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s e c r u o s e r Education


»T  his document is published by the Royal

Commonwealth Society (RCS), with kind financial support from the UK Department for International Development and the Commonwealth Foundation.

»T  he resources have been written by Laura

Johnson, Kate Brown, Jacqueline Andrews and Claire Anholt. Design by Emma Storey, with assistance from Claire Anholt.

»T  he authors are grateful for the feedback and

help received from Charlie Allen, Joanna Bennett, Meera Chindooroy, Catherine Clark, Anushya Devendra, Paul Easton, James Frearson, Mary Greer, Godfrey Hall, Victoria Holdsworth, Fahmida Huda, Sarah Leonard, Vanessa Moir and Danny Sriskandarajah.

First published in March 2011.

The views expressed in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Trustees or Members of the RCS, or the views of other Commonwealth organiations. This document is freely available for educational use but should not be reproduced for commercial or other purposes without express permission from the RCS. The authors welcome comments on this pack. Please email » youth@thercs.org. Visit » www.thercs.org/youth to download these and other resources, and to find out about a range of international projects and competitions for young people.

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CO NT EN TS » LESSON 1 9» Diversity and the Commonwealth Lesson Plan • 1 12» Guess Who? PowerPoint • 1r1 13» What do you think of the Commonwealth? • 1r2 15» Answers to 1r2 • 1r3 16» Diverse Commonwealth letters • 1r4 20» World maps • 1r5 22» Stand on the line • 1r6 LESSON 2 23» Development and the Commonwealth Lesson Plan • 2 27» Call my bluff cards • 2r1 28» Millennium Development Goals • 2r2 29» Preparing for the MDG funding board • 2r3 30» Your views matter! • 2r4 LESSON 3 31» Democracy and the Commonwealth Lesson Plan • 3 34» Democracy dominoes • 3r1 35» Election observation mission sheets • 3r2 38» Detective sheets: Commonwealth detectives • 3r3 40» Commonwealth leader messages PowerPoint • 3r4

LESSON 1 42» Introducing the Commonwealth Lesson Plan • 1 45» Guess who? PowerPoint • 1r1 46» Commonwealth activity information sheets • 1r2 49» Student investigator sheets • 1r3 50» Future leaders Card Sort • 1r4 LESSON 2 51» Diversity and the Commonwealth Lesson Plan • 2 55» Diverse Commonwealth PowerPoint • 2r1 56» Diverse Commonwealth letters • 2r2 60» World Maps • 2r3 62» The challenge of trade briefing sheets • 2r4 LESSON 3 66» Global inequalities Lesson Plan • 3 70» Ideas of common wealth puzzle • 3r1 72» Global inequality cause and effect sheets • 3r2 75» Millennium Development Goal cards • 3r3 76» Funding board guidelines • 3r4 78» Funding board money • 3r5 79» Values continuum statement sheets - 3r6

© Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

LESSON 4 80» Development and the Commonwealth: Education Lesson Plan • 4 83» Education bingo definitions • 4r1 84» MDG 2 briefing sheet • 4r2a 85» MDG 2 fact sheet • 4r2b 87» MDG 3 fact sheet • 4r2c LESSON 5 89» Malaria Lesson Plan • 5 93» Malaria introductory PowerPoint • 5r1 94» Malaria prevention student briefing sheets • 5r2 100» Student feedback sheets • 5r3 LESSON 6 101» Climate change Lesson Plan • 6 105» Climate change technical expert briefing sheet • 6r1 106» Answers to 6r1 • 6r2 107» Climate change challenge country briefings • 6r3 LESSON 7 110» Democracy and the Commonwealth Lesson Plan • 7 114» Democracy dominoes • 7r1 115» Democratic commonwealth briefing sheet • 7r2 118» Student feedback sheets • 7r3 119» Commonwealth leader messages PowerPoint • 7r4

ASSEMBLY 1 121» Democratic schools & Commonwealth Day • 1

ASSEMBLY 2 127» Diversity & the Commonwealth Games • 2

YOUTH SUMMITS 133» Youth Summits Resources

T POWERPOINIONS AT PRESEONUT ND ON THE

CAN BE F IN D SUPPLIED RESOURCE C K O F THIS BO THE BACK O

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INT RO DU CT ION » » At the Royal Commonwealth Society (RCS), we believe it is essential that young people learn to think and act as global citizens. In our increasingly inter-connected world, the overlap between our lives and the lives of others offers inspiration and rich opportunity, but may also lead to conflict and confusion. Only through understanding one another can we collaborate to tackle shared challenges like poverty, inequality and climate change. And young people – who make up over half of the Commonwealth’s two billion citizens – must be at the heart of this problem-solving. These education resources have been prepared with high (secondary) school-age students in mind. They are intended for teachers and youth workers all over the world, to engage young people in our world. As the largest and oldest Commonwealth civil society organisation, we have decided to take the Commonwealth as our starting point. We are frank about the fact that the organisation means little to many young people today, and aware that the Commonwealth is often misunderstood, or mistaken for an imperial relic. Yet we are also convinced that if the Commonwealth is made relevant to a new generation it will survive and thrive. In this association of countries big and small, rich and poor, in every corner of the globe, we recognise real potential. A family of nations bound together by shared values and principles as much as by history can, we suggest, play a distinctive – and hugely valuable – role in the twenty-first century. As well as offering an introduction to the Commonwealth, the activities and lesson ideas in this pack aim to engage young people in the big issues facing Commonwealth countries. We use the Commonwealth as a vehicle to explore wider international issues: diversity, development and democracy. Whether you are a Commonwealth enthusiast or not, we hope that you will find pertinent material for your students, to enable them to think critically and creatively about the world and their place in it. We would appreciate additional feedback on this pack, and to know how it is being used, so please do email youth@thercs.org with comments and any photos of workshops in action.

Claire Anholt Programmes Manager Royal Commonwealth Society

© Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

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HO W TO US E TH ESE RE SO UR CE S » » This pack contains a series of ten lesson plans, designed to be relevant to teachers working anywhere in the world. Three of these lesson plans (the green section, with the triangle in a corner of the page) are intended for younger high school students, aged around 11-14. These sessions include an introduction to: the Commonwealth and its diversity, development issues across the Commonwealth, and democracy around the Commonwealth. The next seven lessons are designed with students aged around 14 -18 in mind. These are in the blue section of this pack and have a square in the corner of each page. Sessions cover similar themes, but with further detail on the Commonwealth (Lesson 1), Diversity (Lesson 2), Global Inequalities (Lesson 3), Education and Development (Lesson 4), Malaria (Lesson 5), Climate Change (Lesson 6) and Democracy (Lesson 7).

Each lesson can be run separately, or as part of a wider scheme of work, as you prefer and as time allows. If all sessions are included, the scheme of work might last for between half a term and a whole term, depending on the class and your style of teaching. Sessions can be run in any order. This said, it may be logical to introduce students to the Commonwealth (Lesson 1) before moving to further study. In the blue section, it would also make sense to introduce the Millennium Development Goals (Lesson 3) before covering Lessons 4 and 5.

As each session contains four activities, it is also possible to eliminate parts of the lesson if time is tight, or to extend other activities according to your – or your students’ – interests. Information about how to extend sessions are given at the start of each lesson plan, and in the section entitled Homework or Extension Tasks, marked with this symbol. Careful attention has been paid to the accessibility of the resources and, while some of the materials may present challenges for certain students, the concepts are simple, relevant and readily comprehensible. At the start of each lesson, guidance is given on differentiation, and the various ways that activities can be made more or less challenging for students when necessary. Although the resources have been developed with 11-14 year olds and 14-18 year olds in mind, you may also easily adapt the sessions for older or younger students.

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To make things easy for you, all of the relevant resources are provided on the CD accompanying this pack, ready to print, and clearly labelled with a coloured symbol (to differentiate the resources for 11-14 year olds from the set for 14-18 year olds), and a number in the form XrY, where X denotes the lesson number and Y the resource number. Worksheets are photo-copy friendly and PowerPoints are included ready for use. A list of all resources required for a lesson is provided in each plan next to this symbol. At the start of the lesson plan you will also find an overview of key aims and questions, key words, learning outcomes and processes, and assessment opportunities. Because the resources have been designed for an international audience, no curriculum links have been given, but we are sure that you will find clear connections to the work you are already doing in areas such as English, Geography, History, Citizenship and Social Studies.

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© Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


HO W TO US E TH ESE RE SO UR CE S » Following the lesson plans, in the purple section marked with a diamond, we have developed two ready-to-use Assembly plans, to help inform the whole school about the Commonwealth and get everyone thinking. For your ease, scripts and prop lists are provided, but there is also scope to adapt the sessions if you are feeling creative! The sessions take Commonwealth Day (which is the second Monday in March each year) and the Commonwealth Games as their starting point, but they can be run at any time.

Finally, in the red section marked with a circle, you will find a toolkit to guide you through the process of running a Commonwealth Youth Summit – that is, a Model Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM). The RCS has run Model CHOGMs with great success for a number of years. Here we provide a step-by-step guide to show you how you can easily do the same – assigning students a country role, guiding their independent research and then staging a debate that will really get them thinking about pressing global issues. Be it in a one hour lesson with a class, or a full day session with other schools, by taking part in a Summit, students will develop empathy, speaking and listening skills, confidence and international understanding. In this pack – and on the accompanying CD – we provide all you need to run the Summit, including country name plates, flags and sample speeches, programmes and communiqués.

CommonGround is a practical guide for anyone who wants to know more about the history and the work of the Commonwealth today. Written in a simple and accessible style, with illustrated case studies and information panels, CommonGround outlines changes from the former British Empire to the modern Commonwealth. An electronic copy of CommonGround is included on the Antigua to Zambia Resources CD, however you can also download the booklet and order printed copies at: www.commonwealthfoundation.com/CommonGround.

© Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

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» The three lessons in this green section (identified with a triangle on each page) have been developed for younger high school students, aged 11 to 14. However, they can be readily adapted for older or younger students – please see the Introduction for further details. » These sessions include an introduction to: the Commonwealth and its diversity, development issues across the Commonwealth, and democracy around the Commonwealth.

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© Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 1 » Diversity and the Commonwealth Note - This lesson could be split into two for students to have more time to prepare and discuss: activities 1 and 2 in the first lesson, and activities 3 and 4 in the second lesson.

Lesson aims/key questions

Learning outcomes and key processes

1 » What is the Commonwealth? 2 » What do people think of the Commonwealth? 3 » What is life like in other Commonwealth countries around the world? What are some similarities and differences with our own lives? Students will be able to: a » Recognise a number of member states of the Commonwealth b » Briefly outline the historical roots of the modern Commonwealth and its current activities c » Explain what is meant by ‘diversity’ d » List three ways in which Commonwealth countries are diverse e » Consider ways in which their lives are similar and different to young people living in other Commonwealth countries f » Express an opinion on the role of the Commonwealth Key processes: Critical thinking; discussion and debate; communicating ideas; listening to others; critically assessing your own view and others’ viewpoints; expressing an opinion; working with others to solve problems; empathising with others; listening to others.

Key words/

concepts / terms

Commonwealth | diversity | development | democracy | empire | colony | global | Secretariat | Queen | consensus | Secretary-General | nation.

Summary of

Activity 1 (starter): Guess Who? (PowerPoint presentation)

Activity 2: What do you think of the Commonwealth? (Matching activity)

Activity 3: Commonwealth letters (letter reading and writing activity)

c» d» e»

Activity 4 (plenary): Stand on the line: the Commonwealth and diversity (values continuum activity)

activities and links to learning outcomes

Assessment

opportunities

Differentiation

Homework or extension tasks

» The matching task in Activity 2 can be marked by the teacher or fellow students » The letters written as part of A  ctivity 3 could be teacher or peer-assessed » Students’ explanations of their positions in Activity 4 (plenary) could be informally assessed. For a less active plenary with greater opportunity for individual assessment, students could be asked to give written explanations of their opinion on each statement. » Activity 2 contains an extension activity for students who complete the matching task quickly » Activity 3: The letters from Pakistan and Singapore are more accessible and those from Tanzania and Trinidad and Tobago are more challenging. » Activity 4: Teachers can support and challenge students through their questioning as part of the Stand on the Line activity, for example asking students to give their opinion relating to more complex statements. You could ask students to: » Write a report describing their viewpoint on one (or each) of the statements in Activity 4 (plenary). Students should explain the reasons behind their opinion. » Identify a Commonwealth country with which they are not familiar and carry out research to find out more. A good starting point is the Commonwealth Secretariat website: www.thecommonwealth.org/s/YearbookHomePage/152099/map Students could identify facts including: 1 » Name of capital city, 2 » Languages (official and local), 3 » Life expectancy, 4 » Land area, 5 » Two facts of their choice » They could also complete a creative writing activity in which they use their research about the culture, economy, history and society of the country they have chosen to write a short story or poem from the perspective of someone living in that country. Discuss with students the dangers of stereotyping, to ensure that they do not start to think that what they have found in their research represents the viewpoints of all the people in the country concerned. LESSON 1 PAGE 1 OF 3

© Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 1 » Diversity and the Commonwealth...continued Resources needed

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» Activity 1 (starter): Guess Who? PowerPoint (1r1) » Activity 2: ‘What do you think of the Commonwealth?’ worksheet (1r2) (one for each student or pair); ‘What do you think of the Commonwealth? answer sheet’ (1r3) (one for the teacher) » Activity 3: ‘Commonwealth Letters’ (1r4) (one each or per pair – teacher either chooses one or two of the country letters for the class or distributes all four letters between different students and pairs in the class); Blank World Maps (1r5) (a coloured-in world map is also included in this resource showing all the Commonwealth countries) » Activity 4: ‘Stand on the line – the Commonwealth and Diversity’ (1r6) (one copy for the teacher)

» Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 1 (starter): Guess Who?

10-15m

Show the ‘Guess Who?’ PowerPoint (1r1), pausing between slides. Ask students to identify the countries and then guess the connection between them using the hints. Each answer is on the next slide but you can take these out if students might see the answers too early. If you wanted this task to be a little more competitive you could divide the class into teams and score them on correct answers. If no students are able to identify the countries you could play ‘hangman’ on the board and see which team is able to guess the country names first once letters of the alphabet start appearing. Once you have gone through the countries and identified the Commonwealth connection, ask students what they think the Commonwealth is. Using the last slide on the PowerPoint, briefly explain that it is a group of 54 countries from around the world that work together. » Explain that they will find out more about the history and activities of the Commonwealth in the next activity.

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» Activity 2: What do you think of the Commonwealth? Distribute the worksheet ‘What do you think of the Commonwealth?’ (1r2) to students. Explain that young people living in different Commonwealth countries have given their opinions on what they think is good, and sometimes less good, about the Commonwealth. Students need to match each young person to the country they come from. They can do this by matching up the first and second part of each young person’s opinion.

15-30m

Students who finish quickly should be encouraged to complete the section at the bottom of the worksheet by giving their own opinion on the Commonwealth. The correct matches can be found in the ‘What do you think of the Commonwealth? answer sheet’ (1r3). If you have time, mark the answers as a class (for example, each student reading out one of the opinions and students swap sheets to check the answers). Discuss with the class what they already knew about the Commonwealth, and what they have learnt today. Which of the young people did they most agree with? Why? r2 Is there anything about the Commonwealth they would like to know more about?

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LESSON 1 PAGE 2 OF 3 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 1 » Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 3: Commonwealth Letters

30-50m

Introduce students to the term ‘diversity’ (differences or variations between people in communities and societies) and briefly discuss what this means in their own lives.

Give out the Commonwealth Letters (1r4) to students along with a blank world map (1r5). The letters are based on real letters written by young people in Commonwealth countries, detailing what their lives are like. Ask students to mark or shade in on the blank world map the country the letter is from. Then ask them to read the letter and reply to it. Remind students that their replies should try to answer all the questions asked in the letter and they could ask some more questions. Their letters could be three or four paragraphs long, with around three to seven sentences in each paragraph. If students finish early they could answer another letter (out of the four original letters); and they could even swap letters with their classmates and pretend to be the original letter-writer in order to answer their classmates’ letters. » If you have time, ask students to feed back on the most interesting or surprising fact they have found out. Discuss with the class the similarities and differences students noted between their lives and the lives of the letter-writers. Emphasise that these narratives are not representative of all the people in that country, just as the students’ lives will be different from those of their peers and those of others around their r4 r5 country or region.

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» Activity 4 (plenary): Stand on the line – the Commonwealth and Diversity Move furniture so that you have a large space in which students can stand and move around.

50-60

Explain to students that there is a line running across the room from ‘Strongly agree’ at one end, to ‘Strongly disagree’ at the other (if possible put up signs saying ‘Strongly agree’ and ‘Strongly disagree’ on opposite walls). Read out one of the statements on the sheet ‘Stand on the line – the Commonwealth and Diversity’ (1r6). Ask students to move to a point on the imaginary line that best represents their opinion on the statement. Once students have stopped moving, you could ask one or more of them to explain why they have chosen their position. Give students a chance to change their minds and move along the line if they are convinced by other students’ ideas. Repeat the activity for as many of the statements as you have time for, each time asking different students to explain their opinions. Talk to students about the flexibility of their opinions – even if they form an opinion today, with more information, dialogue and changing circumstances it is fine to change r6 opinion and this is an important part of being an astute, open-minded individual.

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View p3-20

CommonGround guide

LESSON 1 PAGE 3 OF 3 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Resource

1r1

» Please view PowerPoint presentation supplied on resource disk

» Guess Who? PowerPoint presentation

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RESOURCE 1r1 PAGE 1 OF 1 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


rce 1r2

Wh at do yo u th ink of th e Co mm on we al th ? » Resou » What do you think of the Commonwealth?

Young people from some of the 54 nations that are part of the Commonwealth have shared what they think about the Commonwealth.Your task is to match up the first and last part of what they have said, by drawing a line between the two parts. I love the name ‘Commonwealth’. In old fashioned English ‘Commonwealth’ meant

I like the idea that the 54 nations that are part of the Commonwealth have all agreed to work together to promote ideas such as diversity, development and democracy and to

I think being part of the Commonwealth is amazing, because you are part of a huge family, including lots of different people, places and cultures. I think this diversity is really exciting! The Commonwealth is spread out over every continent and ocean in the world. There are big

I think the history of the Commonwealth is really interesting. 300 years ago, the British Empire spread across the world. This meant that Britain ruled over many different countries. As these countries gained their independence from Britain many of them still had close ties to it so the Commonwealth was

I don’t feel comfortable about the history of the Commonwealth – I am not sure it is right for one country to rule over another like the British Empire did over its colonies. But I do think it is good that the Commonwealth has moved on from that time, and now

countries such as India and Canada and small ones such as the Maldives and Tonga. In Papua New Guinea alone 820 different languages are spoken!

some countries, such as Mozambique and Rwanda, have joined the Commonwealth even though they do not have historical links to the British Empire. We can all work together now to make the future better for everyone.

well-being for everyone. I like the idea that the Commonwealth was set up to work towards the good of all the countries who are its members.

discuss issues such as education, health and climate change that affect the whole world.

formed. After World War Two it was agreed that countries could be part of the Commonwealth without being ruled by the British King or Queen. The Queen is still the Head of the Commonwealth though.

RESOURCE 1r2 PAGE 1 OF 2 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

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» Resource 1r2 ? th al we on mm Co e th of ink th u yo do Wh at » What do you think of the Commonwealth? ...continued I am not sure how quickly the Commonwealth can get things done. All decisions have to be reached by consensus which means all the member nations have to agree on an action before it can be taken. For example, at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings (CHOGMs), when leaders I think it is good that these days there are so many ways for young people to get involved with the Commonwealth. For example, the Royal Commonwealth Society (RCS) has been running the Commonwealth Essay Competition every year for over 100 years. It’s a way to really get your voice The Commonwealth organises some really important events. For example, the Commonwealth Games are held once every four years. There are groups of Commonwealth Youth Leaders who attend conferences and events on global issues. Commonwealth Day is celebrated on the second Monday of March every I think it is interesting that there are lots of different organisations that work to support the Commonwealth. For example, the Commonwealth Secretariat works with a host country to plan the

It is important that people know their rights and are able to

Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings (CHOGMs), which are held once every two years. The Royal Commonwealth Society (RCS) is an education charity that helps to encourage international cooperation heard on global issues that are important to you. The RCS also runs the Vision Awards and the Photographic Awards which give prizes for the best short films and photographs sent in by young people around a different Commonwealth theme each year. meet to discuss global and Commonwealth issues, every decision has to be reached by consensus, so it could take ages for decisions to get made. On the other hand, it is good that every member state is able to have their say! speak out without fear. The Commonwealth Foundation encourages ordinary people to do just this.

year. The Commonwealth Foundation also runs the ‘Commonwealth People’s Forum’, which is a meeting held once every two years that brings together hundreds of groups from Commonwealth countries to talk about key issues facing people around the Commonwealth.

Now you’ve read lots of other viewpoints on the Commonwealth, you will have started to form your own viewpoint. » What does the Commonwealth do? » What do you think of the Commonwealth? The Commonwealth………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...…… I think…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..................................

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RESOURCE 1r2 PAGE 2 OF 2 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


© Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

I don’t feel comfortable about the history of the Commonwealth – I am not sure it is right for one country to rule over another like the British Empire did over its colonies. But I do think it is good that the Commonwealth has moved on from that time, and now

I think the history of the Commonwealth is really interesting. 300 years ago, the British Empire spread across the world. This meant that Britain ruled over many different countries. As these countries gained their independence from Britain many of them still had close ties to it so the Commonwealth was

I think being part of the Commonwealth is amazing, because you are part of a huge family, including lots of different people, places and cultures. I think this diversity is really exciting! The Commonwealth is spread out over every continent and ocean in the world. There are big

I like the idea that the 54 nations that are part of the Commonwealth have all agreed to work together to promote ideas such as diversity, development and democracy and to

I love the name ‘Commonwealth’. In old fashioned English ‘Commonwealth’ meant

1r2

RESOURCE 1r2 PAGE 1 OF 2

1 r2

formed. After World War Two it was agreed that countries could be part of the Commonwealth without being ruled by the British King or Queen. The Queen is still the Head of the Commonwealth though.

discuss issues such as education, health and climate change that affect the whole world.

well-being for everyone. I like the idea that the Commonwealth was set up to work towards the good of all the countries who are its members.

some countries, such as Mozambique and Rwanda, have joined the Commonwealth even though they do not have historical links to the British Empire. We can all work together now to make the future better for everyone.

countries such as India and Canada and small ones such as the Maldives and Tonga. In Papua New Guinea alone 820 different languages are spoken!

Young people from some of the 54 nations that are part of the Commonwealth have shared what they think about the Commonwealth.Your task is to match up the first and last part of what they have said, by drawing a line between the two parts.

» What do you think of the Commonwealth?

