art installation, maintaining day to day operations is key to the modules success.

MEDIA

Media like magazines, industry papers and newspapers can help advertise the module you have built!

STORED & SAVED

Drawing, models and photos are all saved and accessible through a module library.

Maybe an old module will work out for what you plan to do, all it may need is some changes here and there.

Maybe hitched onto your own car or truck, this means of delievery allows you to easily transport the parts to the site yourself.

Various sizes from 10 feet to 40 feet, parts can be packed into this container and delievered to the site.

if you’re partnering with a business, they may be able to provide you with resources to help in your build.

COMMUNITY DESIGN CENTERS

To find more out about how the project could communicate itself to outside groups and members the text here is completly filler text, not talking about anything specific.

ADAPTIVE RE-USE

RE-USE

Old modules can be repackaged and find new life with this option.

CONNECTIONS CONNECTIONS SEASONAL (3 MONTH)

One month increments allow your module to occupy the site for whatever month you choose.

Lenders like Mercy Corps or other agencies can partner with the project an enable users to fund their projects.

To find more out about how the project could communicate itself to outside groups and members the text here is completly filler text, not talking about anything specific.

STUDENTS & INTERNS

Students can earn credits helping out with drafting and modeling assistance, and interns can log hours on the Intern Development Program as they work towards liscensure.

MONTHLY ZONING

WEEKLY ZONING

Weekly zoning provides seven days on site for your module, which might just be the perfect fit.

Plenty of people move through the site each day, maybe you see a unique opportunity to help out or tap into this market with your module.

REVISED PROPOSAL EVALUATED EVALUATED

The module can be a one-day thing, such as event, festival or art installation. Daily zoning is perfect for that!

Small enough and easy to carry.

HOW DO I PUT THIS TOETHER? IDEA GENERATION

DAILY ZONING

USER NEEDS

Professionals with years of expierence can log on an help you out while they earn Continuing Education Credits, it benefits both parties.

PROPOSAL OF TIME METHODS METHODS

If you are having issues with your design or are unsure of constructability, this process helps solve any issues and provide advice on your build.

Urban design programs can advocate for involvement in the program, as these types of sites are promenent in many citys, many not even realizing the potential these types of sites have.

Maybe the site needs more lights, and you have a great design idea, try it out !

Current designers can tap into the web interface and offer assistance from drafting to modeling to build issues.

PROPOSED

HOW DO I KNOW IF THIS MODULE WILL WORK? IDEA GENERATION

Maybe there is something missing on the site, such as access and your module could provide a solution?

Your module maybe something you can construct all alone and you have all the tools you need! Simple as that.

URBAN DESIGN OUTREACH

Schools can promote the program as a way to get students involved early in design or construction. Enabling students to volunteer early or see there designs built in the public realm can faciltate a long-term relationship with the project.

CNC ACCESS

BUSINESS

A CNC can be placed on site, which can help rapidly and easily cut parts which are then ready to be put together.

REGULATIONS

General rules and conditions apply, such as dont overstay your zoning as others may want to build and share your designs is also important to the success of the project.

WEBSITE

The web interface is a great place to share your project and process as well as connect with other users and their builds.

DOWNLOADED & RE-USED

Designs can be downloaded and re-used, and modifcations can be made creating multiple iterations of the same module.

DESIGN CENTERS

ice shop off


SOCIAL MEDIA

NON-PROFITS

Non-profits can help promote the project as a way to get people involved with everything from volunteering to funding options.

Social media is a huge resource for all entities to use as a means to communicate with a larger audience.

system components EXISTING

This process takes on more than just diagrams. A process of components outlines how the system can work along with the network that can start to emerge through the project. Evaluating things from how does somebody come up with a module to who can help design the module start to outline the entities that can assist in the project process. Looking at issues from funding to site delivery, a framework starts to layout the potential of how this project can work.

Why not re-use or update an existing module, it maybe the perfect fit.

COMMUNITY DESIGN CENTERS

Community design centers can provide a great resource to access all the tools you need to get going on your module.

IMPLEMENTATION

YEARLY ZONING

Maybe your module is a micro-business and a one year trial is a great way to test the waters.

CROWDSOURCING

Websites like Kickstarter can use the collective approach to funding your module, enabling more users to have stake in the site.

PROFESSIONALS

To find more out about how the project could communicate itself to outside groups and members the text here is completly filler text, not talking about anything specific.

PROFESSIONALS

HIGH SCHOOLS

To find more out about how the project could communicate itself to outside groups and members the text here is completly filler text, not talking about anything specific.

HIGH SCHOOLS

PARTNERSHIP

Maybe the module will be an extension of an existing business or project, this option looks at how partnerships can help get materials together.

BY U-HAUL

BY WATER

Water barges to boats, module parts can be brought in by water.

