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» The seven lessons in this blue section (identified with a square on each page) are designed with students aged 14 to18 in mind. However, they can be readily adapted for older or younger students – please see the Introduction for further details. » Sessions cover the Commonwealth (Lesson 1), Diversity (Lesson 2), Global Inequalities (Lesson 3), Education and Development (Lesson 4), Malaria (Lesson 5), Climate Change (Lesson 6) and Democracy (Lesson 7).

© Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 1 » Introducing the Commonwealth Note - This lesson could be split into two for students to have more time to prepare and discuss: activities 1 and 2 in the first lesson, and activities 3 and 4 in the second lesson.

Lesson aims/key questions

Learning outcomes and key processes

Students will be able to: a » Recognise a number of member states of the Commonwealth b » Explain the historical roots of the modern Commonwealth c » Identify and categorise a number of activities of the modern Commonwealth d » Rank and evaluate different ideas about the future of the Commonwealth e » Formulate and propose new ideas for the future of the Commonwealth Key processes: Critical thinking; research; discussion and debate; communicating ideas; critically assessing your own view and others’ viewpoints; working with others to solve problems; taking an interest in global issues and current affairs.

Key words/

Commonwealth | diversity | development | democracy | empire | colony | global | Secretariat | civil society | non-governmental organisations | heritage | Queen | consensus | Secretary-General | Commonwealth Games | youth programmes

Summary of

Activity 1 (starter): Guess Who? And the History of the Commonwealth (Powerpoint presentation)

a» b»

Activity 2: Investigators and Detectives: What does the Commonwealth do? (Information Hunt)

Activity 3: Future Leaders of the Commonwealth (Card sort to categorise and diamond rank)

d» e»

Activity 4 (plenary): Commonwealth Board Race

all »

concepts / terms

activities and links to learning outcomes

Assessment

opportunities

Differentiation

Homework or extension tasks

Resources needed

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1 » What is the Commonwealth? How did it form? 2 » What does the Commonwealth do? 3 » How should we develop the Commonwealth in future?

» Activity 1 (starter) and » Activity 4 (plenary) could be transformed into a short test of students’ knowledge about the Commonwealth Countries. » Activity 2 could be a group assessment in which students decipher and categorise activities under timed conditions. » Activity 2 contains Information Sheets with a variety of complexity (1r2); questions on the Student Investigator Sheets (1r3) also increase in complexity. » Activity 3 contains cards with a variety of complexity (1r4), some of which students may investigate further if they wish to challenge themselves, or if they do not have time they might discard the cards they have difficulty understanding. You could ask students to: » Write three paragraphs explaining what they understand by each of following terms, which form the core themes of the Commonwealth: diversity, development and democracy. » Research and write a report on the difference between making political decisions and agreements through consensus and through some alternatives such as majority voting, veto powers, top-down ‘leader decides’ and executive boards or committees. » You could set students the task of extending » Activity 3 into a detailed proposal to send to Commonwealth Leaders, for example in the form of a letter addressed to the Royal Commonwealth Society. » Activity 1 (starter): Commonwealth Introduction Powerpoint (1r1) » Activity 2: Commonwealth Activity Information Sheets (1r2) (one set to each group of 4-6 students), Student Investigator Sheets (1r3) (one each (printed on small paper), one per team (printed on big paper) or write the questions on the board) » Activity 3: Future Leaders Card Sort (1r4) (need to cut out the cards or give students scissors to cut them out) (one set for each group of 4-6 students) » Activity 4: Board (wide enough for two people to write on it at the same time) and two Board Pens

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 1 » Introducing the Commonwealth

» Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 1 (starter): Guess Who? and The History of the Commonwealth

10-15m

Show the Commonwealth Introduction Powerpoint (1r1), pausing between slides. Ask students to identify the countries and then guess the connection between them using the hints. Each answer is on the next slide but you can take these out if students might see the answers too early. If you wanted this task to be a little more competitive you could divide the class into teams and score them on correct answers.

The Powerpoint (1r1) then goes on to describe a brief history of the Commonwealth. Tell students that they should imagine they are a group of investigators or detectives trying to find out what the Commonwealth is and what it does. Therefore during the historical part of the Powerpoint they will need to take some notes so they understand a little about the origins of the Commonwealth. Students for whom note-taking is difficult could write key words as memory prompts. » You could have individual students read out the Powerpoint slides or you could read them and clarify any challenging elements with a short class discussion.

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» Activity 2: Investigators and Detectives: What does the Commonwealth do?

15-30m

Divide students into teams of four to six. Give out a set of Commonwealth Activity Information Sheets (1r2) to each group – this will work best if they are printed onto big sheets of paper. You could also put them up as posters around the classroom. Write the questions on the board from the Student Investigator Sheets (1r3) or give out copies to students. As above, ask students to think of themselves as investigators or detectives who have been tasked to find out what the modern Commonwealth does.

They must read the Information Sheets (1r2) between them and find the answers to the questions (1r3). If students have access to the internet they could also investigate the websites identified on each Information Sheet (1r2). After 10 minutes, ask students to choose a team member to report back to the class on what they found out: for example, you could ask each team in turn to report back on a different question from the question sheet. One student could be offered the role of Manager of the Detective Agency, keeping everyone on task.

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 1 » Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 3: Future Leaders of the Commonwealth

30-50m

Ask students to think of themselves as potential future leaders of the Commonwealth. They have been presented with a number of possible ideas for the future of the Commonwealth and have to choose the best ideas and formulate a proposal towards a stronger Commonwealth and a better world.

Give out the Future Leaders Card Sort (1r4) (either already cut up or with scissors for students to do so) and ask them to do the following (you could leave out (a) if time is limited): a » Categorise the ten cards into the following core themes of the Commonwealth: diversity, development, democracy. Are any of them difficult to categorise? Which category has more cards? [NB there are no right or wrong answers for this task: it’s to get students thinking about the meanings of the three core areas] b » Discard the three cards you think are least important and then add two ideas of your own on the blank cards. c » Rank the nine cards into a diamond shape according to how good you think the ideas are. This could perhaps be based on how much you think they would help the Commonwealth develop (how idealistic they are); or on whether you think the ideas would feasibly work in practice (how realistic they are). [NB see right for an illustration of a diamond ranking]

Best 2nd 3rd

2nd 3rd

4th

3rd 4th

Worst

d » Identify the top three cards in your ranking. If you have time, write these out into a half-page proposal for the future of the Commonwealth, expanding on each idea and explaining how they might fit together to work towards a better world. If you are proud of your proposal see if you can share it with the class, explaining your choices and any new ideas you may have put forward. After giving the students ten minutes or so to categorise and rank the ideas, come up with their own suggestions and then write their proposals, ask the class for volunteers to read out or summarise their choices and / or proposals. See if the class can come to a consensus about their top three ideas.

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» Activity 4: Commonwealth Board Race A board race is where students line up in two teams in front of the board.

50-60

The first student in each team needs a board pen.

When you say ‘go!’» these two students run up to their side of the board, write down a word or phrase connected to the Commonwealth and then pass the pen to the next person in line and go to the back of the queue. The next person then runs to the board and writes another word or phrase connected to the Commonwealth (words and phrases cannot be repeated) and runs to the back, passing the pen on to the next person. When you say ‘stop!’» they have to stop running to the board: any answers written after that should be excluded from the count. Go through both the team entries and strike out any repetitions or words / phrases unconnected with the Commonwealth, or any written after you said ‘stop!’. Then count up the number of correct entries and the team with the highest number wins!

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CommonGround guide

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1r1 Co mm on we alt h Int ro du ct ion Pow er poi nt » Resource » Please view powerpoint presentation supplied on resource disk

» Guess Who powerpoint presentation RESOURCE 1r1 PAGE 1 OF1 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 1r2 » Commonwealth Activity Information Sheets

What is the Commonwealth?

The Commonwealth is group of 54 countries who work together for their common good, promoting ideas such as diversity, development and democracy.

How does the Commonwealth work? ►Every two years, Commonwealth leaders (for example, Prime Ministers and Presidents or their representatives) meet to discuss issues affecting both the Commonwealth itself, and the wider world. ► The meeting is called a CHOGM (Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting) and it is hosted by a different Commonwealth country each time. ► The decisions made shape Commonwealth plans for the next two or three years. ► Decisions are normally reached by consensus (with the agreement of all) and, at the end of the meeting, a series of statements are issued on behalf of all leaders. ► All states have the same opportunity to speak, so a small island state such as St Lucia or Tonga can voice their opinion in the same way as a large country like Canada or India. ► Many other meetings take place between Commonwealth government ministers at different times. These focus on particular issues, such as education, health, and economic development.

The Commonwealth Secretariat

www.thecommonwealth.org

• It is the job of the Commonwealth Secretariat to take forward plans developed at Commonwealth meetings. • The Commonwealth Secretariat is rather like the civil service of the Commonwealth. This means it organises all the major Commonwealth meetings; it gives advice and support to member states; and runs programmes to help Commonwealth countries. • Commonwealth Secretariat programmes range from training midwives in Malawi to helping conserve rainforests in Guyana. • The Secretariat is based in London at Marlborough House. • The present Head of the Commonwealth is Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. However, the Commonwealth Secretariat is led by the Commonwealth Secretary-General, who must ensure that decisions agreed at Commonwealth meetings are properly carried out. • The Secretary-General must be impartial (not favouring one country above another), putting the needs and interests of the Commonwealth as a whole before those of individual member states. The holder of the post is chosen by all the Commonwealth Heads of Government for one or two four-year terms. • Secretary-Generals have come from all over the world, including India, Canada, Guyana, Nigeria and New Zealand. • The Secretariat also coordinates the Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group (CMAG) which is responsible for suspending members if they violate the principles of the Commonwealth. The group is made up of a rotating group of Foreign Ministers from nine Commonwealth states. • An important part of the Commonwealth Secretariat’s work focuses on young people, who make up over half of the Commonwealth’s population. The Commonwealth Youth Programme has offices in Guyana, the Solomon Islands, Zambia and India, as well as in London

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RESOURCE 1r2 PAGE 1 OF 3 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


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Commonwealth Activity Information Sheets » Resou » Commonwealth Activity Information Sheets continued...

NEWS

YOUR FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER

15 December 2010

CEREMONY AND CELEBRATION FOR NEW YOUTH LEADERS

I

t was a day for ceremony and celebration in Chandigarh, India, on 15 December, as the Commonwealth’s newly-elected youth leadership took their oaths in an hour-long Installation Ceremony presided over by the Commonwealth Secretariat Deputy Secretary-General. The eight new youth representatives read their code of conduct in the presence of their peers, Commonwealth Youth Programme Staff and the media. Together they pledged to work according to the principles of selflessness, integrity, objectivity, accountability, leadership, professionalism and political neutrality. The Deputy Secretary-General told them: “We hope you will make a critical difference in youth leadership and advocacy in the Commonwealth.”

Rebecca Solomon from Vanuatu (left) and Deputy Secretary -General Masire-Mwamba (right)

The Deputy Secretary-General then initiated the traditional candle lighting ceremony, signifying hope. The Commonwealth’s Youth Caucus seeks to promote meaningful engagement of young people in the planning and decision-making process of the Commonwealth Youth Programme (CYP). The five-day conference is being hosted by the CYP Asia Office based in Chandigarh, India. The theme for the meeting is ‘Our Year, Our Voice’.

TH E 54 Co mm on we al th me mb er s CO UN TR IES ar e.. . ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

AUSTRALIA

THE BAHAMAS

BANGLADESH

BARBADOS

BELIZE

BOTSWANA

BRUNEI DARUSSALAM

CAMEROON

CANADA

CYPRUS

DOMINICA

FIJI ISLANDS

THE GAMBIA

GHANA

GRENADA

GUYANA

INDIA

JAMAICA

KENYA

KIRIBATI

LESOTHO

MALAWI

MALAYSIA

MALDIVES

MALTA

MAURITIUS

MOZAMBIQUE

ST LUCIA

SWAZILAND

NAMIBIA

ST VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES

TONGA

NAURU

NEW ZEALAND

SAMOA

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

SEYCHELLES

TUVALU

NIGERIA

PAKISTAN

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

RWANDA

ST KITTS AND NEVIS

SIERRA LEONE

SINGAPORE

SOLOMON ISLANDS

SOUTH AFRICA

SRI LANKA

UGANDA

UNITED KINGDOM

UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA

VANUATU

ZAMBIA

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 1r2 » The Commonwealth Family The Commonwealth has a wide network of organisations that work in the 54 member countries, in order to promote shared goals and values. They work at local, national, regional or international levels and play crucial roles in policy, political or social aspects of Commonwealth life. Here are a few examples: Commonwealth Foundation

www.commonwealthfoundation.com

This organisation helps civil society (trade unions, NGOs, professional associations and other similar not for profit organisations) express their voice to governments around the Commonwealth in the promotion of democracy, development and diversity. It runs the Commonwealth People’s Forum, which is a meeting held once every two years just before the CHOGM to bring key issues facing people around the Commonwealth to the attention of the member countries’ Heads of State. The issues are presented to Heads in a joint statement on behalf of all participating organisations. The Commonwealth Foundation also runs a number of prizes to promote diversity and cultural understanding. These include the Commonwealth Writers Prize, the Commonwealth Short Story Awards and Commonwealth Connects, an international exchange programme for artists and crafts people. The Foundation also supports civil society through the provision of small grants, totalling over £1 million a year. Commonwealth Scholarship and Fellowship Plan (CSFP)

www.csfp-online.org

This organisation runs an international programme under which Commonwealth member governments offer scholarships and fellowships (funding) for citizens of other Commonwealth countries to study and work at their universities. Commonwealth Games Federation (CGF)

www.thecgf.com

This organisation is responsible for the direction and control of the Commonwealth Games. The Commonwealth Games is a multi-sports event which is held once every four years for members of the Commonwealth. It is often referred to as the ‘Friendly Games’. The CGF also runs the Commonwealth Youth Games which are held every four years and are open to competitors between 14 and 18. The Royal Commonwealth Society (RCS)

www.thercs.org and www.thercs.org/youth

The RCS is the oldest and largest civil society organisation in the Commonwealth Family. It is a charity that aims to promote understanding of international issues and the Commonwealth. The RCS helps to coordinate a celebration for Commonwealth Day, which is on the second Monday of March each year, and each year has a different theme. It also runs a wide range of programmes for young people around the world. Here is just one example… CASE STUDY » Competitions for Young People Around the Commonwealth Essay Competition: Every year, the Commonwealth Essay Competition inspires thousands of young writers from all over the world. This international student writing contest has been running for over 100 years - the world’s oldest and largest - and is a highly regarded and popular international education project. Open to all Commonwealth citizens aged 18 or under, the Essay Competition offers young people the opportunity to make their voice heard on a global platform, encouraging students to engage with issues which are important to them. Photographic and Vision Awards: The Commonwealth Vision Awards promote excellence in filmmaking and photography. Open to anyone in the Commonwealth under the age of 30 with a keen interest in visual media and with some excellent prizes on offer. Find out more at www.thercs.org/youth

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St ud en t Inv est iga to r Sh ee ts » Resource 1r3 » Commonwealth Detectives

Who is the He ad Commonweal of the th? Draw a quick picture of this person if you can!

ked es and you have been tas You are a team of detectiv onwealth does. to find out what the Comm team members’ skills to your » Make sure you use all you can! fill in as many boxes as When is Commonwealth Day? What is CHOGM? at? the Commonwealth Secretari Where is the headquarters of h People’s Forum?

What is the Commonwealt

COMMOWEALTH DETECTIVES

wealth Games How often are the Common Games held? and the Youth Commonwealth mes What are the three core the ich wh , alth we on of the Comm all start with D? rt in the Royal At what ages can you take pa etitions for Young People? mp Co Commonwealth Society’s Commonwealth? tes violate the principles of the sta er mb me if ns pe hap at Wh pledge to follow? mmonwealth Youth Leaders Which principles do the Co

What does the CSFP do?

alth How does the Commonwe s? ion make decis

nd interesting Commonwealth have you fou Which other facts about the or surprising?

s Student Investigator 1r3

Commonwealth Detective

RESOURCE 1r3 PAGE 1 OF 1 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

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50

1 r4 The Commonwealth tries to do too much with limited resources. It should focus on a small number of goals.

The people of every Commonwealth country need to be more involved in the work of the Commonwealth (more work should be done at the grass-roots level).

+ Add an idea of your own

The Commonwealth needs more funding and more staff. It also needs to spend its money wisely and efficiently.

+ Add an idea of your own

The Commonwealth should do more to make sure things stay calm and safe whenever countries are experiencing civil unrest or instability.

Communication between different Commonwealth organisations needs to be improved.

The Secretary-General of the Commonwealth needs to be better known.

You have been presented with a number of possible ideas for the future of the Commonwealth and have to choose the best ideas and formulate a proposal towards a stronger Commonwealth and a better world.

» Think of yourself as a potential future leader of the Commonwealth.

The Commonwealth Secretariat should move from the UK to a different Commonwealth country. This will let people know that Britain is no longer in charge and is just another member.

The Commonwealth needs its own radio station to share with the world its talents and diversity and any useful news.

Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings should set clear targets for all members and check Commonwealth countries are keeping their promises.

HM Queen Elizabeth II should stop being the Head of Commonwealth and the job should go to someone from outside the UK.

Fu tu re Lea de rs Ca rd So rt » Resource 1r4

RESOURCE 1r4 PAGE 1 OF 1

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 2 » Diversity and the Commonwealth Note - This lesson could be split into two for students to have more time to prepare and discuss: activities 1 and 2 in the first lesson, and activities 3 and 4 in the second lesson.

Lesson aims/key questions

Learning outcomes and key processes

1 » In which ways is the Commonwealth diverse? 2 » What is life like in other countries around the world? What are some similarities and differences with our own lives? 3 » What is agreement by consensus? To what extent does diversity make reaching consensus difficult? Students will be able to: a » List three ways in which Commonwealth countries are diverse. b » Examine the similarities and differences between our own lives and the lives of people living in another Commonwealth country. c » Explain what is meant by agreement by consensus. d » Evaluate some of the advantages, limitations and challenges of consensus among diverse countries. Key processes: Empathising with others; discussion and debate; arguing a viewpoint other than your own; communicating ideas; listening to others; working with others to solve problems.

Key words/

concepts / terms

Commonwealth | diversity | consensus | trade | language | religion | culture | heritage | microfinance | Fairtrade | trade bloc | free trade agreement | World Bank | International Monetary Fund

Summary of

Activity 1 (starter): Diverse Commonwealth Quiz (Powerpoint presentation)

Activity 2: Commonwealth Letters (Letter-writing task)

Activity 3: The Challenge of Trade (Structured Role Play Debate in Groups)

Activity 4 (plenary): Reaching consensus (Feedback from Debate)

activities and links to learning outcomes

Assessment

opportunities

Differentiation

Homework or extension tasks

» Activity 2 could be assessed if marking criteria are established and letters are collected in and marked. » Activity 3 and » Activity 4 (plenary) could be a group assessment either by one person in each group acting as an ‘observer’ or ‘assessor’ of the others (in groups of five rather than four), or through informal assessment of individual contributions to class discussion. » Activity 2: The letters from Pakistan and Singapore are more accessible and those from Tanzania and Trinidad and Tobago are more challenging. » Activity 3: Students needing extra support for group discussion work could work with a partner to represent a single country, with time beforehand to talk through the viewpoint of the country they represent. » Activity 4: Thorough questioning (level and challenge of question during feedback pitched to needs of individual students). Students could: Research a new country » Individually or in small groups, ask students to pick a Commonwealth country which is new to them – one they do not know very much about (all Commonwealth members are listed below). You could ask students to carry out online research on their chosen country, using the Commonwealth Secretariat website ‘Country profiles’: www.thecommonwealth.org/s/YearbookHomePage/152099/country_profile » They could find out the following: 1 » Name of capital city 2 » Languages (official and local) 3 » Life expectancy 4 » Land area 5a » and 5b » Two  facts they found particularly interesting or surprising Write a short briefing note » for the Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting describing the benefits and challenges of a consensus method for making decisions amongst Commonwealth countries. LESSON 2 PAGE 1 OF 4

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 2 » Diversity and the Commonwealth continued... Resources needed

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» Activity 1 (starter) and » Activity 4: Diverse Commonwealth Powerpoint (2r1) » Activity 2: Commonwealth Letters (1 each or 1 per pair) (2r2); Blank World Maps (2r3) (a coloured-in world map is also included in this resource showing all the Commonwealth countries) » Activity 3: The Challenge of Trade briefing sheets (1 set per group of four students) (2r4)

» Full List of Commonwealth Countries (for possible research task) • Antigua and Barbuda •Bangladesh •Botswana •Canada •Fiji Islands •Grenada •Jamaica •Lesotho •Maldives •Mozambique •New Zealand •Papua New Guinea •St Lucia •Seychelles •Solomon Islands •Swaziland •Tuvalu •United Republic of Tanzania

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• Australia • Barbados •Brunei Darussalam •Cyprus •The Gambia •Guyana •Kenya •Malawi •Malta •Namibia •Nigeria •Rwanda •St Vincent & the Grenadines •Sierra Leone •South Africa •Tonga •Uganda •Vanuatu

•The Bahamas •Belize •Cameroon •Dominica •Ghana •India •Kiribati •Malaysia •Mauritius •Nauru •Pakistan •St Kitts and Nevis •Samoa •Singapore •Sri Lanka •Trinidad &Tobago •United Kingdom •Zambia

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 2 » Introducing the Commonwealth

» Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 1 (starter): Diverse Commonwealth Quiz

0-10m

Use the Diverse Commonwealth PowerPoint (2r1), to get students thinking about the diversity amongst Commonwealth countries. Give students 10-20 seconds to write down their answer to the question on each slide. At the end, go through the answers (which are below), encouraging students to feedback on what they got right and wrong and what surprised them. Alternatively, you could make this a competitive activity by dividing the class into two teams and marking down the scores of each team with ticks and crosses for each quiz question they get right or wrong: the team with the highest number of correct answers wins the quiz. Diverse Commonwealth answers: 1 » What is the average temperature on 1st July? (Source: The Weather Channel – uk.weather.com) [NB You might want to award a point for ‘the temperature in Summer’ or ‘the temperature in July’ or similar.] 2 » (c) Uganda (Source: 2008 World Population Data Sheet, Population Reference Bureau)

3 » (b) Languages in use (Source: the country’s government or Ethnologue - www.ethnologue.com) 4 » (c) 5m (Source: www.cia.gov.uk)

2 r1

5 » Join the Commonwealth (Source: www.thecommonwealth.org)

» Activity 2: Commonwealth Letters Give out the Commonwealth Letters (2r2) to students along with a blank world map (2r3).

10-30

The letters are based on real letters written by young people in Commonwealth countries, detailing what their lives are like. Ask students to mark or shade in on the blank world map the country the letter is from. Then ask them to read the letter and reply to it, answering the questions within the letters. If you have time, ask students to feed back on the most interesting or surprising fact they have found out. Discuss with the class the similarities and differences students noted between their lives and the lives of the letter-writers and introduce the term ‘diversity’ (differences or variations between people in communities and societies) Emphasise that these narratives are not representative of all the people in that country, just like the students’ lives will be different from those of their peers and those of others around their country or region.

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2 r3

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 2 » Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 3: The Challenge of Trade

30-50m

Ask students to get into groups of four (any extra students should pair up with someone in a group). Give each group a set of ‘The Challenge of Trade briefing sheets’ (2r4). Ask each student to take one of the sheets without showing their sheet to the other members of the group. Explain that each student in the group represents the Minister for Trade from the country shown on their briefing sheet (2r4) (India, Ghana, Australia or Bangladesh). They will shortly be having a discussion in their group about trade. As part of the discussion, each member of the group will put forward the idea described on their sheet. They should do their best to explain their idea and persuade the other group members to support it. On each sheet there are also notes about the ideas they will not be keen to support.

Give students around 5 minutes of quiet time to read their sheet and ask any questions, and then 10-15 minutes for their discussion (more if you have time). By the end of the discussion, the aim is to have reached an agreement within the group on which idea they will go for. Explain that this is the way decisions are made at Commonwealth meetings – countries must reach agreement, which is called ‘consensus’. » At the end of the 10-15 minutes, stop the group discussion (even if students have not come to an agreement), and ask students to get out of role (it may help to ask them to move back to their original seats).

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» Activity 4 (plenary): Reaching consensus

50-60m

Ask students to discuss the following questions with a partner, (who ideally should have been in a different group for Activity 3): 1 » Did you reach consensus in your group? 2 » Why/why not? 3 » What are the advantages and disadvantages of making decisions like this? 4 » To what extent do you think the diversity of the Commonwealth might make reaching consensus easier or more difficult? 5 » What are the necessary qualities a person needs in order to work well with others? Which ones do you have? Which do you need to improve on? » You can also find these questions on the Diverse Commonwealth Powerpoint (2r1).

Give students five minutes of discussion time and then ask different pairs to feedback their views on different questions. If you have time, you could add an extra step before the class feedback, asking each pair to join another pair and share their answers. Emphasise that these sheets and ideas do not necessarily represent the views of the governments or people of the countries concerned: it is important not to fall back on stereotypes but to consider all new information with r1 an open mind.

2

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CommonGround guide

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Div er se Co mm on we al th Po we rp oin t » Resource 2r1 » Please view powerpoint presentation supplied on resource disk

» The Diverse Commonwealth powerpoint presentation RESOURCE 2r1 PAGE 1 OF 1 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

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Co mm on we al th Let te rs Âť Resource 2r2 Baddomalhi Narowal Pakistan Dear Cousin,

out about my life in Pakistan, and to find bit a you tell to you to ite wr to I wanted about your life too.

My , very close to the border with India. I live in a village north-east of Lahore all the trees. Life here is very different from and s field en gre by d nde rou sur is age vill about in the big cities of Pakistan. My rd hea ly bab pro e hav you e nois and pollution is two storeys high. We have three it and , age vill the of tre cen the in house is located We also have a room that is for ms. hroo bat o tw and ge loun TV a , bedrooms, a kitchen live? and it’s on the top floor. Where do you guests. My bedroom is spacious and airy places in your village or town compare to other does How ? like room bed r you is at Wh ding? your country? Is there any overcrow

me up. ning the sunlight comes in and wakes My bedroom faces the east, so in the mor before tis, butter and milkwater for breakfast Once I am up, I usually have chapat fantastic My mother is a housewife. She is a ast? akf bre for e hav you do at Wh school. for for lunch, and dal (lentils) and rice les etab veg and tis pat cha es mak she cook and o etables. After school, I take our tw veg h fres e hav to y luck lly rea are dinner. We milk of the times I ride on the brown one. The buffaloes to the field for grazing and some ?QIQRM C?JJWEMMBRMBPGLI%MWMSF?TC?LWR QP GR[ CR UC BQ ?L PCQF WD TCP GQ D?JM @SD ernment in your spare time? Does the local gov do you do at Wh th? wi ily fam r help you big le in your area? My village has a peop ng you for es viti acti e vid pro else or anyone I play cricket and football. playing field, where my friends and al. In age that links us to Lahore and Narow vill our in ion stat y wa rail a is ere Th ere istians go for worship and a mosque wh Chr ere wh rch chu a also is e ther age our vill Q?LB.SQJGKQJGTCRMECRFCPGLNC?AC G?L PGQR $F F @MR ?TC CF U CP P?W PN .SQJGKQEMDM been the case in Pakistan. What ays alw not has this but e, her r othe and respect each Do they live peacefully together? religions do you have in your country? Write to me soon!

Love from,

Farhan

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P.S. Look at this coin from my country... Do you know what the crescent symbolises?

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Co mm on we al th Let te rs » Resource 2r2

! for you y t i c y of m A view

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Co mm on we al th Let te rs » Resource 2r2

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Co mm on we al th Let te rs » Resource 2r2

Tobago

a P.s I’ve drawn yo u y! map of my co untr

Trinidad

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WO RL D MA PS » Resource 2r3 » World map for students

» World map for students

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© Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

Tonga

Samoa

Kiribati

Bahamas

St Kitts & Nevis St Vincent & Grenadines Grenada

Belize Jamaica

Canada

The Gambia Sierra Leone

Antigua & Barbuda Dominica St Lucia Barbados Trinidad & Tobago

Guyana Ghana

United Kingdom

Cyprus

South Africa

Kenya

Mozambique

Malawi

Tanzania

Lethoso

Swaziland

Namibia Botswana

Zambia

Uganda Rwanda

Nigeria Cameroon

Malta

Mauritius

Seychelles

Maldives

Pakistan

Sri Lanka

India

Bangladesh

Malaysia Brunei Singapore

Australia

New Zealand

Nauru

Papa New Guinea Solomon Islands Vanatu

Fiji

Tuvalu

WO RL D MA PS » Resource 2r3

» World map for teacher reference

RESOURCE 2r3 PAGE 2 OF 2

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2r4 Th e Ch al len ge of Tr ad e Br ief ing Sh ee ts » Resource » Minister for Trade for Bangladesh

BANGLADESH

Trade for Bangladesh. You are the Minister for ve trade meeting and you ha You are at an international Government to try to get of been asked by your Head all) on the following idea: by nt me ree (ag consensus

LOPMENT BANK

COMMONWEALTH DEVE

(IMF) are ernational Monetary Fund The World Bank and the Int grants to d an ns loa tions that provide currently the main organisa help with their development. However, to countries around the world ed by organisations such as Greenpeace icis crit they have been strongly ts that harm giving loans out for projec for al on ati ern Int al rviv Su and r rather than help moting policies that hinde pro for or t en nm viro en the is a new countries. What is needed ment e som of nt me op vel de the op uld be a not-for-profit devel ladesh is an international bank that wo ng Ba s. ple nci pri h onwealt organisation rooted in Comm received a number of international aid s ha t tha try ny from the example of a coun past decades (including ma packages and loans over the op vel ment and de great progress in its de onwealth World Bank) and it has ma e assistance. A new Comm now relies very little on outsid to promote microfinance schemes, help links) that Development Bank would cture projects (e.g. transport similar way. tru ras inf d an s a new industrie in op wealth countries to devel would help many Common should set onwealth Ministers for Trade e loans mm Co the t tha Is » a ide Your uld giv Development Bank that wo onwealth. up a new Commonwealth mm Co the d un countries aro to nts gra nt me op vel de d an d would help to mmonwealth principles an Co in ted roo be uld wo is Th d the ment and democracy aroun promote diversity, develop Commonwealth. Ministers for Can you convince the other

a?

Trade to agree to your ide

th Fairtrade because on the idea of Commonweal n kee not are You te: No a very good job and it Note: de organisations are doing you think the current Fairtra e a different label on ople around the world to hav would be confusing for pe their products. rnational website ce.org.uk); the Survival Inte eace website (www.greenpea by M.G. Quibria enp Gre esh’ the glad Ban from in tion ness rma Info Effective 2r4 and the seminar paper ‘Aid ); l.org iona rnat df). linte sh.p rviva anglade (www.su nars/Aid-Effectiveness-in-B emi cs/s /do .edu nois s.illi (www.economic

2 r4 62

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2r4 Th e Ch al len ge of Tr ad e Br ief ing Sh ee ts » Resource » Minister for Trade for India

INDIA

at Trade for India. You are You are the Minister for en be ve ha u yo d an eting an international trade me rnment to try to get ve Go of ad He ur asked by yo all) on the following idea: consensus (agreement by

ROFINANCE

COMMONWEALTH MIC

ty and million people living in pover The Commonwealth has 640 helped out of poverty by microfinance, be mple, $20 these people can potentially amounts of money (for exa all sm y ver of g din len the n), to help which is income (particularly wome low y ver a on le op pe to or $100) verty. t could take them out of po them set up a business tha interest once id back to the lenders with pa ally du gra is y ne mo e Th t within the g. The microfinance marke nin run d an up is ess sin bu the er 100 billion US dollars. Commonwealth is worth ov should onwealth Ministers for Trade Your idea » is that the Comm es which have already been set up in em expand the microfinance sch siness Council to other countries all Bu h alt we on mm India by the Co h. alt we on mm around the Co wealth islation (laws) in all Common es leg by d nie pa om acc be This should ance schem ople taking part in microfin countries to ensure that pe very high interest rates. are not kept in poverty by to your idea? Ministers for Trade to agree Can you convince the other opment a of a Commonwealth Devel te: You are not keen on the ide Note: the World m fro ns No loa a lot of grants and e eiv rec tly ren cur you se institution Bank becau new bank as a competing this see to ly like be uld wo Bank, which mbers of the its financial support for me and might remove some of ad. India, if this idea goes ahe Commonwealth, including

action!’, onwealth Trade – time for ‘Summary Note on ‘Comm Information and statistics from site web riat monwealth Secreta ary.pdf; which is available on the Com TradersSeminar300910Summ les/231053/FileName/World www.thecommonwealth.org/fi site web lth Inclusive Growth Services and from the Commonwea cigs.in/index.php. ww. ://w http p” x.ph inde www.cigs.in/

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2r4 Th e Ch al len ge of Tr ad e Br ief ing Sh ee ts » Resource » Minister for Trade for Ghana

GHANA

at Trade for Ghana. You are You are the Minister for eting and you have been an international trade me vernment to try to get asked by your Head of Go all) on the following idea: consensus (agreement by

COMMONWEALTH FAIR

TRADE

d other which chocolate is made) an ’s economy Ghana exports cocoa (from try un co e Th d the world. un aro s trie un co ny ma to produce half of the rming), which provides over (people who lies heavily on agriculture (fa ers old dh ough small lan thr stly mo t, en ym plo em ’s country . It is very land rather than vast areas) own and farm small plots of around the d ea spr is idea of Fairtrade important to ensure that the d society an my no t Ghana’s eco tec pro to er ord in h, alt we Common . untries in a similar position and also those of other co and suppliers and other local producers rs me far ere wh is e ad irtr Fa for their goods wers) are paid better prices gro le sca allsm rly ula rtic working (pa t show that they have good tha s ard nd sta et me st mu d bility in an s and work towards sustaina yee plo em ir the for ns itio nd co billion US tural environment. Over 4 na the g tin tec pro to on ati rel the world. are sold each year around cts du pro e ad irtr Fa of s llar do should set onwealth Ministers for Trade Your idea » is that the Comm mmonwealth Fair Trade’ which has ‘Co This would up a new certification called ployment and sustainability. em for s ard nd wealth and the highest sta on mm Fairtrade around the Co help to promote the idea of everywhere. improve the lives of people r idea?