Wha t do you thin k of the Com mon wea lth ? » Resource

1 r2

RESOURCE 1r3 PAGE 1 OF 1

RESOURCE 1r2 PAGE 2 OF 2

It is important that people know their rights and are able to

I think it is interesting that there are lots of different organisations that work to support the Commonwealth. For example, the Commonwealth Secretariat works with a host country to plan the

The Commonwealth organises some really important events. For example, the Commonwealth Games are held once every four years. There are groups of Commonwealth Youth Leaders who attend conferences and events on global issues. Commonwealth Day is celebrated on the second Monday of March every

I think it is good that these days there are so many ways for young people to get involved with the Commonwealth. For example, the Royal Commonwealth Society (RCS) has been running the Commonwealth Essay Competition every year for over 100 years. It’s a way to really get your voice

I am not sure how quickly the Commonwealth can get things done. All decisions have to be reached by consensus which means all the member nations have to agree on an action before it can be taken. For example, at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings (CHOGMs), when leaders

year. The Commonwealth Foundation also runs the ‘Commonwealth People’s Forum’, which is a meeting held once every two years that brings together hundreds of groups from Commonwealth countries to talk about key issues facing people around the Commonwealth.

speak out without fear. The Commonwealth Foundation encourages ordinary people to do just this.

meet to discuss global and Commonwealth issues, every decision has to be reached by consensus, so it could take ages for decisions to get made. On the other hand, it is good that every member state is able to have their say!

heard on global issues that are important to you. The RCS also runs the Vision Awards and the Photographic Awards which give prizes for the best short films and photographs sent in by young people around a different Commonwealth theme each year.

Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings (CHOGMs), which are held once every two years. The Royal Commonwealth Society (RCS) is an education charity that helps to encourage international cooperation

» What do you think of the Commonwealth? ...continued

Com mon wea lth SCH OOL RESO URC ES » Lesson 1

Wh at do yo u th ink of th e Co mm on we al th ? » Resou

rce 1r3

» Answers to 1r2 What do you think of the Commonwealth?

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Div er se Co mm on we al th Let te rs » Resource 1r4 Baddomalhi Narowal Pakistan Dear Cousin,

out about my life in Pakistan, and to find bit a you tell to you to ite wr to I wanted about your life too.

My , very close to the border with India. I live in a village north-east of Lahore all the trees. Life here is very different from and s field en gre by d nde rou sur is age vill about in the big cities of Pakistan. My rd hea ly bab pro e hav you e nois and pollution is two storeys high. We have three it and , age vill the of tre cen the in house is located We also have a room that is for ms. hroo bat o tw and ge loun TV a , bedrooms, a kitchen live? and it’s on the top floor. Where do you guests. My bedroom is spacious and airy places in your village or town compare to other does How ? like room bed r you is at Wh ding? your country? Is there any overcrow

me up. ning the sunlight comes in and wakes My bedroom faces the east, so in the mor before tis, butter and milkwater for breakfast Once I am up, I usually have chapat fantastic My mother is a housewife. She is a ast? akf bre for e hav you do at Wh school. for for lunch, and dal (lentils) and rice les etab veg and tis pat cha es mak she cook and o etables. After school, I take our tw veg h fres e hav to y luck lly rea are dinner. We milk of the times I ride on the brown one. The buffaloes to the field for grazing and some tasks to really good to drink. Do you have any it’s – eet sw and h fres y ver is falo buf ernment in your spare time? Does the local gov do you do at Wh th? wi ily fam r help you big le in your area? My village has a peop ng you for es viti acti e vid pro else or anyone I play cricket and football. playing field, where my friends and al. In age that links us to Lahore and Narow vill our in ion stat y wa rail a is ere Th ere istians go for worship and a mosque wh Chr ere wh rch chu a also is e ther age our vill ns and Muslims live together in peace istia Chr . both e hav we – yer pra for Muslims go been the case in Pakistan. What ays alw not has this but e, her r othe and respect each Do they live peacefully together? religions do you have in your country? Write to me soon!

Love from,

Farhan

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P.S. Look at this coin from my country... Do you know what the crescent symbolises?

RESOURCE 1r4 PAGE 1 OF 4 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


Div er se Co mm on we al th Let te rs » Resource 1r4

! for you y t i c y of m A view

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Div er se Co mm on we al th Let te rs » Resource 1r4

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RESOURCE 1r4 PAGE 3 OF 4 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


Div er se Co mm on we al th Let te rs » Resource 1r4

Tobago

a P.s I’ve drawn yo u y! map of my co untr

Trinidad

RESOURCE 1r4 PAGE 4 OF 4 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

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RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 1r2 rce OL1r5 souHO al»thReSC wePS RL DonMA WOmm Co » World map for students

» World map for students

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RESOURCE 1r5 PAGE 1 OF 2 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


© Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

Tonga

Samoa

Kiribati

Bahamas

St Kitts & Nevis St Vincent & Grenadines Grenada

Belize Jamaica

Canada

The Gambia Sierra Leone

Antigua & Barbuda Dominica St Lucia Barbados Trinidad & Tobago

Guyana Ghana

United Kingdom

Cyprus

South Africa

Kenya

Mozambique

Malawi

Tanzania

Lethoso

Swaziland

Namibia Botswana

Zambia

Uganda Rwanda

Nigeria Cameroon

Malta

Mauritius

Seychelles

Maldives

Pakistan

Sri Lanka

India

Bangladesh

Malaysia Brunei Singapore

Australia

New Zealand

Nauru

Papa New Guinea Solomon Islands Vanatu

Fiji

Tuvalu

WO RL D MA PS » Resource 1r5

» World map for teacher reference

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St an d on th e lin e » Resource 1r6 » Stand on the line: the Commonwealth and Diversity The statements below can be used as part of Activity 4 (plenary) Stand on the Line. You may choose to use all the statements, to select those which are most appropriate to your class, or to use statements of your own. Today is the first time I have ever heard of the Commonwealth. I think the Commonwealth should do more to advertise what it does. I can name 3 member nations of the Commonwealth. I can explain what ‘diversity’ means. It is a good thing that there is so much diversity across the Commonwealth. I would like to be a Commonwealth Youth Leader some day. There are more similarities between people around the Commonwealth than differences. I can explain how the Commonwealth first began. I think the Queen should remain Head of the Commonwealth. It is good that my country is part of the Commonwealth. I can explain what the Commonwealth Secretariat does. T  he Commonwealth should focus more on what is the same about us rather than on our diversity (what is different). I would like to take part in activities for young people related to the Commonwealth – such as the Royal Commonwealth Society’s competitions in film, photography and creative writing. I think we should celebrate Commonwealth Day at school.

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RESOURCE 1r6 PAGE 1 OF 1 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 2 » Development and the Commonwealth Note - This lesson could be split into two for students to have more time to prepare and discuss: activities 1 and 2 in the first lesson, and activities 3 and 4 in the second lesson.

Lesson aims/key questions

Learning outcomes and key processes

1 » What is international development? 2 » What are the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)? 3 » Which kinds of development projects can contribute towards meeting the MDGs? 4 » What are the benefits and challenges of consensus? Students will be able to: a » Define the term ‘international development’ b » Identify three Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) c » Construct a practical idea for responding to the challenge of development d » Evaluate different practical approaches to contributing towards the MDGs e » Analyse the benefits and challenges of reaching decisions by consensus f » Express an opinion on the role of the Commonwealth Key processes: Critical thinking; discussion and debate; communicating ideas; listening to others; critically assessing your own view and others’ viewpoints; expressing an opinion; working with others to solve problems; arguing a viewpoint other than your own.

Key words/

concepts / terms

Commonwealth | International Development | Millennium Development Goals | consensus | eradicate | universal primary education | gender equality | child mortality | maternal health | malaria | HIV | AIDS | environmental sustainability.

Summary of

Activity 1 (starter): Call My Bluff (key word definition activity)

Activity 2: Preparing for the MDG funding board (group preparation for Activity 3)

Activity 3: MDG Funding Board (presentation activity)

Activity 4 (plenary): Commonwealth Decisions by Consensus (snowball discussion)

activities and links to learning outcomes

Assessment

opportunities

Differentiation

Homework or extension tasks

» Individuals could be assessed by the teacher on their group work skills, through observation of Activity 2. » Peer assessment is incorporated into Activity 3, with students informally evaluating each other’s presentations. The teacher can also assess the groupwork and presentations. » Activity 2: Students can support and challenge each other in their groups. » Activity 3: To make this more challenging you could introduce a budgetary element where students in their groups have to work out how much their project might cost to implement and the class as a funding board have to divide up a limited pot of money between the projects chosen. » Activity 4: The central question could be broken down into different elements to support those who need it in developing their discussion. In the feedback to class, the teacher can adapt the level and challenge of questions to the needs of individual students. You could ask students to: » Carry out research into the MDGs – what is being done to meet them; what is working; and whether they are on target to be met by 2015. The United Nations website may be a useful resource, including the following pages: www.un.org/millenniumgoals; www.mdgmonitor.org » Write a report for the MDG Funding Board explaining the benefits and challenges of their policy of decision-making by consensus, and offering an alternative method if the student thinks this is necessary. » Write a letter to the government, to the leaders of the Commonwealth or to the UN Secretary General asking for more to be done about meeting the Millennium Development Goals. » Prepare their group presentations for the funding board (if you choose to run this activity over two lessons). LESSON 2 PAGE 1 OF 4

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 2 Resources needed

1 r2

» Activity 1 (starter): ‘Call My Bluff’ cards (2r1) (one set cut into individual cards) » Activity 2: ‘Millennium Development Goals’ cards (2r2) (one sheet for each of 5 groups, cut into cards if possible); ‘Preparing for the Millennium Development Goals Funding Board’ sheet (2r3) (one for each of 5 groups); large sheets of paper and thick marker pens for each group » Activity 3: Funding Board Feedback Sheet (2r4) (one for each student)

» Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 1 (starter): Call My Bluff

0-10m

Select 12 students (for example, by pulling names out of a hat or asking for volunteers) and distribute the Call My Bluff cards (2r1) to them. Ask them to silently read what is written on the card, but not to show it to anyone else. Divide the rest of the class into two teams. Explain to each team that the aim of the activity is to identify the most accurate definition for four key terms. They will hear three different definitions of each term (A, B and C), and they must decide as a team on the correct definition. To make this more exciting, you could put on a silly hat and hold a pretend microphone as the ‘Game Show Host’, or you could ask a student to do so! Ask three students with the same key term to begin, reading out their letter (A, B or C), the key term and their given definition to the rest of the class. Between each set of three terms, give each team time to confer, decide and announce the definition they think is correct. Keep a tally of both teams’ decisions on the board. Ask the students with the key definitions to decide if they think they have the correct definition – and when all four terms have been covered, reveal the correct answers. The winning team is the one with the most correct definitions! » There is also a tiebreaker in case teams have the same number of points at the end.

Before moving on to the next activity: Make sure students are clear about the correct definitions of each term. You could do a quick spot test where you read out the definition and they write down the key word, or vice versa. You could also display the correct definitions around the room alongside the key words. There are a number of other ways to run this activity. For example, rather than working in teams, students could work individually to decide on and record the correct definition. You could just use three students to read out the cards for each definition if that would be easier. » If you have more time, you could ask students to make up the definitions for these (or other terms) themselves. Display the key terms and allocate three or four students to each definition, asking them each to make up a meaning that is wrong, but believable. Collect in their r1 definitions, add the correct definition to each set, and run the activity as above.

2

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LESSON 2 PAGE 2 OF 4 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 2 » Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 2: Preparing for The MDG Funding Board

10-30m

Start by introducing the class more fully to the MDGs. Explain that they are eight international targets for development. Members of the United Nations and a number of other international organisations agreed that these goals are the most important ways of improving people’s lives and agreed to work towards achieving the MDGs by 2015. The Commonwealth Secretariat is one organisation that has committed towards achieving the MDGs. The Commonwealth Secretariat is the body that runs the Commonwealth on a day to day basis, working towards diversity, development and democracy. Tell students that they will soon be representing the Commonwealth Secretariat at a meeting of the MDG Funding Board. At this meeting, the board will decide which development projects to fund out of a range of projects presented by different interest groups. Divide the class into five groups. Distribute the MDG sheet to each group (or if possible a set of cards produced by cutting up this sheet) (2r2). Explain that each group will be presenting a development project to the board, but must first decide which MDG they want their project to contribute to. Give the groups five minutes to discuss which MDG they think is most important and deserving of their time and attention. After five minutes, stop them, and ask each group to state which MDG they have chosen. » If you have time at this stage, you could also ask them to explain how they reached their decision. » Did everyone agree, by consensus? » Did they vote? Or did one or two people make the decision for the rest of the group? Each group is now ready to prepare for the Commonwealth Secretariat Millennium Development Goals Funding Board. Distribute the sheet ‘Preparing for the Commonwealth Secretariat Millennium Development Goals Funding Board’ (2r3) to each group. Give the groups 10 minutes to prepare for their presentations, which must cover: » Which Millennium Development Goal (MDG) they have chosen. » Why they have chosen this goal – why they think it is the most important for improving people’s lives » A project they would start up that would work towards their chosen MDG.

They should include the following details about their project: • Who would it be aimed at? (e.g. children, women, adults, people with a certain illness…) • What would it offer to these people? (e.g. medicine, education, the internet…) • How would it help meet their chosen MDG? • How it would work? (e.g. how would they make sure the lives of the people they are aiming their project at are directly improved by the project; would the project be cheap or expensive to run; how might the project indirectly help other people around the world?) Let students know that the Funding Board have very limited time so each group’s presentation can be a maximum of 1 minute 30 seconds which will be strictly timed – but that they have large sheets of paper and thick pens (or a board) on which to display their proposal which will save them time during the presentations – they should display very clear information about their project using these materials, in case they run out of time in their presentation. Set up the room in the style of a formal meeting, so each group can present in turn. If you have more time or wish to run this activity over more than one lesson, you could do one or more of the following: » Ask students to prepare their presentations for homework » Give more time to the first part of Activity 2 by asking each group to ‘bid’ for their chosen MDG. Give each group three minutes only to decide which MDG they think is most important, and then three further minutes to write down reasons why they think their chosen MDG is the most important. Explain that each group will have 30 seconds to put forward their arguments. Only one group can represent each MDG, so where more than one group wants to ‘bid’ for an MDG the teacher or a small group of students will select the group whose arguments they find most persuasive. Where only one group ‘bids’ for an MDG they can be allocated that goal. Where more than one group bids for the same goal, you will need to allocate the remaining goals to the remaining groups who did not get their first choice. One way to do this would be to have a set of MDG cards prepared using sheet (2r2). Remove the cards of the MDGs already allocated and then ask the remaining groups to pick a card at random. Each group now moves onto the second part r2 r3 of the activity above, creating a project based on their allocated MDG.

2

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 2 » Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 3: MDG Funding Board

30-45m

Give each student a Funding Board Feedback Sheet (2r4). The whole class now takes on the role of the MDG Funding Board, which must try to decide by consensus by the end of the lesson which two projects to fund. With all the students watching, ask each group in turn to present their proposal for one minute thirty seconds. Keep time using a stopwatch (or get one of the students from another group to do so) and cut each group off quite strictly if they attempt to run over. During each presentation, students should make careful notes on their Feedback Sheet (2r4)in order to help them make a decision and feed back to the other groups. » When the presentations are over, ask a number of students (particularly those who did not take a leading role in their presentations) to provide verbal feedback as members of the Funding Board, stating what they liked about each presentation and what could be improved.

2 r4

» Activity 4 (plenary): Commonwealth Decisions by Consensus Ask students to move out of their groups and to get into pairs (with threes if there are an odd number of students), preferably with someone who was not in their group for Activities 2 and 3.

45-60

Give students two minutes to discuss the following question: » Which two projects should the MDG Funding Board decide to fund and why? Tell students they should not just choose their own projects but really think about the merits of each one presented. After 2 minutes ask each pair to join with another pair and share their discussion and decisions so far, for a further two minutes. During this time they should try to agree on the two projects they think should be funded. Then repeat this exercise with students joining with another group of four or five, to make groups of eight or nine students. Again, they should spend two minutes trying to reach consensus on the above question. Ask each group of eight/nine students to share with the class whether or not they were able to come to an agreement. » If they were, ask them to state the two projects they would fund. » If they were not, ask them to briefly explain why they think they could not reach an agreement. Discuss as a class the benefits and challenges of reaching agreements by consensus. You could ask the following questions (orally or on the board for students to copy down and answer): » Is consensus the best way for a Funding Board to make decisions? Why/why not? » What might be the benefits and challenges of other methods of making a decision, such as majority voting, or appointing one or two people to make a decision for the rest of the group? » What kinds of qualities do people need to be good communicators and problemsolvers? » How could you develop these qualities? If you have time: Consider the MDGs the Funding Board would choose to support. » Which ones were left out? » Why might that be? » Do students think the MDGs are realistic?

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LESSON 2 PAGE 4 OF 4 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


© Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

International Development is the name of a large international property development company, which builds houses and hotels all around the world. A

International Development is a common term in newsrooms, often shortened to ID. It is used to show the newsreader that there is breaking news coming in of international importance. C

‘Commonwealth’ is a saying in Australia. It is common for groups of friends to raise their glasses and say ‘to our common wealth’, often shortened to simply ‘Commonwealth’. C

MDG stands for Millennium Development Goal. The MDGs are eight goals agreed by international leaders. They include primary education for everyone and reducing illness around the world. C

C

MDG is an informal slang term used in some parts of Canada to express respect and liking. It stands for ‘Most Dangerous Get-up’. For example, you might hear ‘Nice coat, MDG’. B

B

A

MDG stands for Multi-Dimensional Graphics, and is a term used in the technology industry to refer to 3-Dimensional imagery.

A

C Consensus is a Latin term meaning ‘with feeling’. It is used in music to indicate when a phrase should be played or sung with particular emphasis and feeling. C

B

Consensus is the name of a group of political leaders that works to resolve international conflicts, particularly in the Middle East.

B

Consensus is a way of making decisions, where an agreement is reached by a group as a whole. To achieve consensus, everyone involved has to agree to the decision or action. A

A

» Tiebreaker: (first team to answer wins)… Which D means “differences or variations between people in communities and societies”? » Tiebreaker Answer: » Diversity

» Answers: Commonwealth » B; International Development » B; MDG » C; Consensus » A

C

B

International Development is a process of improving people’s access to health, education and technologies in countries around the world.

B

A

C

The Commonwealth is a group of 54 countries that have agreed to work together by sharing ideas and experiences, skills and knowledge. It promotes ideas such as diversity, democracy and development. B

B

The Commonwealth is an international support group that helps people to find the right health insurance, home insurance and travel insurance to suit their needs. It is funded though charity donations and by the World Bank. A

A

CA LL MY BL UF F » Resource 2r1

» Call my bluff cards

RESOURCE 2r1 PAGE 1 OF 1

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Mil len niu m De ve lo pm en t Go al s » Resource 2r2 Goal » 1 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

Goal » 2 Achieve universal primary education

By improving poor people’s incomes; providing employment (jobs) for more people; and reducing hunger.

By making sure all girls and boys are able to complete their primary schooling.

1

Goal » 3 Promote gender equality and empower women

2

Goal » 4 Reduce child mortality rate

By making sure men and women are equally able to get an education, employment (jobs) and take on roles of political power.

By reducing the number of children who die before their fifth birthday.

3

Goal » 5 Improve maternal health

4

Goal » 6 Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases

By reducing the number of women who die giving birth and providing more contraceptives, better family planning and better medical care.

5

Goal » 7 Ensure environmental sustainability By putting sustainability into government policies; reducing the loss of biodiversity (different plants and animals); making safe drinking water and basic sanitation available to all; and improving the lives of slumdwellers. 7

Your Task » Your group will be presenting a development project to the board.

By stopping the spread of HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases and providing treatments and drugs for people who are already infected.

6

Goal » 8 Develop a global partnership for development

By developing good systems for people to reduce debt, poverty and manage trading around the world; addressing the special needs of the poorest countries and small island states; and working with private companies to make affordable and essential medicines and new technologies such as mobile telephones, computers and the internet available to everyone. 8

» You must first decide which MDG your group want to contribute to. Consider which MDG you think is most important and deserving of your time and attention.

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RESOURCE 2r2 PAGE 1 OF 1 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


Pr epa rin g for th e MD G Fu nd ing Bo ar d » Resource 2r3 » Preparing for the Millennium Development Goals Funding Board

commonwealth [kom-uhn-welth]

• a group of 54 countries that have agreed to work together by sharing ideas and experiences, skills and knowledge. It promotes ideas such as diversity, democracy and development.

secretariat [sek-ri-tair-ee-uht] • A group of people who organise meetings and communications for an international organisation.

millennium [mi-len-ee-uhm] • a thousand years. A new millennium began in the year 2000.

development [dih-vel-uhp-muhnt] •

International Development is a process of improving people’s access to health, education and technologies in countries around the world.

goals [gohls] • what we have decided to achieve; what we want to work towards.

funding [fuhnd-ing] • money that comes from a particular person, place or organisation.

board [bawrd, bohrd] • a group of people who make decisions on behalf of others.

Your Task: The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight goals agreed by international leaders. Members of the United Nations and a number of other international organisations decided in the year 2000 that these goals are the most important ways of improving people’s lives and agreed to work towards achieving the MDGs by 2015. The Commonwealth Secretariat is one organisation that is committed towards achieving the MDGs. The Commonwealth Secretariat is the body that runs the Commonwealth on a day to day basis, working towards diversity, development and democracy. You will soon be representing the Commonwealth Secretariat in a presentation to the Commonwealth Secretariat Millennium Development Goals Funding Board on a proposed development project. The Funding Board only have enough money to fund two projects, so you will need to work hard to convince them to choose your project over other worthwhile projects. You will only have one minute and thirty seconds to present to the Board so your presentation should be as clear and straightforward as possible. You can use the paper and pens provided to help show more information about your proposed project. Your presentation should include the following aspects:

» Which Millennium Development Goal (MDG) you have chosen. » Why you have chosen this goal – why you think it is the most important for improving people’s lives. » A  project you would start up that would work towards your chosen MDG. You should include the following details about your project:

• Who would it be aimed at? (e.g. children, women, adults, people with a certain illness…) • What would it offer to these people? (e.g. medicine, education, the internet…) • How would it help meet your chosen MDG? • How it would work? (e.g. how would you make sure the lives of the people you are aiming your project at are directly improved by the project; would the project be cheap or expensive to run; how might the project indirectly help other people around the world or contribute to other MDGs?) Once you have decided on your goals and programme / project idea, it might be useful to divide your group into subgroups to prepare and present the different elements listed above. Good luck!

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CA LL MY BL UF F » Resource 2r4 » Your views matter!

ING B OA R D P MENT GOAL S F UN D MILLENNIUM D E V ELO Funding Board. lennium Development Goals You are a member of the Mil t support the lives by funding projects tha ject presentations ’s ple peo e rov imp p hel to to all the pro Your aim is als. Your first job is to listen ded. Millennium Development Goision about the two projects you think should be fun dec ual ivid ind an and make Name: sentation and Listen carefully to each pre across their ideas. s put up gro h watch how eac your feedback and Group: Use this sheet to write down fund. to ts jec pro ich wh for n your final decisio How would I uld their What did I like wo w Ho ich change the Wh Group about the project help to presentation to MDG did ion tat presen meet the MDG? make it even better? they and why? choose?