Renting a truck is a great option as once the parts are delievered you can just return the truck and start building!

TOOLBOX

An onsite tool rental shop can help users with the literal tools they will need to build their modules.

S

L TOO

PHASING

The site will go through rotations of various modules, from seasonal based modules to more permanent business, change is what makes this project work.

WORD OF MOUTH

People share what you have built and the project.

PLACED

Modules can then be places on open spots on the site. Spots available are able to be seen on the web interface sites page.

Figure 4.9 : Workbook pages.

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example workbook set The workbooks provide a framework for someone moving through the whole process from idea generation to final construction. It starts by asking questions that someone engaging in the process might ask, taking them through the process in the order of operations. At the funding options set, a person might ask how they pay for their module, and provided on the right are options for where funding can come from. Ideally this booklet will be built upon providing real sponsors and links to each of these options as the project begins, establishing valuable partnerships along the way.

IDEA GENERATION

6.0

FUNDING OPTIONS?

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HOW CAN I PAY FOR THIS? Your module could be something you can afford out of pocket, but if not there are plenty of options to help fund your module.


g t s

OUT OF PRIVATE POCKET LENDERS

MICRO CROWDSOURCING LENDERS

UNIVERSITY MICRO GRANTS LENDERS

UNIVERSITY PRIVATE GRANTS LENDERS

Your lenders module such mightasbe completly Private business can afforadble out out of pocket! be willing to help as they may also be a sponser for your module as well.

University Lenders grants like Mercy can beCorps an option or other to provide agencies funding canfor partner students withtothe project participate an enable in design users to build fund programs their projects. for the site.

UNIVERSITY GRANTS

University grants can be an option to provide funding for students to participate in design build programs for the site.

Websites Lenders like like Kickstarter Mercy Corps can use or other the collective agencies approach can partner to funding withyour the project module, an enable enabling users more to users fund their to have projects. stake in the site.

Private University lendersgrants such as canbusiness be an option can to be willing providetofunding help outforasstudents they maytoalso be aparticipate sponser for in your design module build programs as well. for the site.

PRIVATE LENDERS

Private lenders such as business can be willing to help out as they may also be a sponser for your module as well.

Figure 5.0 : Sample workbook pages.

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Applying the system to the site


Site: North of Hawthorne

Site: South of Hawthorne

Figure 5.1 : Aerial image of site.


site section This is the current condition of the East side. Looking West towards the river from the Central East side, margins are not only created horizontally from the freeways but also vertically, at points reaching over 100 feet high. The condition is a result of the massive highway infrastructure build of the 1950’s and 60’s.

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2

2 Bmz

Figure 5.2: Site section looking West.

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PHASE ONE existing conditions

The site North of Hawthorne Bridge currently contains about 150 parking spaces. Reclaiming these parking spaces in favor of new public space will require action from the City of Portland. On a typical day, the lot is about one-quarter occupied.

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Figure 5.3: Phasing diagram showing the existing conditions phase.


PHASE TWO marking

Figure 5.4: Phasing diagram showing the marking phase.

This transitional phase uses public input to identify the key missing elements currently on the site. Users can directly mark on the site or through the web interface and mobile app be able to mark out where they would like to see elements such as concentrated bike lanes, more seating and areas that are under-lit.

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PHASE THREE implementation

pedestrian utility (city)

temporary type-1 recreation

transit

The implementation phase lays the ground work for future module placement. Major paths are placed through painting and materiality, allowing development plats to form organically. Utility zones, in which the City provides basic services, such as restrooms, are designated.

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Figure 5.5: Phasing diagram showing the implementation phase.


PHASE FOUR utilities

restrooms

power hookups

water runoff reclaimation

In the Utilities phase, the City constructs basic infrastructure that will support the future growth of the site. Utilities such as restrooms, bubblers, highway connections, pay as you go power hookups and all attachments needed to facilitate module development. Figure 5.6: Phasing diagram showing the utilities phase.

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PHASE FIVE rotational set one

In the first rotational set, modules that support community involvement emerge such as mobile community gardens. Food carts, an existing Portland attraction can start to occupy the site, bringing in Portlanders, creating interest in the site.

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Figure 5.7: Phasing diagram showing the rotational set one phase.


PHASE SIX rotational set two

Figure 5.8: Phasing diagram showing the rotational set two phase.

In the second rotational set, (of numerous) the food carts evolve into micro-restaurants, building in the ability for users to occupy the site for longer periods of time. Individualized parklets can start to claim space on the main pedestrian boulevards, and existing modules like the community garden continue to thrive.