ters for Trade to agree to you

Minis Can you convince the other

ealth Trade Bloc n on the idea of a Commonw kee not are You te: No te: No ents within the African with the free trade agreem because it might interfere have developed with od trading relationships you Union and also with the go States, China and France. the Netherlands, the United ; and the Fairtrade website: www.fairtrade.org.uk The Fairtrade Foundation l htm res. figu nd_ ts_a t/fac Information and statistics from trade.ne 2r4 rnational website: www.fair Labelling Organizations Inte

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2r4 Th e Ch al len ge of Tr ad e Br ief ing Sh ee ts » Resource » Minister for Trade for Australia

AUSTRALIA

are Trade for Australia. You You are the Minister for en be ve ha u yo d an meeting at an international trade vernment to try to get asked by your Head of Go all) on the following idea: consensus (agreement by

E BLOC

COMMONWEALTH TRAD

l reduced the tween countries that they wil be nt me ree ag an is c Blo ing ‘Free Trade A Trade mselves, for example by hav the en twe be de tra to rs barrie (or customs) to not charge each other taxes do y the ere wh ’ nts me ree Ag e an advantage elves. This means they hav trade goods between thems t in the agreement. Sometimes Trade no over other countries that are countries (so rderless travel between the bo ing hav as far as they may even Blocs extend and between them) vel tra to s visa t ge to e hav Union). people don’t le, the Euro in the European mp exa r (fo cy ren cur n mo ments with have a com gotiating) Free Trade Agree ne is (or has lia stra Au y, Alread . nd, Singapore and Malaysia countries such as New Zeala be equal in size were a Trade Bloc, it would fastest growing If the Commonwealth today ’s rld rteen of the wo thi e hav uld wo it ; tes Sta d US dollars. to the Unite nomy valued at over 45 trillion eco an e hav ld cou it and ; mmonwealth economies aller countries around the Co sm for ier eas ch mu it ke ma It would the spotlight quickly and it would bring re mo ch mu alth we in w anisation. to gro as a vibrant and relevant org alth we on mm Co the on ck ba should set up onwealth Ministers for Trade ich will help mm Co the t tha is » a ide Your a’ wh mmonwealth Free Trade Are n. As part of a Trade Bloc called the ‘Co tio uta rep and alth develop in we rrency’ that all Commonwealth countries Cu alth we on mm ‘Co even be a this Trade Bloc there could alth would use. members of the Commonwe nisters for Trade to agree to

Mi Can you convince the other

your idea?

h Microfinance the idea of Commonwealt Note: You are not keen on e been charging some t microfinance schemes hav because you have heard tha some recent suicides s that they may have led to people such high interest rate ealth Development onw the idea of a Comm on n kee y ver not are you o, onwealth Bank in India. Als has a bank called the ‘Comm ady alre lia stra Au se cau Bank be confusing. ity in names would be too (of Australia)’ and the similar t Cameron) ation website (article by Bren the Commonwealth Convers e) -trad -talk e-to -tim Information and Statistics from h-its ealt sation.org/2009/09/commonw 42020). (www.thecommonwealthconver w.economist.com/node/17 (ww site web ist nom Eco and from The

2r4

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 3 » Ideas of Common Wealth? Global Inequalities and Development Note - This lesson could be split into two for students to have more time to prepare and discuss: activities 1 and 2 in the first lesson, and activities 3 and 4 in the second lesson.

Lesson aims/key questions

Learning outcomes and key processes

Students will be able to: a » Identify different positions people might take on the global economy and global society (‘Common Wealth’) around the Commonwealth. b » Analyse some of the causes and effects of global inequalities. c » Recall at least three of the UN Millennium Development Goals. d » Evaluate some projects the Commonwealth and other global institutions might be able to implement in reducing global inequalities, including reference to funding constraints. e » Formulate, express and justify an opinion on global inequalities and/or development. Key processes: Critical thinking; empathising with others; discussion and debate; arguing a viewpoint other than your own; communicating ideas; listening to others; critically assessing your own view and others’ viewpoints; working with others to solve problems; an interest in global issues and current affairs.

Key words/

Global Inequalities | Commonwealth | Development | UN Millennium Development Goals | Global Institutions

Summary of

Activity 1 (starter): ‘Ideas of Common Wealth?’ Puzzle (Diagram to cut up and put back together)

Activity 2: Global Inequalities: Causes and Effects (Match-up task)

Activity 3: Millennium Development Goals Funding Board (Presentations in groups)

c» d»

Activity 4 (plenary): Values Continuum (Justifying opinions on a values scale)

concepts / terms

activities and links to learning outcomes

Assessment

opportunities

Differentiation

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1 » What do we mean by Common Wealth? 2 » What are some of the causes and effects of global inequalities? 3 » What can the Commonwealth and other global institutions do to reduce global inequalities and promote global justice and development?

» Activity 2 could be assessed by marking the completed cause and effect sheets (3r2). This might be a good opportunity for peer assessment (students marking each others’ work). » Activity 3 could be a group assessment, graded when each group presents to the ‘funding board’. » Activity 1: The ‘Ideas of Common Wealth?’ diagram (3r1) has two forms: Puzzle X is more accessible as it focuses on the general principles, and Puzzle Y is more challenging as it identifies ideological descriptors such as ‘authoritarian’ and ‘libertarian’. Questions in the activity are ordered from the more accessible to the more challenging. » Activity 2: Sheet X contains more accessible ideas and Sheet Y contains more challenging ideas (3r2). » Activity 3: Students can support and challenge each other in their groups. » Activity 4: Thorough questioning (level and challenge of questions pitched to needs of individual students). Statements increase in their complexity from 1 to 10.

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 3 » Diversity and the Commonwealth continued...

Homework or extension tasks

Resources needed

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You could ask students to: » Research and discuss the ideas behind some of the more challenging terms on the ‘Ideas of Common Wealth?’ diagram (3r1) such as ‘authoritarian’, ‘libertarian’, ‘communitarian’, ‘regulation’, ‘competition’ and ‘unethical’, and the concepts of left and right wing. » Write a resource for primary school children explaining the causes and effects of global inequalities and outlining some possible solutions. » Write a letter to the government asking for more to be done about meeting the Millennium Development Goals and/or suggesting other ways of reducing global inequalities. » Write a one-minute speech justifying their opinion on one of the statements listed on the values continuum statement sheet (3r6). » Activity 1 (starter): ‘Ideas of Common Wealth?’ Puzzle (one per group of three-four students) (cut into irregular pieces for students to reassemble) (3r1). » Activity 2: Global Inequality Cause and Effect Sheets (one sheet each or one per pair of either Sheet X or Sheet Y - or both if you have more time) (3r2). » Activity 3: Millennium Development Goal Cards (one set per group of five-eight students) (need to cut out the cards or give students scissors to cut them out if time) (3r3); Funding Board Guidelines (3r4); Large sheets of paper and thick pens, or space to write on the board; Bundles of fake money (marked $100 million in total) if possible (3r5); stopwatch. » Activity 4: Values continuum statement sheet (3r6), long piece of string and agree/ disagree signs if possible, but not essential.

» Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 1 (starter): Ideas of Common Wealth? Puzzle Cut up the top half of the puzzle sheets (3r1) into irregular pieces and give one puzzle out to each group of 3-4 students. Ask students to reassemble the puzzle (which shows an economic/political spectrum illustrating the different ideologies and ideas of ‘Common Wealth’). Puzzle X is more accessible and Puzzle Y is more challenging in the ideas presented. Once students have assembled the diagram ask them to consider the following questions (or simply questions 1, 2 and 7 if you have less time), which are also listed on the bottom half of the sheets (3r1):

0-15m

1 » Does the diagram contain any ideas you have not come across before? Ring the words you are not sure about. If you can, try to work out what they mean using your group’s powers of logic and links to other ideas on the diagram. 2 » Looking at the ideas in the speech bubbles, which ones do you most agree with? Why? 3 » Looking at the statements in bold and italic to the left and right of the diagram (Money should be distributed according to need; Money should be distributed according to who has earned it), do you think you agree more with one or the other? Mark on the diagram where you might position yourselves between these two ideas. 4 » Looking at the statements in bold and italic at the top and bottom of the diagram (There should be minimal government interference in people’s lives; Governments should look after the most vulnerable members of society), do you think you agree more with one or the other or both? Mark on the diagram where you might position yourselves between these two ideas. 5 » Are your combined answers to questions 3 and 4 in the same boxes as your positions in question 2? Discuss why / why not. Are these ideas easy to understand and explain? 6 » What do you understand by the term ‘Common Wealth’? 7 » What impact might international institutions such as the United Nations and Commonwealth have on the ideas presented in this diagram?

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 3 » Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 1 (starter): Ideas of Common Wealth? Puzzle continued... If you don’t have much time, you could simply present students with the sheets (3r1) without cutting them into puzzles. If you have more time you could ask students to consider some facts and figures about inequalities around the Commonwealth, for example: » The top 1% of the world’s adult population owns 40% of the world’s wealth. » The top 2% of the world’s adult population owns over 50% of the world’s wealth. » The top 10% of the world’s adult population owns 85% of the world’s wealth. » The bottom 50% of the world’s adult population owns around 1% of the world’s assets. World Institute for Development Economics Research (WIDER), www.wider.unu.edu 2006, based on data from 2000. • Canada has an average wealth (GDP (Gross Domestic Product) per person) of around $40,000. • India has an average wealth (GDP (Gross Domestic Product) per person) of around $3,000. International Monetary Fund, www.imf.org World Economic Outlook, 2010. • In the Seychelles, the share of the country’s income held by the richest 10% of people is 60%. The share of the country’s income held by the poorest 10% of people is 1.6% World Bank, http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.DST.10TH.10, 2007 • In the UK, the 50% least wealthy households account for only 9% of wealth, while the richest 20% own 62% of wealth. UK Office of National Statistics report, reported in Guardian article, www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/dec/10/ons-report-uk-wealth, 2009

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» Activity 2: Global Inequalities: Causes and Effects

15-25

Give out Sheets X and/or Y (3r2) to students, either individually or in pairs (these sheets contain ideas about the causes and effects of global inequalities that students have to match up. Sheet X contains more accessible ideas and Sheet Y contains more challenging ideas).

1 r4

Give students six to eight minutes to match up the chains of cause and effect so they can explain some of the main causes and effects of global inequality. If you have time you could go through the answers as a class (perhaps using peer assessment) and discuss students’ responses to the ideas and questions presented on the sheets. » Ask them to consider the impacts international institutions such as the United Nations and Commonwealth might have on the causes and effects of global inequalities.

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 3 » Introducing the Commonwealth

» Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 3: The Millennium Development Goals Funding Board.

25-50m

Ask for three student volunteers. These are members of the Millennium Development Goals Funding Board. Give these students the Funding Board Guidelines (3r4) to look through – they have a number of important elements to consider before making their decision. Divide the other students into groups of five-eight and hand out the Millennium Development Goal Cards (3r3), cut up in advance if possible. Each group has to choose three UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and formulate a funding proposal that includes the following aspects: » The three Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) they have chosen. » How their three chosen MDGs are linked together and how they might help to reduce global inequalities. » A programme or project they would start up that would contribute to at least two out of their three chosen goals if they were given the funding. » How many people their programme might reach across the Commonwealth (which has around two billion people in it), how much it might cost per person, and the approximate total cost of their project or programme. Once they have decided on their goals and programme / project idea, it might be useful for students to divide their group into subgroups to prepare and present the four different elements listed above. Give students ten minutes or so to formulate their proposal (or read through Funding Board guidelines if they are the three volunteers). Let students know that the Funding Board have very limited time so each group’s presentation can be a maximum of one minute 30 seconds which will be strictly timed – but that they have large sheets of paper and thick pens (or a board) on which to display their proposal which will save them time during the presentations. Set up the room as if the Funding Board are in a formal meeting so that each group can present to the Board in turn. With all the students watching and the Funding Board seated in their places, ask each group in turn to present their proposal for one minute thirty seconds. Keep time using a stopwatch (or get one of the students from another group to do so) and cut each group off quite strictly if they attempt to run over.

Give the Funding Board one or two minutes to decide which projects to fund and how to distribute their $100 million (3r5) and ask them to justify their choice. » If there is time, discuss with students the extent to which these kinds of programmes might help efforts to reduce global inequalities – and the extent to which the money is actually available for such programmes (considering that UNAIDS calculates that there is a current 10 billion US dollar shortfall in funding for AIDS prevention and treatment on top of the 15 billion or so US dollars currently being spent on this: http://unaidstoday.org. » You might want to share with students the percentage of GDP (or actual amounts) the country they live in currently contributes towards, or receives for, global development as compared to other neighbouring countries. (Donor figures can be found on the UN Statistics Division website: Net ODA as percentage of OECD/DAC donors’ GNI - http://unstats.un.org/unsd/mdg/SeriesDetail.aspx?srid=568 - and recipient figures can be found on World Bank Data website: Net ODA received (% of GNI) - http://data.worldbank. org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.GN.ZS). Are they surprised at this figure? » You could also share with students the annual global military expenditure (around 1500 billion US dollars per year according to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute: http://www.sipri.org/) as compared to the annual amounts spent on global development by the OECD Development Assistance Committee (around 120 billion US dollars per year according to the OECD website: http://www.oecd.org) How could we convince governments and businesses to spend less on weapons and more on development?

3 r3 3 r4 3 r5

» Activity 4 (plenary): Reaching consensus Draw an imaginary line or stretch out a long piece of string across the classroom. Tell students that this is a Values Continuum and that one side means ‘agree’ and one means ‘disagree’. Read out a statement from the Values continuum statement sheet (3r6) and ask students to stand in a position on the line in accordance with how much they agree or disagree with the statement. Then pick a couple of students (perhaps names out of a hat) to justify why they chose that position on the values continuum. If they give a particularly convincing justification, ask all students whether any of them wish to change their positions accordingly.

50-60m

Read out as many of the statements as you have time for and get different students to justify their opinions for each statement. Talk to students about the flexibility of their opinions – even if they form an opinion today, with more information, dialogue and changing circumstances it is fine to change opinion and this is an important part of diversity, development and democracy. » If you are short of time, you could give out copies of the Values Continuum tick sheets for students to complete themselves

3 r6

View p24-25 CommonGround guide

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LESSON 3 PAGE 4 OF 4

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Ide as of Co mm on We al th Pu zz le X » Resource 3r1 » Ideas of commonwealth Fair trade between countries should be promoted as this helps to stop businesses from making an unfair profit through unethical practices.

There should be minimal government interference in people’s lives.

Free trade is best for everyone! If businesses can develop without interference, in a competitive market, they will be much more efficient and innovative and the whole of society will benefit.

Money should be distributed according to need.

Money should be distributed according to who has earned it.

Business and trade should be strictly regulated (controlled) so that profit is not put before people’s needs. Countries should be fully supported in their development, including through appropriate forms of aid.

Governments should protect the most vulnerable people from being harmed in society but generally global trade and competition is the best way to give everyone a better life.

Governments should look after the most vulnerable members of society.

1 » Does the diagram contain any ideas you have not come across before? Ring the words you are not sure about. If you can, try to work out what they mean using your group’s powers of logic and links to other ideas on the diagram. 2 » Looking at the ideas in the speech bubbles, which ones do you most agree with? Why? 3 » Looking at the statements in bold and italic to the left and right of the diagram (Money should be distributed according to need; Money should be distributed according to who has earned it), do you think you agree more with one or the other? Mark on the diagram where you might position yourselves between these two ideas. 4 » Looking at the statements in bold and italic at the top and bottom of the diagram (There should be minimal government interference in people’s lives; Governments should look after the most vulnerable members of society), do you think you agree more with one or the other or both? Mark on the diagram where you might position yourselves between these two ideas. 5 » Are your combined answers to questions 3 and 4 in the same boxes as your positions in question 2? Discuss why / why not. Are these ideas easy to understand and explain? 6 » What do you understand by the term ‘Common Wealth’? 7 » What impact might international institutions such as the United Nations and Commonwealth have on the ideas presented in this diagram? 8 » What is the role of Civil Society (for example charities, faith groups and non-governmental organisations) in speaking up on behalf of people in the Commonwealth?

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Ide as of Co mm on We al th Pu zz le Y » Resource 3r1 » Ideas of commonwealth Individual/Anarchist

Fair trade between countries should be promoted as this helps to stop businesses from making an unfair profit through unethical practices.

There should be minimal government interference in people’s lives. Social Right

Free trade is best for everyone! If businesses can develop without interference, in a competitive market, they will be much more efficient and innovative and the whole of society will benefit.

Socialist/ Communitarian Money should be distributed according to need.