1 2 3 4 5 d and why?

ding Board decide to fun

the MDG Fun Which two projects should 1 2

jects would: ision, think about which pro To help you make your dec people; d ete targ the to p mised hel • work well and get the pro ; • be good value for money into the future; and continue working long ly ate edi imm g MDG and other MDGs. • start workin sen cho s up’ s meeting the gro ard tow n utio trib mbers con a ke ma • r suggestions with other me finished you will discuss you jects e pro hav two ons ch tati whi sen of pre sus the When agreement by consen an to e com up to gro try a by and d rd che agreement is rea of the Funding Boa making decisions, where an ion. of act or way n a is isio sus dec sen the to Con d. ee to fun ne involved has to agr ryo eve , sus sen con ieve turely, as a whole. To ach your choices politely and ma mbers, you need to discuss ices, cho r you ut abo lly efu car t If you disagree with other me ugh members that you have tho make sure the convincing the other Board er views and compromise to oth ept acc n, liste to ed while also being prepar most good can be done. 2r4 et

Funding Board Feedback She

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RESOURCE 2r4 PAGE 1 OF 1 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 3 » Democracy and the Commonwealth Note - This lesson could be split into two for students to have more time to prepare and discuss: activities 1 and 2 in the first lesson, and activities 3 and 4 in the second lesson.

Lesson aims/key questions

Learning outcomes and key processes

1 » What does it mean for a country to be democratic? 2 » What does the Commonwealth do to promote democracy? 3 » What can I do to make a difference? Students will be able to: a » Define at least two key terms associated with democracy. b » Explain what is meant by Election Observation Missions. c » Identify at least one activity they themselves could take part in to help take action around issues of diversity, development or democracy. Key processes: Research; understanding rights and responsibilities; feeling empowered to make a difference; active involvement in the community (local and global); an interest in global issues and current affairs.

Key words/

concepts / terms

Commonwealth | democracy | election | government | media | citizen action | peaceful communities | election observation missions | civil society | having a voice.

Summary of

Activity 1 (starter): Democracy Dominoes (Defining Key Terms)

Activity 2: Election Observation Missions Detective Agency (research task)

Activity 3: Messages from Commonwealth Leaders (Preparing to take action)

Activity 4 (plenary): What could I do to make a difference? (Postcard pledge)

activities and links to learning outcomes

Assessment

opportunities

Differentiation

Homework or extension tasks

» Activity 1 (starter) could be a group assessment (seeing which groups finish their dominoes chain first) or an individual peer- or teacher-assessment (students write out the entire paragraph). » Activity 2 could be a group assessment in which marks are given to students for their research skills, or the Detective Sheets could be collected and marked individually (or peer assessed in class) if given out to every student. » Activity 4 could be finished for homework then collected in and individually assessed. » Activity 1 (starter): This task can be designed as a task for smaller groups or for the whole class, depending on how confident students might be to call out in class. You can play a game of dominoes with the whole class in which they compete with others to call out the right definitions for the key terms. If you would prefer them to work in groups, you can divide the class into groups of around five students and give them a set of dominoes (3r1) per group, which they have to put into the right order before you call out ‘stop!’ » To make Activity 1 even more challenging you could cut up each individual key term and definition and ask students to match them all up from scratch. » Activity 2: The two sheets have a range of information with the first page being most accessible and the second being more challenging. Groups can work out how to allocate the questions between them to support each other and make most efficient use of their time. » Activity 3: Teachers can support and challenge students through their questioning as part of this activity, for example asking students to give their opinion in relating to more complex ideas. You could ask students to: » Film or record an advert for the Commonwealth’s Election Observation Missions, or use online tools to make posters or video adverts. » Note down and finish answering the questions on the Commonwealth Leader Messages PowerPoint (3r4) . » Find and read autobiographical literature written by past and present Commonwealth Heads of Government, such as Nelson Mandela’s ‘Long Walk to Freedom’. » Find out how to take part in one or more of the Royal Commonwealth Society’s Commonwealth youth programmes: for example, the essay or film-making competitions – and take part! (details on Activity 4 description)

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 3 » Democracy and the Commonwealth continued... Resources needed

1 r2

» Activity 1 (starter): Democracy Dominoes cards (3r1) (one domino for each student in the class, or one set for each group of around five students) » Activity 2: Election Observation Mission Sheets (3r2) (one to each group of threefour students); Detectives Sheet (3r3) (one for each student or group of three-four students); computers and internet access for each group if available; » Activity 3: Commonwealth Leader Messages PowerPoint (3r4) » Activity 4: Blank Postcards (one for each student)

» Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 1 (starter): Democracy Dominoes

0-10m

Each domino card (3r1) contains a key term and a definition that doesn’t match that term.

The object is to form a chain of key terms and their definitions and therefore complete the whole paragraph about democracy. There are two ways to play the game: Either: a » Get students into groups of around five and give each group a cut-up set of dominoes (3r1). They have to work out the term that matches each definition and get themselves into a line or a circle to read out the terms and definitions to you in order when you call out ‘stop!’. If they have time they could write down the entire paragraph they have formed using the dominoes and this could be peer- or teacher- assessed. Or: b » Give out a different domino card (3r1) to each individual or pair of students around the classroom. Ask a student with the ‘Democracy’ domino to read out their word and get a student with the matching definition (‘where power is in the hands of the people…’) to read it out, then they have to give their domino key term and someone else supplies the definition, and so on until all the cards have been read out. You may have to give some hints or prompts, such as the start of the definition, if students are unsure, particularly to get the ball rolling. » If you give out more than one set of dominoes, students can compete to call out r1 the definitions before the other student(s) with that card.

3

» Activity 2 (starter): Detective Agency: What are Election Observation Missions?

15-35m

Divide students into teams of three to four. Give out a set of Election Observation Mission Sheets (3r2) to each group – this will work best if they are printed onto big sheets of paper. Write the questions on the board from the Detective Sheets (3r3) or give out copies, either to individual students or one for each group (again, on a big sheet of paper if possible).

Ask students to think of themselves as detectives who have been tasked to find out what Election Observation Missions are and how the Commonwealth is involved in these. They must read the Election Observation Mission Sheets (3r2) between them, fill in the blanks on the first sheet and find the answers to the questions on the Detective Sheets (3r3). If students have access to the internet they could also investigate the websites identified on the Election Observation Mission Sheets (3r2). After 15 minutes or so, ask students to choose a team member to report back to the class on what they found out: for example, you could ask each team in turn to report back on a different question from the question sheet. »O  ne student could be offered the role of Manager of the Detective Agency, keeping everyone on task and/or coordinating their responses at the end.

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 3 » Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 3: Messages from Commonwealth Leaders Display the Commonwealth Leader Messages PowerPoint (3r4) and ask individual students to read each one out in turn. After each message there are a few questions that you could either ask students to write down their answers to, or note down to answer for homework. » If you have time, you could have a class discussion around each question slide. If you run out of time, choose your favourite quote and focus only on that slide. Encourage students to consider that all the messages are from men. » Does this reflect the different percentages of men and women who are in leadership positions around the world? » What about in students’ own country: are there gender imbalances? » How can we work to reduce these?

35-50m

3 r4

» Activity 4 (plenary): Postcard Pledges / Messages to Leaders

50-60m

Ask students to consider their ideas for the final slide. They could think of an action that would make a difference to democracy, diversity and/or development. Even very small actions such as using less electricity or taking fewer car journeys to reduce carbon emissions could make a big difference. Encourage students to think in the long term: could they make a difference through their career choices? In the shorter term, they could begin by writing letters, joining internet campaigns and teaching others about the issues. » Can they name any of the decision makers in their country or region? » How could they influence the decisions these individuals take? Throughout this two- or three-minute discussion, try to steer the group to consider the value of giving their viewpoint in writing, to select someone they think it would be useful to write to, and to consider what they would write.

Distribute a blank postcard to each student. Challenge students to do one of the following: a » Write a postcard pledge describing the action(s) you individually are going to take to make a difference; or: b » Write a postcard message to a person in power outlining what they should do to make the world a better place and how they could go about getting this done. Encourage students to write down their postcard pledge / message in five minutes. Decide as a class what to do with the postcards: for example, you could display the pledges around the classroom and students who wrote postcard messages could post them to a person who can take direct action on these issues. » Give students confidence that they can make a difference, even if it is through very small steps. If they are stuck for ideas you could point them to the United Nations Millennium Development Goals ‘Get Involved’ website: www.un.org/millenniumgoals/getinvolved.shtml, which contains lots of ideas for actions and campaigns. » If you are able to organise this, you could also ask students to teach something they have learned in these lessons to a group of younger students. » You could also encourage students to get involved with the Royal Commonwealth Society’s Competitions for young people around the Commonwealth: the Essay Competition, the Vision Awards (film-making) and the Photographic Awards. See the Royal Commonwealth’s website: www.thercs.org for more details.

View p22-23 CommonGround guide

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Citizen action Corrupt Election Observers

Election

…who are people sent by an independent organisation to check that elections are run fairly, so everyone can live together in democratic and…

Peaceful communities

…which is the body that organises how the country or area is run, and is held accountable by parliament, the courts and by the journalists of the…

…which is the name for a person in power who steals or cheats. In order to make sure this does not happen in elections, they can be inspected by…

…which are communities (groups of people) who live together without fighting.

Democracy

…which is then collected and all the papers are counted up. The parties or groups with the highest numbers of votes generally form the…

Ballot Paper

…which usually means writing down, in secret, the person they would like to choose, on a…

…which is when people do things to try to change society, for example writing letters to their political representatives who they hope will not be…

Government

…which is a process in which people in an area (called a constituency) choose their leader by…

…which is the main way for people to find out information about what is happening in society, and to advertise the ways in which they are taking…

Media

…where power is in the hands of the people. In a representative democracy, citizens decide who is going to represent them through an……

Voting

De mo cr ac y Do mi no es » Resource 3r1

» Democracy Dominoes - ANSWERS

Democracy…where power is in the hands of the people. In a representative democracy, citizens decide who is going to represent them through an…Election …which is a process in which people in an area (called a constituency) choose their leader by…Voting …which usually means writing down, in secret, the person they would like to choose, on a…Ballot Paper…which is then collected and all the papers are counted up. The parties or groups with the highest numbers of votes generally form the…Government…which is the body that organises how the country or area is run, and is held accountable by parliament, the courts and by the journalists of the…Media…which is the main way for people to find out information about what is happening in society, and to advertise the ways in which they are taking… Citizen action…which is when people do things to try to change society, for example writing letters to their political representatives who they hope will not be…Corrupt…which is the name for a person in power who steals or cheats. In order to make sure this does not happen in elections, they can be inspected by…Election Observers… who are people sent by an independent organisation to check that elections are run fairly, so everyone can live together in democratic and…Peaceful communities …which are communities (groups of people) who live together without fighting.

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Ele ct ion Ob ser va tio n Mis sio n Sh ee ts » Resource 3r2 » Sheet 1: Introduction to Election Observation Missions Fill in the blanks on this sheet using the bold words below. Note: all words must be used at least once; some words can be used more than once!

VOTE

Bribery • offering money or gifts to someone in return for a dishonest act. Candidate • a person who has put him- or herself forwards to represent people in an election. Civil Society • o  rganisations like charities, faith groups and unions that represent peoples’ views and are separate from governments and businesses. Commonwealth Observer Group • a n independent group of people, asked by the Commonwealth Secretariat to observe an election to make sure it is being done fairly. Corrupt • dishonest. Credible • believable, truthful, honest. Democracy • where power is in the hands of the people. Election • a n event where people vote to choose politicians to represent their views and form a government. Election Observers • p  eople sent by an independent organisation to check that elections are run fairly. Electoral Fraud • f or example, counting the votes wrongly to give advantage to the party who is losing; voting more than once, or pretending to be someone else to get an extra vote. Electoral Roll • list of names and addresses of all the people entitled (allowed) to vote in the election. Independent • someone who is not directly involved and who will try to avoid taking sides. Polling Station • a place where people go to vote in an election. Practical Recommendations • suggestions of actions that need to be taken. Representative • s omeone who stands in the place of a person or people to put across their views. Democracy A is a political system where the people choose politicians (in a similar way to how students might elect their School Council Members) to represent their views and form a government. This usually happens through an , in which anyone who is on the over a certain age can vote for the from the political party who has the most similar beliefs to their own or who they think will do the best job being their . It is important that elections are run fairly if a country wants to be truly democratic. has an important role to play in making sure that peoples’ opinions are heard. This will not be possible if its elections are plagued with practices such as or .

is when someone in a position of power gives or takes money or gifts in order to give them an unfair advantage over someone else. is when the votes in an election are tampered or interfered with in some way, for example, by counting the same person twice on the , pretending to be someone else when voting at the , harassing or intimidating people during an election, or not counting the votes properly. To help strengthen across the world, are sometimes asked to help make sure everything is done fairly during an . The Commonwealth was one of the first organisations in the world to start providing . When they are asked to provide this service, the Commonwealth Secretariat send an panel of people called a (COG) to watch their elections. They are asked to report on how and fair the elections were, for example, whether any corruption seemed to be happening, whether people of voting age were all allowed to vote freely and whether the result seemed to go against the strong wishes of the people. The COG report also contains to help improve the election arrangements for the future. RESOURCE 3r2 PAGE 1 OF 3 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

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Ele ct ion Ob ser va tio n Mis sio n Sh ee ts » Resource 3r2 » Sheet 2: More about Commonwealth Observer Groups It is my honour and privilege to have been asked to lead this Commonwealth Observer Group and to be here in Tanzania with my colleagues for these important elections. Democracy and good governance are core Commonwealth principles and ones which our Observer Group is tasked to promote and uphold. These elections are important for the people of Tanzania, as they elect their representatives, and it is therefore imperative that the electoral process is transparent, fair and credible. Our task, as the Commonwealth Observer Group, is to observe and report on relevant aspects of the organisation and conduct of the elections and also on the environment in which the elections are held.

Paul East QC

In conducting our duties and undertaking our assessment, we will be impartial, objective and independent. Commonwealth Observers are present here in their individual capacities as distinguished Commonwealth citizens. The team of Observers come from across the Commonwealth, and includes politicians, members of election commissions, and representatives of civil society, academia and the media. The conduct of peaceful, transparent and credible elections is vital.

» Highlights from a

Speech made by the Right Honourable Paul East QC, Chairperson of the Commonwealth Observer Group for the 2010 General Elections in Tanzania:

on the 2010 Notes from the COG’s reportia: an nz Ta General Elections in peaceful. The campaign was generally

gnant women and less In some polling stations pre isted, but in others able voters were specifically ass they were not. ir finger after having Voters had ink applied to the g. However, in many voted to prevent double votin ar to check the fingers instances staff did not appetin g. of voters for ink prior to vorticipated in orderly and pa s ate Presidential candid h members of the lively televised discussions wit public.

» Some Guidelines for Commonwealth Observer Groups (COGs) COGs are never forced on countries against their will – they only go to elections where they have been invited by the Government or the election management body and where they have the broad support of the political parties and people of the country. COGs and their advisors spend some time in the country and make sure they report on the election as part of the whole democratic process and not just as a one day event. COGs don’t interfere in anything that goes on with the running of elections – they are only there to observe. COGs are made up of “eminent and highly experienced Commonwealth citizens drawn from countries familiar with democratic processes and institutions”. The above information came from the Commonwealth Secretariat website: www.thecommonwealth.org/Internal/39079/election_observation and www.thecommonwealth.org/document/181889/34293/35144/231221/2010_tanzania_general_elections_arrival_statement.htm www.thecommonwealth.org/files/232431/FileName/FinalReport-TanzaniaCOG.pdf” http://www.thecommonwealth.org/ files/232431/FileName/FinalReport-TanzaniaCOG.pdf

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Ele ct ion Ob ser va tio n Mis sio n Sh ee ts » Resource 3r2 » Sheel 1 Answers: Democracy A is a political system where the people choose politicians (in a similar way to how students might elect their School Council Members) to represent their Election views and form a government. This usually happens through an , Electoral Roll in which anyone who is on the over a certain age can vote for the Candidate from the political party who has the most similar beliefs to their Representative own or who they think will do the best job being their . It is important that elections are run fairly if a country wants to be truly democratic. Civil Society has an important role to play in making sure that peoples’ opinions Corrupt are heard. This will not be possible if its elections are plagued with Electoral Fraud Bribery practices such as or . Bribery

is when someone in a position of power gives or takes money or Electoral Fraud gifts in order to give them an unfair advantage over someone else. is when the votes in an election are tampered or interfered with in some way, for example, Electoral Roll by counting the same person twice on the , pretending to be Polling Station someone else when voting at the , harassing or intimidating people during an election, or not counting the votes properly. Democracy To help strengthen across the world, Election Observers are Election sometimes asked to help make sure everything is done fairly during an . The Commonwealth was one of the first organisations in the world to start providing Election Observers . When they are asked to provide this service, the Commonwealth Independent Secretariat send an panel of people called a Commonwealth Observer Group Credible (COG) to watch their elections. They are asked to report on how and fair the elections were, for example, whether any corruption seemed to be happening, whether people of voting age were all allowed to vote freely and whether the result seemed to go against the strong wishes of the people. The COG report also contains Practical Recommendations to help improve the election arrangements for the future.

» For more information you could investigate the following websites: The Commonwealth Secretariat: www.thecommonwealth.org Transparency International: www.transparency.org International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA): www.idea.int The Commonwealth Foundation: www.commonwealthfoundation.com/Areasofwork/Governance/Citizenshipandparticipation Or check out the CommonGround booklet, especially pages 22 and 23

View p22-23 CommonGround guide

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De te ct ive Sh ee ts

» Resource 3r3

» Detective Sheets: Commonwealth Detectives

? What is a ballot box? What does ‘bribery’ mean

Draw a picture if you can.

What is ‘corruption’? What is a COG? Who are

the people in a COG?

COMMOWEALTH DETECTIVES

t What are three differen to try t gh ways people mi tamper with elections? ght need more help to Which kinds of voters mi station and vote? be able to get to a polling put on their finger? Why would voters have ink cording to Paul East? mmonwealth principles ac Co re co the of e som are What

contain? What does a COG report

ssions have you found? Election Observation Mi t ou ab ts fac er oth ich Wh

s 3r3

Commonwealth Detective

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RESOURCE 3r3 PAGE 1 OF 2 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


De te ct ive Sh ee ts :

» Resource 3r3

» Detective Sheets: Commonwealth Detectives

at is a ballot box? ibery’ meanrn? Wh What doesor‘br in which people put box A retu in eone som gifts to Offering money their ballot papers when they eone in a for a dishonest act / when som gifts or ey mon s vote in an election. take or s position of power give advantage over in order to give them an unfair

Draw a picture if you can.

on’? What is ‘corrupti bribery or electoral fraud. or cheat, for example through When people in power steal

in a COG?an election to the people COG? Whodare etariat to observe Secr th What is agrou weal mon Com the by p of people, aske Commonwealth citizens.

distinguished An independent commisy. The people in a COG arepolit icians, members of electionof make sure it is being done fairl de inclu and th, weal “eminent mon up Com e the mad ss are acro s COG from e ia. com y med The society, academia and the countries familiar with democratic sions, and representatives of civil from wealth citizens drawn and highly experienced Common

t What are three differen to try t gh mi le ways peop tamper with elections?

COMMOWEALTH DETECTIVES

toral Roll; the same person twice on the Elec Engaging in bribery; Countingwhen voting at the Polling Station; Harassing or else eone som be properly. Pretending to election; Not counting the votes intimidating people during an (e.g. registered

Pregnant women and less able need more help to t gh mi s ter disabled) voters vo of ds kin Which tion and vote? sta g llin po a to t ge to le be ab e person To prevent double voting (the sam e) twic g votin r? ge put on their fin Why would voters have ink ul East? principles according to Pa h alt we on mm Co re co What are some of the Democracy and good governance

contain? What does a COG report

ng, whether corruption seemed to be happenies of the people. , for example, whether anyed wish were ng ions stro elect the the nst fair agai go and to ible the result seem A report on how cred ed to vote freely and whether arrangements for the future. people of voting age were all allow tions to help improve the election enda mm reco tical prac ains It also cont

ssions have you found? Election Observation Mi Which other facts about

s 3r3

Commonwealth Detective

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Ele ct ion Ob ser va tio n Mis sio n Sh ee ts » Resource 3r4 » Please view PowerPoint presentation supplied on resource disk

» Commonwealth leader messages PowerPoint presentation

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» The seven lessons in this blue section (identified with a square on each page) are designed with students aged 14 to18 in mind. However, they can be readily adapted for older or younger students – please see the Introduction for further details. » Sessions cover the Commonwealth (Lesson 1), Diversity (Lesson 2), Global Inequalities (Lesson 3), Education and Development (Lesson 4), Malaria (Lesson 5), Climate Change (Lesson 6) and Democracy (Lesson 7).

© Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 1 » Introducing the Commonwealth Note - This lesson could be split into two for students to have more time to prepare and discuss: activities 1 and 2 in the first lesson, and activities 3 and 4 in the second lesson.

Lesson aims/key questions

Learning outcomes and key processes

Students will be able to: a » Recognise a number of member states of the Commonwealth b » Explain the historical roots of the modern Commonwealth c » Identify and categorise a number of activities of the modern Commonwealth d » Rank and evaluate different ideas about the future of the Commonwealth e » Formulate and propose new ideas for the future of the Commonwealth Key processes: Critical thinking; research; discussion and debate; communicating ideas; critically assessing your own view and others’ viewpoints; working with others to solve problems; taking an interest in global issues and current affairs.

Key words/

Commonwealth | diversity | development | democracy | empire | colony | global | Secretariat | civil society | non-governmental organisations | heritage | Queen | consensus | Secretary-General | Commonwealth Games | youth programmes

Summary of

Activity 1 (starter): Guess Who? And the History of the Commonwealth (PowerPoint presentation)

a» b»

Activity 2: Investigators and Detectives: What does the Commonwealth do? (Information Hunt)

Activity 3: Future Leaders of the Commonwealth (Card Sort to categorise and diamond rank)

d» e»

Activity 4 (plenary): Commonwealth Board Race

all »

concepts / terms

activities and links to learning outcomes

Assessment

opportunities

Differentiation

Homework or extension tasks

Resources needed

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1 » What is the Commonwealth? How did it form? 2 » What does the Commonwealth do? 3 » How should we develop the Commonwealth in future?