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NORTH OF HAWTHORNE NEW NEIGHBORHOOD We can start to see a range of modules populate the once vacant spaces and create new neighborhoods. From modules that provide safe sleeping spaces for the sites current users to day use programs such as performance spaces and pavilion installations.

micro business safe sleeping

markets

pop-up exhibit

parklets urban equipment

temporary garden

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micro shops

artistic installations

temporary dwelling

performance spaces

adaptable spaces

FIRE utilities

reading spaces

restaurants game space

food carts

FIRE

urban equipment

ďŹ tness space

beer gardens

pedestrian boulevards pavilions

Figure 5.9: Drawing showing the possibilities of new neighborhoods under the overpass.

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safe sleeping

markets

pop-up exhibit urban equipment

temporary garden

83


restaurants

food carts

parklets

pavilions

Figure 6.0: Close-up of new neighborhoods drawing.

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artistic installations

temporary dwelling

performance spaces

adaptable spaces

restaurants

beer gardens

pedestrian boulevards pavilions


micro shops

FIRE utilities

reading spaces

game space

FIRE

urban equipment

ďŹ tness space

Figure 6.1: Close-up of new neighborhoods drawing.

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Figure 6.2: Perspective of new neighborhoods.


PHASE ONE existing conditions

The current state of the site South of Hawthorne Bridge exists as a mix of open under utilized space and existing small warehouses. The warehouses provide opportunity as future art space as well as an attachment for modules. A boat dock down to the river provides opportunity for modules to expand into the river.

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Figure 6.3: Phasing diagram showing the existing conditions phase.


PHASE TWO marking

Figure 6.4: Phasing diagram showing the marking phase.

Much like the North of Hawthorne site, marking space can happen through direct site interaction or through web and mobile applications. Users can also mark out what attachments they would like to see on support columns , providing the ability for modules to grow and attach to the highway.

90


PHASE THREE implementation

attachment

temporary type-1

art wall

transit

temporary type-2

bike lanes

development area

In the Implementation phase, new bike lanes along with more prominent pedestrian paths help establish the previously confusing condition at the end of the Esplanade. Buoys can flag out space to be developed in the river, allowing boundaries to be established that allow for various types of future development.

91

Figure 6.5: Phasing diagram showing the implementation phase.


PHASE FOUR utilities

bolted connections

anchoring points

In this phase, the City of Portland provides permanent installations of elements such as I-bolts into columns as well as anchoring points for water modules to tie into.

Figure 6.6: Phasing diagram showing the utilities phase.

92


PHASE FIVE rotational set one

93

Figure 6.7: Phasing diagram showing the rotational set one phase.

In one option of modules, recreational activities such as multi-use micro courts can emerge through on-site temporary painting and templates. Noisier activities such as skate parks emerge, allowing skateboarding to happen at all hours of the day. Rock climbing walls can start to attach to the columns, along with water parklets creating new public spaces on the water.


PHASE SIX rotational set two

In this set, community picnic and movie nights take over the site. Water docks have been expanded to provide areas for safe swim in the river and new lighting strategies allow for people to occupy the site at all hours while feeling safe.

Figure 6.8: Phasing diagram showing the rotational set two phase.

94


SOUTH OF HAWTHORNE NEW NEIGHBORHOOD Modules can start to take over the waterfront, creating a greater engagement with our river through individual creativity. Overpasses columns can now become recreational spaces allowing users to attach and build rock climbing walls right onto the infrastructure.

pop-up theater

bike lanes

river activity

river swim

95

Figure 6.9: Drawing new neighborhoods at South of Hawthorne site.


rock climbing

food carts

sports courts

work shops

art installations

micro ofďŹ ces ďŹ re pits

new seating

urban equipment

river businesses open spaces

96


food carts pop-up theater

work shops

bike lanes

river activity

river swim

Figure 7.0: Close-up of South of Hawthorne.


rock climbing

sports courts

ďŹ re pits

new seating

river businesses


ďŹ re pits

new seating

river businesses

99


art installations

micro ofďŹ ces

urban equipment

open spaces

Figure 7.1: Close-up of new neighborhoods drawing.


Figure 7.2: Perspective of new waterfront conditions.


DESIGN DESIGN GENERATION REVIEW

x1 x7

FUNDING METHODS

PARTNERSHIPS

x2

Build Process This diagram displays the process from idea to module build-out.

x4

Module Idea

Coffee

Module Adaptability This diagram highlights how modules can be reused, re-purposed and retrofitted, also allowing modules to be adapted to seasonality.

103

Web Interface

Thai

Adaptive Reuse

Creative CommonGround

Coffee

Module Materials Assembled Off-Site

Cont Pac

Hipster Coffee

Program Reuse

Availability & Open Spaces

Retrofitting

What Do You Want to Build? People Who Can Help

Modu Libra Browse Designs


module adaptability Here in Portland, we love our park spaces. However, these spaces are under utilized for the majority of the year. What I am proposing is an adaptable landscape that can shift and transform to meet seasonal needs, allowing public space to be dynamic and populated in all months of the year. Adaptability that allows previous modules to be reclaimed, redesigned, retrofitted and updated finding new uses and new users.

tainer cked

ule ary

Module Parts Delivered

Module Assembled On-Site

Module Completed

Design Shared

Oktoberfest on the Water

Seasonal Summer

Seasonal Fall

Micro Shop Design Review Comments

Funding Links

Seasonal Winter

Blog

Seasonal Spring

Figure 7.3: Diagram of module adaptability.