Libertarian/ Individualist Economic Left

Business and trade should be strictly regulated (controlled) so that profit is not put before people’s needs. Countries should be fully supported in their development, including through appropriate forms of aid.

Economic Right

Social Right Governments should look after the most vulnerable members of society.

Collectivist/ Authoritarian

Money should be distributed according to who has earned it.

Governments should protect the most vulnerable people from being harmed in society but generally global trade and competition is the best way to give everyone a better life.

1»D  oes the diagram contain any ideas you have not come across before? Ring the words you are not sure about. If you can, try to work out what they mean using your group’s powers of logic and links to other ideas on the diagram. 2 » Looking at the ideas in the speech bubbles, which ones do you most agree with? Why? 3 » L ooking at the statements in bold and italic to the left and right of the diagram (Money should be distributed according to need; Money should be distributed according to who has earned it), do you think you agree more with one or the other? Mark on the diagram where you might position yourselves between these two ideas. 4 » L ooking at the statements in bold and italic at the top and bottom of the diagram (There should be minimal government interference in people’s lives; Governments should look after the most vulnerable members of society), do you think you agree more with one or the other or both? Mark on the diagram where you might position yourselves between these two ideas. 5»A  re your combined answers to questions 3 and 4 in the same boxes as your positions in question 2? Discuss why / why not. Are these ideas easy to understand and explain? 6 » What  do you understand by the term ‘Common Wealth’? 7»W  hat impact might international institutions such as the United Nations and Commonwealth have on the ideas presented in this diagram? 8»W  hat is the role of Civil Society (for example charities, faith groups and non-governmental organisations) in speaking up on behalf of people in the Commonwealth? RESOURCE 3r1 PAGE 2 OF 2 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

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3 r2

72 The people suffering from these diseases become isolated and might lose their jobs or not be able to access treatments.

Without a proper infrastructure, food and supplies cannot be transported to people who need them around the country.

Islands and low-lying countries may face problems from rising sea levels and other effects of climate change.

The government may discriminate against certain groups of people (e.g. on grounds of gender, sexuality, skin colour or religion)

Conflicts between countries and civil wars within countries may cause governments to become unstable.

Governments of these countries must spend more money on flood defences and relocating displaced citizens.

If the government is unstable it may be unable to control crime and pass laws to help protect people from harm.

Without an education, it is difficult for them to get more highly paid jobs and they may not be able to support their families if they become ill.

People may be frightened about diseases such as HIV/ AIDS. They are scared to talk about these diseases and a stigma develops around sufferers.

may not have money to spend on infrastructure (e.g. roads and public transport).

These groups of people may have less chance of getting jobs and looking after their families than other people in the country.

Effect

Children might not have access to schools or they might have to work instead to support their families.

Cause

Food prices might go up in areas which are not easy to get to, which means people who cannot afford the high prices might go hungry.

The general living standards of all citizens in these island states and low-lying countries goes down.

They may feel frustrated and develop hatred against these other people; conflicts between groups of people might result.

Many people have to leave their homes (becoming displaced persons or refugees) during conflict and may lose their money, possessions and livelihoods.

Without treatments, these people may pass the diseases on to their children. They may also die more quickly and their children might become orphaned.

If people become ill who have not been educated, they may not know how to access medical care to help themselves get better.

Effect

3» Can you summarise some of the main causes and effects of global inequality in around 100 words?

2» What effects might global institutions such as the United Nations and Commonwealth have on these causes and effects of global inequalities?

Mark down where you think this could happen.

1» Do some of the effects feed back into the causes, creating a ‘vicious circle’?

Global Inequality

Effect » Resource 3r2 s et She t ec Eff d an use Ca ty ali qu Ine l Glo ba

» Sheet X Draw arrows between the appropriate causes and effects of global inequality in chains leading from the left to the right of the page. The first is done for you.

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© Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


© Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

Powerful leaders may wish to gain more and more power. This might make them follow corrupt practices and also sabotage democratic elections.

Big companies might buy up land from local farmers to grow agricultural produce for consumers in richer areas (e.g. food and tobacco).

Farmers have to grow food and other products for the consumers rather than to feed the local community.

Companies trying to make a profit may avoid government regulations and exploit the country’s natural resources (e.g. food, oil, gemstones).

Countries cannot afford to pay back the loans for many years and just pay the lowest interest payments possible.

Corruption spreads down from leaders to other political representatives and lawmakers, judges, magistrates and the police force.

Governments in these countries might find it difficult to change people’s mindsets and control discrimination, crime and violence.

International banks and organisations may give huge loans to governments at a high rate of interest.

Governments may put a lot of money into fast industrialisation.

Where officials and businesses are corrupt and stealing money from the government and people, the whole of the country becomes poorer and crime increases.

Countries can spiral into debt, resulting in less money being spent on helping citizens, and even bankruptcy.

Poorer people in the country cannot afford the more expensive natural resources and they are bought by richer people across the world.

3» Can you summarise some of the main causes and effects of global inequality in around 100 words?

2» What effects might global institutions such as the United Nations and Commonwealth have on these causes and effects of global inequalities?

Mark down where you think this could happen.

1» Do some of the effects feed back into the causes, creating a ‘vicious circle’?

Violence, conflict and insecurity; huge cultural, social and economic differences between countries that used to run empires and those who were colonised.

Fewer natural resources means the prices go up.

Consumers in richer areas demand more and more produce and prices go up. Companies make a big profit but do not always pass this on to local farmers.

Global Inequality

Health problems and overcrowding in cities; environmental degradation.

Pollution from industry and migration to cities.

Historically, people in a number of countries have been dominated, enslaved and criminalised by colonial policies that are hard to escape from once the countries gain independence.

Effect

Effect

Effect

Cause

Gl ob al Ine qu al ity Ca us e an d Eff ec t She et s » Resou rce 3r2

» Sheet Y Draw arrows between the appropriate causes and effects of global inequality in chains leading from the left to the right of the page. The first is done for you.

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» Resource 3r2 s et She t ec Eff d an use Ca ty ali qu Ine l Glo ba » Sheet X ANSWERS

Cause

Effect

Effect

Effect

Children might not have access to schools or they might have to work instead to support their families.

These groups of people may have less chance of getting jobs and looking after their families than other people in the country.

If people become ill who have not been educated, they may not know how to access medical care to help themselves get better.

Global Inequality

People may be frightened about diseases such as HIV/ AIDS. They are scared to talk about these diseases and a stigma develops around sufferers.

Without an education, it is difficult for them to get more highly paid jobs and they may not be able to support their families if they become ill.

Without treatments, these people may pass the diseases on to their children. They may also die more quickly and their children might become orphaned.

Islands and low-lying countries may face problems from rising sea levels and other effects of climate change.

The people suffering from these diseases become isolated and might lose their jobs or not be able to access treatments.

Many people have to leave their homes (becoming displaced persons or refugees) during conflict and may lose their money, possessions and livelihoods.

The government may discriminate against certain groups of people (e.g. on grounds of gender, sexuality, skin colour or religion)

Without a proper infrastructure, food and supplies cannot be transported to people who need them around the country.

They may feel frustrated and develop hatred against these other people; conflicts between groups of people might result.

Governments may not have money to spend on infrastructure (e.g. roads and public transport).

If the government is unstable it may be unable to control crime and pass laws to help protect people from harm.

The general living standards of all citizens in these island states and low-lying countries goes down.

1» Do some of the effects feed back into the causes, creating a ‘vicious circle’? Mark down where you think this could happen. 2» What effects might global institutions such as the United Nations and Commonwealth have on these causes and effects of global inequalities?

Governments of these countries must spend more money on flood defences and relocating displaced citizens.

Food prices might go up in areas which are not easy to get to, which means people who cannot afford the high prices might go hungry.

3» Can you summarise some of the main causes and effects of global inequality in around 100 words?

Cause

Effect

Effect

Effect

Historically, people in a number of countries have been dominated, enslaved and criminalised by colonial policies that are hard to escape from once the countries gain independence.

Pollution from industry and migration to cities.

Health problems and overcrowding in cities; environmental degradation.

Global Inequality

Fewer natural resources means the prices go up.

Violence, conflict and insecurity; huge cultural, social and economic differences between countries that used to run empires and those who were colonised.

International banks and organisations may give huge loans to governments at a high rate of interest.

Governments in these countries might find it difficult to change people’s mindsets and control discrimination, crime and violence.

Consumers in richer areas demand more and more produce and prices go up. Companies make a big profit but do not always pass this on to local farmers.

Companies trying to make a profit may avoid government regulations and exploit the country’s natural resources (e.g. food, oil, gemstones).

Farmers have to grow food and other products for the consumers rather than to feed the local community.

Poorer people in the country cannot afford the more expensive natural resources and they are bought by richer people across the world.

Conflicts between countries and civil wars within countries may cause governments to become unstable.

» Sheet Y ANSWERS

Governments may put a lot of money into fast industrialisation.

Big companies might buy up land from local farmers to grow agricultural produce for consumers in richer areas (e.g. food and tobacco). Powerful leaders may wish to gain more and more power. This might make them follow corrupt practices and also sabotage democratic elections.

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Corruption spreads down from leaders to other political representatives and lawmakers, judges, magistrates and the police force.

Countries can spiral into debt, resulting in less money being spent on helping citizens, and even bankruptcy.

Countries cannot afford to pay back the loans for many years and just pay the lowest interest payments possible.

Where officials and businesses are corrupt and stealing money from the government and people, the whole of the country becomes poorer and crime increases.

1» Do some of the effects feed back into the causes, creating a ‘vicious circle’? Mark down where you think this could happen. 2» What effects might global institutions such as the United Nations and Commonwealth have on these causes and effects of global inequalities? 3» Can you summarise some of the main causes and effects of global inequality in around 100 words?

RESOURCE 3r2 PAGE 3 OF 3 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


Mil len niu m De ve lop me nt Go al Ca rd s » Resource 3r3 Goal » 1 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

Goal » 2 Achieve universal primary education

By improving poor people’s incomes; raising employment for all; and reducing hunger.

By making sure all girls and boys are able to complete a full course of primary schooling.

1

Goal » 3 Promote gender equality and empower women

2

Goal » 4 Reduce child mortality rate

By reducing the differences between the access of men and women to education, employment and roles of political power.

By reducing the under-five mortality rate (how many children die before the age of five).

3

Goal » 5 Improve maternal health

4 Goal » 6 Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases

By reducing the maternal mortality ratio (how many women die during childbirth); and improving access to reproductive health (e.g. contraceptives, family planning and medical care).

By reversing the spread of HIV/AIDS; improving access to HIV/AIDS treatments and drugs; and reversing the spread of malaria and other major diseases.

Goal » 7 Ensure environmental sustainability

Goal » 8 Develop a global partnership for development

5

By putting sustainability into government policies; reducing the loss of biodiversity (plants and animals); improving access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation; and improving the lives of slum-dwellers.

7

6

By developing good systems for global trading, and poverty and debt reduction; addressing the special needs of the poorest countries and small island states; working with private companies to improve access to affordable and essential medicines and new technologies such as mobile telephones, computers and the internet. 8

Your Task » Try to get the Millennium Development Goals Funding Board to give you funding for your proposed programme or project. You will have one minute and thirty seconds only to present to the board. Your presentation should include the following aspects: » The three Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) you have chosen. » How your three chosen MDGs are linked together and how they might help to reduce global inequalities. » A programme or project you would start up that would contribute to at least two out of your three chosen goals if you were given the funding. » How many people your programme might reach across the Commonwealth (which has around 2 billion people in it), how much it might cost per person, and the approximate total cost of your project or programme. Once you have decided on your goals and programme / project idea, it might be useful to divide your group into subgroups to prepare and present the four different elements listed above. RESOURCE 3r3 PAGE 1 OF 1 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

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Fu nd ing Bo ar d Gu ide lin es » Resource 3r4 » Millennium Development Goals Funding Board Guidelines

You are the Millennium Development Goals Funding Board. You have $100 million to allocate by the end of this meeting. Your aim is to help reduce global inequalities by contributing towards programmes or projects that support two or more of the UN Millennium Development Goals. A number of groups will present their proposals to you, which should each consist of the following elements: The three Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) they have chosen. How their three chosen MDGs are linked together and how they might help to reduce global inequalities. A programme or project they would start up that would contribute to at least two out of their three chosen goals if they were given the funding. How many people their programme might reach across the Commonwealth (which has around two billion people in it: 2,000,000,000 people), how much it might cost per person, and the approximate total cost of their project or programme. The Eight UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are as follows: Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger… By improving poor people’s incomes; raising

employment for all; and reducing hunger. Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education… By making sure all girls and boys are able to complete a full course of primary schooling. Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women… By reducing the differences between the access of men and women to education, employment and roles of political power. Goal 4: Reduce child mortality rate… By reducing the under-five mortality rate (how many children die before the age of five). Goal 5: Improve maternal health… By reducing the maternal mortality ratio (how many women die during childbirth); and improving access to reproductive health (e.g. contraceptives, family planning and medical care). Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases… By reversing the spread of HIV/AIDS; improving access to HIV/AIDS treatments and drugs; and reversing the spread of malaria and other major diseases. Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability… By putting sustainability into government policies; reducing the loss of biodiversity (plants and animals); improving access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation; and improving the lives of slum-dwellers. Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development… By developing good systems for global trading, and poverty and debt reduction; addressing the special needs of the poorest countries and small island states; working with private companies to improve access to affordable and essential medicines and new technologies such as mobile telephones, computers and the internet.

please turn over...

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Fu nd ing Bo ar d Gu ide lin es » Resource 3r4 » Millennium Development Goals Funding Board Guidelines continued...

Before watching the presentations, make sure you consider: - Which of the MDGs do you think will have the most impact on reducing global inequalities and why? - Which ones will be easier to achieve and why? After watching each presentation, your task is to decide which projects to fund and how much money (out of the $100 million) to give to each project. If they have asked for more money than this you can still give them a smaller amount and ask them to modify (change) their project or programme accordingly. Make sure you give good reasons for your decisions to fund or not to fund the different projects presented to you. Your reasons for giving funding might include: • The project or presentation contains all the information you needed to help you make your decision. • The project is not too narrow (it will help a good number of people, in a range of countries around the Commonwealth) • The project is not too wide (it is not trying to help so many people that it would not end up making a difference) • The project is not too short-term (it will not just help people temporarily and have no lasting / sustainable impact) • The project is not too long-term (it will start making a difference soon rather than many years into the future when the global situation might have changed) • The project is not too likely to breed corruption (it does not make small numbers of people so powerful that they might steal the money or use it only to help themselves) • The project (or a modified version) fits into your limited budget ($100 million) and will make a big difference in reducing inequalities for people around the Commonwealth.

It might be useful to divide these guidelines among the members of the Funding Board so you are each focusing on a few different elements during the presentations. Try to be constructive in your feedback (for example, give suggestions for how they could improve their proposal next time if they didn’t receive funding). Good luck!

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» Funding board money to go with 3r4

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Va lu es Co nt inu um St at em en t Sh ee ts » Resource 3r6 » Values Continuum Statement Sheet For each statement decide on how much you AGREE or DISAGREE and situate yourself somewhere along the values continuum. Be ready to justify your decision! The Millennium Development Goals will make a big difference in tackling global inequalities

DISAGREE IN-BETWEEN AGREE

Healthcare should be a bigger priority than the environment. Education should be a bigger priority than healthcare. Military defence is more important than global development. The Commonwealth could be a useful organisation to help reduce global inequalities. There is nothing we as individuals can do to resolve global inequalities. Giving aid to governments is an effective way to reduce global inequalities. The debts of poorer countries should all be cancelled. There should be minimal government interference in people’s lives. Money should be distributed according to who needs it rather than who has earned it.

1 copy per student

Va lu es Co nt inu um St at em en t Sh ee ts » Resource 3r6 » Values Continuum Statement Sheet For each statement decide on how much you AGREE or DISAGREE and situate yourself somewhere along the values continuum. Be ready to justify your decision! The Millennium Development Goals will make a big difference in tackling global inequalities

DISAGREE IN-BETWEEN AGREE

Healthcare should be a bigger priority than the environment. Education should be a bigger priority than healthcare. Military defence is more important than global development. The Commonwealth could be a useful organisation to help reduce global inequalities. There is nothing we as individuals can do to resolve global inequalities. Giving aid to governments is an effective way to reduce global inequalities. The debts of poorer countries should all be cancelled. There should be minimal government interference in people’s lives. Money should be distributed according to who needs it rather than who has earned it.

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 4 » Development and the Commonwealth: Education Note - This lesson could be split into two for students to have more time to prepare and discuss: activities 1 and 2 in the first lesson, and activities 3 and 4 in the second lesson.

Lesson aims/key questions

Learning outcomes and key processes

Students will be able to: a » Define three key terms in relation to education. b » Explain why education is important for development. c » Outline current progress towards meeting MDGs 2, 3 and 4 (education, gender and child mortality). d » Give an example of an action they can take to help meet the Millennium Development Goals. Key processes: Critical thinking; research; discussion and debate; communicating ideas; feeling empowered to make a difference; active involvement in the community (local and global); an interest in global issues and current affairs.

Key words/

concepts / terms

Education | gender | development | Commonwealth | empowerment | enrolment | indicator inequality | literacy rate | ratio | universal primary education.