» Activity 1 (starter) and » Activity 4 (plenary) could be transformed into a short test of students’ knowledge about the Commonwealth countries. » Activity 2 could be a group assessment in which students decipher and categorise activities under timed conditions. » Activity 2 contains Information Sheets with a variety of complexity (1r2); questions on the Student Investigator Sheets (1r3) also increase in complexity. » Activity 3 contains cards with a variety of complexity (1r4), some of which students may investigate further if they wish to challenge themselves, or if they do not have time they might discard the cards they have difficulty understanding. You could ask students to: » Write three paragraphs explaining what they understand by each of following terms, which form the core themes of the Commonwealth: diversity, development and democracy. » Research and write a report on the difference between making political decisions and agreements through consensus and through some alternatives such as majority voting, veto powers, top-down ‘leader decides’ and executive boards or committees. » You could set students the task of extending » Activity 3 into a detailed proposal to send to Commonwealth Leaders, for example in the form of a letter addressed to the Royal Commonwealth Society. » Activity 1 (starter): Commonwealth Introduction PowerPoint (1r1) » Activity 2: Commonwealth Activity Information Sheets (1r2) (one set to each group of 4-6 students), Student Investigator Sheets (1r3) one each (printed on small paper), one per team (printed on big paper) or write the questions on the board » Activity 3: Future Leaders Card Sort (1r4) (need to cut out the cards or give students scissors to cut them out) (one set for each group of 4-6 students) » Activity 4: Board (wide enough for two people to write on it at the same time) and two Board Pens

LESSON 1 PAGE 1 OF 3 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 1 » Introducing the Commonwealth

» Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 1 (starter): Guess Who? and The History of the Commonwealth

10-15m

Show the Commonwealth Introduction PowerPoint (1r1), pausing between slides. Ask students to identify the countries and then guess the connection between them using the hints. Each answer is on the next slide but you can take these out if students might see the answers too early. If you wanted this task to be a little more competitive you could divide the class into teams and score them on correct answers.

The PowerPoint (1r1) then goes on to describe a brief history of the Commonwealth. Tell students that they should imagine they are a group of investigators or detectives trying to find out what the Commonwealth is and what it does. Therefore during the historical part of the PowerPoint they will need to take some notes so they understand a little about the origins of the Commonwealth. Students for whom note-taking is difficult could write key words as memory prompts. » You could have individual students read out the PowerPoint slides or you could read them and clarify any challenging elements with a short class discussion.

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» Activity 2: Investigators and Detectives: What does the Commonwealth do?

15-30m

Divide students into teams of four to six. Give out a set of Commonwealth Activity Information Sheets (1r2) to each group – this will work best if they are printed onto big sheets of paper. You could also put them up as posters around the classroom. Write the questions on the board from the Student Investigator Sheets (1r3) or give out copies to students. As above, ask students to think of themselves as investigators or detectives who have been tasked to find out what the modern Commonwealth does.

They must read the Information Sheets (1r2) between them and find the answers to the questions (1r3). If students have access to the internet they could also investigate the websites identified on each Information Sheet (1r2). After 10 minutes, ask students to choose a team member to report back to the class on what they found out: for example, you could ask each team in turn to report back on a different question from the question sheet. One student could be offered the role of Manager of the Detective Agency, keeping everyone on task.

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 1 » Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 3: Future Leaders of the Commonwealth

30-50m

Ask students to think of themselves as potential future leaders of the Commonwealth. They have been presented with a number of possible ideas for the future of the Commonwealth and have to choose the best ideas and formulate a proposal towards a stronger Commonwealth and a better world.

Give out the Future Leaders Card Sort (1r4) (either already cut up or with scissors for students to do so) and ask them to do the following (you could leave out (a) if time is limited): a » Categorise the ten cards into the following core themes of the Commonwealth: diversity, development, democracy. Are any of them difficult to categorise? Which category has more cards? [NB there are no right or wrong answers for this task: it’s to get students thinking about the meanings of the three core areas] b » Discard the three cards you think are least important and then add two ideas of your own on the blank cards. c » Rank the nine cards into a diamond shape according to how good you think the ideas are. This could perhaps be based on how much you think they would help the Commonwealth develop (how idealistic they are); or on whether you think the ideas would work in practice (how realistic they are). [NB see right for an illustration of a diamond ranking]

Best 2nd 3rd

2nd 3rd

4th

3rd 4th

Worst

d » Identify the top three cards in your ranking. If you have time, write these out into a half-page proposal for the future of the Commonwealth, expanding on each idea and explaining how they might fit together to work towards a better world. If you are proud of your proposal see if you can share it with the class, explaining your choices and any new ideas you may have put forward. After giving the students ten minutes or so to categorise and rank the ideas, come up with their own suggestions and then write their proposals, ask the class for volunteers to read out or summarise their choices and / or proposals. See if the class can come to a consensus about their top three ideas.

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» Activity 4: Commonwealth Board Race A board race is where students line up in two teams in front of the board.

50-60

The first student in each team needs a board pen.

When you say ‘go!’» these two students run up to their side of the board, write down a word or phrase connected to the Commonwealth and then pass the pen to the next person in line and go to the back of the queue. The next person then runs to the board and writes another word or phrase connected to the Commonwealth (words and phrases cannot be repeated) and runs to the back, passing the pen on to the next person. When you say ‘stop!’» they have to stop running to the board: any answers written after that should be excluded from the count. Go through both the team entries and strike out any repetitions or words / phrases unconnected with the Commonwealth, or any written after you said ‘stop!’. Then count up the number of correct entries and the team with the highest number wins!

View p3-20

CommonGround guide

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1r1 Co mm on we alt h Int ro du ct ion Pow er poi nt » Resource » Please view PowerPoint presentation supplied on resource disk

» Guess Who? PowerPoint presentation RESOURCE 1r1 PAGE 1 OF1 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 1r2 » Commonwealth Activity Information Sheets

What is the Commonwealth?

The Commonwealth is a group of 54 countries who work together for their common good, promoting ideas such as diversity, development and democracy.

How does the Commonwealth work? ►Every two years, Commonwealth leaders (for example, Prime Ministers and Presidents or their representatives) meet to discuss issues affecting both the Commonwealth itself, and the wider world. ► The meeting is called a CHOGM (Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting) and it is hosted by a different Commonwealth country each time. ► The decisions made shape Commonwealth plans for the next two or three years. ► Decisions are normally reached by consensus (with the agreement of all) and, at the end of the meeting, a series of statements are issued on behalf of all leaders. ► All states have the same opportunity to speak, so a small island state such as St Lucia or Tonga can voice their opinion in the same way as a large country like Canada or India. ► Many other meetings take place between Commonwealth government ministers at different times. These focus on particular issues, such as education, health, and economic development.

The Commonwealth Secretariat

www.thecommonwealth.org

• It is the job of the Commonwealth Secretariat to take forward plans developed at Commonwealth meetings. • The Commonwealth Secretariat is rather like the civil service of the Commonwealth. This means it organises all the major Commonwealth meetings; it gives advice and support to member states; and runs programmes to help Commonwealth countries. • Commonwealth Secretariat programmes range from training midwives in Malawi to helping conserve rainforests in Guyana. • The Secretariat is based in London at Marlborough House. • The present Head of the Commonwealth is Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. However, the Commonwealth Secretariat is led by the Commonwealth Secretary-General, who must ensure that decisions agreed at Commonwealth meetings are properly carried out. • The Secretary-General must be impartial (not favouring one country above another), putting the needs and interests of the Commonwealth as a whole before those of individual member states. The holder of the post is chosen by all the Commonwealth Heads of Government for one or two four-year terms. • Secretarys-General have come from all over the world, including India, Canada, Guyana, Nigeria and New Zealand. • The Secretariat also coordinates the Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group (CMAG) which is responsible for suspending members if they violate the principles of the Commonwealth. The group is made up of a rotating group of Foreign Ministers from nine Commonwealth states. • An important part of the Commonwealth Secretariat’s work focuses on young people, who make up over half of the Commonwealth’s population. The Commonwealth Youth Programme has offices in Guyana, the Solomon Islands, Zambia and India, as well as in London

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rce 1r2

Commonwealth Activity Information Sheets » Resou » Commonwealth Activity Information Sheets continued...

NEWS

YOUR FAVOURITE NEWSPAPER

15 December 2010

CEREMONY AND CELEBRATION FOR NEW YOUTH LEADERS

I

t was a day for ceremony and celebration in Chandigarh, India, on 15 December, as the Commonwealth’s newly-elected youth leadership took their oaths in an hour-long Installation Ceremony presided over by the Commonwealth Secretariat Deputy Secretary-General. The eight new youth representatives read their code of conduct in the presence of their peers, Commonwealth Youth Programme Staff and the media. Together they pledged to work according to the principles of selflessness, integrity, objectivity, accountability, leadership, professionalism and political neutrality. The Deputy Secretary-General told them: “We hope you will make a critical difference in youth leadership and advocacy in the Commonwealth.”

Rebecca Solomon from Vanuatu (left) and Deputy Secretary -General Masire-Mwamba (right)

The Deputy Secretary-General then initiated the traditional candle lighting ceremony, signifying hope. The Commonwealth’s Youth Caucus seeks to promote meaningful engagement of young people in the planning and decision-making process of the Commonwealth Youth Programme (CYP). The five-day conference is being hosted by the CYP Asia Office based in Chandigarh, India. The theme for the meeting is ‘Our Year, Our Voice’.

TH E 54 Co mm on we al th me mb er s CO UN TR IES ar e.. . ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

AUSTRALIA

THE BAHAMAS

BANGLADESH

BARBADOS

BELIZE

BOTSWANA

BRUNEI DARUSSALAM

CAMEROON

CANADA

CYPRUS

DOMINICA

FIJI ISLANDS

THE GAMBIA

GHANA

GRENADA

GUYANA

INDIA

JAMAICA

KENYA

KIRIBATI

LESOTHO

MALAWI

MALAYSIA

MALDIVES

MALTA

MAURITIUS

MOZAMBIQUE

ST LUCIA

SWAZILAND

NAMIBIA

ST VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES

TONGA

NAURU

NEW ZEALAND

SAMOA

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

SEYCHELLES

TUVALU

NIGERIA

PAKISTAN

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

RWANDA

ST KITTS AND NEVIS

SIERRA LEONE

SINGAPORE

SOLOMON ISLANDS

SOUTH AFRICA

SRI LANKA

UGANDA

UNITED KINGDOM

UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA

VANUATU

ZAMBIA

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 1r2 » The Commonwealth Family The Commonwealth has a wide network of organisations that work in the 54 member countries, in order to promote shared goals and values. They work at local, national, regional or international levels and play crucial roles in policy, political or social aspects of Commonwealth life. Here are a few examples: Commonwealth Foundation

www.commonwealthfoundation.com

This organisation helps civil society (trade unions, NGOs, professional associations and other similar not for profit organisations) express their voice to governments around the Commonwealth in the promotion of democracy, development and diversity. It runs the Commonwealth People’s Forum, which is a meeting held once every two years just before the CHOGM to bring key issues facing people around the Commonwealth to the attention of the member countries’ Heads of State. The issues are presented to Heads in a joint statement on behalf of all participating organisations. The Commonwealth Foundation also runs a number of prizes to promote diversity and cultural understanding. These include the Commonwealth Writers’ Prize, the Commonwealth Short Story Awards and Commonwealth Connects, an international exchange programme for artists and crafts people. The Foundation also supports civil society through the provision of small grants, totalling over £1 million a year. Commonwealth Scholarship and Fellowship Plan (CSFP)

www.csfp-online.org

This is an international programme under which Commonwealth member governments offer scholarships and fellowships (funding) for citizens of other Commonwealth countries to study and work at their universities. Commonwealth Games Federation (CGF)

www.thecgf.com

This organisation is responsible for the direction and control of the Commonwealth Games. The Commonwealth Games is a multi-sports event which is held once every four years for members of the Commonwealth. It is often referred to as the ‘Friendly Games’. The CGF also runs the Commonwealth Youth Games which are held every four years and are open to competitors between the ages of 14 and 18. The Royal Commonwealth Society (RCS)

www.thercs.org and www.thercs.org/youth

The RCS is the oldest and largest civil society organisation in the Commonwealth Family. It is a charity that aims to promote understanding of international issues and the Commonwealth. The RCS helps to coordinate a celebration for Commonwealth Day, which is on the second Monday of March each year, and each year has a different theme. It also runs a wide range of programmes for young people around the world. Here is just one example… CASE STUDY » Competitions for Young People Around the Commonwealth Essay Competition: Every year, the Commonwealth Essay Competition inspires thousands of young writers from all over the world. This international student writing contest has been running for over 100 years - the world’s oldest and largest - and is a highly regarded and popular international education project. Open to all Commonwealth citizens aged 18 or under, the Essay Competition offers young people the opportunity to make their voice heard on a global platform, encouraging students to engage with issues which are important to them. Photographic and Vision Awards: These programmes promote excellence in filmmaking and photography. Open to anyone in the Commonwealth under the age of 30 with a keen interest in visual media and with some excellent prizes on offer. Find out more at www.thercs.org/youth

View p18-20 CommonGround guide

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St ud en t Inv est iga to r Sh ee ts » Resource 1r3 » Commonwealth Detectives

Who is the He ad Commonweal of the th? Draw a quick picture of this person if you can!

ked es and you have been tas You are a team of detectiv wealth does. on to find out what the Comm team members’ skills to ur yo all e us u yo » Make sure can! u yo as s xe bo ny fill in as ma When is Commonwealth Day? What is CHOGM? at? the Commonwealth Secretari Where is the headquarters of h People’s Forum?

What is the Commonwealt

COMMOWEALTH DETECTIVES

wealth Games How often are the Common Games held? and the Youth Commonwealth mes What are the three core the ich wh , alth we of the Common all start with D? rt in the Royal At what ages can you take pa etitions for Young People? mp Commonwealth Society’s Co onwealth? late the principles of the Comm vio tes sta er mb me if ns pe What hap pledge to follow? mmonwealth Youth Leaders Co the do s ple nci pri ich Wh

What does the CSFP do?

h

alt How does the Commonwe make decisions?

nd interesting Commonwealth have you fou Which other facts about the or surprising?

s Student Investigator 1r3

Commonwealth Detective

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50

1 r4 The Commonwealth tries to do too much with limited resources. It should focus on a small number of goals.

The people of every Commonwealth country need to be more involved in the work of the Commonwealth (more work should be done at the grass-roots level).

+ Add an idea of your own

The Commonwealth needs more funding and more staff. It also needs to spend its money wisely and efficiently.

+ Add an idea of your own

The Commonwealth should do more to make sure things stay calm and safe whenever countries are experiencing civil unrest or instability.

Communication between different Commonwealth organisations needs to be improved.

The Secretary-General of the Commonwealth needs to be better known.

You have been presented with a number of possible ideas for the future of the Commonwealth and have to choose the best ideas and formulate a proposal towards a stronger Commonwealth and a better world.

» Think of yourself as a potential future leader of the Commonwealth.

The Commonwealth Secretariat should move from the UK to a different Commonwealth country. This will let people know that Britain is no longer in charge and is just another member.

The Commonwealth needs its own radio station to share with the world its talents and diversity and any useful news.

Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings should set clear targets for all members and check Commonwealth countries are keeping their promises.

HM Queen Elizabeth II should stop being the Head of the Commonwealth and the job should go to someone from outside the UK.

Fu tu re Lea de rs Ca rd So rt » Resource 1r4

RESOURCE 1r4 PAGE 1 OF 1

© Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 2 » Diversity and the Commonwealth Note - This lesson could be split into two for students to have more time to prepare and discuss: activities 1 and 2 in the first lesson, and activities 3 and 4 in the second lesson.

Lesson aims/key questions

Learning outcomes and key processes

1 » In which ways is the Commonwealth diverse? 2 » What is life like in other countries around the world? What are some similarities and differences with our own lives? 3 » What is agreement by consensus? To what extent does diversity make reaching consensus difficult? Students will be able to: a » List three ways in which Commonwealth countries are diverse. b » Examine the similarities and differences between our own lives and the lives of people living in another Commonwealth country. c » Explain what is meant by agreement by consensus. d » Evaluate some of the advantages, limitations and challenges of consensus among diverse countries. Key processes: Empathising with others; discussion and debate; arguing a viewpoint other than your own; communicating ideas; listening to others; working with others to solve problems.

Key words/

concepts / terms

Commonwealth | diversity | consensus | trade | language | religion | culture | heritage | microfinance | Fairtrade | trade bloc | free trade agreement | World Bank | International Monetary Fund

Summary of

Activity 1 (starter): Diverse Commonwealth Quiz (PowerPoint presentation)

Activity 2: Commonwealth Letters (Letter-writing task)

Activity 3: The Challenge of Trade (Structured Role Play Debate in Groups)

Activity 4 (plenary): Reaching consensus (Feedback from Debate)

activities and links to learning outcomes

Assessment

opportunities

Differentiation

Homework or extension tasks

» Activity 2 could be assessed if marking criteria are established and letters are collected in and marked. » Activity 3 and » Activity 4 (plenary) could be a group assessment either by one person in each group acting as an ‘observer’ or ‘assessor’ of the others (in groups of five rather than four), or through informal assessment of individual contributions to class discussion. » Activity 2: The letters from Pakistan and Singapore are more accessible and those from Tanzania and Trinidad and Tobago are more challenging. » Activity 3: Students needing extra support for group discussion work could work with a partner to represent a single country, with time beforehand to talk through the viewpoint of the country they represent. » Activity 4: Thorough questioning (level and challenge of question during feedback pitched to needs of individual students). Students could: Research a new country » Individually or in small groups, ask students to pick a Commonwealth country which is new to them – one they do not know very much about (all Commonwealth members are listed on the next page). You could ask students to carry out online research on their chosen country, using the Commonwealth Secretariat website ‘Country profiles’: www.thecommonwealth.org/s/YearbookHomePage/152099/country_profile » They could find out the following: 1 » Name of capital city 2 » Languages (official and local) 3 » Life expectancy 4 » Land area 5a » and 5b »Two facts they found particularly interesting or surprising Write a short briefing note » for the Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting describing the benefits and challenges of a consensus method for making decisions amongst Commonwealth countries. LESSON 2 PAGE 1 OF 4

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 2 » Diversity and the Commonwealth continued... Resources needed

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» Activity 1 (starter) and » Activity 4: Diverse Commonwealth PowerpPoint (2r1) » Activity 2: Commonwealth Letters (1 each or 1 per pair) (2r2); Blank World Maps (2r3) (a coloured-in world map is also included in this resource showing all the Commonwealth countries) » Activity 3: The Challenge of Trade briefing sheets (1 set per group of four students) (2r4)

» Full List of Commonwealth Countries (for possible research task) • Antigua and Barbuda • Bangladesh • Botswana • Canada • Fiji Islands • Grenada • Jamaica • Lesotho • Maldives • Mozambique • New Zealand • Papua New Guinea • St Lucia • Seychelles • Solomon Islands • Swaziland • Tuvalu • United Republic of Tanzania

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• Australia • Barbados • Brunei Darussalam • Cyprus • The Gambia • Guyana • Kenya • Malawi • Malta • Namibia • Nigeria • Rwanda • St Vincent & the Grenadines • Sierra Leone • South Africa • Tonga • Uganda • Vanuatu

• The Bahamas • Belize • Cameroon • Dominica • Ghana • India • Kiribati • Malaysia • Mauritius • Nauru • Pakistan • St Kitts and Nevis • Samoa • Singapore • Sri Lanka • Trinidad &Tobago • United Kingdom • Zambia

LESSON 2 PAGE 2 OF 4 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 2 » Introducing the Commonwealth

» Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 1 (starter): Diverse Commonwealth Quiz

0-10m

Use the Diverse Commonwealth PowerPoint (2r1), to get students thinking about the diversity amongst Commonwealth countries. Give students 10-20 seconds to write down their answer to the question on each slide. At the end, go through the answers (which are below), encouraging students to feedback on what they got right and wrong and what surprised them. Alternatively, you could make this a competitive activity by dividing the class into two teams and marking down the scores of each team with ticks and crosses for each quiz question they get right or wrong: the team with the highest number of correct answers wins the quiz. Diverse Commonwealth answers: 1 » What is the average temperature on 1st July? (Source: The Weather Channel – uk.weather.com) [NB You might want to award a point for ‘the temperature in Summer’ or ‘the temperature in July’ or similar.] 2 » (c) Uganda (Source: 2008 World Population Data Sheet, Population Reference Bureau)

3 » (b) Languages in use (Source: the country’s government or Ethnologue - www.ethnologue.com) 4 » (c) 5m (Source: www.cia.gov.uk)

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5 » Join the Commonwealth (Source: www.thecommonwealth.org)

» Activity 2: Commonwealth Letters

10-30

Give out the Commonwealth Letters (2r2) to students along with a blank world map (2r3). The letters are based on real letters written by young people in Commonwealth countries, detailing what their lives are like. Ask students to mark or shade in on the blank world map the country the letter is from. Then ask them to read the letter and reply to it, answering the questions within the letters. If you have time, ask students to feed back on the most interesting or surprising fact they have found out. Discuss with the class the similarities and differences students noted between their lives and the lives of the letter-writers and introduce the term ‘diversity’ (differences or variations between people in communities and societies) Emphasise that these narratives are not representative of all the people in that country, just like the students’ lives will be different from those of their peers and those of others around their country or region.

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2 r3

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 2 » Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 3: The Challenge of Trade

30-50m

Ask students to get into groups of four (any extra students should pair up with someone in a group). Give each group a set of ‘The Challenge of Trade briefing sheets’ (2r4). Ask each student to take one of the sheets without showing their sheet to the other members of the group. Explain that each student in the group represents the Minister for Trade from the country shown on their briefing sheet (2r4) (India, Ghana, Australia or Bangladesh). They will shortly be having a discussion in their group about trade. As part of the discussion, each member of the group will put forward the idea described on their sheet. They should do their best to explain their idea and persuade the other group members to support it. On each sheet there are also notes about the ideas they will not be keen to support.

Give students around 5 minutes of quiet time to read their sheet and ask any questions, and then 10-15 minutes for their discussion (more if you have time). By the end of the discussion, the aim is to have reached an agreement within the group on which idea they will go for. Explain that this is the way decisions are made at Commonwealth meetings – countries must reach agreement, which is called ‘consensus’. » At the end of the 10-15 minutes, stop the group discussion (even if students have not come to an agreement), and ask students to get out of role (it may help to ask them to move back to their original seats).

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» Activity 4 (plenary): Reaching consensus

50-60m

Ask students to discuss the following questions with a partner, (who ideally should have been in a different group for Activity 3): 1 » Did you reach consensus in your group? 2 » Why/why not? 3 » What are the advantages and disadvantages of making decisions like this? 4 » To what extent do you think the diversity of the Commonwealth might make reaching consensus easier or more difficult? 5 » What are the necessary qualities a person needs in order to work well with others? Which ones do you have? Which do you need to improve on? » You can also find these questions on the Diverse Commonwealth PowerPoint (2r1).

Give students five minutes of discussion time and then ask different pairs to feedback their views on different questions. If you have time, you could add an extra step before the class feedback, asking each pair to join another pair and share their answers. Emphasise that these sheets and ideas do not necessarily represent the views of the governments or people of the countries concerned: it is important not to fall back on stereotypes but to consider all new information with r1 an open mind.