Registration

Are you an ...? Architect

Log CEU credits for

104


attaching to the overpass As I mentioned previously, highways and freeway infrastructure are seen as a liability when creating viable urban space and a sense of community. However, instead of viewing this as a downside, I believe we can tap into this permanent infrastructure. The highway can become a utility corridor that facilitates development underneath. It can take on a plug and play role, allowing modules to plug into it and facilitate further development. Pay as you go power and water, reclaiming storm water runoff for community gardens, and creating connections that allow users to set up everything from movie nights to performance spaces. These connections can nurture creative addition.

105


DRAINAGE LINE STORAGE BIOSWALE GARDEN BOX

water reclamation

Figure 7.4: Sections of water reclamation attachments.

106


EXISTING HIGHWAY POWER

PLAT 1

WATER

WATER

POWER

1 23456

1 2 3 45

1 2 3 4 5 6

PLAT 2

PLAT 3

FROM CITY MAIN

power and water hookups

107

Figure 7.5: Sections of power and water attachments.

PLAT 4

PLAT 5


artistic expression

vantage points Figure 7.6: Sections of artistic expression and vantage points attachments.

108


new connection points 109

Figure 7.7: Diagrams of new connection points to the freeway.


Figure 7.8: Diagrams showing the connection options for attaching to the underneath of the overpass.

110


111

Figure 7.9: Perspective of climbing walls attaching to the overpass.


Figure 8.0: Perspective of performance spaces underneath the freeway.

114


115


great public space is not about overall design, it’s about how design can facilitate the meaningful interaction of people.

116


117

Figure 8.1: Double exposure image, overlaying people onto vacant spaces underneath the overpasses.


critical questions Two central questions that emerged from the discussion about the project

Who is in control?

What is the role of the architect?

One of the main questions coming out of the review was who is in control. The issues of power were discussed, and the role of public as facilitator of city space was question as to who guides them and decides what goes where. In my current proposal of the project, much of the control still resides in the hands of the everyday, however the control of certain elements are in control of a collective agency made up of city officials, public representatives, current landowners and local businesses.

Another major question that arose out of the presentation was what was/is the role of the architect? When the public takes over in design what is the need for architects.

This collective agency retains control in the maintenance and management of the web interface, which acts as the impersonal facilitator of the vacant site. This collective agency does not determine module outputs such as design or who can or cannot build, they merely address site issues that could possibly hinder creative development on the site. Managing the site instead of the people will still allow for a controlled creativity, one that is beneficial to the city user, allowing them full control of what they want to build, and beneficial to the collective agency, as its city users are reclaiming vacant spaces in the city as well as personally investing in it.

Allowing the architect to become an advisor/ mentor through their registration on the web interface, allows the architect to both partner with the user in solving design issues, and improve their current role in the public by displaying their ability and allowing more people access to them.

My projects response to this was one of the architect as advisor and mentor in design. Currently many people do not have access to the design abilities of the architect, for lack of money, need or other , the architect has a detached role from the everyday user.

The architect can continue to practice as we do today, but this project looks to get architects more involved by moving them out of the focus. Shifting them to a partner role instead of a central designer role fosters a greater role for architects in their communities and allows the profession to reach more people than it currently does in common practice.

The issue of control is one of the toughest challenges facing this project, however it is one of the most exciting. Engaging new ways of approaching issues of who can do what into a methodology utilizes technology and trusting the everyday user can lead to a side by side relationship between the planners of city space and the users of city space.

118


web interface as network This diagram starts to describe how the web interface can play a major role in facilitating module creation. The web interface allows the users to log on and connect with a huge network of builders, designers, volunteers and students, each offering up skills and talents that can be shared to develop modules. The web interface acts a the central hub for these connections. It does not determine what modules can or cannot be built or what the end output will be, its main purpose is connecting the city user to a network of people who can help.

119

119


Professional Design Community

Academic Community

Builders Community

City User

Module Idea

Web Interface Management Agency

CREATIVE COMMON GROUND Web interface

Volunteer Community

Volunteer Community

Funding Community

Module Output

Figure 8.2: Diagram showing the partnerships and connections through the web interface.