Summary of

Activity 1 (starter): Education Bingo (Defining Key Terms)

Activity 2: Progress on MDGs 2, 3 and 4: Choice of Tasks (Poster-making or film-watching)

b» c»

Activity 3: Education Carousel (Paired Discussion)

Activity 4 (plenary): Education for All Postcards (Taking Action)

activities and links to learning outcomes

Assessment

opportunities

Differentiation

Homework or extension tasks

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1 » Why is education important for development? 2 » What are the Millennium Development Goals relating to education and gender aiming to achieve? How are countries progressing on these goals? 3 » What can we in the Commonwealth do to address inequalities in education and gender?

» Activity 1 (starter) can be an informal assessment of students’ prior knowledge of the key terms. » Activity 2 could involve teacher or peer assessment of the posters. » Activity 4 (plenary) can involve teacher or peer assessment by marking the postcards according to a set of defined criteria. » Activity 2 contains a choice of tasks. The 15-minute online talk is fairly challenging as it contains some formal and statistical language, but is generally presented in an accessible way, particularly with the moving graphs around half way through. The poster task has four questions which increase in complexity from question 1 which has the most accessible briefing materials (4r2), to question 4 which has the most challenging briefing materials (4r2). Students could either pick a question themselves or you could allocate each group a question. » Activity 3 also contains questions of varied complexity which you can choose from. You could ask students to: » (If they have made posters in Activity 2) Add more detail to their posters through extended research, perhaps using some extra country case studies from around the Commonwealth. The United Nations website is most useful here, including the following pages: www.un.org/millenniumgoals/education.shtml | www.mdgmonitor.org/goal2.cfm www.un.org/millenniumgoals/gender.shtml www.mdgmonitor.org/goal3.cfm » (If they have watched the talk in Activity 2) Write a letter to Hans Rosling explaining what they thought of his presentation and describing in detail the actions they think the world should take to resolve the global inequalities he describes. » Following Activity 4, students could research the address they need for their postcard – and post it!

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 4 » Development and the Commonwealth: Education continued... Resources needed

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» Activity 1 (starter): Education Bingo Definitions (4r1) (one for teacher) » Activity 2: Millennium Development Goal Progress Briefing Sheets (4r2) (one per group of students – groups of any size), Large paper and pens to draw posters, Audio-visual equipment (e.g. internet connection, computer, projector and audio). » Activity 3: Bell or whistle, if available. » Activity 4: Blank postcards (one per student)

» Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 1 (starter): Education Bingo

0-10m

Ask students to each draw a grid with six squares. Display the following key words, and ask them to pick six, and write them into their grid, one word per box.

Read out the definitions (listed on resource 4r1) one at a time, at random, without stating the term itself. If students have listed the word you describe in their grid, they should cross it out. The winner is the first person to have crossed out all six words in their grid – they should shout out ‘bingo’! Check the winner knows the definition of each of the words and if they do, they have won the game! (If not, you can carry on until the next person shouts ‘bingo!’.) » Development; Education; Empowerment; Enrolment; Gender; Indicator; Inequality; Literacy rate; Ratio; Universal

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» MDGs 2 and 3: Choice of Tasks If you have audio-visual equipment available (e.g. internet connection, computer, projector and audio) available, tell students they have a choice of tasks. If you have a big enough space and/or can physically divide the students without the groups disturbing each other, you could have both tasks going on at the same time. If not, you could get the students to come to a consensus on which activity they would like to do.

10-30m

Task A » Hans Rosling Millennium Development Goal Progress Online Talk Get students sitting comfortably in front of the film, which can be accessed directly at: www.ted.com/talks/hans_rosling_the_good_news_of_the_decade.html or by typing in: “Hans Rosling: The good news of the decade?” into the search box at TED Talks: www.ted.com/talks The online talk is around 15 minutes long and it is best to watch it in one sitting if possible, although it can be stopped and started to check students understand specific terms if necessary. Ask students to take particular note of Hans Rosling’s references to education and gender. In the talk he uses statistics to illustrate how child mortality can be effectively reduced through the education of girls and other social factors. He also challenges the prevailing notions of the ‘developing’ and ‘Western’ worlds, showing how different two or three countries within an area of the world such as Sub-Saharan Africa can be. When they have watched the talk, get students to note down their initial thoughts, then have a brief discussion about what they found out from the talk. How do they think different countries are progressing on Millennium Development Goals 2, 3 and 4? Is it helpful to categorise countries into regions or levels of development? Task B » MDG Progress posters Divide the rest of the class into groups. There are four topics to cover, and so there should be at least 4 groups – but you could have more and give more than one group the same topic. Distribute poster paper, pens, and a briefing sheet (from 4r2) to each group (see below for the briefing material needed by each group): 1 » What is MDG 2 and why is it important? (MDG 2 Briefing sheet* (4r2a)) 2 » Where do we stand in achieving MDG 2? (Goal 2 Factsheet* (4r2b)) 3 » What is working in achieving MDG 2? (Goal 2 Factsheet *(4r2b)) 4 » Where do we stand and what is working in achieving gender equality in education? (Goal 3 Factsheet* (4r2c)) Each group has 15 minutes to create a clear, eye-catching poster which answers the question they have been given. If you have time available students could then present their posters to the class. * with thanks to the UN Department of Public Information © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 4 » Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 3: Education Carousel

30 50m

Arrange the chairs in the classroom so you have two concentric circles (or as close to this as possible!), with pairs of chairs facing each other. Ask students to take a seat, facing a partner. Explain that they will shortly hear a question, and have one minute to discuss the question in their pair. In that time, both partners should have made at least one point. When the minute is up they will hear a sound (a bell or whistle) and should stop talking immediately. The students sitting on the outside circle will then move one seat to their right. They will hear another question…. and so the process repeats itself. You should have enough time to ask five or six of the questions for students to discuss. If you have more time, do extend their talking time so their discussions can be a little deeper. Carousel questions – adapt and add to these for your group as desired: 1 » Why is primary education important to individuals? 2 » What are some of the reasons why children might drop out of school once they have started? 3 » What are some of the barriers in preventing girls attending school? 4 » What can be done to encourage more girls to attend school? 5 » Are there other groups of people who might be less likely to attend school? (e.g. children with disabilities?) 6 » What can be done to ensure these groups are able to attend school? 7 » Why is having universal primary education important for a country? 8 » What can we do, individually or together, to help meet MDG 2?

» Activity 4 (plenary): Education for all postcards Ask students to feedback to the class their ideas on the final question from the carousel (What can we do, individually or together, to help meet MDG 2 (education for all)?). Encourage the group to consider who in their country has the power to make decisions about how much support is given to reaching the MDGs.

50-60m

Can they name any of these decision makers? How could they influence the decisions these individuals take? Throughout this two- or three-minute discussion, try to steer the group to consider the value of giving their viewpoint in writing, to select someone they think it would be useful to write to, and to consider what they would write. » Distribute a blank postcard to each student. Challenge them to write their message in five minutes. Decide as a class what to do with the postcards: you could put them up in the classroom, but it would be even better if students could actually post them to someone who can take direct action on these issues.

View p26-27 CommonGround guide

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Ed uc at ion Bin go De fin iti on s » Resource 4r1 » Education Bingo Definitions

B I NG O

Development A process of growing and changing; in the international sense this generally refers to improving people’s access to health, education, wealth and technologies in countries around the world. Education A process for acquiring knowledge, skills and other capabilities, usually though a system involving teachers and students. Empowerment A process of growing in power, ability and confidence. Enrolment  Being registered or entered into a system: for example, being registered at a school or college. Gender What it means to be male or female in a society or culture. Indicator A specific measure that provides a clue or sign to a bigger change: for example, one of these for poverty might be how many people are living on less than $1 per day. Inequality A situation where things are unequal or unjust. Literacy rate The percentage of people (usually over 15), in a given area or country, who can read and write. Ratio The relationship between two numbers: for example, there is an average one of these of one woman to every four men in national parliaments around the world. Universal Applying to everyone or everything: for example, achieving this for primary education means making sure everyone gets to go to primary school.

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our Mil len niu m Dev elo pm ent Goa l 2 Br ief ing She et » Res » Your poster should answer this question: What is MDG 2 and why is it important?

Millennium Development Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education

Why is it important? Many people argue that education is crucially important in its own right – everyone should be educated just because that will be a good thing! However, there is also a strong connection between education and the other MDGs, so it is called an ‘enabler’: education enables people to change their own lives for the better. Education acts as an enabler to achieve many of the other MDGs. Education gives people the power to change their lives, the lives of their children and the lives of others in their communities. Education therefore contributes towards the development of communities and societies. For example: • One extra year of schooling increases an individual’s earnings by up to 10%. • Education helps to empower women, for example giving them more control over how many children they have. An extra year of female schooling reduces fertility rates (how many children the average woman has) by 10%. • Educated individuals are more likely to make healthy decisions for themselves and their families. A child born to a mother who can read is 50% more likely to survive past the age of 5. Children of mothers with secondary education or higher are twice as likely to survive beyond the age of 5. For example, in Malawi, 27% of women with no education know that HIV transmission risks (passing HIV from mother to child during pregnancy) can be reduced by mothers taking drugs during pregnancy. For women with a secondary education, the figure rises to 59%.

How can it be measured? International and national statistical experts have selected indicators which can be used to provide clues or signs on the progress being made towards meeting the MDGs. For MDG 2 there are three indicators: • 2.1 Net enrolment ratio in primary education (this is the ratio of the number of children of official school age who are enrolled in primary school to the total number of children of official school age in the population – i.e. how many children are enrolled in school in relation to the number who should be) • 2.2 Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach last grade of primary (this is the number of children who finish their primary education, generally from around 5 years old to around 11 years old) • 2.3 Literacy rate of 15-24 year-olds, women and men (this is the percentage of 15-24 year old women and men who can read and write out of the total number of 15-24 year olds in the population) As described above, MDG 2 is crucial in helping meet many of the other MDGs. It is so important that MDG 3, which aims to promote gender equality and empower women, has one of its three indicators about education as well: • 3.1 Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education (this is the number of girls who are in school and college compared to the number of boys) Statistical Information from UNESCO Education For All Global Monitoring Report: www.efareport.unesco.org With thanks to the UN Department of Public Information

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Mil len niu m Dev elo pm ent Goa l 2 Fac tsh eet » Resour » Your poster should answer this question: Where do we stand in achieving MDG 2?

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Mil len niu m Dev elo pm ent Goa l 2 FAC T She et » Resour » Continued...

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Mil len niu m Dev elo pm ent Goa l 3 Fac tsh eet » Resour

» Your poster should answer this question: Where do we stand and what is working in achieving gender equality in education?

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ource 4r2c »nRes 1r2 sso Leet She » ing ief S Br CE 3 l UR Goa SO RE ent OL pm HO elo SC Dev m th al niu we len Mil Co mm on » Continued...

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 5 » The Commonwealth, Development and Global Health: The Problem of Malaria Note - This lesson could be split into two for students to have more time to prepare and discuss: activities 1 and 2 in the first lesson, and activities 3 and 4 in the second lesson.

Lesson aims/key questions

Learning outcomes and key processes

1 » What is malaria? Where and why is malaria a problem? 2 » How can malaria be prevented and treated? 3 » How are diseases and development related? Students will be able to: a » Describe three facts about malaria. b » Explain two reasons why malaria is a problem around the world. c » Formulate and justify an opinion on the best methods to prevent malaria. d » Analyse how diseases and development are related. Key processes: Critical thinking; research; empathising with others; advocacy and representation; discussion and debate; communicating ideas; listening to others; critically assessing your own view and others’ viewpoints; presenting a persuasive case for action; working with others to solve problems.

Key words/

concepts / terms

Commonwealth | development | health | malaria | prevention | insecticide | prophylactic | drugs | vaccine | mosquito nets | education | immunity | vector | parasite |

Summary of

Activity 1 (starter): Five things I know about malaria…

Activity 2: Create an Expert Report for the Commonwealth Health Ministers

Activity 3: Presentations to the Commonwealth Health Ministers

Activity 4 (plenary): Vote and closing session

activities and links to learning outcomes

Assessment

opportunities

Differentiation

» Activity 1 (starter) can include informal assessment of individual feedback to class. » Activity 3 and Activity 4 (plenary) can include student peer-to-peer feedback and could also include formal assessment of group presentations. » Activity 1 (starter) and Activity 4 (plenary): level and challenge of questioning during feedback can be pitched to needs of individual students. » Activity 2: The Malaria Prevention student briefing sheets (5r2) present differing levels of complexity: Briefings A to C contain more accessible material and Briefings D to F contain more challenging material.

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 5 » The Commonwealth, Development and Global Health: The Problem of Malaria continued...

Homework or

» Research more about malaria (online or in textbooks or newspapers) and investigate the reasons why medicines and treatments may not be readily available in some countries (for example, inequalities in access to healthcare and shortages of healthcare workers; discrimination; funding problems for the distribution of medicines and nets; and the controversial issues around the protection of intellectual property and restrictive patenting of drugs by some pharmaceutical companies). More information can be found at the following websites: World Health Organisation: www.who.int/topics/malaria/en Wellcome Trust: http://malaria.wellcome.ac.uk/ United Nations: www.un.org/millenniumgoals/aids.shtml Malaria No More: www.malariapolicycenter.org/index.php/resources/malaria_facts » Examine Millennium Development Goal 6 (Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases) and evaluate the likelihood of achieving Target 6.c: “Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases”. You can download the most recent Millennium Development Goals Progress Report from the United Nations website www.un.org/millenniumgoals/reports.shtml, which is also a useful source for monitoring the indicators on each goal. » Write a written report as a Commonwealth Health Minister about the meeting in Activity 3 to take back to their government, explaining the key messages of the session and recommendations for the government » Write a newspaper article, from the perspective of a journalist attending the Commonwealth Health Ministers’ meeting (Activity 3), explaining what was discussed and the decisions ministers made. » Write to their own political representative (e.g. their Member of Parliament or Health Minister) asking them to do more to help deal with the problems of malaria around the world.

Resources needed

» Activity 1 (starter): Teacher Briefing resource links www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs094/en http://malaria.wellcome.ac.uk); Malaria Introductory Powerpoint (5r1), if needed. » Activity 2: Malaria Prevention Student Briefing Sheets (5r2) (based on the above sources) (one sheet for each group where class divided into six groups) » Activity 3: Student Feedback Sheets (5r3) (one each) (if required); Stopwatch / Timer

extension tasks

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 5 » Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 1 (starter): Five things I know about malaria…

0-10m

Working individually or in pairs, challenge students to write down five facts that they know about malaria. They have three minutes! When time is up, ask students to feed back some of their ideas to the class. Encourage students to explain what they say and ask the rest of the class whether they agree. Where students give incorrect information, provide the correct information yourself where you can (the Teacher Briefing resource links and Malaria Introductory Powerpoint (5r1) may help with this). If you can, encourage students to think about the causes, symptoms, and impact of malaria. If students find it difficult to think of facts about malaria, you could go through the Malaria Introductory Powerpoint (5r1) with them and discuss whether each slide relates to a cause, a symptom, an impact or a potential remedy for malaria.

5 r1

» Activity 2: Create an Expert Report for the Commonwealth Health Ministers Split the class into six groups. Distribute the Malaria Prevention Student Briefing Sheets (5r2), one to each group. Ask students to imagine that they have been selected as malarial experts to speak to the next meeting of the Commonwealth Health Ministers. This meeting is an opportunity for the Ministers from a range of different countries around the Commonwealth to hear about different methods of malarial prevention, and consider which methods their governments should invest in (within their own countries or through aid to other countries). Each group will make a three minute presentation, outlining the prevention method they have been given.

10 25m

They must: » Introduce the prevention method » Explain how/why it works (how does it prevent/reduce illness or deaths) » Outline its benefits and disadvantages (e.g. effectiveness, ease of use, cost) » Give one main reason why combating malaria will contribute to development (e.g. think about how such problematic diseases might affect the workings of the health and education systems of a country) Explain to students that there is information to help them on the briefing sheets (5r2). However, not all the points are useful and relevant – they need to use this briefing sheet as a starting point rather than a complete text to read out. As they prepare their speeches, encourage students to consider: » The most appropriate form of speech for a meeting of international politicians (for example, they should use formal language) » How they can ensure that they are clear and informative » How they will split the presentation within the group (will they choose a lead spokesperson or take turns presenting part of their speech?) The above instructions are also outlined on the briefing sheets (5r2). Students have ten minutes to prepare their speeches. If you have more time and access to the internet, give students time to carry out their own research for their speeches – the World Health Organisation, Wellcome Trust and UN Millennium Development Goal 6 websites are a good place to start. They could think about the potential effects of malaria and other diseases on some of the following issues of local and global concern: politics; economics; media; business; community; families; relationships; environment; religion; culture; globalisation; travel; education; law; international relations; science; technologies; communications; infrastructure; architecture; employment; r2 and demographics (population).