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CommonGround guide

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LESSON 2 PAGE 4 OF 4 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


Div er se Co mm on we al th Po we rp oin t » Resource 2r1 » Please view PowerPoint presentation supplied on resource disk

» The Diverse Commonwealth PowerPoint presentation RESOURCE 2r1 PAGE 1 OF 1 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

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Co mm on we al th Let te rs » Resource 2r2 Baddomalhi Narowal Pakistan Dear Cousin,

out about my life in Pakistan, and to find bit a you tell to you to ite wr to I wanted about your life too.

My , very close to the border with India. I live in a village north-east of Lahore all the trees. Life here is very different from and s field en gre by d nde rou sur is age vill about in the big cities of Pakistan. My rd hea ly bab pro e hav you e nois and pollution is two storeys high. We have three it and , age vill the of tre cen the in house is located We also have a room that is for ms. hroo bat o tw and ge loun TV a , bedrooms, a kitchen live? and it’s on the top floor. Where do you guests. My bedroom is spacious and airy places in your village or town compare to other does How ? like room bed r you is at Wh ding? your country? Is there any overcrow

me up. ning the sunlight comes in and wakes My bedroom faces the east, so in the mor before tis, butter and milkwater for breakfast Once I am up, I usually have chapat fantastic My mother is a housewife. She is a ast? akf bre for e hav you do at Wh school. for for lunch, and dal (lentils) and rice les etab veg and tis pat cha es mak she cook and o etables. After school, I take our tw veg h fres e hav to y luck lly rea are dinner. We milk of the times I ride on the brown one. The buffaloes to the field for grazing and some tasks to really good to drink. Do you have any it’s – eet sw and h fres y ver is falo buf ernment in your spare time? Does the local gov do you do at Wh th? wi ily fam r help you big le in your area? My village has a peop ng you for es viti acti e vid pro else or anyone I play cricket and football. playing field, where my friends and al. In age that links us to Lahore and Narow vill our in ion stat y wa rail a is ere Th ere istians go for worship and a mosque wh Chr ere wh rch chu a also is e ther age our vill ns and Muslims live together in peace istia Chr . both e hav we – yer pra for Muslims go been the case in Pakistan. What ays alw not has this but e, her r othe and respect each Do they live peacefully together? religions do you have in your country? Write to me soon!

Love from,

Farhan

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P.S. Look at this coin from my country... Do you know what the crescent symbolises?

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Co mm on we al th Let te rs » Resource 2r2

! for you y t i c y of m A view

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Co mm on we al th Let te rs » Resource 2r2

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Co mm on we al th Let te rs » Resource 2r2

Tobago

a P.s I’ve drawn yo u y! map of my co untr

Trinidad

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WO RL D MA PS » Resource 2r3 » World map for students

» World map for students

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© Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

Tonga

Samoa

Kiribati

Bahamas

St Kitts & Nevis St Vincent & Grenadines Grenada

Belize Jamaica

Canada

The Gambia Sierra Leone

Antigua & Barbuda Dominica St Lucia Barbados Trinidad & Tobago

Guyana Ghana

United Kingdom

Cyprus

South Africa

Kenya

Mozambique

Malawi

Tanzania

Lethoso

Swaziland

Namibia Botswana

Zambia

Uganda Rwanda

Nigeria Cameroon

Malta

Mauritius

Seychelles

Maldives

Pakistan

Sri Lanka

India

Bangladesh

Malaysia Brunei Singapore

Australia

New Zealand

Nauru

Papa New Guinea Solomon Islands Vanatu

Fiji

Tuvalu

WO RL D MA PS » Resource 2r3

» World map for teacher reference

RESOURCE 2r3 PAGE 2 OF 2

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2r4 Th e Ch al len ge of Tr ad e Br ief ing Sh ee ts » Resource » Minister for Trade for Bangladesh

BANGLADESH

Trade for Bangladesh. You are the Minister for ve trade meeting and you ha You are at an international Government to try to get of been asked by your Head all) on the following idea: by nt me consensus (agree

LOPMENT BANK

COMMONWEALTH DEVE

(IMF) are ernational Monetary Fund The World Bank and the Int grants to d an ns loa tions that provide currently the main organisa help with their development. However, to countries around the world ed by organisations such as Greenpeace icis crit they have been strongly ts that harm giving loans out for projec for al on ati ern Int al rviv Su and r rather than help moting policies that hinde pro for or t en nm viro en the is a new countries. What is needed ment e som of nt me op vel de the op uld be a not-for-profit devel ladesh is an international bank that wo ng Ba s. ple nci pri h onwealt organisation rooted in Comm received a number of international aid s ha t tha try ny from the example of a coun past decades (including ma packages and loans over the op vel ment and de great progress in its de onwealth World Bank) and it has ma e assistance. A new Comm now relies very little on outsid to promote microfinance schemes, help links) that Development Bank would cture projects (e.g. transport similar way. tru ras inf d an s a new industrie in op wealth countries to devel would help many Common should set onwealth Ministers for Trade e loans mm Co the t tha Is » a ide Your uld giv Development Bank that wo onwealth. up a new Commonwealth mm Co the d un countries aro to nts gra nt me op vel de d an d would help to mmonwealth principles an Co in ted roo be uld wo is Th d the ment and democracy aroun promote diversity, develop Commonwealth. Ministers for Can you convince the other

a?

Trade to agree to your ide

Fairtrade because the idea of Commonwealth on n kee not are You te: Note: a very good job and it No de organisations are doing you think the current Fairtra e a different label on ople around the world to hav would be confusing for pe their products. rnational website ce.org.uk); the Survival Inte eace website (www.greenpea by M.G. Quibria enp Gre esh’ the glad Ban from in tion ness rma Info Effective 2r4 and the seminar paper ‘Aid ); l.org iona rnat df). linte sh.p rviva anglade (www.su nars/Aid-Effectiveness-in-B emi cs/s /do .edu nois s.illi (www.economic

2 r4 62

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2r4 Th e Ch al len ge of Tr ad e Br ief ing Sh ee ts » Resource » Minister for Trade for India

INDIA

at Trade for India. You are You are the Minister for en be ve ha u yo eting and an international trade me rnment to try to get ve Go of ad asked by your He all) on the following idea: consensus (agreement by

ROFINANCE

COMMONWEALTH MIC

ty and million people living in pover The Commonwealth has 640 helped out of poverty by microfinance, be mple, $20 these people can potentially amounts of money (for exa all sm y ver of g din len the n), to help which is income (particularly wome low y ver a on le op pe to or $100) verty. t could take them out of po them set up a business tha interest once id back to the lenders with pa ally du gra is y ne mo e Th t within the g. The microfinance marke nin run d an up is ess sin bu the er 100 billion US dollars. Commonwealth is worth ov should onwealth Ministers for Trade Your idea » is that the Comm es which have already been set up in em expand the microfinance sch siness Council to other countries all Bu h alt we on mm India by the Co h. alt we on mm around the Co wealth islation (laws) in all Common es leg by d nie pa om acc be This should ance schem ople taking part in microfin countries to ensure that pe very high interest rates. are not kept in poverty by to your idea? Ministers for Trade to agree Can you convince the other velopment idea of a Commonwealth De te: You are not keen on the Note: m the World fro ns No loa receive a lot of grants and institution Bank because you currently ting pe com to see this new bank as a the Bank, which would be likely of ers mb its financial support for me and might remove some of ad. India, if this idea goes ahe Commonwealth, including

action!’, onwealth Trade – time for ‘Summary Note on ‘Comm Information and statistics from site web riat monwealth Secreta ary.pdf; which is available on the Com TradersSeminar300910Summ les/231053/FileName/World www.thecommonwealth.org/fi site web lth Inclusive Growth Services and from the Commonwea cigs.in/index.php. ww. ://w http p” x.ph inde www.cigs.in/

2r4

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2r4 Th e Ch al len ge of Tr ad e Br ief ing Sh ee ts » Resource » Minister for Trade for Ghana

GHANA

at Trade for Ghana. You are You are the Minister for en be ve ha u yo eting and an international trade me rnment to try to get ve Go of ad asked by your He all) on the following idea: consensus (agreement by

COMMONWEALTH FAIR

TRADE

d other which chocolate is made) an ’s economy Ghana exports cocoa (from try un co e Th d the world. un aro s trie un co ny ma to lf of the produce ing), which provides over ha rm (fa ure ult ric ag on ly avi ople who relies he ough small landholders (pe thr stly mo t, en ym plo em ’s country . It is very land rather than vast areas) own and farm small plots of around the d ea spr is idea of Fairtrade important to ensure that the d society an my no t Ghana’s eco tec pro to er ord in h, alt we Common . untries in a similar position and also those of other co and suppliers and other local producers rs me far ere wh is e ad irtr Fa for their goods wers) are paid better prices gro le sca allsm rly ula rtic working (pa t show that they have good tha s ard nd sta et me st mu d bility in an s and work towards sustaina yee plo em ir the for ns itio nd co billion US tural environment. Over 4 na the g tin tec pro to on ati rel the world. are sold each year around cts du pro e ad irtr Fa of s llar do should set onwealth Ministers for Trade Your idea » is that the Comm mmonwealth Fair Trade’ which has ‘Co This would up a new certification called ployment and sustainability. em for s ard nd wealth and the highest sta on mm Fairtrade around the Co help to promote the idea of everywhere. improve the lives of people r idea?

ters for Trade to agree to you

Minis Can you convince the other

ealth Trade Bloc n on the idea of a Commonw kee not are You te: No te: No ents within the African with the free trade agreem because it might interfere have developed with od trading relationships you Union and also with the go States, China and France. the Netherlands, the United ; and the Fairtrade website: www.fairtrade.org.uk The Fairtrade Foundation l htm res. figu nd_ ts_a t/fac Information and statistics from trade.ne 2r4 rnational website: www.fair Labelling Organizations Inte

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2r4 Th e Ch al len ge of Tr ad e Br ief ing Sh ee ts » Resource » Minister for Trade for Australia

AUSTRALIA

are Trade for Australia. You You are the Minister for en be ve ha u yo d meeting an at an international trade t ge to try to nt vernme asked by your Head of Go all) on the following idea: by nt me consensus (agree

E BLOC

COMMONWEALTH TRAD

l reduce the tween countries that they wil be nt me ree ag an is c Blo ing ‘Free Trade A Trade mselves, for example by hav the en twe be de tra to rs barrie (or customs) to not charge each other taxes do y the ere wh ’ nts me ree Ag e an advantage elves. This means they hav trade goods between thems t in the agreement. Sometimes Trade no over other countries that are countries (so rderless travel between the bo ing hav as far as they may even Blocs extend and between them) vel tra to s visa t ge to e hav Union). people don’t le, the Euro in the European mp exa r (fo cy ren cur n mo ments with have a com gotiating) Free Trade Agree ne is (or has lia stra Au y, Alread . nd, Singapore and Malaysia countries such as New Zeala be equal in size were a Trade Bloc, it would fastest growing If the Commonwealth today ’s rld rteen of the wo thi e hav uld wo it ; tes Sta d US dollars. to the Unite nomy valued at over 45 trillion eco an e hav ld cou it and ; mmonwealth economies aller countries around the Co sm for ier eas ch mu it ke ma It would the spotlight quickly and it would bring re mo ch mu alth we in w anisation. to gro as a vibrant and relevant org alth we on mm Co the on ck ba should set up onwealth Ministers for Trade ich will help mm Co the t tha is » a ide Your a’ wh mmonwealth Free Trade Are n. As part of a Trade Bloc called the ‘Co tio uta rep and alth develop in we rrency’ that all Commonwealth countries Cu alth we on mm ‘Co even be a this Trade Bloc there could alth would use. members of the Commonwe nisters for Trade to agree to

Mi Can you convince the other

your idea?

alth Microfinance on the idea of Commonwe Note: You are not keen e been charging some t microfinance schemes hav because you have heard tha some recent suicides s that they may have led to people such high interest rate ealth Development onw the idea of a Comm on n kee y ver not are you o, onwealth Bank in India. Als has a bank called the ‘Comm ady alre lia stra Au se cau Bank be confusing. ity in names would be too (of Australia)’ and the similar t Cameron) ation website (article by Bren the Commonwealth Convers e) -trad -talk e-to -tim Information and Statistics from h-its ealt sation.org/2009/09/commonw 42020). (www.thecommonwealthconver w.economist.com/node/17 (ww site web ist nom Eco and from The

2r4

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 3 » Ideas of Common Wealth? Global Inequalities and Development Note - This lesson could be split into two for students to have more time to prepare and discuss: activities 1 and 2 in the first lesson, and activities 3 and 4 in the second lesson.

Lesson aims/key questions

Learning outcomes and key processes

Students will be able to: a » Identify different positions people might take on the global economy and global society (‘Common Wealth’) around the Commonwealth. b » Analyse some of the causes and effects of global inequalities. c » Recall at least three of the UN Millennium Development Goals. d » Evaluate some projects the Commonwealth and other global institutions might be able to implement in reducing global inequalities, including reference to funding constraints. e » Formulate, express and justify an opinion on global inequalities and/or development. Key processes: Critical thinking; empathising with others; discussion and debate; arguing a viewpoint other than your own; communicating ideas; listening to others; critically assessing your own view and others’ viewpoints; working with others to solve problems; an interest in global issues and current affairs.

Key words/

Global Inequalities | commonwealth | development | UN millennium development goals | global Institutions

Summary of

Activity 1 (starter): ‘Ideas of Common Wealth?’ Puzzle (Diagram to cut up and put back together)

Activity 2: Global Inequalities: Causes and Effects (Match-up task)

Activity 3: Millennium Development Goals Funding Board (Presentations in groups)

c» d»

Activity 4 (plenary): Values Continuum (Justifying opinions on a values scale)

concepts / terms

activities and links to learning outcomes

Assessment

opportunities

Differentiation

3 66

1 » What do we mean by Common Wealth? 2 » What are some of the causes and effects of global inequalities? 3 » What can the Commonwealth and other global institutions do to reduce global inequalities and promote global justice and development?

» Activity 2 could be assessed by marking the completed cause and effect sheets (3r2). This might be a good opportunity for peer assessment (students marking each others’ work). » Activity 3 could be a group assessment, graded when each group presents to the ‘funding board’. » Activity 1: The ‘Ideas of Common Wealth?’ diagram (3r1) has two forms: Puzzle X is more accessible as it focuses on the general principles, and Puzzle Y is more challenging as it identifies ideological descriptors such as ‘authoritarian’ and ‘libertarian’. Questions in the activity are ordered from the more accessible to the more challenging. » Activity 2: Sheet X contains more accessible ideas and Sheet Y contains more challenging ideas (3r2). » Activity 3: Students can support and challenge each other in their groups. » Activity 4: Thorough questioning (level and challenge of questions pitched to needs of individual students). Statements increase in their complexity from 1 to 10.

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 3 » Diversity and the Commonwealth continued...

Homework or extension tasks

Resources needed

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You could ask students to: » Research and discuss the ideas behind some of the more challenging terms on the ‘Ideas of Common Wealth?’ diagram (3r1) such as ‘authoritarian’, ‘libertarian’, ‘communitarian’, ‘regulation’, ‘competition’ and ‘unethical’, and the concepts of left and right wing. » Write a resource for primary school children explaining the causes and effects of global inequalities and outlining some possible solutions. » Write a letter to the government asking for more to be done about meeting the Millennium Development Goals and/or suggesting other ways of reducing global inequalities. » Write a one-minute speech justifying their opinion on one of the statements listed on the values continuum statement sheet (3r6). » Activity 1 (starter): ‘Ideas of Common Wealth?’ Puzzle (one per group of three-four students) (cut into irregular pieces for students to reassemble) (3r1). » Activity 2: Global Inequality Cause and Effect Sheets (one sheet each or one per pair of either Sheet X or Sheet Y - or both if you have more time) (3r2). » Activity 3: Millennium Development Goal Cards (one set per group of five-eight students) (need to cut out the cards or give students scissors to cut them out if time) (3r3); Funding Board Guidelines (3r4); Large sheets of paper and thick pens, or space to write on the board; Bundles of fake money (marked $100 million in total) if possible (3r5); stopwatch. » Activity 4: Values continuum statement sheet (3r6), long piece of string and agree/ disagree signs if possible, but not essential.

» Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 1 (starter): Ideas of Common Wealth? Puzzle Cut up the top half of the puzzle sheets (3r1) into irregular pieces and give one puzzle out to each group of three-four students. Ask students to reassemble the puzzle (which shows an economic/political spectrum illustrating the different ideologies and ideas of ‘Common Wealth’). Puzzle X is more accessible and Puzzle Y is more challenging in the ideas presented. Once students have assembled the diagram ask them to consider the following questions (or simply questions 1, 2 and 7 if you have less time), which are also listed on the bottom half of the sheets (3r1):

0-15m

 oes the diagram contain any ideas you have not come across before? Ring the words you are not sure 1»D about. If you can, try to work out what they mean using your group’s powers of logic and links to other ideas on the diagram. 2 » L ooking at the ideas in the speech bubbles, which ones do you most agree with? Why? 3 » L ooking at the statements in bold and italic to the left and right of the diagram (Money should be distributed according to need; Money should be distributed according to who has earned it), do you think you agree more with one or the other? Mark on the diagram where you might position yourselves between these two ideas. 4 » L ooking at the statements in bold and italic at the top and bottom of the diagram (There should be minimal government interference in people’s lives; Governments should look after the most vulnerable members of society), do you think you agree more with one or the other or both? Mark on the diagram where you might position yourselves between these two ideas.  re your combined answers to questions 3 and 4 in the same boxes as your positions in question 2? 5»A Discuss why / why not. Are these ideas easy to understand and explain?  hat do you understand by the term ‘Common Wealth’? 6»W  hat impact might international institutions, such as the United Nations and Commonwealth, 7»W have on the ideas presented in this diagram?

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 3 » Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 1 (starter): Ideas of Common Wealth? Puzzle continued... If you don’t have much time, you could simply present students with the sheets (3r1) without cutting them into puzzles. If you have more time you could ask students to consider some facts and figures about inequalities around the Commonwealth, for example: » The top 1% of the world’s adult population owns 40% of the world’s wealth. » The top 2% of the world’s adult population owns over 50% of the world’s wealth. » The top 10% of the world’s adult population owns 85% of the world’s wealth. » The bottom 50% of the world’s adult population owns around 1% of the world’s assets. World Institute for Development Economics Research (WIDER), www.wider.unu.edu 2006, based on data from 2000. • Canada has an average wealth (GDP (Gross Domestic Product) per person) of around $40,000. • India has an average wealth (GDP (Gross Domestic Product) per person) of around $3,000. International Monetary Fund, www.imf.org World Economic Outlook, 2010. • In the Seychelles, the share of the country’s income held by the richest 10% of people is 60%. The share of the country’s income held by the poorest 10% of people is 1.6% World Bank, http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.DST.10TH.10, 2007 • In the UK, the 50% least wealthy households account for only 9% of wealth, while the richest 20% own 62% of wealth. UK Office of National Statistics report, reported in Guardian article, www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/dec/10/ons-report-uk-wealth, 2009

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» Activity 2: Global Inequalities: Causes and Effects

15-25

Give out Sheets X and/or Y (3r2) to students, either individually or in pairs (these sheets contain ideas about the causes and effects of global inequalities that students have to match up. Sheet X contains more accessible ideas and Sheet Y contains more challenging ideas).

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Give students six to eight minutes to match up the chains of cause and effect so they can explain some of the main causes and effects of global inequality. If you have time, you could go through the answers as a class (perhaps using peer assessment) and discuss students’ responses to the ideas and questions presented on the sheets. » Ask them to consider the impacts international institutions, such as the United Nations and Commonwealth, might have on the causes and effects of global inequalities.

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 3 » Introducing the Commonwealth

» Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 3: The Millennium Development Goals Funding Board.

25-50m

Ask for three student volunteers. These are members of the Millennium Development Goals Funding Board. Give these students the Funding Board Guidelines (3r4) to look through – they have a number of important elements to consider before making their decision. Divide the other students into groups of five-eight and hand out the Millennium Development Goal Cards (3r3), cut up in advance if possible. Each group has to choose three UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and formulate a funding proposal that includes the following aspects: » The three Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) they have chosen. » How their three chosen MDGs are linked together and how they might help to reduce global inequalities. » A programme or project they would start up that would contribute to at least two out of their three chosen goals if they were given the funding. » How many people their programme might reach across the Commonwealth (which has around two billion people in it), how much it might cost per person, and the approximate total cost of their project or programme. Once they have decided on their goals and programme / project idea, it might be useful for students to divide their group into subgroups to prepare and present the four different elements listed above. Give students ten minutes or so to formulate their proposal (or read through Funding Board guidelines if they are the three volunteers). Let students know that the Funding Board have very limited time so each group’s presentation can be a maximum of one minute 30 seconds which will be strictly timed – but that they have large sheets of paper and thick pens (or a board) on which to display their proposal which will save them time during the presentations. Set up the room as if the Funding Board are in a formal meeting so that each group can present to the Board in turn. With all the students watching and the Funding Board seated in their places, ask each group in turn to present their proposal for one minute 30 seconds. Keep time using a stopwatch (or get one of the students from another group to do so) and cut each group off quite strictly if they attempt to run over.

Give the Funding Board one or two minutes to decide which projects to fund and how to distribute their $100 million (3r5) and ask them to justify their choice. » If there is time, discuss with students the extent to which these kinds of programmes might help efforts to reduce global inequalities – and the extent to which the money is actually available for such programmes (considering that UNAIDS calculates that there is a current 10 billion US dollar shortfall in funding for AIDS prevention and treatment on top of the 15 billion or so US dollars currently being spent on this: http://unaidstoday.org. » You might want to share with students the percentage of GDP (or actual amounts) the country they live in currently contributes towards, or receives for, global development as compared to other neighbouring countries. (Donor figures can be found on the UN Statistics Division website: Net ODA as percentage of OECD/DAC donors’ GNI - http://unstats.un.org/unsd/mdg/SeriesDetail.aspx?srid=568 - and recipient figures can be found on World Bank Data website: Net ODA received (% of GNI) - http://data.worldbank. org/indicator/DT.ODA.ODAT.GN.ZS). Are they surprised at this figure? » You could also share with students the annual global military expenditure (around 1500 billion US dollars per year according to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute: http://www.sipri.org/) as compared to the annual amounts spent on global development by the OECD Development Assistance Committee (around 120 billion US dollars per year according to the OECD website: http://www.oecd.org) How could we convince governments and businesses to spend less on weapons and more on development?

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» Activity 4 (plenary): Reaching Consensus

50-60m

Draw an imaginary line or stretch out a long piece of string across the classroom. Tell students that this is a Values Continuum and that one side means ‘agree’ and one means ‘disagree’. Read out a statement from the Values Continuum statement sheet (3r6) and ask students to stand in a position on the line in accordance with how much they agree or disagree with the statement. Then pick a couple of students (perhaps names out of a hat) to justify why they chose that position on the Values Continuum. If they give a particularly convincing justification, ask all students whether any of them wish to change their positions accordingly.