120


web interface management This diagram starts to delve into the issues of who is in control. A collective agency can be established to manage the web interface. This agency includes current land owners such as the city of Portland and ODOT, along with representatives from local businesses as well as a group of public users i.e. forum. The management, or control of the project mainly comes from the facilitation of the web interface, which acts as the interface for interested city users and the connecting network of people willing to help. The collective agencies role is mainly to deal with issues such as utility management, site availability and interface useability. It does not determine modules or who or who cannot build. Determining who or who cannot build is determined by a first come first serve basis, which may seem counterproductive, however the investment is purely through the city user so the site can self manage and self correct for limited availability. To add, having a site that currently has no availability is the best case scenario, in which the program can expand to other vacant sites throughout the city.

121


Funding Partners

City User

Module Idea

Building Partners

Design Partners

CREATIVE COMMON GROUND Web interface

Module Output

Utilities Collective agency for managing web interface City Of Portland

ODOT

Rotational Group of City Users

Local Business Representatives

Web Developer

Web Issues Current Site Availability

Facilitates Site Issues Not Module Ouputs

Marking Phase Zoning Issues

Figure 8.3: Diagram showing the management and control of the web interface and its role in the project.

122


architects roles This diagram looks at the roles of architects and designers. Through the web interface, professional designers can register with the site and through the actions of pro bono practice can assist in module design issues. In return the architect can receive continuing education credits. This relationship promotes the design abilities of the architect to the everyday user, and creates a relationship that benefits both groups. This program can help a more mutual, side by side relationship between the public and the architect.

123


Network of Builders

Program Registration Module Design Issues

City User

Module Idea

Module Design Resolved

Module Construction

Design Assistance (Pro Bono)

CREATIVE COMMON GROUND Web interface Landscape Architect

Architect

Continuing Education Credits

Program Registration Planner

Engineer

Figure 8.4: Diagram showing the new roles for architects and planners who engage in this project.

124


what’s next The next steps for the project is to look for the potential of investment from both the city and future users. Starting with the development of the web interface will be crucial to the project getting off the ground. Following the development of the web interface, building networks throughout the professional design community, academic networks and material suppliers can start to lay out the foundation for eventual and potential city users. Once the foundation of both a network and usable web interface, prototype modules can be constructed through partnerships of interested parties. When a few prototype modules have become constructed on site, the project can then be re-evaluated and taken back to current land owners helping establish the projects feasibility.

Figure 8.5: Site photograph of the conditions as they are today.

126


List of Tables and Figures Citations

All images / photographs by Chris Kline unless otherwise noted.

known sites. ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������33 Figure 2.9 : Mapping created to examine and isolate the various opportunities the site

Figure 1.0 : Taskscape of System Build ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������xv

offers. ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������35

Figure 1.1 : Construction of Interstate 5, 1962 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 1

Figure 3.0 : Diagram showing how the process takes public intervention to go from vacant

Image Source: Vintage Portland. “Eastbank Freeway Construction 1962” Accessed March 2nd, 2014. https://vintageportland.wordpress.com/2010/01/

sites to vibrant sites. ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 38

Figure 1.2 : Map of vacant sites in Portland ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 3

Image Source: Google Earth screenshot Figure 1.3 : Vacant typologies in Portland ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5 Figure 1.4 : Vacant typologies study and exploration ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 7 Figure 1.5 : Vacant typologies study and exploration ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9

Figure 3.1 : Reclaiming the street through tactical action. ���������������������������������������������������������������������40

Image Source: A/N Blog. “Tactical Urbanism” Accessed June 2, 2014 http://blog.archpaper. com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/photo-copy-3.jpg Figure 3.2 : City dwellers repainting as part an effort to reclaim the street, creating more inviting and vibrant street conditions. �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 41

Figure 1.6 : Proposed timeline for project, highlighting benchmarks for project success. ����� 10

Image Source: Politics, Culture and Architecture Blog. “Tactical Urbanism” Accessed May 20, 2014 http://arch442544.wordpress.com/2012/03/20/tactical-urbanism/

Figure 1.7 : Exploration looking at a retail program under the freeway ���������������������������������������������11

Figure 3.3 : DreamHamar project by Ecosistema Urbano, highlighting the public

Figure 1.8 : Exploration of how reclaiming abandoned spaces can be revitalized through

engagement process. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 43

human engagement. ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������12

Image Source: Ecosistema Urbano. “DreamHamar” http://www.ecosistemaurbano.com/. Accessed February 10, 2014

Figure 1.9 : (Right)Exploration of Planetarium under the overpass. (Above)Exploration of Figure 3.4 : Wikihouse, an opensource construction set, allowing users to download and cnc how sports and media can create collective spaces out of vacant spaces. ���������������������������������� 14 their own dwellings. Images show prototypes as well as build process. ���������������������������������������� 45 Figure 2.0 : Current overpass condition on the East side. �����������������������������������������������������������������������16 Figure 2.1 : Map looking at all the main automotive transit corridors running through

Image Source: Wikihouse. “Wikihouse” http://www.wikihouse.cc/. Accessed February 10, 2014

Portlands Urban Growth Boundary ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������17

Figure 3.5 : Series of images showing how public engagement transformed the once vacant

Figure 2.2 : Buffalo Bayou Promenade. Houston, Texas. �������������������������������������������������������������������������22

alleyway into a vibrant space.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 47

Image source: SWA Group. “Various Images.” Buffalo Bayou Promenade. Accessed November 1, 2013. http://www.swagroup.com/.

