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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 7 » Democracy and the Commonwealth Note - This lesson could be split into two for students to have more time to prepare and discuss: activities 1 and 2 in the first lesson, and activities 3 and 4 in the second lesson.

Lesson aims/key questions

Learning outcomes and key processes

Students will be able to: a » Define at least two key terms associated with democracy. b » Analyse the key aims of the Harare Declaration. c » Summarise the role played by the Commonwealth during apartheid in South Africa. d » Explain what is meant by Election Observation Missions. e » Identify at least one Commonwealth-related activity they themselves could take part in to help take action around issues of diversity, development or democracy. Key processes: Research; communicating ideas; listening to others; understanding rights and responsibilities; feeling empowered to make a difference; active involvement in the community (local and global); an interest in global issues and current affairs.

Key words/

concepts / terms

Democracy | Commonwealth | election | parliament | government | media | citizen action | political integrity | equal rights | peaceful communities | election observation missions | apartheid.

Summary of

Activity 1 (starter): Democracy Dominoes (Defining Key Terms)

Activity 2: Commonwealth Advertising Campaign (Research)

b» c» d»

Activity 3: Time for an Advert Break (Watching groups present their adverts and giving constructive feedback)

b» c» d»

Activity 4 (plenary): Messages from Commonwealth Leaders (Preparing to take action)

activities and links to learning outcomes

Assessment

opportunities

Differentiation

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1 » What does it mean for a country to be democratic? 2 » To what extent is democracy a good form of government? 3 » What does the Commonwealth do to promote democracy?

» Activity 1 (starter) could be a group assessment (seeing which groups finish their dominoes chain first) or an individual peer- or teacher-assessment (students write out the entire paragraph). » Activity 3 could be a group assessment in which marks are given to students for the contents of their adverts and for the effort and innovation they have put into the task. This is a good opportunity for peer assessment using feedback sheets. The Advertising Standards Authority Critique Sheet (7r3) can also be collected in and individually marked. » Activity 4 could be finished for homework then collected in and individually assessed. » Activity 1 (starter): This task can be designed as a task for smaller groups or for the whole class, depending on how confident students might be to call out in class. You can play a game of dominoes with the whole class in which they compete with others to call out the right definitions for the key terms. If you would prefer them to work in groups, you can divide the class into groups of around five students and give them a set of dominoes per group, which they have to put into the right order before you call out ‘stop!’. » Activity 2: The three briefing sheets (7r2)are of slightly different complexity, with the Election Observation sheet being most accessible and the Apartheid and the Commonwealth Principles sheets being most challenging.

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 7 » Democracy and the Commonwealth continued...

Homework or extension tasks

Resources needed

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You could ask students to: » Compare the Commonwealth Principles to the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Information on the latter can be found on the UN website: www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml). What are the similarities and differences? Which Declarations do they think might have the most impact and why? » Write a half-page reflection on the experience of constructing an advert for an organisation such as the Commonwealth; and a paragraph summary of each group’s advert identifying a range of different democratic processes in which the Commonwealth has been involved. » Film or record their advert (if this has not been possible in class), or use an online tool to make their advert into a cartoon video. » Note down and finish answering the questions on the Commonwealth Leader Messages Powerpoint (7r4). » Find and read autobiographical literature written by past and present Commonwealth Heads of Government, such as Nelson Mandela’s ‘Long Walk to Freedom’. » Find out how to take part in one or more of the Royal Commonwealth Society’s Commonwealth youth programmes: for example, the essay or film-making competitions – and take part if they can! » Activity 1 (starter): Democracy Dominoes cards (7r1) (one domino for each student in the class, or one set for each group of around five students) » Activity 2: Democratic Commonwealth Briefing Sheets (7r2) (one to each group of five-eight students); Recording (video / audio) equipment if available; computers and internet access for each group if available. » Activity 3: Advertising Standards Authority Critique Sheet (7r3) (one for each student); Stopwatch; Video/audio playback equipment if available. » Activity 4: Commonwealth Leader Messages Powerpoint (7r4)

» Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 1 (starter): Democracy Dominoes Each domino card (7r1) contains a key term and a definition that doesn’t match that term. The object is to form a chain of key terms and their definitions and therefore complete the whole paragraph about democracy. There are two ways to play the game:

0-10m

» Either: (a) Get students into groups of around five and give each group a cut-up set of dominoes (7r1). They have to work out the term that matches each definition and get themselves into a line or a circle to read out the terms and definitions to you in order when you call out ‘stop!’. If they have time they could write down the entire paragraph they have formed using the dominoes and this could be peer- or teacher- assessed. » Or: (b) Give out a different domino card (7r1) to each individual or pair of students around the classroom. Ask a student with the ‘Democracy’ domino to read out their word and get a student with the matching definition (‘where power is in the hands of the people…’) to read it out, then they have to give their domino key term and someone else supplies the definition, and so on until all the cards have been read out. You may have to give some hints or prompts, such as the start of the definition, if students are unsure, particularly to get the ball rolling. » If you give out more than one set of dominoes, students can compete to call out the definitions before the other student(s) with that card.

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 7 » Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 2: Commonwealth Advertising Campaign Divide the class into groups of around five-eight and give each group one of the Democratic Commonwealth Briefing Sheets (7r2).

10-30m

Each resource sheet has a slightly different focus around the Commonwealth’s involvement with democracy around the world: Election Observation Missions, Anti-Apartheid and the Commonwealth Principles. Give groups 15-20 minutes to construct a television or radio advertisement presenting the main points in the resource in an interesting and fun way. Each group will only have two minutes to present their advert so they need to make it very snappy with only important points covered. It would be useful if you could discuss with the class some basic standards you would expect from the adverts, which you could draw from the Advertising Standards Authority Critique Sheet (7r3). » If you have recording and playback equipment you might be able to get groups to film or record their adverts and play them back during Activity 3. If not, they can simply write the script and perform the advert to the rest of the class in ‘live action’ during Activity 3. Students could also use an online tool such as Xtranormal (www.xtranormal.com) r2 r3 to make their advert into a cartoon video if they have computer and internet access.

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» Activity 3: Time for an Advert Break

30-50m

Give out the Advertising Standards Authority Critique Sheet (7r3) to each student. Explain that they are now representing the Government’s Advertising Standards Authority and they have to make sure that the adverts are clear, understandable and relevant. As they are watching each advert, they should use the Advertising Standards Authority Critique Sheet (7r3) to write down some constructive feedback for the makers of the advert.

Then ask each group in turn to present their two minute advert. Be very strict about timing – do cut them off if they go over two minutes. At the end of each advert ask the Advertising Standards Authority to give a brief critique of the advert, using their Advertising Standards Authority Critique Sheets (7r3). If there is time: Students from the groups could respond to the critiques and you could foster a dialogue or debate within the class about democracy in general or any of the topics in particular, using some of the prompt questions below (the first of which is on their sheet, 7r3): » Is democracy the best form of government? Why/ why not? » What do we mean by rights and responsibilities? How are the election observers, anti-apartheid activists and the people who drafted the Commonwealth Principles making use of their rights and responsibilities? How are these linked to Human Rights? (Information on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights can be found on the UN website: www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml) » Are the principles of democracy, diversity and development universal ideas or are they ‘Western’ constructs imposed on others? » What difference might it make if the Commonwealth suspends one of its members for breaching Commonwealth Principles?

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 7 » Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 4: Messages from Commonwealth Leaders Display the Commonwealth Leader Messages Powerpoint (7r4) and ask individual students to read each one out in turn. After each message there are a few questions that you could either ask students to write down quick answers to, or note down to answer for homework.

50-60m

If you have time: You could have a class discussion around each question slide. If you run out of time, choose your favourite quote and focus only on that slide and the final slide. Ask students to consider their ideas for the final slide. They could think of an action that would make a difference to democracy, diversity and/or development. Even very small actions such as using less electricity or taking fewer car journeys to reduce carbon emissions could make a big difference. Encourage students to think in the long term: could they make a difference through their career choices? In the shorter term, they could begin by writing letters, joining internet campaigns and teaching others about the issues. If you are able to organise this, you could ask students to teach something they have learned in these lessons to a group of younger students. Give students confidence that they can make a difference, even if it is through very small steps. Students might already know the following saying: ‘That’s one small step for man… one giant leap for mankind’. If they are stuck for ideas you could point them to the UN Millennium Development Goals ‘Get Involved’ website: www.un.org/millenniumgoals/getinvolved.shtml, which contains lots of ideas for actions and campaigns. Good luck!