Read out as many of the statements as you have time for and get different students to justify their opinions for each statement. Talk to students about the flexibility of their opinions – even if they form an opinion today, with more information, dialogue and changing circumstances it is fine to change opinion, and this is an important part of diversity, development and democracy. » If you are short of time, you could give out copies of the Values Continuum tick sheets for students to complete themselves

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View p24-25 CommonGround guide

© Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

LESSON 3 PAGE 4 OF 4

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Ide as of Co mm on We al th Pu zz le X » Resource 3r1 » Ideas of commonwealth Fair trade between countries should be promoted, as this helps to stop businesses from making an unfair profit through unethical practices.

There should be minimal government interference in people’s lives.

Free trade is best for everyone! If businesses can develop without interference, in a competitive market, they will be much more efficient and innovative and the whole of society will benefit.

Money should be distributed according to need.

Money should be distributed according to who has earned it.

Business and trade should be strictly regulated (controlled) so that profit is not put before people’s needs. Countries should be fully supported in their development, including through appropriate forms of aid.

Governments should protect the most vulnerable people from being harmed in society, but generally global trade and competition is the best way to give everyone a better life.

Governments should look after the most vulnerable members of society.

1 » Does the diagram contain any ideas you have not come across before? Ring the words you are not sure about. If you can, try to work out what they mean using your group’s powers of logic and links to other ideas on the diagram. 2 » Looking at the ideas in the speech bubbles, which ones do you most agree with? Why? 3 » Looking at the statements in bold and italic to the left and right of the diagram (Money should be distributed according to need; Money should be distributed according to who has earned it), do you think you agree more with one or the other? Mark on the diagram where you might position yourselves between these two ideas. 4 » Looking at the statements in bold and italic at the top and bottom of the diagram (There should be minimal government interference in people’s lives; Governments should look after the most vulnerable members of society), do you think you agree more with one or the other or both? Mark on the diagram where you might position yourselves between these two ideas. 5 » Are your combined answers to questions 3 and 4 in the same boxes as your positions in question 2? Discuss why / why not. Are these ideas easy to understand and explain? 6 » What do you understand by the term ‘Common Wealth’? 7 » What impact might international institutions such as the United Nations and Commonwealth have on the ideas presented in this diagram? 8 » What is the role of Civil Society (for example charities, faith groups and non-governmental organisations) in speaking up on behalf of people in the Commonwealth?

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RESOURCE 3r1 PAGE 1 OF 2 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


Ide as of Co mm on We al th Pu zz le Y » Resource 3r1 » Ideas of commonwealth Individual/Anarchist

Fair trade between countries should be promoted, as this helps to stop businesses from making an unfair profit through unethical practices.

There should be minimal government interference in people’s lives.

Free trade is best for everyone! If businesses can develop without interference, in a competitive market, they will be much more efficient and innovative and the whole of society will benefit.

Social Right Socialist/ Communitarian Money should be distributed according to need.

Libertarian/ Individualist Economic Left

Business and trade should be strictly regulated (controlled) so that profit is not put before people’s needs. Countries should be fully supported in their development, including through appropriate forms of aid.

Economic Right

Social Left Governments should look after the most vulnerable members of society.

Collectivist/ Authoritarian

Money should be distributed according to who has earned it.

Governments should protect the most vulnerable people from being harmed in society but generally global trade and competition is the best way to give everyone a better life.

1»D  oes the diagram contain any ideas you have not come across before? Ring the words you are not sure about. If you can, try to work out what they mean using your group’s powers of logic and links to other ideas on the diagram. 2 » Looking at the ideas in the speech bubbles, which ones do you most agree with? Why? 3 » L ooking at the statements in bold and italic to the left and right of the diagram (Money should be distributed according to need; Money should be distributed according to who has earned it), do you think you agree more with one or the other? Mark on the diagram where you might position yourselves between these two ideas. 4 » L ooking at the statements in bold and italic at the top and bottom of the diagram (There should be minimal government interference in people’s lives; Governments should look after the most vulnerable members of society), do you think you agree more with one or the other or both? Mark on the diagram where you might position yourselves between these two ideas. 5»A  re your combined answers to questions 3 and 4 in the same boxes as your positions in question 2? Discuss why / why not. Are these ideas easy to understand and explain? 6 » What  do you understand by the term ‘Common Wealth’? 7»W  hat impact might international institutions such as the United Nations and Commonwealth have on the ideas presented in this diagram? 8»W  hat is the role of Civil Society (for example charities, faith groups and non-governmental organisations) in speaking up on behalf of people in the Commonwealth? RESOURCE 3r1 PAGE 2 OF 2 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

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72 The people suffering from these diseases become isolated and might lose their jobs or not be able to access treatments.

Without a proper infrastructure, food and supplies cannot be transported to people who need them around the country.

Islands and low-lying countries may face problems from rising sea levels and other effects of climate change.

The government may discriminate against certain groups of people (e.g. on grounds of gender, sexuality, skin colour or religion).

Conflicts between countries and civil wars within countries may cause governments to become unstable.

Governments of these countries must spend more money on flood defences and relocating displaced citizens.

If the government is unstable, it may be unable to control crime and pass laws to help protect people from harm.

Without an education, it is difficult for them to get more highly paid jobs and they may not be able to support their families if they become ill.

People may be frightened about diseases such as HIV/ AIDS. They are scared to talk about these diseases and a stigma develops around sufferers.

Goverments may not have money to spend on infrastructure (e.g. roads and public transport).

These groups of people may have less chance of getting jobs and looking after their families than other people in the country.

Effect

Children might not have access to schools or they might have to work instead to support their families.

Cause

Food prices might go up in areas which are not easy to get to, which means people who cannot afford the high prices might go hungry.

The general living standards of all citizens in these island states and low-lying countries goes down.

They may feel frustrated and develop hatred against these other people; conflicts between groups of people might result.

Many people have to leave their homes (becoming displaced persons or refugees) during conflict and may lose their money, possessions and livelihoods.

Without treatments, these people may pass the diseases on to their children. They may also die more quickly and their children might become orphaned.

If people become ill who have not been educated, they may not know how to access medical care to help themselves get better.

Effect

3» Can you summarise some of the main causes and effects of global inequality in around 100 words?

2» What effects might global institutions such as the United Nations and Commonwealth have on these causes and effects of global inequalities?

Mark down where you think this could happen.

1» Do some of the effects feed back into the causes, creating a ‘vicious circle’?

Global Inequality

Effect » Resource 3r2 s et She t ec Eff d an use Ca ty ali qu Ine l Glo ba

» Sheet X Draw arrows between the appropriate causes and effects of global inequality in chains leading from the left to the right of the page. The first is done for you.

RESOURCE 3r2 PAGE 1 OF 3

© Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


© Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

Powerful leaders may wish to gain more and more power. This might make them follow corrupt practices and also sabotage democratic elections.

Big companies might buy up land from local farmers to grow agricultural produce for consumers in richer areas (e.g. food and tobacco).

Farmers have to grow food and other products for the consumers rather than to feed the local community.

Companies trying to make a profit may avoid government regulations and exploit the country’s natural resources (e.g. food, oil, gemstones).

Countries cannot afford to pay back the loans for many years and just pay the lowest interest payments possible.

Corruption spreads down from leaders to other political representatives and lawmakers, judges, magistrates and the police force.

Governments in these countries might find it difficult to change people’s mindsets and control discrimination, crime and violence.

International banks and organisations may give huge loans to governments at a high rate of interest.

Governments may put a lot of money into fast industrialisation.

Where officials and businesses are corrupt and stealing money from the government and people, the whole of the country becomes poorer and crime increases.

Countries can spiral into debt, resulting in less money being spent on helping citizens, and even bankruptcy.

Poorer people in the country cannot afford the more expensive natural resources and they are bought by richer people across the world.

3» Can you summarise some of the main causes and effects of global inequality in around 100 words?

2» What effects might global institutions such as the United Nations and Commonwealth have on these causes and effects of global inequalities?

Mark down where you think this could happen.

1» Do some of the effects feed back into the causes, creating a ‘vicious circle’?

Violence, conflict and insecurity; huge cultural, social and economic differences between countries that used to run empires and those who were colonised.

Fewer natural resources means the prices go up.

Consumers in richer areas demand more and more produce and prices go up. Companies make a big profit but do not always pass this on to local farmers.

Global Inequality

Health problems and overcrowding in cities; environmental degradation.

Pollution from industry and migration to cities.

Historically, people in a number of countries have been dominated, enslaved and criminalised by colonial policies that are hard to escape from once the countries gain independence.

Effect

Effect

Effect

Cause

Gl ob al Ine qu al ity Ca us e an d Eff ec t She et s » Resou rce 3r2

» Sheet Y Draw arrows between the appropriate causes and effects of global inequality in chains leading from the left to the right of the page. The first is done for you.

RESOURCE 3r2 PAGE 2 OF 3

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» Resource 3r2 s et She t ec Eff d an use Ca ty ali qu Ine l Glo ba » Sheet X ANSWERS

Cause

Effect

Effect

Effect

Children might not have access to schools or they might have to work instead to support their families.

These groups of people may have less chance of getting jobs and looking after their families than other people in the country.

If people become ill who have not been educated, they may not know how to access medical care to help themselves get better.

Global Inequality

People may be frightened about diseases such as HIV/ AIDS. They are scared to talk about these diseases and a stigma develops around sufferers.

Without an education, it is difficult for them to get more highly paid jobs and they may not be able to support their families if they become ill.

Without treatments, these people may pass the diseases on to their children. They may also die more quickly and their children might become orphaned.

Islands and low-lying countries may face problems from rising sea levels and other effects of climate change.

The people suffering from these diseases become isolated and might lose their jobs or not be able to access treatments.

Many people have to leave their homes (becoming displaced persons or refugees) during conflict and may lose their money, possessions and livelihoods.

The government may discriminate against certain groups of people (e.g. on grounds of gender, sexuality, skin colour or religion).

Without a proper infrastructure, food and supplies cannot be transported to people who need them around the country.

They may feel frustrated and develop hatred against these other people; conflicts between groups of people might result.

Governments may not have money to spend on infrastructure (e.g. roads and public transport).

If the government is unstable, it may be unable to control crime and pass laws to help protect people from harm.

The general living standards of all citizens in these island states and low-lying countries goes down.

1» Do some of the effects feed back into the causes, creating a ‘vicious circle’? Mark down where you think this could happen. 2» What effects might global institutions such as the United Nations and Commonwealth have on these causes and effects of global inequalities?

Governments of these countries must spend more money on flood defences and relocating displaced citizens.

Food prices might go up in areas which are not easy to get to, which means people who cannot afford the high prices might go hungry.

3» Can you summarise some of the main causes and effects of global inequality in around 100 words?

Cause

Effect

Effect

Effect

Historically, people in a number of countries have been dominated, enslaved and criminalised by colonial policies that are hard to escape from once the countries gain independence.

Pollution from industry and migration to cities.

Health problems and overcrowding in cities; environmental degradation.

Global Inequality

Fewer natural resources means the prices go up.

Violence, conflict and insecurity; huge cultural, social and economic differences between countries that used to run empires and those who were colonised.

International banks and organisations may give huge loans to governments at a high rate of interest.

Governments in these countries might find it difficult to change people’s mindsets and control discrimination, crime and violence.

Consumers in richer areas demand more and more produce and prices go up. Companies make a big profit but do not always pass this on to local farmers.

Companies trying to make a profit may avoid government regulations and exploit the country’s natural resources (e.g. food, oil, gemstones).

Farmers have to grow food and other products for the consumers rather than to feed the local community.

Poorer people in the country cannot afford the more expensive natural resources and they are bought by richer people across the world.

Conflicts between countries and civil wars within countries may cause governments to become unstable.

» Sheet Y ANSWERS

Governments may put a lot of money into fast industrialisation.

Big companies might buy up land from local farmers to grow agricultural produce for consumers in richer areas (e.g. food and tobacco). Powerful leaders may wish to gain more and more power. This might make them follow corrupt practices and also sabotage democratic elections.

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Corruption spreads down from leaders to other political representatives and lawmakers, judges, magistrates and the police force.

Countries can spiral into debt, resulting in less money being spent on helping citizens, and even bankruptcy.

Countries cannot afford to pay back the loans for many years and just pay the lowest interest payments possible.

Where officials and businesses are corrupt and stealing money from the government and people, the whole of the country becomes poorer and crime increases.

1» Do some of the effects feed back into the causes, creating a ‘vicious circle’? Mark down where you think this could happen. 2» What effects might global institutions such as the United Nations and Commonwealth have on these causes and effects of global inequalities? 3» Can you summarise some of the main causes and effects of global inequality in around 100 words?

RESOURCE 3r2 PAGE 3 OF 3 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


Mil len niu m De ve lop me nt Go al Ca rd s » Resource 3r3 Goal » 1 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

Goal » 2 Achieve universal primary education

By improving poor people’s incomes; raising employment for all; and reducing hunger.

By making sure all girls and boys are able to complete a full course of primary schooling.

1

Goal » 3 Promote gender equality and empower women

2

Goal » 4 Reduce child mortality rate

By reducing the differences between the access of men and women to education, employment and roles of political power.

By reducing the under-five mortality rate (how many children die before the age of five).

4

3

Goal » 5 Improve maternal health

Goal » 6 Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases

By reducing the maternal mortality ratio (how many women die during childbirth); and improving access to reproductive health (e.g. contraceptives, family planning and medical care).

By reversing the spread of HIV/AIDS; improving access to HIV/AIDS treatments and drugs; and reversing the spread of malaria and other major diseases.

Goal » 7 Ensure environmental sustainability

Goal » 8 Develop a global partnership for development

5

By putting sustainability into government policies; reducing the loss of biodiversity (plants and animals); improving access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation; and improving the lives of slum-dwellers.

7

6

By developing good systems for global trading, and poverty and debt reduction; addressing the special needs of the poorest countries and small island states; working with private companies to improve access to affordable and essential medicines and new technologies such as mobile telephones, computers and the internet. 8

Your Task » Try to get the Millennium Development Goals Funding Board to give you funding for your proposed programme or project. You will have one minute and thirty seconds only to present to the board. Your presentation should include the following aspects: » The three Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) you have chosen. » How your three chosen MDGs are linked together and how they might help to reduce global inequalities. »A  programme or project you would start up that would contribute to at least two out of your three chosen goals if you were given the funding. »H  ow many people your programme might reach across the Commonwealth (which has around 2 billion people in it), how much it might cost per person, and the approximate total cost of your project or programme. Once you have decided on your goals and programme / project idea, it might be useful to divide your group into subgroups to prepare and present the four different elements listed above. RESOURCE 3r3 PAGE 1 OF 1 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

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Fu nd ing Bo ar d Gu ide lin es » Resource 3r4 » Millennium Development Goals Funding Board Guidelines

You are the Millennium Development Goals Funding Board. You have $100 million to allocate by the end of this meeting. Your aim is to help reduce global inequalities by contributing towards programmes or projects that support two or more of the UN Millennium Development Goals. A number of groups will present their proposals to you, which should each consist of the following elements: • The three Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) they have chosen. • How their three chosen MDGs are linked together and how they might help to reduce global inequalities. •A  programme or project they would start up that would contribute to at least two out of their three chosen goals if they were given the funding. •H  ow many people their programme might reach across the Commonwealth (which has around two billion people in it: 2,000,000,000 people), how much it might cost per person, and the approximate total cost of their project or programme. The Eight UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are as follows: Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger… by improving poor people’s incomes; raising employment for all; and reducing hunger. Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education… by making sure all girls and boys are able to complete a full course of primary schooling. Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women… by reducing the differences between the access of men and women to education, employment and roles of political power. Goal 4: Reduce child mortality rate… by reducing the under-five mortality rate (how many children die before the age of five). Goal 5: Improve maternal health… by reducing the maternal mortality ratio (how many women die during childbirth); and improving access to reproductive health (e.g. contraceptives, family planning and medical care). Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases… by reversing the spread of HIV/ AIDS; improving access to HIV/AIDS treatments and drugs; and reversing the spread of malaria and other major diseases. Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability… by putting sustainability into government policies; reducing the loss of biodiversity (plants and animals); improving access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation; and improving the lives of slum-dwellers. Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development… by developing good systems for global trading, and poverty and debt reduction; addressing the special needs of the poorest countries and small island states; working with private companies to improve access to affordable and essential medicines and new technologies such as mobile telephones, computers and the internet.

please turn over...

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Fu nd ing Bo ar d Gu ide lin es » Resource 3r4 » Millennium Development Goals Funding Board Guidelines continued...

Before watching the presentations, make sure you consider: - Which of the MDGs do you think will have the most impact on reducing global inequalities and why? - Which ones will be easier to achieve and why? After watching each presentation, your task is to decide which projects to fund and how much money (out of the $100 million) to give to each project. If they have asked for more money than this you can still give them a smaller amount and ask them to modify (change) their project or programme accordingly. Make sure you give good reasons for your decisions to fund or not to fund the different projects presented to you. Your reasons for giving funding might include: • The project or presentation contains all the information you needed to help you make your decision. •T  he project is not too narrow (it will help a good number of people, in a range of countries around the Commonwealth) •T  he project is not too wide (it is not trying to help so many people that it would not end up making a difference) • The project is not too short-term (it will not just help people temporarily and have no lasting / sustainable impact) • The project is not too long-term (it will start making a difference soon rather than many years into the future when the global situation might have changed) • The project is not too likely to breed corruption (it does not make small numbers of people so powerful that they might steal the money or use it only to help themselves) • The project (or a modified version) fits into your limited budget ($100 million) and will make a big difference in reducing inequalities for people around the Commonwealth.

It might be useful to divide these guidelines among the members of the Funding Board so you are each focusing on a few different elements during the presentations. Try to be constructive in your feedback (for example, give suggestions for how they could improve their proposal next time if they didn’t receive funding). Good luck!

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Va lu es Co nt inu um St at em en t Sh ee ts » Resource 3r6 » Values Continuum Statement Sheet For each statement decide on how much you AGREE or DISAGREE and situate yourself somewhere along the values continuum. Be ready to justify your decision! The Millennium Development Goals will make a big difference in tackling global inequalities.

DISAGREE IN-BETWEEN AGREE

Healthcare should be a bigger priority than the environment. Education should be a bigger priority than healthcare. Military defence is more important than global development. The Commonwealth could be a useful organisation to help reduce global inequalities. There is nothing we as individuals can do to resolve global inequalities. Giving aid to governments is an effective way to reduce global inequalities. The debts of poorer countries should all be cancelled. There should be minimal government interference in people’s lives. Money should be distributed according to who needs it rather than who has earned it.

1 copy per student

Va lu es Co nt inu um St at em en t Sh ee ts » Resource 3r6 » Values Continuum Statement Sheet For each statement decide on how much you AGREE or DISAGREE and situate yourself somewhere along the values continuum. Be ready to justify your decision! The Millennium Development Goals will make a big difference in tackling global inequalities.

DISAGREE IN-BETWEEN AGREE

Healthcare should be a bigger priority than the environment. Education should be a bigger priority than healthcare. Military defence is more important than global development. The Commonwealth could be a useful organisation to help reduce global inequalities. There is nothing we as individuals can do to resolve global inequalities. Giving aid to governments is an effective way to reduce global inequalities. The debts of poorer countries should all be cancelled. There should be minimal government interference in people’s lives. Money should be distributed according to who needs it rather than who has earned it.

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 4 » Development and the Commonwealth: Education Note - This lesson could be split into two for students to have more time to prepare and discuss: activities 1 and 2 in the first lesson, and activities 3 and 4 in the second lesson.

Lesson aims/key questions

Learning outcomes and key processes

Students will be able to: a » Define three key terms in relation to education. b » Explain why education is important for development. c » Outline current progress towards meeting MDGs 2, 3 and 4 (education, gender and child mortality). d » Give an example of an action they can take to help meet the Millennium Development Goals. Key processes: Critical thinking; research; discussion and debate; communicating ideas; feeling empowered to make a difference; active involvement in the community (local and global); an interest in global issues and current affairs.

Key words/

concepts / terms

Education | gender | development | Commonwealth | empowerment | enrolment | indicator inequality | literacy rate | ratio | universal primary education.

Summary of

Activity 1 (starter): Education Bingo (Defining Key Terms)

Activity 2: Progress on MDGs 2, 3 and 4: Choice of Tasks (Poster-making or film-watching)

b» c»

Activity 3: Education Carousel (Paired Discussion)

Activity 4 (plenary): Education for All Postcards (Taking Action)

activities and links to learning outcomes

Assessment

opportunities

Differentiation

Homework or extension tasks

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1 » Why is education important for development? 2 » What are the Millennium Development Goals relating to education and gender aiming to achieve? How are countries progressing on these goals? 3 » What can we in the Commonwealth do to address inequalities in education and gender?

» Activity 1 (starter) can be an informal assessment of students’ prior knowledge of the key terms. » Activity 2 could involve teacher or peer assessment of the posters. » Activity 4 (plenary) can involve teacher or peer assessment by marking the postcards according to a set of defined criteria. » Activity 2 contains a choice of tasks. The 15-minute online talk is fairly challenging as it contains some formal and statistical language, but is generally presented in an accessible way, particularly with the moving graphs around half way through. The poster task has four questions which increase in complexity from question 1 which has the most accessible briefing materials (4r2), to question 4 which has the most challenging briefing materials (4r2). Students could either pick a question themselves or you could allocate each group a question. » Activity 3 also contains questions of varied complexity which you can choose from. You could ask students to: » (If they have made posters in Activity 2) Add more detail to their posters through extended research, perhaps using some extra country case studies from around the Commonwealth. The United Nations website is most useful here, including the following pages: www.un.org/millenniumgoals/education.shtml | www.mdgmonitor.org/goal2.cfm www.un.org/millenniumgoals/gender.shtml www.mdgmonitor.org/goal3.cfm » (If they have watched the talk in Activity 2) Write a letter to Hans Rosling explaining what they thought of his presentation and describing in detail the actions they think the world should take to resolve the global inequalities he describes. » Following Activity 4, students could research the address they need for their postcard – and post it!

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 4 » Development and the Commonwealth: Education continued... Resources needed

1 r2

» Activity 1 (starter): Education Bingo Definitions (4r1) (one for teacher) » Activity 2: Millennium Development Goal Progress Briefing Sheets (4r2) (one per group of students – groups of any size), Large paper and pens to draw posters, Audio-visual equipment (e.g. internet connection, computer, projector and audio). » Activity 3: Bell or whistle, if available. » Activity 4: Blank postcards (one per student)

» Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 1 (starter): Education Bingo

0-10m

Ask students to each draw a grid with six squares. Display the following key words, and ask them to pick six, and write them into their grid, one word per box.