Figure 3.6 : Miniature taskscapes focusing on different possibilities under the freeway.

Figure 2.3 : Masterplanning by SWA Buffalo Bayou Promenade. Houston, Texas. ������������������� 24

Each was used for a side of the module turnstyle. ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������51 Figure 3.7 : Module turnstyle artifact in various positions showing its adaptability. ����������������52

Image source: SWA Group. “Various Images.” Buffalo Bayou Promenade. Accessed November 1, 2013. http://www.swagroup.com/.

Figure 3.7 : Module options and possibilities. ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������53

Figure 2.4 : Reclaiming the old transit line for new activation by retail and park spaces. ����� 26

Figure 3.9 : Exploded Axonometric of a micro-structure and its components. ��������������������������55

Image source: Patrick Berger. “Vaiduc des Artes.” Viaduc Des Artes. Accessed February 4, 2014. Viaduc des Arts - Site officiel. Accessed November 2, 2013. http://www.leviaducdesarts.com/.

Figure 4.0 : Adaptability of micro-structure over time ��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 56

Figure 2.5 : Proposal for re-using desolate train lines into new pedestrian pathways and

Figure 4.2 : Water parklet dock ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������57

connective strands. �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������28

Figure 4.3 : Water parklet modified to make swimming space. ����������������������������������������������������������57

Image source: Atlanta Beltline. “Various Images.” Atlanta Beltline. 2014. Viaduc des Arts Site officiel. Accessed November 4, 2013. http://www.perkinswill.com/work/atlanta-beltline. html.

Figure 4.4 : Section with parklet swimming space. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 58

Figure 2.6 : Site map highlighting Portland’s East side highway conditions. ������������������������������� 29

Figure 4.6 : Diagram of new public roles. �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������60

Figure 2.7 : Photographs highlighting the various conditions at the site. ����������������������������������������31

Figure 4.6 : Diagram of open source process. ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 62

Figure 2.8 : Figure ground maps examing the comparative scale of the site to other well

Figure 4.7 : Diagram of web interface. ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 64

127

Figure 4.1 : Partnership with OMSI on module construction and options. ������������������������������������� 56

Figure 4.5 : New swimming spaces perspective. ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 58


Figure 4.8 : Diagram of build process. ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 66

Figure 8.1: Double exposure image, overlaying people onto vacant spaces underneath the

Figure 4.9 : Workbook pages. ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 68

overpasses. �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 117

Figure 5.0 : Sample workbook pages. �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 70

Figure 8.2: Diagram showing the partnerships and connections through

Figure 5.1 : Aerial image of site. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������72

the web interface. ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������120

Image Source: Google Earth screenshot

Figure 8.3: Diagram showing the management and control of the web interface and its role

Figure 5.2: Site section looking West. �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 74

in the project. ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 122

Figure 5.3: Phasing diagram showing the existing conditions phase. �����������������������������������������������75

Figure 8.4: Diagram showing the new roles for architects and planners who engage in this

Figure 5.4: Phasing diagram showing the marking phase. ������������������������������������������������������������������� 76

project.  ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������124

Figure 5.5: Phasing diagram showing the implementation phase. �����������������������������������������������������77

Figure 8.5: Site photograph of the conditions as they are today. ���������������������������������������������������� 126