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View p22-23 CommonGround guide

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…who are people sent by an independent organisation to check that elections are run fairly, which in a democracy means the promotion of…

Equal Rights

…which are communities (groups of people) who live together without fighting.

Media Political Integrity

Parliament

…which is when people do things to try to change society, for example writing letters to their political representatives who they hope will act with…

Democracy

…where laws give everyone the same opportunities, no matter what their gender, sexuality, ethnicity, or faith, so everyone can live together in…

Election

…which is when political representatives act according to principles of truth, justice and equality and make sure they do not steal or cheat (which is called corruption)... in elections this is inspected by…

Government

…which is the main way for people to find out information about what is happening in society, and to advertise the ways in which they are taking…

…which is the body that organises how the country or area is run, and is held accountable by parliament, the courts and by the journalists of the…

Citizen action

…which is an institution that decides on the rules that everyone in that area has to follow (laws), which are then implemented (put into practice) by the…

…which is a process in which people in an area (called a constituency) choose their leader by voting for the person they want to represent them in…

Election Observers

…where power is in the hands of the people. In a representative democracy, citizens decide who they want to be their political representatives through an…

Peaceful communities

De mo cr ac y Do mi no es » Resource 7r1

» Democracy Dominoes - ANSWERS

Democracy…where power is in the hands of the people. In a representative democracy, citizens decide who they want to be their political representatives through an…Election…which is a process in which people in an area (called a constituency) choose their leader by voting for the person they want to represent them in…Parliament…which is an institution that decides on the rules that everyone in that area has to follow (laws), which are then implemented (put into practice) by the…Government… which is the body that organises how the country or area is run, and is held accountable by parliament, the courts and by the journalists of the…Media…which is the main way for people to find out information about what is happening in society, and to advertise the ways in which they are taking…Citizen action…which is when people do things to try to change society, for example writing letters to their political representatives who they hope will act with…Political Integrity…which is when political representatives act according to principles of truth, justice and equality and make sure they do not steal or cheat (which is called corruption)... in elections this is inspected by…Election Observers…who are people sent by an independent organisation to check that elections are run fairly, which in a democracy means the promotion of…Equal Rights…where laws give everyone the same opportunities, no matter what their gender, sexuality, ethnicity, or faith, so everyone can live together in…Peaceful communities…which are communities (groups of people) who live together without fighting.

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RESOURCE 7r1 PAGE 1 OF 1 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


» Resource 7r2 ets She ing ief Br th eal nw mo Com ic at ocr Dem » Election Observations

ELECTION OBSERVATIONS It is important that elections are conducted fairly. A country cannot be a true democracy if its elections are plagued with corrupt practices such as bribery or voter or electoral fraud. Bribery is when someone in a position of power gives or takes money in order to give them an unfair advantage over someone else. Voter or electoral fraud is when the votes in an election have been tampered with in some way – for example, counting the same person twice on the list of voters (electoral roll); pretending to be someone else when voting; harassing or intimidating people during an election; or not counting the votes properly. In order to strengthen democracy, the Commonwealth Secretariat is sometimes asked by a Commonwealth member state to send an independent panel called a Commonwealth Observer Group (COG) to observe their elections. They are asked to report on how credible the elections were (for example, whether any corruption seemed to be happening; whether people of voting age were all allowed to vote freely; and whether the result seemed to go against the strong wishes of the people). The COG report also contains practical recommendations to help improve the election arrangements for the future. Here are two quotes from a COG report relating to elections in Tanzania: “During the election period political parties campaigned in both urban and rural areas around the country and enjoyed freedom of movement, speech and assembly. The campaign was generally peaceful and rallies were conducted in a festive and jubilant manner. Women and youth were highly visible during the campaign but played a vital, but more supportive role during the elections.” “While the application of procedures was largely adhered to, there were also inconsistencies. But it was felt that in most instances practices were within the spirit of the law. Some of the general issues raised by the observers were: • The  layout of the voting booths, with the front of the booth facing the room, could compromise the secrecy of the vote. • In some polling stations pregnant women and less-abled voters were specifically assisted, but in others they were not. • In many instances staff did not appear to check the fingers of voters for ink prior to voting.” Notes about Commonwealth Observer Groups (COGs): 1. COGs are never forced on countries against their will – they only go to elections where they have been invited by the Government or the election management body and where they have the broad support of political parties and the people of the country. 2. The COGs and their advisors spend some time in the country and make sure they report on the election as part of the whole democratic process and not just as a one day event. 3. COGs don’t interfere in the processes of elections – they are only there to observe. 4. C  OGs are made up of “eminent and highly experienced Commonwealth citizens drawn from countries familiar with democratic processes and institutions”.