Read out the definitions (listed on resource 4r1) one at a time, at random, without stating the term itself. If students have listed the word you describe in their grid, they should cross it out. The winner is the first person to have crossed out all six words in their grid – they should shout out ‘bingo’! Check the winner knows the definition of each of the words and if they do, they have won the game! (If not, you can carry on until the next person shouts ‘bingo!’.) » Development; Education; Empowerment; Enrolment; Gender; Indicator; Inequality; Literacy rate; Ratio; Universal

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» MDGs 2 and 3: Choice of Tasks

10-30m

If you have audio-visual equipment available (e.g. internet connection, computer, projector and audio) available, tell students they have a choice of tasks. If you have a big enough space and/or can physically divide the students without the groups disturbing each other, you could have both tasks going on at the same time. If not, you could get the students to come to a consensus on which activity they would like to do. Task A » Hans Rosling Millennium Development Goal Progress Online Talk Get students sitting comfortably in front of the film, which can be accessed directly at: www.ted.com/talks/hans_rosling_the_good_news_of_the_decade.html or by typing in: “Hans Rosling: The good news of the decade?” into the search box at TED Talks: www.ted.com/talks The online talk is around 15 minutes long and it is best to watch it in one sitting if possible, although it can be stopped and started to check students understand specific terms if necessary. Ask students to take particular note of Hans Rosling’s references to education and gender. In the talk he uses statistics to illustrate how child mortality can be effectively reduced through the education of girls and other social factors. He also challenges the prevailing notions of the ‘developing’ and ‘Western’ worlds, showing how different two or three countries within an area of the world such as Sub-Saharan Africa can be.

When they have watched the talk, get students to note down their initial thoughts, then have a brief discussion about what they found out from the talk. How do they think different countries are progressing on Millennium Development Goals 2, 3 and 4? Is it helpful to categorise countries into regions or levels of development? Task B » MDG Progress posters Divide the rest of the class into groups. There are four topics to cover, and so there should be at least 4 groups – but you could have more and give more than one group the same topic. Distribute poster paper, pens, and a briefing sheet (from 4r2) to each group (see below for the briefing material needed by each group): 1 » What is MDG 2 and why is it important? (MDG 2 Briefing sheet* (4r2a)) 2 » Where do we stand in achieving MDG 2? (Goal 2 Factsheet* (4r2b)) 3 » What is working in achieving MDG 2? (Goal 2 Factsheet *(4r2b)) 4 » Where do we stand and what is working in achieving gender equality in education? (Goal 3 Factsheet* (4r2c)) Each group has 15 minutes to create a clear, eye-catching poster which answers the question they have been given. If you have time available, students could then present their posters to the class. * with thanks to the UN Department of Public Information © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 4 » Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 3: Education Carousel

30 50m

Arrange the chairs in the classroom so you have two concentric circles (or as close to this as possible!), with pairs of chairs facing each other. Ask students to take a seat, facing a partner. Explain that they will shortly hear a question, and have one minute to discuss the question in their pair. In that time, both partners should have made at least one point. When the minute is up they will hear a sound (a bell or whistle) and should stop talking immediately. The students sitting on the outside circle will then move one seat to their right. They will hear another question…. and so the process repeats itself. You should have enough time to ask five or six of the questions for students to discuss. If you have more time, do extend their talking time so their discussions can be a little deeper. Carousel questions – adapt and add to these for your group as desired: 1 » Why is primary education important to individuals? 2 » What are some of the reasons why children might drop out of school once they have started? 3 » What are some of the barriers in preventing girls attending school? 4 » What can be done to encourage more girls to attend school? 5 » Are there other groups of people who might be less likely to attend school? (e.g. children with disabilities?) 6 » What can be done to ensure these groups are able to attend school? 7 » Why is having universal primary education important for a country? 8 » What can we do, individually or together, to help meet MDG 2?

» Activity 4 (plenary): Education for all postcards Ask students to feedback to the class their ideas on the final question from the carousel (What can we do, individually or together, to help meet MDG 2 (Education for All)?). Encourage the group to consider who in their country has the power to make decisions about how much support is given to reaching the MDGs.

50-60m

Can they name any of these decision makers? How could they influence the decisions these individuals take? Throughout this two- or three-minute discussion, try to steer the group to consider the value of giving their viewpoint in writing, to select someone they think it would be useful to write to, and to consider what they would write. » Distribute a blank postcard to each student. Challenge them to write their message in five minutes. Decide as a class what to do with the postcards: you could put them up in the classroom, but it would be even better if students could actually post them to someone who can take direct action on these issues.

View p26-27 CommonGround guide

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Ed uc at ion Bin go De fin iti on s » Resource 4r1 » Education Bingo Definitions

Development A process of growing and changing; in the international sense this generally refers to improving people’s access to health, education, wealth and technologies in countries around the world. Education A process for acquiring knowledge, skills and other capabilities, usually though a system involving teachers and students. Empowerment A process of growing in power, ability and confidence. Enrolment  Being registered or entered into a system: for example, being registered at a school or college. Gender What it means to be male or female in a society or culture. Indicator A specific measure that provides a clue or sign to a bigger change: for example, one of these for poverty might be how many people are living on less than $1 per day. Inequality A situation where things are unequal or unjust. Literacy rate The percentage of people (usually over 15), in a given area or country, who can read and write. Ratio The relationship between two numbers: for example, there is an average one of these of one woman to every four men in national parliaments around the world. Universal Applying to everyone or everything: for example, achieving this for primary education means making sure everyone gets to go to primary school.

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our Mil len niu m Dev elo pm ent Goa l 2 Br ief ing She et » Res » Your poster should answer this question: What is MDG 2 and why is it important?

Millennium Development Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education

Why is it important? Many people argue that education is crucially important in its own right – everyone should be educated just because that will be a good thing! However, there is also a strong connection between education and the other MDGs, so it is called an ‘enabler’: education enables people to change their own lives for the better. Education acts as an enabler to achieve many of the other MDGs. Education gives people the power to change their lives, the lives of their children and the lives of others in their communities. Education therefore contributes towards the development of communities and societies. For example: • One extra year of schooling increases an individual’s earnings by up to 10%. • Education helps to empower women, for example giving them more control over how many children they have. An extra year of female schooling reduces fertility rates (how many children the average woman has) by 10%. • Educated individuals are more likely to make healthy decisions for themselves and their families. A child born to a mother who can read is 50% more likely to survive past the age of 5. Children of mothers with secondary education or higher are twice as likely to survive beyond the age of 5. For example, in Malawi, 27% of women with no education know that HIV transmission risks (passing HIV from mother to child during pregnancy) can be reduced by mothers taking drugs during pregnancy. For women with a secondary education, the figure rises to 59%.

How can it be measured? International and national statistical experts have selected indicators which can be used to provide clues or signs on the progress being made towards meeting the MDGs. For MDG 2 there are three indicators: • 2.1 Net enrolment ratio in primary education (this is the ratio of the number of children of official school age who are enrolled in primary school to the total number of children of official school age in the population – i.e. how many children are enrolled in school in relation to the number who should be) • 2.2 Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach last grade of primary (this is the number of children who finish their primary education, generally from around 5 years old to around 11 years old) • 2.3 Literacy rate of 15-24 year-olds, women and men (this is the percentage of 15-24 year old women and men who can read and write out of the total number of 15-24 year olds in the population) As described above, MDG 2 is crucial in helping meet many of the other MDGs. It is so important that MDG 3, which aims to promote gender equality and empower women, has one of its three indicators about education as well: • 3.1 Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education (this is the number of girls who are in school and college compared to the number of boys) Statistical Information from UNESCO Education For All Global Monitoring Report: www.efareport.unesco.org With thanks to the UN Department of Public Information

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Mil len niu m Dev elo pm ent Goa l 2 Fac tsh eet » Resour » Your poster should answer this question: Where do we stand in achieving MDG 2?

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Mil len niu m Dev elo pm ent Goa l 2 FAC T She et » Resour » Continued...

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Mil len niu m Dev elo pm ent Goa l 3 Fac tsh eet » Resour

» Your poster should answer this question: Where do we stand and what is working in achieving gender equality in education?

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ource 4r2c »nRes 1r2 sso Leet She » ing ief S Br CE 3 l UR Goa SO RE ent OL pm HO elo SC Dev m th al niu we len Mil Co mm on » Continued...

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 5 » The Commonwealth, Development and Global Health: The Problem of Malaria Note - This lesson could be split into two for students to have more time to prepare and discuss: activities 1 and 2 in the first lesson, and activities 3 and 4 in the second lesson.

Lesson aims/key questions

Learning outcomes and key processes

1 » What is malaria? Where and why is malaria a problem? 2 » How can malaria be prevented and treated? 3 » How are diseases and development related? Students will be able to: a » Describe three facts about malaria. b » Explain two reasons why malaria is a problem around the world. c » Formulate and justify an opinion on the best methods to prevent malaria. d » Analyse how diseases and development are related. Key processes: Critical thinking; research; empathising with others; advocacy and representation; discussion and debate; communicating ideas; listening to others; critically assessing your own view and others’ viewpoints; presenting a persuasive case for action; working with others to solve problems.

Key words/

concepts / terms

Commonwealth | development | health | malaria | prevention | insecticide | prophylactic | drugs | vaccine | mosquito nets | education | immunity | vector | parasite |

Summary of

Activity 1 (starter): Five things I know about malaria…

Activity 2: Create an Expert Report for the Commonwealth Health Ministers

Activity 3: Presentations to the Commonwealth Health Ministers

c» d»

Activity 4 (plenary): Vote and closing session

activities and links to learning outcomes

Assessment

opportunities

Differentiation

» Activity 1 (starter) can include informal assessment of individual feedback to class. » Activity 3 and Activity 4 (plenary) can include student peer-to-peer feedback and could also include formal assessment of group presentations. » Activity 1 (starter) and Activity 4 (plenary): level and challenge of questioning during feedback can be pitched to needs of individual students. » Activity 2: The Malaria Prevention student briefing sheets (5r2) present differing levels of complexity: Briefings A to C contain more accessible material and Briefings D to F contain more challenging material.

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 5 » The Commonwealth, Development and Global Health: The Problem of Malaria continued...

Homework or

» Research more about malaria (online or in textbooks or newspapers) and investigate the reasons why medicines and treatments may not be readily available in some countries (for example, inequalities in access to healthcare and shortages of healthcare workers; discrimination; funding problems for the distribution of medicines and nets; and the controversial issues around the protection of intellectual property and restrictive patenting of drugs by some pharmaceutical companies). More information can be found at the following websites: World Health Organisation: www.who.int/topics/malaria/en Wellcome Trust: http://malaria.wellcome.ac.uk/ United Nations: www.un.org/millenniumgoals/aids.shtml Malaria No More: www.malariapolicycenter.org/index.php/resources/malaria_facts » Examine Millennium Development Goal 6 (Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases) and evaluate the likelihood of achieving Target 6.c: “Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases”. You can download the most recent Millennium Development Goals Progress Report from the United Nations website www.un.org/millenniumgoals/reports.shtml, which is also a useful source for monitoring the indicators on each goal. » Write a written report as a Commonwealth Health Minister about the meeting in Activity 3 to take back to their government, explaining the key messages of the session and recommendations for the government » Write a newspaper article, from the perspective of a journalist attending the Commonwealth Health Ministers’ meeting (Activity 3), explaining what was discussed and the decisions ministers made. » Write to their own political representative (e.g. their Member of Parliament or Health Minister) asking them to do more to help deal with the problems of malaria around the world.

Resources needed

» Activity 1 (starter): Teacher Briefing resource links www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs094/en http://malaria.wellcome.ac.uk); Malaria Introductory PowerPoint (5r1), if needed. » Activity 2: Malaria Prevention Student Briefing Sheets (5r2) (based on the above sources) (one sheet for each group where class divided into six groups). » Activity 3: Student Feedback Sheets (5r3) (one each) (if required); Stopwatch / Timer.

extension tasks

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 5 » Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 1 (starter): Five things I know about malaria…

0-10m

Working individually or in pairs, challenge students to write down five facts that they know about malaria. They have three minutes! When time is up, ask students to feed back some of their ideas to the class. Encourage students to explain what they say and ask the rest of the class whether they agree. Where students give incorrect information, provide the correct information yourself where you can (the Teacher Briefing resource links and Malaria Introductory PowerPoint (5r1) may help with this). If you can, encourage students to think about the causes, symptoms, and impact of malaria. If students find it difficult to think of facts about malaria, you could go through the Malaria Introductory PowerPoint (5r1) with them and discuss whether each slide relates to a cause, a symptom, an impact or a potential remedy for malaria.

5 r1

» Activity 2: Create an Expert Report for Commonwealth Health Ministers

10 25m

Split the class into six groups. Distribute the Malaria Prevention Student Briefing Sheets (5r2), one to each group. Ask students to imagine that they have been selected as malarial experts to speak to the next meeting of Commonwealth Health Ministers. This meeting is an opportunity for Ministers from a range of different countries around the Commonwealth to hear about different methods of malarial prevention, and consider which methods their governments should invest in (within their own countries or through aid to other countries). Each group will make a three minute presentation, outlining the prevention method they have been given. They must: » Introduce the prevention method » Explain how/why it works (how does it prevent/reduce illness or deaths) » Outline its benefits and disadvantages (e.g. effectiveness, ease of use, cost) » Give one main reason why combating malaria will contribute to development (e.g. think about how such problematic diseases might affect the workings of the health and education systems of a country) Explain to students that there is information to help them on the briefing sheets (5r2). However, not all the points are useful and relevant – they need to use this briefing sheet as a starting point rather than a complete text to read out. As they prepare their speeches, encourage students to consider: » The most appropriate form of speech for a meeting of international politicians (for example, they should use formal language) » How they can ensure that they are clear and informative » How they will split the presentation within the group (will they choose a lead spokesperson or take turns presenting part of their speech?) The above instructions are also outlined on the briefing sheets (5r2). Students have ten minutes to prepare their speeches. If you have more time and access to the Internet, give students time to carry out their own research for their speeches – the World Health Organisation, Wellcome Trust and UN Millennium Development Goal 6 websites are a good place to start. They could think about the potential effects of malaria and other diseases on some of the following issues of local and global concern: politics; economics; media; business; community; families; relationships; environment; religion; culture; globalisation; travel; education; law; international relations; science; technologies; communications; infrastructure; architecture; employment; r2 and demographics (population).

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 5 » Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 3: Presentations to Commonwealth Health Ministers You may want to rearrange the furniture to represent a meeting of Commonwealth Health Ministers, with a space for presentations at the front of the room and the audience facing this area. As each group presents, the rest of the class will form the audience of Health Ministers. If you have time, you could assign each student a different country to represent as Health Minister. You could also give out the student feedback sheets (5r3) if you think you will have time at the end of the lesson for students to feed back to each other about their presentations. The teacher (or a selected student) will act as chair, and should open the meeting in role – welcoming the Health Ministers and explaining the aim of the session. Each group in turn will then give their presentation. Make sure you time the presentations to no more than three minutes if lesson time is limited!

10-25m

5 r3

» Activity 4: Vote and closing session The chair draws the presentations to a close, thanking the speakers and explaining that: »H  ealth Ministers will now be asked to vote on the method of prevention they will recommend their government invests in (within their own country or for other countries in the form of aid) »M  inisters have one vote, which they can use for any of the six methods, or for a seventh category: ‘a mixed approach’. »W  hatever they vote for, Ministers must be prepared to justify their choice. If they choose a mixed approach they will need to be able to explain which mix of methods they would invest in and why.

50 60m

Ask students to vote, and then encourage a range of Health Ministers (students) to feed back their reasons. You could pick names out of a hat to decide who to call on, ask for volunteers, or ask one student per group. If there is time, follow up by asking individual Ministers to respond to some closing questions, for example: » Why do you think it is important to invest in malarial prevention? » How is malaria (and other diseases) linked to development? » What can we do to help with this global problem? Finally, if you have time, you could ask students to constructively feed back to each other on the group presentations using the student feedback sheets (5r3) as a prompt.

5 r3 View p26

CommonGround guide

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Ma la ria Int ro du ct or y Po we rp oin t » Resource 5r1 » Please view PowerPoint presentation supplied on resource disk

» Malaria an introduction PowerPoint presentation

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» Resource 5r2 s et She ing ief Br nt de stu ion ent ev pr ia Malar » A: Mosquito nets

GROUP A

Commonwealth Health Ministers

You have been selected as malarial experts to speak to the next meeting of Commonwealth Health Ministers. This meeting is an opportunity for Ministers from a range of different countries around the Commonwealth to hear about different methods of malarial prevention, and consider which methods their governments should invest in (within their own countries or through aid to other countries). Your group will make a three minute presentation outlining the prevention method detailed on this briefing sheet: mosquito nets. YOU MUST:

•Introduce the prevention method •Explain how/why it works (how does it prevent/reduce illness or deaths) •Outline its benefits and disadvantages (e.g. effectiveness, ease of use, cost) •Give one main reason why combating malaria will contribute to development (e.g. think about how such problematic diseases might affect the workings of the health and education systems of a country) The information below should be used as a starting point but you should not simply read it out: your speech should be well-structured and persuasive. As you prepare your speech, think about: •The most appropriate form of speech for a meeting of international politicians (for example, you should use formal language) •How you can ensure that your presentation is clear and informative •How you will split the presentation within the group (will you choose a lead spokesperson or each have a turn presenting part of the speech?)

Mosquito nets

•Only female mosquitoes drink blood, to fuel the production of eggs. Female mosquitoes usually bite between sunset and sunrise, when people are often sleeping, so a net provides protection. • 60 out of 400 species of Anopheles mosquitoes (the main type of mosquito that carries malaria) are malarial vectors (they carry the disease between organisms including humans). • Mosquito nets are one way of controlling the vector, by providing a physical barrier that helps prevent exposure to infected mosquito bites. ‘Vector control’ is the only intervention that can reduce malaria transmission from very high levels to close to zero. • To be truly effective, mosquito nets need to impregnated with insecticides, which reduce the lifespan of the mosquitoes that come into contact with it. • Nets can be relatively expensive and require regular re-treatment.

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» Resource 5r2 s et She ing ief Br nt de stu ion ent ev pr ia Malar » B: Insecticide

GROUP B

Commonwealth Health Ministers

You have been selected as malarial experts to speak to the next meeting of the Commonwealth Health Ministers. This meeting is an opportunity for the Ministers from a range of different countries around the Commonwealth to hear about different methods of malarial prevention, and consider which methods their governments should invest in (within their own countries or through aid to other countries). Your group will make a three minute presentation outlining the prevention method detailed on this briefing sheet: Insecticide. YOU MUST:

•Introduce the prevention method •Explain how/why it works (how does it prevent/reduce illness or deaths) •Outline its benefits and disadvantages (e.g. effectiveness, ease of use, cost) •Give one main reason why combating malaria will contribute to development (e.g. think about how such problematic diseases might affect the workings of the health and education systems of a country) The information below should be used as a starting point but you should not simply read it out: your speech should be well-structured and persuasive. As you prepare your speech, think about: •The most appropriate form of speech for a meeting of international politicians (for example, you should use formal language) •How you can ensure that your presentation is clear and informative •How you will split the presentation within the group (will you choose a lead spokesperson or each have a turn presenting part of the speech?)

Insecticide

• Insecticides can be used in a number of ways. For example, they can be used to impregnate mosquito nets so that they are more effective and they can be sprayed onto the inside of homes. • 60 out of 400 species of Anopheles mosquitoes (the main type of mosquito that carries malaria) are malarial vectors (they carry the disease between organisms including humans). • Using insecticide is one way of controlling the vector. ‘Vector control’ is the only intervention that can reduce malaria transmission from very high levels to close to zero. • Mosquitoes are becoming resistant to some types of insecticide which are heavily used. The development of new, alternative insecticides is an expensive and long-term endeavour. • Only female mosquitoes drink blood, to fuel the production of eggs. Female mosquitoes bite usually between sunset and sunrise, when people are often sleeping, so spraying nets with insecticide provides good protection. • Spraying the inside of homes can be effective for 3-6 months, depending on the insecticide used and the type of surface onto which it is sprayed. It is most effective when at least 80% of houses in a targeted area are sprayed. • Insecticides can be expensive and harmful to people.

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» Resource 5r2 s et She ing ief Br nt de stu ion ent ev pr ia Malar » C:Vaccine

GROUP C

Commonwealth Health Ministers

You have been selected as malarial experts to speak to the next meeting of the Commonwealth Health Ministers. This meeting is an opportunity for the Ministers from a range of different countries around the Commonwealth to hear about different methods of malarial prevention, and consider which methods their governments should invest in (within their own countries or through aid to other countries). Your group will make a three minute presentation outlining the prevention method detailed on this briefing sheet: Vaccine. YOU MUST:

•Introduce the prevention method •Explain how/why it works (how does it prevent/reduce illness or deaths) •Outline its benefits and disadvantages (e.g. effectiveness, ease of use, cost) •Give one main reason why combating malaria will contribute to development (e.g. think about how such problematic diseases might affect the workings of the health and education systems of a country) The information below should be used as a starting point but you should not simply read it out: your speech should be well-structured and persuasive. As you prepare your speech, think about: •The most appropriate form of speech for a meeting of international politicians (for example, you should use formal language) •How you can ensure that your presentation is clear and informative •How you will split the presentation within the group (will you choose a lead spokesperson or each have a turn presenting part of the speech?)

Vaccine

• No malaria vaccines are available, although several are under development and testing. • Research into a vaccine is extremely expensive, but if successful the disease could be completely eradicated (wiped out). • A vaccine improves the body’s immunity to a disease by enabling the immune system to recognize and destroy the disease-causing micro-organism (in this case, the malaria parasite). • The body’s immune response to malaria is complex and not well understood. • A vaccine needs to work in few doses, be cheap to make and easy to administer.

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» Resource 5r2 s et She ing ief Br nt de stu ion ent ev pr ia Malar » D: Education Initiatives

GROUP D

Commonwealth Health Ministers

You have been selected as malarial experts to speak to the next meeting of the Commonwealth Health Ministers. This meeting is an opportunity for the Ministers from a range of different countries around the Commonwealth to hear about different methods of malarial prevention, and consider which methods their governments should invest in (within their own countries or through aid to other countries). Your group will make a three minute presentation outlining the prevention method detailed on this briefing sheet: Education Initiatives. YOU MUST:

•Introduce the prevention method •Explain how/why it works (how does it prevent/reduce illness or deaths) •Outline its benefits and disadvantages (e.g. effectiveness, ease of use, cost) •Give one main reason why combating malaria will contribute to development (e.g. think about how such problematic diseases might affect the workings of the health and education systems of a country) The information below should be used as a starting point but you should not simply read it out: your speech should be well-structured and persuasive. As you prepare your speech, think about: •The most appropriate form of speech for a meeting of international politicians (for example, you should use formal language) •How you can ensure that your presentation is clear and informative •How you will split the presentation within the group (will you choose a lead spokesperson or each have a turn presenting part of the speech?)

Education Initiatives

• People need to be educated about the range of measures they can take to protect themselves from being bitten by infected mosquitoes. For example: wearing light-coloured clothes which mosquitoes are less attracted to and keeping covered up with long trousers and shirt sleeves. Adding window screens to houses can also make a difference. • Mosquito nets are only effective if people are taught to use them properly. • Some of the most effective measures to prevent malaria are mosquito nets and insecticide spraying. Without funding and organised programmes for distributing these, education alone may have limited impact. However, education helps to demonstrate the importance of malaria prevention to the population, and they can then lobby their governments to provide more funding for such resources. • People can be encouraged through education to make changes to their local environment to control the Anopheles mosquito, which is the main vector for malaria (a vector is an organism that carries a disease between different organisms including humans) and breeds in shallow collections of freshwater such as puddles and ponds.