5

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 5 » Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 3: Presentations to the Commonwealth Health Ministers You may want to rearrange the furniture to represent a meeting of the Commonwealth Health Ministers, with a space for presentations at the front of the room and the audience facing this area. As each group presents, the rest of the class will form the audience of Health Ministers. If you have time, you could assign each student a different country to represent as Health Minister. You could also give out the student feedback sheets (5r3) if you think you will have time at the end of the lesson for students to feed back to each other about their presentations. The teacher (or a selected student) will act as chair, and should open the meeting in role – welcoming the Health Ministers and explaining the aim of the session. Each group in turn will then give their presentation. Make sure you time the presentations to no more than three minutes, if lesson time is limited!

10-25m

5 r3

» Activity 4: Vote and closing session The chair draws the presentations to a close, thanking the speakers and explaining that: »H  ealth Ministers will now be asked to vote on the method of prevention they will recommend their government invests in (within their own country or for other countries in the form of aid) »M  inisters have one vote, which they can use for any of the 6 methods, or for a 7th category: ‘a mixed approach’. »W  hatever they vote for, Ministers must be prepared to justify their choice. If they choose a mixed approach they will need to be able to explain which mix of methods they would invest in and why.

50 60m

Ask students to vote, and then encourage a range of Health Ministers (students) to feed back their reasons (and distribution, if mixed approach). You could pick names out of a hat to decide who to call on, ask for volunteers, or ask one student per group. If there is time, follow up by asking individual Ministers to respond to some closing questions, for example: » Why do you think it is important to invest in malarial prevention? » How is malaria (and other diseases) linked to development? » What can we do to help with this global problem? Finally, if you have time, you could ask students to constructively feed back to each other on the group presentations using the student feedback sheets (5r3) as a prompt.

5 r3 View p26

CommonGround guide

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Ma la ria Int ro du ct or y Po we rp oin t » Resource 5r1 » Please view powerpoint presentation supplied on resource disk

» Malaria an introduction powerpoint presentation

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» Resource 5r2 s et She ing ief Br nt de stu ion ent ev pr ia Malar » A: Mosquito nets

GROUP A

Commonwealth Health Ministers

You have been selected as malarial experts to speak to the next meeting of the Commonwealth Health Ministers. This meeting is an opportunity for the Ministers from a range of different countries around the Commonwealth to hear about different methods of malarial prevention, and consider which methods their governments should invest in (within their own countries or through aid to other countries). Your group will make a three minute presentation outlining the prevention method detailed on this briefing sheet: mosquito nets. YOU MUST:

•Introduce the prevention method •Explain how/why it works (how does it prevent/reduce illness or deaths) •Outline its benefits and disadvantages (e.g. effectiveness, ease of use, cost) •Give one main reason why combating malaria will contribute to development (e.g. think about how such problematic diseases might affect the workings of the health and education systems of a country) The information below should be used as a starting point but you should not simply read it out: your speech should be well-structured and persuasive. As you prepare your speech, think about: •The most appropriate form of speech for a meeting of international politicians (for example, you should use formal language) •How you can ensure that your presentation is clear and informative •How you will split the presentation within the group (will you choose a lead spokesperson or each have a turn presenting part of the speech?)

Mosquito nets

•Only female mosquitoes drink blood, to fuel the production of eggs. Female mosquitoes usually bite between sunset and sunrise, when people are often sleeping, so a net provides protection. • 60 out of 400 species of Anopheles mosquitoes (the main type of mosquito that carries malaria) are malarial vectors (they carry the disease between organisms including humans). •Mosquito nets are one way of controlling the vector, by providing a physical barrier that helps prevent exposure to infected mosquito bites. ‘Vector control’ is the only intervention that can reduce malaria transmission from very high levels to close to zero. • To be truly effective, mosquito nets need to impregnated with insecticides, which reduce the lifespan of the mosquitoes that come into contact with it. Nets can be relatively expensive and require regular re-treatment.

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» Resource 5r2 s et She ing ief Br nt de stu ion ent ev pr ia Malar » B: Insecticide

GROUP B

Commonwealth Health Ministers

You have been selected as malarial experts to speak to the next meeting of the Commonwealth Health Ministers. This meeting is an opportunity for the Ministers from a range of different countries around the Commonwealth to hear about different methods of malarial prevention, and consider which methods their governments should invest in (within their own countries or through aid to other countries). Your group will make a three minute presentation outlining the prevention method detailed on this briefing sheet: Insecticide. YOU MUST:

•Introduce the prevention method •Explain how/why it works (how does it prevent/reduce illness or deaths) •Outline its benefits and disadvantages (e.g. effectiveness, ease of use, cost) •Give one main reason why combating malaria will contribute to development (e.g. think about how such problematic diseases might affect the workings of the health and education systems of a country) The information below should be used as a starting point but you should not simply read it out: your speech should be well-structured and persuasive. As you prepare your speech, think about: •The most appropriate form of speech for a meeting of international politicians (for example, you should use formal language) •How you can ensure that your presentation is clear and informative •How you will split the presentation within the group (will you choose a lead spokesperson or each have a turn presenting part of the speech?)

Insecticide

• Insecticides can be used in a number of ways. For example, they can be used to impregnate mosquito nets so that they are more effective and they can be sprayed onto the inside of homes. • 60 out of 400 species of Anopheles mosquitoes (the main type of mosquito that carries malaria) are malarial vectors (they carry the disease between organisms including humans). • Using insecticide is one way of controlling the vector. ‘Vector control’ is the only intervention that can reduce malaria transmission from very high levels to close to zero. • Mosquitoes are becoming resistant to some types of insecticide which are heavily used. The development of new, alternative insecticides is an expensive and long-term endeavour. • Only female mosquitoes drink blood, to fuel the production of eggs. Female mosquitoes bite usually between sunset and sunrise, when people are often sleeping, so spraying nets with insecticide provides good protection. • Spraying the inside of homes can be effective for 3-6 months, depending on the insecticide used and the type of surface onto which it is sprayed. It is most effective when at least 80% of houses in a targeted area are sprayed. • Insecticides can be expensive and harmful to people.

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» Resource 5r2 s et She ing ief Br nt de stu ion ent ev pr ia Malar » C:Vaccine

GROUP C

Commonwealth Health Ministers

You have been selected as malarial experts to speak to the next meeting of the Commonwealth Health Ministers. This meeting is an opportunity for the Ministers from a range of different countries around the Commonwealth to hear about different methods of malarial prevention, and consider which methods their governments should invest in (within their own countries or through aid to other countries). Your group will make a three minute presentation outlining the prevention method detailed on this briefing sheet: Vaccine. YOU MUST:

•Introduce the prevention method •Explain how/why it works (how does it prevent/reduce illness or deaths) •Outline its benefits and disadvantages (e.g. effectiveness, ease of use, cost) •Give one main reason why combating malaria will contribute to development (e.g. think about how such problematic diseases might affect the workings of the health and education systems of a country) The information below should be used as a starting point but you should not simply read it out: your speech should be well-structured and persuasive. As you prepare your speech, think about: •The most appropriate form of speech for a meeting of international politicians (for example, you should use formal language) •How you can ensure that your presentation is clear and informative •How you will split the presentation within the group (will you choose a lead spokesperson or each have a turn presenting part of the speech?)

Vaccine

• No malaria vaccines are available, although several are under development and testing. • Research into a vaccine is extremely expensive, but if successful the disease could be completely eradicated (wiped out). • A vaccine improves the body’s immunity to a disease by enabling the immune system to recognize and destroy the disease-causing micro-organism (in this case, the malaria parasite). • The body’s immune response to malaria is complex and not well understood. • A vaccine needs to work in few doses, be cheap to make and easy to administer.

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» Resource 5r2 s et She ing ief Br nt de stu ion ent ev pr ia Malar » D: Education Initiatives

GROUP D

Commonwealth Health Ministers

You have been selected as malarial experts to speak to the next meeting of the Commonwealth Health Ministers. This meeting is an opportunity for the Ministers from a range of different countries around the Commonwealth to hear about different methods of malarial prevention, and consider which methods their governments should invest in (within their own countries or through aid to other countries). Your group will make a three minute presentation outlining the prevention method detailed on this briefing sheet: Education Initiatives. YOU MUST:

•Introduce the prevention method •Explain how/why it works (how does it prevent/reduce illness or deaths) •Outline its benefits and disadvantages (e.g. effectiveness, ease of use, cost) •Give one main reason why combating malaria will contribute to development (e.g. think about how such problematic diseases might affect the workings of the health and education systems of a country) The information below should be used as a starting point but you should not simply read it out: your speech should be well-structured and persuasive. As you prepare your speech, think about: •The most appropriate form of speech for a meeting of international politicians (for example, you should use formal language) •How you can ensure that your presentation is clear and informative •How you will split the presentation within the group (will you choose a lead spokesperson or each have a turn presenting part of the speech?)

Education Initiatives

• People need to be educated about the range of measures they can take to protect themselves from being bitten by infected mosquitoes. For example: wearing light-coloured clothes which mosquitoes are less attracted to and keeping covered up with long trousers and shirt sleeves. Adding window screens to houses can also make a difference. • Mosquito nets are only effective if people are taught to use them properly. • Some of the most effective measures to prevent malaria are mosquito nets and insecticide spraying. Without funding and organised programmes for distributing these, education alone may have limited impact. However, education helps to demonstrate the importance of malaria prevention to the population, and they can then lobby their governments to provide more funding for such resources. • People can be encouraged through education to make changes to their local environment to control the Anopheles mosquito, which is the main vector for malaria (a vector is an organism that carries a disease between different organisms including humans) and breeds in shallow collections of freshwater such as puddles and ponds.

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» Resource 5r2 s et She ing ief Br nt de stu ion ent ev pr ia Malar » E: Prophylactic (prevention) drugs

GROUP E

Commonwealth Health Ministers

You have been selected as malarial experts to speak to the next meeting of the Commonwealth Health Ministers. This meeting is an opportunity for the Ministers from a range of different countries around the Commonwealth to hear about different methods of malarial prevention, and consider which methods their governments should invest in (within their own countries or through aid to other countries). Your group will make a three minute presentation outlining the prevention method detailed on this briefing sheet: Prophylactic (prevention) drugs. YOU MUST:

•Introduce the prevention method •Explain how/why it works (how does it prevent/reduce illness or deaths) •Outline its benefits and disadvantages (e.g. effectiveness, ease of use, cost) •Give one main reason why combating malaria will contribute to development (e.g. think about how such problematic diseases might affect the workings of the health and education systems of a country) The information below should be used as a starting point but you should not simply read it out: your speech should be well-structured and persuasive. As you prepare your speech, think about: •The most appropriate form of speech for a meeting of international politicians (for example, you should use formal language) •How you can ensure that your presentation is clear and informative •How you will split the presentation within the group (will you choose a lead spokesperson or each have a turn presenting part of the speech?)

Prophylactic (prevention) drugs

•Prophylactic drugs suppress the human blood stage of the parasite’s life cycle and so prevent the individual becoming ill with the disease, even if they get bitten and infected by mosquitoes. •When an infected mosquito bites a human to drink blood, parasites are injected into the bloodstream. The parasites infect the liver and then red blood cells. The classic symptoms of malaria consist of bouts of fever that coincide with the parasites bursting out of the red blood cells. Infected red blood cells can also clump together, blocking blood flow and damaging internal organs, including the brain. •Prophylactic drugs are relatively expensive and it would be financially and logistically difficult to distribute such drugs to everyone living in an infected area throughout their lives. •Prophylactic drugs can be a good solution for travellers to an infected area. •Adults living in areas of moderate or intense transmission of malaria develop natural immunity to malaria over years of exposure, although this never gives complete protection. As a result, most malaria deaths in Africa occur amongst young children who have not yet built up their own immunity. These children might therefore be the priority cases for the use of prophylactic drugs. However, if they use the drugs, they may be less likely to build up their own natural immunity. •The parasite develops resistance to antimalarial drugs rapidly. In many parts of the world it has become resistant to chloroquine, the most commonly used and most affordable antimalarial drug.

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» Resource 5r2 s et She ing ief Br nt de stu ion ent ev pr ia Malar » F: Treatment of the disease

GROUP F

Commonwealth Health Ministers

You have been selected as malarial experts to speak to the next meeting of the Commonwealth Health Ministers. This meeting is an opportunity for the Ministers from a range of different countries around the Commonwealth to hear about different methods of malarial prevention, and consider which methods their governments should invest in (within their own countries or through aid to other countries). Your group will make a three minute presentation outlining the prevention method detailed on this briefing sheet: Treatment of the disease YOU MUST:

•Introduce the prevention method •Explain how/why it works (how does it prevent/reduce illness or deaths) •Outline its benefits and disadvantages (e.g. effectiveness, ease of use, cost) •Give one main reason why combating malaria will contribute to development (e.g. think about how such problematic diseases might affect the workings of the health and education systems of a country) The information below should be used as a starting point but you should not simply read it out: your speech should be well-structured and persuasive. As you prepare your speech, think about: •The most appropriate form of speech for a meeting of international politicians (for example, you should use formal language) •How you can ensure that your presentation is clear and informative •How you will split the presentation within the group (will you choose a lead spokesperson or each have a turn presenting part of the speech?)

Treatment of the disease

• Once an individual becomes ill with malaria, they can take drugs (similar to those used for prevention) to suppress the blood stage of the malarial life cycle. The drugs do not necessarily prevent an infected person from contracting the disease itself (getting ill), but they do help to prevent deaths and serious disabilities resulting from the disease. • Treatment drugs can also reduce the chances of the parasite being passed on to other people by mosquitoes that bite infected people. • Early and effective treatment of malaria can shorten the duration of the infection and prevent further complications including the great majority of deaths. If people do not seek medical help early, there is less chance of the drugs being effective. • When an infected mosquito bites a human to drink blood, parasites are injected into the bloodstream. The parasites infect the liver and then red blood cells. The classic symptoms of malaria consist of bouts of fever that coincide with the parasites bursting out of the red blood cells. Infected red blood cells can also clump together, blocking blood flow and damaging internal organs, including the brain. • Combination therapy is often used to prolong the useful life of these drugs, which means two or more drugs are taken together to reduce the chances of the parasite building up resistance. • Some of the drugs used are effective very quickly. However, this means that patients might stop taking them too early, leaving parasites in their blood. This can lead to parasites building up resistance to the treatment. • The first widely used antimalarial drug treatment, quinine from Peruvian bark, was discovered long before anyone knew what caused malaria.

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St ud en t Fee db ac k Sh ee ts » Resource 5r3 » Feed back to your fellow Health Ministers!

Health Feed back to your fellow

wn your Use this sheet to write do tation, sen feedback about each pre . and your final decision

Name: Group: Presentation Group

Ministers!

What was good about the presentation?

How could the presentation have been improved?

A: Mosquito nets

B: Insecticide

C: Vaccine

D: Education Initiatives E: Prophylactic (prevention) drugs F: Treatment of the disease

• Which malaria prevention

method did you choose?

• Why? make • Was it easy or difficult to

your decision – and why do

thing you have • What is the most interesting

5 r3 100

you think this is?

development? found out about malaria and

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 6 » The Climate Change CHOGM Note - This lesson could be split into two for students to have more time to prepare and discuss: activities 1 and 2 in the first lesson, and activities 3 and 4 in the second lesson.

Lesson aims/key questions

Learning outcomes and key processes

1 » What is climate change? 2 » How can the Commonwealth lead the way in reducing carbon emissions? 3 » What is it like to take part in a Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting? Students will be able to: a » Outline some of the causes and consequences of global climate change. b » Describe and justify the position a named country is likely to take on reducing their carbon emissions. c » Evaluate the challenges of reaching consensus amongst Commonwealth Heads of Government on a controversial global issue. d » Identify some actions members of the Commonwealth might take to reduce the impact of climate change. Key processes: Critical thinking; empathising with others; discussion and debate; arguing a viewpoint other than your own; communicating ideas; listening to others; working with others to solve problems.

Key words/

Climate change | CHOGM (Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting) | consensus | carbon emissions | industrialised | cyclone | flooding | economic growth | atmosphere | infrared radiation.

Summary of

Activity 1 (starter): Climate Change CHOGM Technical Expert (Reordering Information)

Activity 2: My Country’s Climate Change Challenge (Speech‐Writing in Groups)

Activity 3: The Climate Change CHOGM (Formal Debate)

Activity 4 (plenary): The Role of the Commonwealth in Reducing the Impacts of Climate Change

concepts / terms

activities and links to learning outcomes

Assessment

opportunities

Differentiation

» Activity 1 (starter) can include teacher or peer assessment by swapping worksheets (6r1) or taking them in to mark them, using the answer sheet (6r2). » Activities 2 and 3 can form a group assessment in which students are assessed by the teacher or other students on their teamwork and presentation skills. » Activity 4 (plenary) can include teacher assessment of students’ individual answers to the four questions, if you ask students to write down their answers rather than holding a class discussion. » Activity 1 (starter) can include additional support to some students by giving them the first few steps and additional prompts as necessary. Students wishing to be challenged further could be asked to annotate the worksheet (6r1) with additional facts about the processes of climate change from their own prior knowledge or from additional research. » Activity 2 includes a variety of country briefing sheets (6r3) with differing levels of accessibility: for example, those for the UK and Kenya are more accessible and those for Bangladesh and India are more challenging. » Activity 3 could include a few extra roles for students who are unable to participate directly in the debate: for example, they could be Commonwealth Artists, Photographers or Journalists and report back in visual or written forms on what the meeting was like. They could also be trained to give constructive peer feedback in order to help students who are involved in the debate to make their points more effectively.