Figure 5.6: Phasing diagram showing the utilities phase. ����������������������������������������������������������������������78 Figure 5.7: Phasing diagram showing the rotational set one phase. ������������������������������������������������ 79 Figure 5.8: Phasing diagram showing the rotational set two phase. ������������������������������������������������ 80 Figure 5.9: Drawing showing the possibilities of new neighborhoods under the overpass. ��82 Figure 6.0: Close-up of new neighborhoods drawing. ���������������������������������������������������������������������������� 84 Figure 6.1: Close-up of new neighborhoods drawing. ������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 86 Figure 6.2: Perspective of new neighborhoods drawing. ����������������������������������������������������������������������� 88 Figure 6.3: Phasing diagram showing the existing conditions phase. ��������������������������������������������� 89 Figure 6.4: Phasing diagram showing the marking phase. ��������������������������������������������������������������������90 Figure 6.5: Phasing diagram showing the implementation phase. ������������������������������������������������������91 Figure 6.6: Phasing diagram showing the utilities phase. ���������������������������������������������������������������������� 92 Figure 6.7: Phasing diagram showing the rotational set one phase. ������������������������������������������������ 93 Figure 6.8: Phasing diagram showing the rotational set two phase. ������������������������������������������������ 94 Figure 6.9: Drawing new neighborhoods at South of Hawthorne site. ������������������������������������������� 95 Figure 7.0: Close-up of South of Hawthorne. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 97 Figure 7.1: Close-up of new neighborhoods drawing. ���������������������������������������������������������������������������� 100 Figure 7.2: Perspective of new waterfront conditions. ���������������������������������������������������������������������������102 Figure 7.3: Diagram of module adaptability. ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 104 Figure 7.4: Sections of water reclamation attachments. �����������������������������������������������������������������������106 Figure 7.5: Sections of power and water attachments. ��������������������������������������������������������������������������107 Figure 7.6: Sections of artistic expression and vantage points attachments. �����������������������������108 Figure 7.7: Diagrams of new connection points to the freeway. �������������������������������������������������������109 Figure 7.8: Diagrams showing the connection options for attaching to the underneath the overpass. �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������110 Figure 7.9: Perspective of climbing walls attaching to the overpass. ����������������������������������������������� 111 Figure 8.0: Perspective of performance spaces underneath the freeway. ������������������������������������ 114

128


129


Citations [1] - Buffalo Bayou Promenade.......................................................................... 24

[6] - Passage 56....................................................................................................... 47

Hung, Ying-Yu. Landscape Infrastructure: Case Studies by SWA. Basel: Birkhäuser, 2011.

Urban Tactics: “Passage 56” http://www.urbantactics.org/projects/passage%2056/ passage56html.html. Access October 29th, 2013.

Mammoth/ building nothing out of something.” mammoth // building nothing out of something. Accessed November 1, 2013. http://m.ammoth.us/blog/2009/07/its-prettinessand-romance-will-then-be-gone/.

[7] - Open-Source................................................................................................... 62

Sipes, James L., and Matthew K. Zeve. The Bayous of Houston. 2012.

[2] - Viaduc Des Arts + Promenade Plantee................................................. 26 Meade, Martin. “Parisian promenade.” The Architectural Review Sept. 1996: 52+. Academic OneFile. Web. 14 Nov. 2013. Urban Gardens. “The High Line’s French Ancestor: La Promenade Plantée.” Accessed November 2, 2013. http://www.urbangardensweb.com/2011/09/23/the-high-lines-frenchancestor-la-promenade-plantee/.

New York Times: “THE WAY WE LIVE NOW: 9-28-03: QUESTIONS FOR LINUS TORVALDS; The Sharer” http://www.nytimes.com/2003/09/28/magazine/the-way-we-live-now-9-2803-questions-for-linus-torvalds-the-sharer.html Accessed MArch 2nd, 2014

Other Resources [1] - City Planner Discussions.............................................................................. Meetings conducted with Leslie Lum, Designer at the Urban Studio, City of Portland. Numerous occasions

Viaduc des Arts - Site officiel. Accessed November 4, 2013. http://www.leviaducdesarts. com/.

[3] - Atlanta Beltline............................................................................................... 28 Davidson, Ethan. “The Atlanta BeltLine: a green future: a grassroots solution to transportation challenges, this pedestrian-bicycle-transit loop will encircle Georgia’s largest city. Could this be a model for other communities too?” Public RoadsSept.-Oct. 2011: 20+. Academic OneFile. Web. 14 Nov. 2013. Kobza, Kim P. “The Atlanta BeltLine and neighborhood America: transportation planners found a comprehensive, cost-effective way to capture the diverse views of residents and report the complex needs of each region.” The Public ManagerWinter 2006: 47+. Academic OneFile. Web. 14 Nov. 2013. Ideas + buildings that honor the broader goals of society | Perkins+Will. “Atlanta BeltLine | Perkins+Will.” Accessed November 19, 2013. http://www.perkinswill.com/work/atlantabeltline.html. Fernández Per, Aurora, and Javier Mozas. Reclaim: remediate, reuse, recycle. VitoriaGasteiz: a+t ediciones, 2012.

[4] - DreamHamar................................................................................................... 43 Ecosistema Urbano. “DreamHamar Project Profile” http://ecosistemaurbano.com/portfolio/ dreamhamar/. Accessed January 26th, 2014.