t the key Your task: pick ou iefing sheet points from this br to a and make them in regarding two-minute advert h’s the Commonwealt ocracy. commitment to dem

Information from Commonwealth Secretariat website (www.thecommonwealth.org/Internal/39079/election_observation and www.thecommonwealth.org/files/232431/FileName/FinalReport-TanzaniaCOG.pdf)

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» Resource 7r2 ets She ing ief Br th eal nw mo Com ic at ocr Dem » Fighting Against Apartheid

FIGHTING AGAINST APARTHEID South Africa was colonised for a long time by the Dutch and British and its people were divided into three ‘races’: white, coloured (mixed race) and black, based mainly on their skin colour. Each of these groups were given different rights and restrictions. After South Africa gained independence in 1931, it was still ruled by the white minority: the majority of people in the country were black but they were not given the right to vote in elections. In 1948, the National Party were elected and they took the segregation and discrimination (mainly against black people) a step further, calling it ‘Apartheid’ (which means ‘apartness’). They passed new laws which said black people had to live in separate neighbourhoods, and often forced people to move. They separated out schools, universities, hospitals and other public facilities, giving the ones for white people much more funding than the ones for black people. They made it illegal for black and white people to get married or have intimate relationships. They made it almost impossible for black people to get a South African passport. There were signs all around saying ‘Whites Only’. People started to rebel against the apartheid system and to call for international action against the racist government of South Africa. In 1961 when South Africa became a Republic (removing the Queen as Head of State), the Commonwealth countries had to decide whether it could still remain a member. It became clear that most of the African and Asian member states would vote against South Africa because of the government’s racist policies, so it withdrew from the Commonwealth. In 1963 Nelson Mandela, one of the leaders of the black resistance movement, was sent to prison on a life sentence. An international boycott began against South African goods (people refused to buy things that came from South Africa to encourage the government to change its policies). The Anti-Apartheid Movement used Commonwealth meetings during the 1960s and 1970s to lobby Commonwealth Heads of Government to impose sanctions (financial punishments) on South Africa. By the 1980s the international anti-apartheid actions included the cutting of sporting and cultural ties and a ban (embargo) on selling weapons and materials that could be made into weapons to South Africa. These sanctions were opposed by the British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, who felt that the black resistance against the white government’s policies was a form of terrorism. In the late 1980s the South African government started to rethink its apartheid policies and, with the support of a ‘Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group’, finally released Nelson Mandela from prison in 1990. Through intense negotiations, they decided to hold an election where black people would be allowed to vote for the first time. Nelson Mandela won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 and was voted President of South Africa in 1994. The country rejoined the Commonwealth as a new democracy. Nelson Mandela said “The Commonwealth makes the world safe for diversity”. South Africa became known as the ‘rainbow nation’ and continues to work to resolve the inequalities and cultural divisions caused by apartheid.

t the key Your task: pick ou iefing sheet points from this br to a and make them in regarding two-minute advert h’s the Commonwealt ocracy. commitment to dem

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Information from Commonwealth Secretariat website (http://www.thecommonwealth.org/YearbookInternal/145185/history/) and ‘Your World Your Commonwealth’ (www.thecommonwealth.org/files/167596/ FileNameYourWorldYourCommonwealth.pdf)

RESOURCE 7r2 PAGE 2 OF 3 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


» Resource 7r2 ets She ing ief Br th eal nw mo Com ic at ocr Dem » Commonwealth Principles