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 6 Homework or extension tasks

Resources needed

1 r2

You could ask students to: » Write a letter or newspaper article describing what the CHOGM was like and what was debated and decided. » Make a plan in groups to help combat climate change locally, and go ahead and implement the plan. » Research the next real life CHOGM, finding out where and when it will be held and the key issues that will be discussed (The Commonwealth Secretariat website should hold this information: www.thecommonwealth.org/subhomepage/33247) » Activity 1 (starter): Climate Change Technical Expert Briefing Sheet (6r1) (one per student or pair); Climate Change Technical Expert Answer Sheet (6r2) (one for teacher) » Activity 2: Climate Change Challenge Country Briefing Sheet (one for each of the six groups) » Activity 3: National flags of the six countries if possible (UK, Kenya, Tuvalu, Australia, Bangladesh, India)

View p28-29 CommonGround guide

» Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 1 (starter): Climate Change CHOGM technical expert

0 10m

Explain to students that they will shortly be attending a Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM), where heads of government (for example, presidents, prime ministers and their representatives) will meet to discuss the issue of climate change. They have been selected as one of a number of technical experts for the CHOGM, and may be asked to deliver a five minute speech at the start of the meeting about the causes and consequences of climate change. Give each student the worksheet Climate Change Technical Expert Briefing Sheet (6r1). Explain that their colleague has sent them some briefing cards to help with their speech, but they have got mixed up along the way. They need to put them in order so they are ready to deliver their speech. Give students five minutes to work individually or in pairs to put the statements on the worksheet in order. Avoid feedback to the class at this stage (the speech will form part of the mockCHOGM), but move around the class ensuring students are getting the correct order » Answers are on the Climate Change Technical Expert Briefing Answer Sheet (6r2)

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 6 » Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 2: My country’s Climate Change Challenge Divide the class into six groups, and distribute one of the Climate Change Challenge Country Briefing Sheets (6r3) to each group. Explain that this next activity is also preparation for the CHOGM, and this time each group represents a different country.

10-25m

At the CHOGM the Heads of Government will discuss whether Commonwealth countries should lead the way globally in reducing carbon emissions. Each group will have 2 minutes to present the perspective of their country, and they have 10 minutes to prepare their speech using their briefing sheets. The speech should: » Introduce their country » Explain their perspective on whether Commonwealth countries should lead the way in reducing carbon emissions » Explain why they have this viewpoint Encourage students to consider: » The most appropriate form of speech for a meeting of international politicians (for example, they should use formal language and avoid using personal pronouns such as ‘I’ and ‘you’, instead using the name of the country they are representing) » How they can ensure they are clear and informative

6 r3

» How they will split the presentation within the group

» Activity 3: The Climate Change CHOGM

25-50

You may want to rearrange the furniture to represent a Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) with a space for presentations at the front of the room and the audience facing this area. More information about CHOGM procedure is below.

» Open the meeting in the role of the current Commonwealth Secretary General (you can find who this currently is at the Commonwealth Secretariat website: www.thecommonwealth.org/subhomepage/191183). You could also make a confident student the Commonwealth Secretary General, whose role is to steer the debate and make sure that everyone gets their say. » Welcome the Heads of Government to the meeting, and explain that it is a very important forum for discussion about the global challenge of climate change. » Select a student to take the role of technical expert, and present their climate change briefing (now in the correct order!) from their completed Climate Change Technical Expert Briefing Sheet (6r1). » Next, ask the group representing Tuvalu to start with their presentation. Their briefing sheet instructs them to end their presentation with a request to the other Heads of Government that the Commonwealth countries lead the way on reducing climate change. Then invite each of the remaining groups to give their presentations in response. If you have students who are unable to participate directly in the debate, they could be Commonwealth Artists, Photographers or Journalists and report back in visual or written forms on what the meeting was like. They could also be trained to give constructive peer feedback in order r1 to help students who are involved in the debate to make their points more effectively.

6

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 6 » Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 4 (Plenary): The Role of the Commonwealth in Reducing the Impacts of Climate Change

50-60m

In your role as Commonwealth Secretary General, thank Heads of Government for their contributions (or ask the person taking on the role to do so). If any of the students wish to feed back to the group (or present their work as Commonwealth Artist, Journalist etc.), they could do so now if there is time. To finish, close the meeting and ask the group the following questions: » Do you think the Commonwealth should be leading the way in reducing carbon emissions? » Is it possible for us as Commonwealth Heads of Government to reach consensus on this issue? » If so, what would that consensus be? What would it mean in practical terms for different countries?

» How important is it that Commonwealth countries take action to reduce the impacts of climate change? You could either ask students to write down their answers to these questions, or hold a brief class discussion on their initial ideas for each one.

View p28-29 CommonGround guide

» Notes on CHOGM Procedures: • Traditionally, what differentiates CHOGMs from other inter-governmental meetings is their friendly, informal character. Heads of Government (or their appointed representatives – such as Foreign Ministers – if Heads are not able to attend) spend a day at a ‘retreat’ away from their aides, the media and so on, which is seen as quite a unique opportunity for frank dialogue between leaders. • CHOGMs are chaired by the Chairperson-in-Office (i.e. the Prime Minister of the host country), who passes across to the Secretary-General at various points. • The host government and the Commonwealth Secretariat play a central role in drawing up the agenda for the CHOGM based on key global issues. • It may be useful to keep the classroom CHOGM fairly formal as this may help students get into the role of a Commonwealth Head of Government. For some examples of some formal rules and procedures you could use if you wish, see Model United Nations procedural guidelines, of which there are many online (for example, UNA-USA’s rules of procedure can be found at: www.unausa.org/munpreparation/rulesofprocedure). If you have a large group, some students could place the role of civil society representatives (from, for example, women’s unions, charities or faith groups). At CHOGMs, the Peoples Forum allows civil society to have their voices heard on important issues like the environment. Find out more at www.commonwealthfoundation.com/ HowwedeliverCommonwealthPeoplesForum

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LESSON 6 PAGE 4 OF 4 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


ource 6r1

Res Climate Change Technical Expert Briefing Sheet » » Climate Change Technical Expert Briefing

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8

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RESOURCE 6r1 PAGE 1 OF 2

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6

Resource 6r1

ts wind, cloud and rain patterns as …2100. The rise in temperature affec winter and autumn. It also melts the mer, well as the length of spring, sum levels to rise, which could mean the earth’s ice caps and causes the sea low-lying coastlines. Extreme weather disappearance of some islands and adoes will also become more… including floods, cyclones and torn 7

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» Climate Change Technical Expert Briefing

Climate Change Technical Expert Briefing Sheet »

…common. Changes in weather patterns will mean damage to crops, less water and food and more diseases. The poorest countries, which are already struggling with these things, will be the hardest hit.

8

ts wind, cloud and rain patterns as …2100. The rise in temperature affec winter and autumn. It also melts the mer, sum well as the length of spring, levels to rise, which could mean the earth’s ice caps and causes the sea low-lying coastlines. Extreme weather disappearance of some islands and adoes will also become more… including floods, cyclones and torn

6

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7

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Climate Change Technical Expert Briefing Sheet » Resource 6r2

» Climate Change Technical Expert Briefing - ANSWERS

RESOURCE 6r2 PAGE 1 OF1

© Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


Climate Change CHALLENGE COUNTRY Briefing Sheet

» Resource 6r3

Your group represents: UK Use the statements below to help you write your speech:

You need to prepare a speech for the Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting, outlining your country’s position on whether Commonwealth countries should lead the way in reducing carbon emissions. Your speech will: • Introduce your country. • Give your perspective on whether Commonwealth countries should lead the way in reducing carbon emissions.

•T  he UK government promotes a multi-country process (lots of countries working together) with ambitious climate change targets. •T  he European Union (of which the UK is part) has set a target to not allow the global temperature to increase more than 2ºC above pre-industrial levels. •T  he European Council (part of the European Union) has called for countries to consider a target of a 15% to 30% reduction in emissions by 2020, relative to the 1990 levels (baselines). •T  he UK government has highlighted the importance of working with young people, Members of Parliament and others to make sure people are working together to set and implement government policies related to climate change.

• Explain why you have this viewpoint.

Your group represents: Kenya Use the statements below to help you write your speech:

You need to prepare a speech for the Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting, outlining your country’s position on whether Commonwealth countries should lead the way in reducing carbon emissions. Your speech will: • Introduce your country. • Give your perspective on whether Commonwealth countries should lead the way in reducing carbon emissions. • Explain why you have this viewpoint.

•T  he Kenyan government calls for an increase in international aid in order for developing countries to protect their people against the negative impacts of climate change, particularly natural disasters. •K  enya currently lacks the resources to combat the effects of climate change. •A  fter several years of poor rains, Kenya and its neighbours suffered devastating droughts in 2009. Crops suffered and food prices doubled across Kenya. Wild animals such as lions and elephants died in large numbers in national parks, and electricity had to be rationed, affecting petrol and food supplies. Violence increased around the country as people went hungry. •C  limate change is making it more difficult for Kenya to meet the Millennium Development Goals. •T  he Kenyan government calls for the lowering of emission rates globally, but believes that this must fall particularly to the more industrialised nations such as the UK. The carbon emissions of richer nations continue to rise and the Kenyan government believes that they should be held accountable for their over-consumption.

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Climate Change CHALLENGE COUNTRY Briefing Sheet

» Resource 6r3

Your group represents: Tuvalu Use the statements below to help you write your speech:

You need to prepare a speech for the Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting, outlining your country’s position on whether Commonwealth countries should lead the way in reducing carbon emissions. Your speech will: • Introduce your country. • Give your perspective on whether Commonwealth countries should lead the way in reducing carbon emissions. • Explain why you have this viewpoint.

• Tuvalu has no industry, burns little petroleum, and creates less carbon pollution than a small town in the USA. • As part of the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS), the government of Tuvalu is calling for further action to address climate change. Tuvalu has so far been the most outspoken of the Pacific Island countries, often as a lead voice for AOSIS. • Tuvalu and other Pacific Island countries are low-lying and are already witnessing significant sea level rise and the impact of increased intensity of tropical weather. • The islands are not going to disappear immediately - unless a large storm hits at a high tide. • Tuvalu’s 11,000 people live on nine coral islands totalling 10 square miles. Tuvalu’s highest point is 4.6 metres above sea level but most of the country is no more than a metre above the sea. • As the sea level rises the islanders will have less land to grow food, and damage to coral reefs will lead to decreasing fish catches. The population will become increasingly reliant on food imports, which are expensive. • Tuvaluans face the possibility of being among the first climate refugees (although they do not usually use that term). • As the average sea level rises, several times each year the regular cycle of tides brings the Pacific Ocean sloshing over onto roads and into neighbourhoods. Puddles bubble up that can cover part of the airport on the main island and even flood homes that are not along the coast. You will speak first at the meeting, and should finish your speech by asking other Commonwealth countries to take the lead globally in reducing carbon emissions.

Your group represents: Australia Use the statements below to help you write your speech:

You need to prepare a speech for the Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting, outlining your country’s position on whether Commonwealth countries should lead the way in reducing carbon emissions. Your speech will: • Introduce your country. • Give your perspective on whether Commonwealth countries should lead the way in reducing carbon emissions. • Explain why you have this viewpoint.

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• The Australian government insists that negotiations on climate change issues should include all countries, including major carbon emitters, so as to ensure economic fairness. • Australia is one of the founding members of the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate (along with the United States, China, India, South Korea and Japan), indicating a willingness to join agreements between a range of countries. • The Australian government believes that while not all countries are equally responsible for the problem of climate change, we do share a common responsibility for the solution. • Australia has suffered from a range of environmental challenges, including increased drought, and the hole in the ozone layer (which may have been aggravated (made worse) by climate change but is a separate issue) • The Australian government has committed to reduce emissions to 60 per cent below 2000 levels by 2050.

RESOURCE 6r3 PAGE 2 OF 3 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


Climate Change CHALLENGE COUNTRY Briefing Sheet

» Resource 6r3

Your group represents: Bangladesh Use the statements below to help you write your speech:

You need to prepare a speech for the Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting, outlining your country’s position on whether Commonwealth countries should lead the way in reducing carbon emissions. Your speech will: • Introduce your country. • Give your perspective on whether Commonwealth countries should lead the way in reducing carbon emissions.

•T  he Global Climate Risk Index 2010 placed Bangladesh in top position, suggesting that it was the country most affected by climate change over two decades from 1990 to 2010. •B  angladesh is in the low-lying Ganges-Brahmaputra river delta, which makes it vulnerable to flooding caused by cyclones and during the monsoons. • In 2007, Cyclone Sidr brought flooding to Bangladesh which caused between 5 and 10 thousand deaths. •S  torm surges are created by winds and changes in the atmosphere caused by cyclones. In Bangladesh, storm surge heights in excess of 10m are not uncommon. • Flooding and its consequences are making it more difficult for Bangladesh to meet the Millennium Development Goals.

• Explain why you have this viewpoint.

Your group represents: India Use the statements below to help you write your speech:

You need to prepare a speech for the Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting, outlining your country’s position on whether Commonwealth countries should lead the way in reducing carbon emissions. Your speech will: • Introduce your country. • Give your perspective on whether Commonwealth countries should lead the way in reducing carbon emissions. • Explain why you have this viewpoint.

•T  he Indian government has been vocal in stating that countries that are currently industrialising and developing quickly should not have to restrict economic growth by restricting emissions. • India needs to maintain current rates of economic growth (8%) to support poverty alleviation programmes (programmes helping to reduce poverty), and the government argues that this must come before goals to reduce carbon emissions. •T  he Indian government argues that India should be allowed to produce the same quantity of carbon emissions per person as wealthy countries. India’s population is predicted to reach 1.5 billion people by 2050. The carbon emissions per person in most wealthy countries are currently very high. Therefore, to meet the target of keeping global warming within the ‘safe limit’ of two degrees Celsius (set out by the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), it is the wealthy countries that should drastically reduce their emissions per person (much more than their current targets), to come into line with the lower carbon emissions per person of developing countries.

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 7 » Democracy and the Commonwealth Note - This lesson could be split into two for students to have more time to prepare and discuss: activities 1 and 2 in the first lesson, and activities 3 and 4 in the second lesson.

Lesson aims/key questions

Learning outcomes and key processes

Students will be able to: a » Define at least two key terms associated with democracy. b » Analyse the key aims of the Harare Declaration. c » Summarise the role played by the Commonwealth during apartheid in South Africa. d » Explain what is meant by Election Observation Missions. e » Identify at least one Commonwealth-related activity they themselves could take part in to help take action around issues of diversity, development or democracy. Key processes: Research; communicating ideas; listening to others; understanding rights and responsibilities; feeling empowered to make a difference; active involvement in the community (local and global); an interest in global issues and current affairs.

Key words/

concepts / terms

Democracy | Commonwealth | election | parliament | government | media | citizen action | political integrity | equal rights | peaceful communities | election observation missions | apartheid.

Summary of

Activity 1 (starter): Democracy Dominoes (Defining Key Terms)

Activity 2: Commonwealth Advertising Campaign (Research)

b» c» d»

Activity 3: Time for an Advert Break (Watching groups present their adverts and giving constructive feedback)

b» c» d»

Activity 4 (plenary): Messages from Commonwealth Leaders (Preparing to take action)

activities and links to learning outcomes

Assessment

opportunities

Differentiation

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1 » What does it mean for a country to be democratic? 2 » To what extent is democracy a good form of government? 3 » What does the Commonwealth do to promote democracy?

» Activity 1 (starter) could be a group assessment (seeing which groups finish their dominoes chain first) or an individual peer- or teacher-assessment (students write out the entire paragraph). » Activity 3 could be a group assessment in which marks are given to students for the contents of their adverts and for the effort and innovation they have put into the task. This is a good opportunity for peer assessment using feedback sheets. The Advertising Standards Authority Critique Sheet (7r3) can also be collected in and individually marked. » Activity 4 could be finished for homework then collected in and individually assessed. » Activity 1 (starter): This task can be designed as a task for smaller groups or for the whole class, depending on how confident students might be to call out in class. You can play a game of dominoes with the whole class in which they compete with others to call out the right definitions for the key terms. If you would prefer them to work in groups, you can divide the class into groups of around five students and give them a set of dominoes per group, which they have to put into the right order before you call out ‘stop!’. » Activity 2: The three briefing sheets (7r2)are of slightly different complexity, with the Election Observation sheet being most accessible and the Apartheid and the Commonwealth Principles sheets being most challenging.

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 7 » Democracy and the Commonwealth continued...