[5] - Wikihouse......................................................................................................... 45 Wikihouse. “Wikihouse about” http://www.wikihouse.cc/. Accessed January 20th, 2014. Arch Daily: “CNC Your Own House”http://www.archdaily.com/tag/wikihouse/. Accessed January 20th, 2014. TED: “Alastair Parvin Talk”. http://www.ted.com/talks/alastair_parvin_architecture_for_ the_people_by_the_people.html. Accessed January 18th, 2014

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Additional Resources Abbey, Lester. Highways: an Architectural Approach. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1992. Berkel, Ben van, and Caroline Bos. UN Studio: Design Models, Architecture, Urbanism, Infrastructure. New York: Rizzoli, 2006. Berger, Alan. Drosscape: Wasting Land in Urban America. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2006. Bhatia, Neeraj. Coupling: Strategies for Infrastructural Opportunism. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2011.

Home | Federal Highway Administration. “Moving The Goods: As The Interstate Era Begins - Interstate System - Highway History - Federal Highway Administration.” Accessed November 18, 2013. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/infrastructure/freight.cfm. Hou, Jeffrey. Insurgent Public Space: Guerrilla Urbanism and the Remaking of Contemporary Cities. New York: Routledge, 2010. Jakle, John A., and David Wilson. Derelict Landscapes: The Wasting of America’s Built Environment. Savage, Md: Rowman & Littlefield, 1992. Lynch, Kevin. The Image of the City. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1960. Morris, Douglas. It’s a Sprawl World After All: [the Human Cost of Unplanned Growth-- and Visions of a Better Future]. Gabriola, BC: New Society Publishers, 2005.

Blake, Peter. God’s Own Junkyard; The Planned Deterioration of America’s Landscape. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964.

Mumford, Lewis. The Highway and the City. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1963.

Carrera, Judit, Magda Anglès, and Rosa Puig Torres. In Favour of Public Space: Ten Years of the European Prize for Urban Public Space. Barcelona: CCCB, 2010

Oldenburg, Ray. The Great Good Place: Cafés, Coffee Shops, Community Centers, Beauty Parlors, General Stores, Bars, Hangouts, and How They Get You Through the Day. New York: Paragon House, 1989.

Certeau, Michel de. The Practice of Everyday Life. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984. Chase, John, Margaret Crawford, and John Kaliski. Everyday Urbanism. New York: Monacelli Press, 2008. Cuff, Dana, and Roger Sherman. Fast-Forward Urbanism: Rethinking Architecture’s Engagement with the City. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2011. Cutler, Laurence S., and Sherrie Stephens Cutler. Recycling Cities for People: The Urban Design Process. Boston: Cahners Books International, 1976. Dattner, Richard. Civil Architecture: The New Public Infrastructure. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994. Davidson, Cynthia C. “Terrain Vague.” In Anyplace, 118-123. New York, N.Y.: Anyone Corp, 1995. Fernández Per, Aurora, and Javier Mozas. Reclaim: remediate, reuse, recycle. VitoriaGasteiz: a+t ediciones, 2012. Ford, Larry. The Spaces between Buildings. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000. Gastil, Raymond, and Zoë Ryan. Open: New Designs for Public Space. New York: Van Alen Institute, 2004. Gehl, Jan. Life between Buildings: Using Public Space. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1987. Hauck, Thomas J. Infrastructural Urbanism: Addressing the in-Between. Berlin: DOM publishers, 2011.

Perrault, Dominique, Bernard Tschumi, Michel Desvigne, and Nasrine Seraji-Bozorgzad. E2: exploring the urban condition. [Paris?]: Groupe E2, 2003. Ramirez-Lovering, Diego. Opportunistic Urbanism. Melbourne, Vic: RMIT Publishing, 2008. Reed, Peter. Groundswell: Constructing the Contemporary Landscape. New York, N.Y.: Museum of Modern Art, 2005.

Ryan, Brent D. Design After Decline: How America Rebuilds Shrinking Cities. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012. Shannon, Kelly, and Marcel Smets. The Landscape of Contemporary Infrastructure. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 2010.

Tschumi, Bernard, and Joseph Abram. Tschumi Le Fresnoy: Architecture in/Between. New York: Monacelli Press, 1999. Varnelis, Kazys. The Infrastructural City: Networked Ecologies in Los Angeles. Barcelona: Actar, 2008. Waldheim, Charles. The Landscape Urbanism Reader. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2006. Ziehl, Michael, Sarah Osswald, Oliver Hasemann, and Daniel Schnier. Second Hand Spaces. Berlin: Jovis, 2012. Zukin, Sharon. Naked City: The Death and Life of Authentic Urban Places. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Handmade Urbanism: Mumbai - Sao Paulo - Istanbul - Mexico City - Cape Town. From Community Initiatives to Participatory Models. Berlin: Jovis Verlag, 2013. Harris, Steven, and Deborah Berke. Architecture of the Everyday. New York, N.Y.: Princeton Architectural Press, 1997. Hung, Ying-Yu. Landscape Infrastructure: Case Studies by SWA. Basel: Birkhäuser, 2011. Hood, Walter, and Leah Levy. Urban Diaries. Washington, D.C.: Spacemaker Press, 1997.

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