COMMONWEALTH PRINCIPLES In 1971 Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting in Singapore made an agreement about the main principles the Commonwealth should follow. This was called the ‘Singapore Declaration’. Twenty years later, in 1991, Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting in Harare, Zimbabwe (which was then a member of the Commonwealth), reaffirmed and restated the principles of the Singapore Declaration and agreed in the ‘Harare Declaration’ to concentrate on some key themes. “We believe in the liberty of the individual under the law, in equal rights for all citizens regardless of gender, race, colour, creed or political belief” “We recognise racial prejudice and intolerance as a dangerous sickness and a threat to healthy development, and racial discrimination as an unmitigated evil” “We oppose all forms of racial oppression, and we are committed to the principles of human dignity and equality” Extract from the Singapore Declaration, 1971

In 2009, the Commonwealth’s core beliefs from these two main Declarations were brought together into one document, the ‘Trinidad and Tobago Affirmation of Commonwealth Values and Principles’. “We reaffirm that the special strength of the Commonwealth lies in the diversity of its membership, bound together not only by shared history and tradition but also by an ethos of respect for all states and peoples, of shared values and principles, and of concern for the vulnerable.” Extract from the Trinidad and Tobago Affirmation of Commonwealth Values and Principles, 2009

OUR VALUES AND PRINCIPLES We solemnly reiterate our commitment to the Commonwealth’s core values: International peace and security (expressing commitment to a system based on inclusiveness, equity and international law for achieving consensus and progress on major global challenges) Democracy: (reaffirming the right of the individual to participate by means of free and democratic political processes in shaping the society in which they live) Human rights (recalling that these are universal, indivisible, interdependent and interrelated) Tolerance, respect and understanding (recognising that these strengthen democracy and development) Separation of powers (recognising the importance of maintaining the separation of the roles of the Executive (government), Legislature (parliament) and Judiciary (courts)) Rule of law (emphasising that access to justice and an independent judiciary (judges) are fundamental) Freedom of expression (emphasising that peaceful, open dialogue and the free flow of information, including through a free media, enhance democratic traditions and strengthen democratic processes) Development (stressing the importance of economic and social transformation to eliminate poverty and meet the basic needs of the vast majority of the people of the world, guided by the Millennium Development Goals) Gender equality (reaffirming gender equality and empowerment as an essential component of human development) Access to health and education (reaffirming our commitment to health and education for all citizens, both as human rights and as instruments for poverty alleviation (reduction) and sustainable development) Good governance (reiterating our commitment to promote transparency and accountability and root out corruption) Civil society (acknowledging the important role that civil society plays in our communities and nations)

t the key Your task: pick ou iefing sheet points from this br to a and make them in regarding two-minute advert h’s the Commonwealt ocracy. commitment to dem

Material from Commonwealth Secretariat website (www.thecommonwealth.org/Templates/Internal.asp?NodeID=32987 and www.thecommonwealth.org/document/181889/34293/35468/216908/ commonwealth_values_and_principles.htm) and from the Commonwealth Foundation’s booklet ‘CommonGround: A practical guide to the Commonwealth’ (www.commonwealthfoundation.com)

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St ud en t Fee db ac k Sh ee ts » Resource 7r3 » Use this sheet to critique the adverts you have seen today and to give some constructive feedback.

dards General Advertising Stan ar and concise (a) Adver ts should be cle to the allocated time (b) Adver ts should keep people (give them  dverts should not mislead (c) A ut something) by the wrong impression abo rated claims; gge telling lies; making exa small to read; too g itin wr in s putting thing im ng) portant details. or omitting (not mentioni m any person or animal (d) Adver ts must not har a reasonable (e) Adverts must not offend table for children sui be uld sho person and . if presented before 9pm about the Advert What was good ? advert rds did Which advertising standa et? it me

Name:

Group:

How could the advert be improved? rds does Which advertising standa et? me to rk wo it need to

1 2 3 4 5 6 ing the adverts? Further notes: learned while making or watch you g thin ting res inte st mo the • What was an to you?

• What does democracy me

y not?

m of government? Why/ wh

• Is democracy the best for

7r3 ority Critique Sheet Advertising Standards Auth

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RESOURCE 7r3 PAGE 1 OF 1 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


» Resource 7r4 nt poi er pow s ge ssa me r de lea lth ea onw Comm » Please view powerpoint presentation supplied on resource disk

» Commonwealth Leader Messages powerpoint presentation

RESOURCE 7r4 PAGE 1 OF 1 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

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Lesson 7 Resources 1 - 4 Blue  

The royal Commonwealth Lesson 7 Resources 1 - 4 Blue

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