Homework or extension tasks

Resources needed

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You could ask students to: » Compare the Commonwealth Principles to the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Information on the latter can be found on the UN website: www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml). What are the similarities and differences? Which Declarations do they think might have the most impact and why? » Write a half-page reflection on the experience of constructing an advert for an organisation such as the Commonwealth; and a paragraph summary of each group’s advert identifying a range of different democratic processes in which the Commonwealth has been involved. » Film or record their advert (if this has not been possible in class), or use an online tool to make their advert into a cartoon video. » Note down and finish answering the questions on the Commonwealth Leader Messages Powerpoint (7r4). » Find and read autobiographical literature written by past and present Commonwealth Heads of Government, such as Nelson Mandela’s ‘Long Walk to Freedom’. » Find out how to take part in one or more of the Royal Commonwealth Society’s Commonwealth youth programmes: for example, the essay or film-making competitions – and take part if they can! » Activity 1 (starter): Democracy Dominoes cards (7r1) (one domino for each student in the class, or one set for each group of around five students) » Activity 2: Democratic Commonwealth Briefing Sheets (7r2) (one to each group of five-eight students); Recording (video / audio) equipment if available; computers and internet access for each group if available. » Activity 3: Advertising Standards Authority Critique Sheet (7r3) (one for each student); Stopwatch; Video/audio playback equipment if available. » Activity 4: Commonwealth Leader Messages Powerpoint (7r4)

» Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 1 (starter): Democracy Dominoes Each domino card (7r1) contains a key term and a definition that doesn’t match that term. The object is to form a chain of key terms and their definitions and therefore complete the whole paragraph about democracy. There are two ways to play the game:

0-10m

» Either: (a) Get students into groups of around five and give each group a cut-up set of dominoes (7r1). They have to work out the term that matches each definition and get themselves into a line or a circle to read out the terms and definitions to you in order when you call out ‘stop!’. If they have time they could write down the entire paragraph they have formed using the dominoes and this could be peer- or teacher- assessed. » Or: (b) Give out a different domino card (7r1) to each individual or pair of students around the classroom. Ask a student with the ‘Democracy’ domino to read out their word and get a student with the matching definition (‘where power is in the hands of the people…’) to read it out, then they have to give their domino key term and someone else supplies the definition, and so on until all the cards have been read out. You may have to give some hints or prompts, such as the start of the definition, if students are unsure, particularly to get the ball rolling. » If you give out more than one set of dominoes, students can compete to call out the definitions before the other student(s) with that card.

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 7 » Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 2: Commonwealth Advertising Campaign Divide the class into groups of around five-eight and give each group one of the Democratic Commonwealth Briefing Sheets (7r2).

10-30m

Each resource sheet has a slightly different focus around the Commonwealth’s involvement with democracy around the world: Election Observation Missions, Anti-Apartheid and the Commonwealth Principles. Give groups 15-20 minutes to construct a television or radio advertisement presenting the main points in the resource in an interesting and fun way. Each group will only have two minutes to present their advert so they need to make it very snappy with only important points covered. It would be useful if you could discuss with the class some basic standards you would expect from the adverts, which you could draw from the Advertising Standards Authority Critique Sheet (7r3). » If you have recording and playback equipment you might be able to get groups to film or record their adverts and play them back during Activity 3. If not, they can simply write the script and perform the advert to the rest of the class in ‘live action’ during Activity 3. Students could also use an online tool such as Xtranormal (www.xtranormal.com) r2 r3 to make their advert into a cartoon video if they have computer and internet access.

7

7

» Activity 3: Time for an Advert Break

30-50m

Give out the Advertising Standards Authority Critique Sheet (7r3) to each student. Explain that they are now representing the Government’s Advertising Standards Authority and they have to make sure that the adverts are clear, understandable and relevant. As they are watching each advert, they should use the Advertising Standards Authority Critique Sheet (7r3) to write down some constructive feedback for the makers of the advert.

Then ask each group in turn to present their two minute advert. Be very strict about timing – do cut them off if they go over two minutes. At the end of each advert ask the Advertising Standards Authority to give a brief critique of the advert, using their Advertising Standards Authority Critique Sheets (7r3). If there is time: Students from the groups could respond to the critiques and you could foster a dialogue or debate within the class about democracy in general or any of the topics in particular, using some of the prompt questions below (the first of which is on their sheet, 7r3): » Is democracy the best form of government? Why/ why not? » What do we mean by rights and responsibilities? How are the election observers, anti-apartheid activists and the people who drafted the Commonwealth Principles making use of their rights and responsibilities? How are these linked to Human Rights? (Information on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights can be found on the UN website: www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml) » Are the principles of democracy, diversity and development universal ideas or are they ‘Western’ constructs imposed on others? » What difference might it make if the Commonwealth suspends one of its members for breaching Commonwealth Principles?

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 7 » Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 4: Messages from Commonwealth Leaders Display the Commonwealth Leader Messages Powerpoint (7r4) and ask individual students to read each one out in turn. After each message there are a few questions that you could either ask students to write down quick answers to, or note down to answer for homework.

50-60m

If you have time: You could have a class discussion around each question slide. If you run out of time, choose your favourite quote and focus only on that slide and the final slide. Ask students to consider their ideas for the final slide. They could think of an action that would make a difference to democracy, diversity and/or development. Even very small actions such as using less electricity or taking fewer car journeys to reduce carbon emissions could make a big difference. Encourage students to think in the long term: could they make a difference through their career choices? In the shorter term, they could begin by writing letters, joining internet campaigns and teaching others about the issues. If you are able to organise this, you could ask students to teach something they have learned in these lessons to a group of younger students. Give students confidence that they can make a difference, even if it is through very small steps. Students might already know the following saying: ‘That’s one small step for man… one giant leap for mankind’. If they are stuck for ideas you could point them to the UN Millennium Development Goals ‘Get Involved’ website: www.un.org/millenniumgoals/getinvolved.shtml, which contains lots of ideas for actions and campaigns. Good luck!

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View p22-23 CommonGround guide

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…who are people sent by an independent organisation to check that elections are run fairly, which in a democracy means the promotion of…

Equal Rights

…which are communities (groups of people) who live together without fighting.

Media Political Integrity

Parliament

…which is when people do things to try to change society, for example writing letters to their political representatives who they hope will act with…

Democracy

…where laws give everyone the same opportunities, no matter what their gender, sexuality, ethnicity, or faith, so everyone can live together in…

Election

…which is when political representatives act according to principles of truth, justice and equality and make sure they do not steal or cheat (which is called corruption)... in elections this is inspected by…

Government

…which is the main way for people to find out information about what is happening in society, and to advertise the ways in which they are taking…

…which is the body that organises how the country or area is run, and is held accountable by parliament, the courts and by the journalists of the…

Citizen action

…which is an institution that decides on the rules that everyone in that area has to follow (laws), which are then implemented (put into practice) by the…

…which is a process in which people in an area (called a constituency) choose their leader by voting for the person they want to represent them in…

Election Observers

…where power is in the hands of the people. In a representative democracy, citizens decide who they want to be their political representatives through an…

Peaceful communities

De mo cr ac y Do mi no es » Resource 7r1

» Democracy Dominoes - ANSWERS

Democracy…where power is in the hands of the people. In a representative democracy, citizens decide who they want to be their political representatives through an…Election…which is a process in which people in an area (called a constituency) choose their leader by voting for the person they want to represent them in…Parliament…which is an institution that decides on the rules that everyone in that area has to follow (laws), which are then implemented (put into practice) by the…Government… which is the body that organises how the country or area is run, and is held accountable by parliament, the courts and by the journalists of the…Media…which is the main way for people to find out information about what is happening in society, and to advertise the ways in which they are taking…Citizen action…which is when people do things to try to change society, for example writing letters to their political representatives who they hope will act with…Political Integrity…which is when political representatives act according to principles of truth, justice and equality and make sure they do not steal or cheat (which is called corruption)... in elections this is inspected by…Election Observers…who are people sent by an independent organisation to check that elections are run fairly, which in a democracy means the promotion of…Equal Rights…where laws give everyone the same opportunities, no matter what their gender, sexuality, ethnicity, or faith, so everyone can live together in…Peaceful communities…which are communities (groups of people) who live together without fighting.

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» Resource 7r2 ets She ing ief Br th eal nw mo Com ic at ocr Dem » Election Observations

ELECTION OBSERVATIONS It is important that elections are conducted fairly. A country cannot be a true democracy if its elections are plagued with corrupt practices such as bribery or voter or electoral fraud. Bribery is when someone in a position of power gives or takes money in order to give them an unfair advantage over someone else. Voter or electoral fraud is when the votes in an election have been tampered with in some way – for example, counting the same person twice on the list of voters (electoral roll); pretending to be someone else when voting; harassing or intimidating people during an election; or not counting the votes properly. In order to strengthen democracy, the Commonwealth Secretariat is sometimes asked by a Commonwealth member state to send an independent panel called a Commonwealth Observer Group (COG) to observe their elections. They are asked to report on how credible the elections were (for example, whether any corruption seemed to be happening; whether people of voting age were all allowed to vote freely; and whether the result seemed to go against the strong wishes of the people). The COG report also contains practical recommendations to help improve the election arrangements for the future. Here are two quotes from a COG report relating to elections in Tanzania: “During the election period political parties campaigned in both urban and rural areas around the country and enjoyed freedom of movement, speech and assembly. The campaign was generally peaceful and rallies were conducted in a festive and jubilant manner. Women and youth were highly visible during the campaign but played a vital, but more supportive role during the elections.” “While the application of procedures was largely adhered to, there were also inconsistencies. But it was felt that in most instances practices were within the spirit of the law. Some of the general issues raised by the observers were: • The  layout of the voting booths, with the front of the booth facing the room, could compromise the secrecy of the vote. • In some polling stations pregnant women and less-abled voters were specifically assisted, but in others they were not. • In many instances staff did not appear to check the fingers of voters for ink prior to voting.” Notes about Commonwealth Observer Groups (COGs): 1. COGs are never forced on countries against their will – they only go to elections where they have been invited by the Government or the election management body and where they have the broad support of political parties and the people of the country. 2. The COGs and their advisors spend some time in the country and make sure they report on the election as part of the whole democratic process and not just as a one day event. 3. COGs don’t interfere in the processes of elections – they are only there to observe. 4. C  OGs are made up of “eminent and highly experienced Commonwealth citizens drawn from countries familiar with democratic processes and institutions”.

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Information from Commonwealth Secretariat website (www.thecommonwealth.org/Internal/39079/election_observation and www.thecommonwealth.org/files/232431/FileName/FinalReport-TanzaniaCOG.pdf)

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» Resource 7r2 ets She ing ief Br th eal nw mo Com ic at ocr Dem » Fighting Against Apartheid

FIGHTING AGAINST APARTHEID South Africa was colonised for a long time by the Dutch and British and its people were divided into three ‘races’: white, coloured (mixed race) and black, based mainly on their skin colour. Each of these groups were given different rights and restrictions. After South Africa gained independence in 1931, it was still ruled by the white minority: the majority of people in the country were black but they were not given the right to vote in elections. In 1948, the National Party were elected and they took the segregation and discrimination (mainly against black people) a step further, calling it ‘Apartheid’ (which means ‘apartness’). They passed new laws which said black people had to live in separate neighbourhoods, and often forced people to move. They separated out schools, universities, hospitals and other public facilities, giving the ones for white people much more funding than the ones for black people. They made it illegal for black and white people to get married or have intimate relationships. They made it almost impossible for black people to get a South African passport. There were signs all around saying ‘Whites Only’. People started to rebel against the apartheid system and to call for international action against the racist government of South Africa. In 1961 when South Africa became a Republic (removing the Queen as Head of State), the Commonwealth countries had to decide whether it could still remain a member. It became clear that most of the African and Asian member states would vote against South Africa because of the government’s racist policies, so it withdrew from the Commonwealth. In 1963 Nelson Mandela, one of the leaders of the black resistance movement, was sent to prison on a life sentence. An international boycott began against South African goods (people refused to buy things that came from South Africa to encourage the government to change its policies). The Anti-Apartheid Movement used Commonwealth meetings during the 1960s and 1970s to lobby Commonwealth Heads of Government to impose sanctions (financial punishments) on South Africa. By the 1980s the international anti-apartheid actions included the cutting of sporting and cultural ties and a ban (embargo) on selling weapons and materials that could be made into weapons to South Africa. These sanctions were opposed by the British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, who felt that the black resistance against the white government’s policies was a form of terrorism. In the late 1980s the South African government started to rethink its apartheid policies and, with the support of a ‘Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group’, finally released Nelson Mandela from prison in 1990. Through intense negotiations, they decided to hold an election where black people would be allowed to vote for the first time. Nelson Mandela won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 and was voted President of South Africa in 1994. The country rejoined the Commonwealth as a new democracy. Nelson Mandela said “The Commonwealth makes the world safe for diversity”. South Africa became known as the ‘rainbow nation’ and continues to work to resolve the inequalities and cultural divisions caused by apartheid.

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Information from Commonwealth Secretariat website (http://www.thecommonwealth.org/YearbookInternal/145185/history/) and ‘Your World Your Commonwealth’ (www.thecommonwealth.org/files/167596/ FileNameYourWorldYourCommonwealth.pdf)

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» Resource 7r2 ets She ing ief Br th eal nw mo Com ic at ocr Dem » Commonwealth Principles

COMMONWEALTH PRINCIPLES In 1971 Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting in Singapore made an agreement about the main principles the Commonwealth should follow. This was called the ‘Singapore Declaration’. Twenty years later, in 1991, Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting in Harare, Zimbabwe (which was then a member of the Commonwealth), reaffirmed and restated the principles of the Singapore Declaration and agreed in the ‘Harare Declaration’ to concentrate on some key themes. “We believe in the liberty of the individual under the law, in equal rights for all citizens regardless of gender, race, colour, creed or political belief” “We recognise racial prejudice and intolerance as a dangerous sickness and a threat to healthy development, and racial discrimination as an unmitigated evil” “We oppose all forms of racial oppression, and we are committed to the principles of human dignity and equality” Extract from the Singapore Declaration, 1971

In 2009, the Commonwealth’s core beliefs from these two main Declarations were brought together into one document, the ‘Trinidad and Tobago Affirmation of Commonwealth Values and Principles’. “We reaffirm that the special strength of the Commonwealth lies in the diversity of its membership, bound together not only by shared history and tradition but also by an ethos of respect for all states and peoples, of shared values and principles, and of concern for the vulnerable.” Extract from the Trinidad and Tobago Affirmation of Commonwealth Values and Principles, 2009

OUR VALUES AND PRINCIPLES We solemnly reiterate our commitment to the Commonwealth’s core values: International peace and security (expressing commitment to a system based on inclusiveness, equity and international law for achieving consensus and progress on major global challenges) Democracy: (reaffirming the right of the individual to participate by means of free and democratic political processes in shaping the society in which they live) Human rights (recalling that these are universal, indivisible, interdependent and interrelated) Tolerance, respect and understanding (recognising that these strengthen democracy and development) Separation of powers (recognising the importance of maintaining the separation of the roles of the Executive (government), Legislature (parliament) and Judiciary (courts)) Rule of law (emphasising that access to justice and an independent judiciary (judges) are fundamental) Freedom of expression (emphasising that peaceful, open dialogue and the free flow of information, including through a free media, enhance democratic traditions and strengthen democratic processes) Development (stressing the importance of economic and social transformation to eliminate poverty and meet the basic needs of the vast majority of the people of the world, guided by the Millennium Development Goals) Gender equality (reaffirming gender equality and empowerment as an essential component of human development) Access to health and education (reaffirming our commitment to health and education for all citizens, both as human rights and as instruments for poverty alleviation (reduction) and sustainable development) Good governance (reiterating our commitment to promote transparency and accountability and root out corruption) Civil society (acknowledging the important role that civil society plays in our communities and nations)

t the key Your task: pick ou iefing sheet points from this br to a and make them in regarding two-minute advert h’s the Commonwealt ocracy. commitment to dem

Material from Commonwealth Secretariat website (www.thecommonwealth.org/Templates/Internal.asp?NodeID=32987 and www.thecommonwealth.org/document/181889/34293/35468/216908/ commonwealth_values_and_principles.htm) and from the Commonwealth Foundation’s booklet ‘CommonGround: A practical guide to the Commonwealth’ (www.commonwealthfoundation.com)

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St ud en t Fee db ac k Sh ee ts » Resource 7r3 » Use this sheet to critique the adverts you have seen today and to give some constructive feedback.

dards General Advertising Stan ar and concise (a) Adver ts should be cle to the allocated time (b) Adver ts should keep people (give them  dverts should not mislead (c) A ut something) by the wrong impression abo rated claims; gge telling lies; making exa small to read; too g itin wr in s putting thing im ng) portant details. or omitting (not mentioni m any person or animal (d) Adver ts must not har a reasonable (e) Adverts must not offend table for children sui be uld sho person and . if presented before 9pm about the Advert What was good ? advert rds did Which advertising standa et? it me

Name:

Group:

How could the advert be improved? rds does Which advertising standa et? me to rk wo it need to

1 2 3 4 5 6 ing the adverts? Further notes: learned while making or watch you g thin ting res inte st mo the • What was an to you?

• What does democracy me

y not?

m of government? Why/ wh

• Is democracy the best for

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» Resource 7r4 nt poi er pow s ge ssa me r de lea lth ea onw Comm » Please view powerpoint presentation supplied on resource disk

» Commonwealth Leader Messages powerpoint presentation

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