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» Resource 5r2 s et She ing ief Br nt de stu ion ent ev pr ia Malar » E: Prophylactic (prevention) drugs

GROUP E

Commonwealth Health Ministers

You have been selected as malarial experts to speak to the next meeting of the Commonwealth Health Ministers. This meeting is an opportunity for the Ministers from a range of different countries around the Commonwealth to hear about different methods of malarial prevention, and consider which methods their governments should invest in (within their own countries or through aid to other countries). Your group will make a three minute presentation outlining the prevention method detailed on this briefing sheet: Prophylactic (prevention) drugs. YOU MUST:

•Introduce the prevention method •Explain how/why it works (how does it prevent/reduce illness or deaths) •Outline its benefits and disadvantages (e.g. effectiveness, ease of use, cost) •Give one main reason why combating malaria will contribute to development (e.g. think about how such problematic diseases might affect the workings of the health and education systems of a country) The information below should be used as a starting point but you should not simply read it out: your speech should be well-structured and persuasive. As you prepare your speech, think about: •The most appropriate form of speech for a meeting of international politicians (for example, you should use formal language) •How you can ensure that your presentation is clear and informative •How you will split the presentation within the group (will you choose a lead spokesperson or each have a turn presenting part of the speech?)

Prophylactic (prevention) drugs

•Prophylactic drugs suppress the human blood stage of the parasite’s life cycle and so prevent the individual becoming ill with the disease, even if they get bitten and infected by mosquitoes. •When an infected mosquito bites a human to drink blood, parasites are injected into the bloodstream. The parasites infect the liver and then red blood cells. The classic symptoms of malaria consist of bouts of fever that coincide with the parasites bursting out of the red blood cells. Infected red blood cells can also clump together, blocking blood flow and damaging internal organs, including the brain. •Prophylactic drugs are relatively expensive and it would be financially and logistically difficult to distribute such drugs to everyone living in an infected area throughout their lives. •Prophylactic drugs can be a good solution for travellers to an infected area. •Adults living in areas of moderate or intense transmission of malaria develop natural immunity to malaria over years of exposure, although this never gives complete protection. As a result, most malaria deaths in Africa occur amongst young children who have not yet built up their own immunity. These children might therefore be the priority cases for the use of prophylactic drugs. However, if they use the drugs, they may be less likely to build up their own natural immunity. •The parasite develops resistance to antimalarial drugs rapidly. In many parts of the world it has become resistant to chloroquine, the most commonly used and most affordable antimalarial drug.

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» Resource 5r2 s et She ing ief Br nt de stu ion ent ev pr ia Malar » F: Treatment of the disease

GROUP F

Commonwealth Health Ministers

You have been selected as malarial experts to speak to the next meeting of the Commonwealth Health Ministers. This meeting is an opportunity for the Ministers from a range of different countries around the Commonwealth to hear about different methods of malarial prevention, and consider which methods their governments should invest in (within their own countries or through aid to other countries). Your group will make a three minute presentation outlining the prevention method detailed on this briefing sheet: Treatment of the disease YOU MUST:

•Introduce the prevention method •Explain how/why it works (how does it prevent/reduce illness or deaths) •Outline its benefits and disadvantages (e.g. effectiveness, ease of use, cost) •Give one main reason why combating malaria will contribute to development (e.g. think about how such problematic diseases might affect the workings of the health and education systems of a country) The information below should be used as a starting point but you should not simply read it out: your speech should be well-structured and persuasive. As you prepare your speech, think about: •The most appropriate form of speech for a meeting of international politicians (for example, you should use formal language) •How you can ensure that your presentation is clear and informative •How you will split the presentation within the group (will you choose a lead spokesperson or each have a turn presenting part of the speech?)

Treatment of the disease

•O  nce an individual becomes ill with malaria, they can take drugs (similar to those used for prevention) to suppress the blood stage of the malarial life cycle. The drugs do not necessarily prevent an infected person from contracting the disease itself (getting ill), but they do help to prevent deaths and serious disabilities resulting from the disease. • Treatment drugs can also reduce the chances of the parasite being passed on to other people by mosquitoes that bite infected people. •E  arly and effective treatment of malaria can shorten the duration of the infection and prevent further complications including the great majority of deaths. If people do not seek medical help early, there is less chance of the drugs being effective. • When an infected mosquito bites a human to drink blood, parasites are injected into the bloodstream. The parasites infect the liver and then red blood cells. The classic symptoms of malaria consist of bouts of fever that coincide with the parasites bursting out of the red blood cells. Infected red blood cells can also clump together, blocking blood flow and damaging internal organs, including the brain. •C  ombination therapy is often used to prolong the useful life of these drugs, which means two or more drugs are taken together to reduce the chances of the parasite building up resistance. • Some of the drugs used are effective very quickly. However, this means that patients might stop taking them too early, leaving parasites in their blood. This can lead to parasites building up resistance to the treatment. • The first widely used antimalarial drug treatment, quinine from Peruvian bark, was discovered long before anyone knew what caused malaria.

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St ud en t Fee db ac k Sh ee ts » Resource 5r3 » Feed back to your fellow Health Ministers!

Feed back to your fellow

wn your Use this sheet to write do sentation, feedback about each pre and your final decision.

Name: Group: Presentation Group

Health Ministers!

What was good about the presentation?

How could the presentation have been improved?

A: Mosquito nets

B: Insecticide

C: Vaccine

D: Education Initiatives E: Prophylactic (prevention) drugs F: Treatment of the disease

• Which malaria prevention

method did you choose?

• Why? make • Was it easy or difficult to

your decision – and why do

thing you have • What is the most interesting

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you think this is?

development? found out about malaria and

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 6 » The Climate Change CHOGM Note - This lesson could be split into two for students to have more time to prepare and discuss: activities 1 and 2 in the first lesson, and activities 3 and 4 in the second lesson.

Lesson aims/key questions

Learning outcomes and key processes

1 » What is climate change? 2 » How can the Commonwealth lead the way in reducing carbon emissions? 3 » What is it like to take part in a Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting? Students will be able to: a » Outline some of the causes and consequences of global climate change. b » Describe and justify the position a named country is likely to take on reducing their carbon emissions. c » Evaluate the challenges of reaching consensus amongst Commonwealth Heads of Government on a controversial global issue. d » Identify some actions members of the Commonwealth might take to reduce the impact of climate change. Key processes: Critical thinking; empathising with others; discussion and debate; arguing a viewpoint other than your own; communicating ideas; listening to others; working with others to solve problems.

Key words/

Climate change | CHOGM (Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting) | consensus | carbon emissions | industrialised | cyclone | flooding | economic growth | atmosphere | infrared radiation.

Summary of

Activity 1 (starter): Climate Change CHOGM Technical Expert (Reordering Information)

Activity 2: My Country’s Climate Change Challenge (Speech‐Writing in Groups)

Activity 3: The Climate Change CHOGM (Formal Debate)

Activity 4 (plenary): The Role of the Commonwealth in Reducing the Impacts of Climate Change

concepts / terms

activities and links to learning outcomes

Assessment

opportunities

Differentiation

» Activity 1 (starter) can include teacher or peer assessment by swapping worksheets (6r1) or taking them in to mark them, using the answer sheet (6r2). » Activities 2 and 3 can form a group assessment in which students are assessed by the teacher or other students on their teamwork and presentation skills. » Activity 4 (plenary) can include teacher assessment of students’ individual answers to the four questions, if you ask students to write down their answers rather than holding a class discussion. » Activity 1 (starter) can include additional support to some students by giving them the first few steps and additional prompts as necessary. Students wishing to be challenged further could be asked to annotate the worksheet (6r1) with additional facts about the processes of climate change from their own prior knowledge or from additional research. » Activity 2 includes a variety of country briefing sheets (6r3) with differing levels of accessibility: for example, those for the UK and Kenya are more accessible and those for Bangladesh and India are more challenging. » Activity 3 could include a few extra roles for students who are unable to participate directly in the debate: for example, they could be Commonwealth Artists, Photographers or Journalists and report back in visual or written forms on what the meeting was like. They could also be trained to give constructive peer feedback in order to help students who are involved in the debate to make their points more effectively.

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 6 Homework or extension tasks

Resources needed

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You could ask students to: » Write a letter or newspaper article describing what the CHOGM was like and what was debated and decided. » Make a plan in groups to help combat climate change locally, and go ahead and implement the plan. » Research the next real life CHOGM, finding out where and when it will be held and the key issues that will be discussed (The Commonwealth Secretariat website should hold this information: www.thecommonwealth.org/subhomepage/33247) » Activity 1 (starter): Climate Change Technical Expert Briefing Sheet (6r1) (one per student or pair); Climate Change Technical Expert Answer Sheet (6r2) (one for teacher) » Activity 2: Climate Change Challenge Country Briefing Sheet (one for each of the six groups) » Activity 3: National flags of the six countries if possible (UK, Kenya, Tuvalu, Australia, Bangladesh, India)

View p28-29 CommonGround guide

» Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 1 (starter): Climate Change CHOGM technical expert

0 10m

Explain to students that they will shortly be attending a Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM), where heads of government (for example, presidents, prime ministers and their representatives) will meet to discuss the issue of climate change. They have been selected as one of a number of technical experts for the CHOGM, and may be asked to deliver a five minute speech at the start of the meeting about the causes and consequences of climate change. Give each student the worksheet Climate Change Technical Expert Briefing Sheet (6r1). Explain that their colleague has sent them some briefing cards to help with their speech, but they have got mixed up along the way. They need to put them in order so they are ready to deliver their speech. Give students five minutes to work individually or in pairs to put the statements on the worksheet in order. Avoid feedback to the class at this stage (the speech will form part of the mockCHOGM), but move around the class ensuring students are getting the correct order » Answers are on the Climate Change Technical Expert Briefing Answer Sheet (6r2)

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 6 » Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 2: My country’s Climate Change Challenge Divide the class into six groups, and distribute one of the Climate Change Challenge Country Briefing Sheets (6r3) to each group. Explain that this next activity is also preparation for the CHOGM, and this time each group represents a different country.

10-25m

At the CHOGM the Heads of Government will discuss whether Commonwealth countries should lead the way globally in reducing carbon emissions. Each group will have 2 minutes to present the perspective of their country, and they have 10 minutes to prepare their speech using their briefing sheets. The speech should: » Introduce their country » Explain their perspective on whether Commonwealth countries should lead the way in reducing carbon emissions » Explain why they have this viewpoint Encourage students to consider: » The most appropriate form of speech for a meeting of international politicians (for example, they should use formal language and avoid using personal pronouns such as ‘I’ and ‘you’, instead using the name of the country they are representing) » How they can ensure they are clear and informative

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» How they will split the presentation within the group

» Activity 3: The Climate Change CHOGM

25-50

You may want to rearrange the furniture to represent a Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) with a space for presentations at the front of the room and the audience facing this area. More information about CHOGM procedure is below.

» Open the meeting in the role of the current Commonwealth Secretary General (you can find who this currently is at the Commonwealth Secretariat website: www.thecommonwealth.org/subhomepage/191183). You could also make a confident student the Commonwealth Secretary General, whose role is to steer the debate and make sure that everyone gets their say. » Welcome the Heads of Government to the meeting, and explain that it is a very important forum for discussion about the global challenge of climate change. » Select a student to take the role of technical expert, and present their climate change briefing (now in the correct order!) from their completed Climate Change Technical Expert Briefing Sheet (6r1). » Next, ask the group representing Tuvalu to start with their presentation. Their briefing sheet instructs them to end their presentation with a request to the other Heads of Government that the Commonwealth countries lead the way on reducing climate change. Then invite each of the remaining groups to give their presentations in response. If you have students who are unable to participate directly in the debate, they could be Commonwealth Artists, Photographers or Journalists and report back in visual or written forms on what the meeting was like. They could also be trained to give constructive peer feedback in order r1 to help students who are involved in the debate to make their points more effectively.

6

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 6 » Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 4 (Plenary): The Role of the Commonwealth in Reducing the Impacts of Climate Change

50-60m

In your role as Commonwealth Secretary General, thank Heads of Government for their contributions (or ask the person taking on the role to do so). If any of the students wish to feed back to the group (or present their work as Commonwealth Artist, Journalist etc.), they could do so now if there is time. To finish, close the meeting and ask the group the following questions: » Do you think the Commonwealth should be leading the way in reducing carbon emissions? » Is it possible for us as Commonwealth Heads of Government to reach consensus on this issue? » If so, what would that consensus be? What would it mean in practical terms for different countries?

» How important is it that Commonwealth countries take action to reduce the impacts of climate change? You could either ask students to write down their answers to these questions, or hold a brief class discussion on their initial ideas for each one.

View p28-29 CommonGround guide

» Notes on CHOGM Procedures: • Traditionally, what differentiates CHOGMs from other inter-governmental meetings is their friendly, informal character. Heads of Government (or their appointed representatives – such as Foreign Ministers – if Heads are not able to attend) spend a day at a ‘retreat’ away from their aides, the media and so on, which is seen as quite a unique opportunity for frank dialogue between leaders. • CHOGMs are chaired by the Chairperson-in-Office (i.e. the Prime Minister of the host country), who passes across to the Secretary-General at various points. • The host government and the Commonwealth Secretariat play a central role in drawing up the agenda for the CHOGM based on key global issues. • It may be useful to keep the classroom CHOGM fairly formal as this may help students get into the role of a Commonwealth Head of Government. For some examples of some formal rules and procedures you could use if you wish, see Model United Nations procedural guidelines, of which there are many online (for example, UNA-USA’s rules of procedure can be found at: www.unausa.org/munpreparation/rulesofprocedure). If you have a large group, some students could place the role of civil society representatives (from, for example, women’s unions, charities or faith groups). At CHOGMs, the Peoples Forum allows civil society to have their voices heard on important issues like the environment. Find out more at www.commonwealthfoundation.com/ HowwedeliverCommonwealthPeoplesForum

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ource 6r1

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» Climate Change Technical Expert Briefing

Climate Change Technical Expert Briefing Sheet »

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Climate Change Technical Expert Briefing Sheet » Resource 6r2

» Climate Change Technical Expert Briefing - ANSWERS

RESOURCE 6r2 PAGE 1 OF1

© Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


Climate Change CHALLENGE COUNTRY Briefing Sheet

» Resource 6r3

Your group represents: UK Use the statements below to help you write your speech:

You need to prepare a speech for the Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting, outlining your country’s position on whether Commonwealth countries should lead the way in reducing carbon emissions. Your speech will: • Introduce your country. • Give your perspective on whether Commonwealth countries should lead the way in reducing carbon emissions.

•T  he UK government promotes a multi-country process (lots of countries working together) with ambitious climate change targets. •T  he European Union (of which the UK is part) has set a target to not allow the global temperature to increase more than 2ºC above pre-industrial levels. •T  he European Council (part of the European Union) has called for countries to consider a target of a 15% to 30% reduction in emissions by 2020, relative to the 1990 levels (baselines). •T  he UK government has highlighted the importance of working with young people, Members of Parliament and others to make sure people are working together to set and implement government policies related to climate change.

• Explain why you have this viewpoint.

Your group represents: Kenya Use the statements below to help you write your speech:

You need to prepare a speech for the Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting, outlining your country’s position on whether Commonwealth countries should lead the way in reducing carbon emissions. Your speech will: • Introduce your country. • Give your perspective on whether Commonwealth countries should lead the way in reducing carbon emissions. • Explain why you have this viewpoint.

•T  he Kenyan government calls for an increase in international aid in order for developing countries to protect their people against the negative impacts of climate change, particularly natural disasters. •K  enya currently lacks the resources to combat the effects of climate change. •A  fter several years of poor rains, Kenya and its neighbours suffered devastating droughts in 2009. Crops suffered and food prices doubled across Kenya. Wild animals such as lions and elephants died in large numbers in national parks, and electricity had to be rationed, affecting petrol and food supplies. Violence increased around the country as people went hungry. •C  limate change is making it more difficult for Kenya to meet the Millennium Development Goals. •T  he Kenyan government calls for the lowering of emission rates globally, but believes that this must fall particularly to the more industrialised nations such as the UK. The carbon emissions of richer nations continue to rise and the Kenyan government believes that they should be held accountable for their over-consumption.

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Climate Change CHALLENGE COUNTRY Briefing Sheet

» Resource 6r3

Your group represents: Tuvalu Use the statements below to help you write your speech:

You need to prepare a speech for the Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting, outlining your country’s position on whether Commonwealth countries should lead the way in reducing carbon emissions. Your speech will: • Introduce your country. • Give your perspective on whether Commonwealth countries should lead the way in reducing carbon emissions. • Explain why you have this viewpoint.

• Tuvalu has no industry, burns little petroleum, and creates less carbon pollution than a small town in the USA. • As part of the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS), the government of Tuvalu is calling for further action to address climate change. Tuvalu has so far been the most outspoken of the Pacific Island countries, often as a lead voice for AOSIS. • Tuvalu and other Pacific Island countries are low-lying and are already witnessing significant sea level rise and the impact of increased intensity of tropical weather. • The islands are not going to disappear immediately - unless a large storm hits at a high tide. • Tuvalu’s 11,000 people live on nine coral islands totalling 10 square miles. Tuvalu’s highest point is 4.6 metres above sea level but most of the country is no more than a metre above the sea. • As the sea level rises the islanders will have less land to grow food, and damage to coral reefs will lead to decreasing fish catches. The population will become increasingly reliant on food imports, which are expensive. • Tuvaluans face the possibility of being among the first climate refugees (although they do not usually use that term). • As the average sea level rises, several times each year the regular cycle of tides brings the Pacific Ocean sloshing over onto roads and into neighbourhoods. Puddles bubble up that can cover part of the airport on the main island and even flood homes that are not along the coast. You will speak first at the meeting, and should finish your speech by asking other Commonwealth countries to take the lead globally in reducing carbon emissions.

Your group represents: Australia Use the statements below to help you write your speech:

You need to prepare a speech for the Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting, outlining your country’s position on whether Commonwealth countries should lead the way in reducing carbon emissions. Your speech will: • Introduce your country. • Give your perspective on whether Commonwealth countries should lead the way in reducing carbon emissions. • Explain why you have this viewpoint.

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• The Australian government insists that negotiations on climate change issues should include all countries, including major carbon emitters, so as to ensure economic fairness. • Australia is one of the founding members of the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate (along with the United States, China, India, South Korea and Japan), indicating a willingness to join agreements between a range of countries. • The Australian government believes that while not all countries are equally responsible for the problem of climate change, we do share a common responsibility for the solution. • Australia has suffered from a range of environmental challenges, including increased drought, and the hole in the ozone layer (which may have been aggravated (made worse) by climate change but is a separate issue) • The Australian government has committed to reduce emissions to 60 per cent below 2000 levels by 2050.

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Climate Change CHALLENGE COUNTRY Briefing Sheet

» Resource 6r3

Your group represents: Bangladesh Use the statements below to help you write your speech:

You need to prepare a speech for the Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting, outlining your country’s position on whether Commonwealth countries should lead the way in reducing carbon emissions. Your speech will: • Introduce your country. • Give your perspective on whether Commonwealth countries should lead the way in reducing carbon emissions.

•T  he Global Climate Risk Index 2010 placed Bangladesh in top position, suggesting that it was the country most affected by climate change over two decades from 1990 to 2010. •B  angladesh is in the low-lying Ganges-Brahmaputra river delta, which makes it vulnerable to flooding caused by cyclones and during the monsoons. • In 2007, Cyclone Sidr brought flooding to Bangladesh which caused between 5 and 10 thousand deaths. •S  torm surges are created by winds and changes in the atmosphere caused by cyclones. In Bangladesh, storm surge heights in excess of 10m are not uncommon. • Flooding and its consequences are making it more difficult for Bangladesh to meet the Millennium Development Goals.

• Explain why you have this viewpoint.

Your group represents: India Use the statements below to help you write your speech:

You need to prepare a speech for the Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting, outlining your country’s position on whether Commonwealth countries should lead the way in reducing carbon emissions. Your speech will: • Introduce your country. • Give your perspective on whether Commonwealth countries should lead the way in reducing carbon emissions. • Explain why you have this viewpoint.

•T  he Indian government has been vocal in stating that countries that are currently industrialising and developing quickly should not have to restrict economic growth by restricting emissions. • India needs to maintain current rates of economic growth (8%) to support poverty alleviation programmes (programmes helping to reduce poverty), and the government argues that this must come before goals to reduce carbon emissions. •T  he Indian government argues that India should be allowed to produce the same quantity of carbon emissions per person as wealthy countries. India’s population is predicted to reach 1.5 billion people by 2050. The carbon emissions per person in most wealthy countries are currently very high. Therefore, to meet the target of keeping global warming within the ‘safe limit’ of two degrees Celsius (set out by the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), it is the wealthy countries that should drastically reduce their emissions per person (much more than their current targets), to come into line with the lower carbon emissions per person of developing countries.

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 7 » Democracy and the Commonwealth Note - This lesson could be split into two for students to have more time to prepare and discuss: activities 1 and 2 in the first lesson, and activities 3 and 4 in the second lesson.

Lesson aims/key questions

Learning outcomes and key processes

Students will be able to: a » Define at least two key terms associated with democracy. b » Analyse the key aims of the Harare Declaration. c » Summarise the role played by the Commonwealth during apartheid in South Africa. d » Explain what is meant by Election Observation Missions. e » Identify at least one Commonwealth-related activity they themselves could take part in to help take action around issues of diversity, development or democracy. Key processes: Research; communicating ideas; listening to others; understanding rights and responsibilities; feeling empowered to make a difference; active involvement in the community (local and global); an interest in global issues and current affairs.

Key words/

concepts / terms

Democracy | Commonwealth | election | parliament | government | media | citizen action | political integrity | equal rights | peaceful communities | election observation missions | apartheid.

Summary of

Activity 1 (starter): Democracy Dominoes (Defining Key Terms)

Activity 2: Commonwealth Advertising Campaign (Research)

b» c» d»

Activity 3: Time for an Advert Break (Watching groups present their adverts and giving constructive feedback)

b» c» d»

Activity 4 (plenary): Messages from Commonwealth Leaders (Preparing to take action)

activities and links to learning outcomes

Assessment

opportunities

Differentiation

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1 » What does it mean for a country to be democratic? 2 » To what extent is democracy a good form of government? 3 » What does the Commonwealth do to promote democracy?

» Activity 1 (starter) could be a group assessment (seeing which groups finish their dominoes chain first) or an individual peer- or teacher-assessment (students write out the entire paragraph). » Activity 3 could be a group assessment in which marks are given to students for the contents of their adverts and for the effort and innovation they have put into the task. This is a good opportunity for peer assessment using feedback sheets. The Advertising Standards Authority Critique Sheet (7r3) can also be collected in and individually marked. » Activity 4 could be finished for homework then collected in and individually assessed. » Activity 1 (starter): This task can be designed as a task for smaller groups or for the whole class, depending on how confident students might be to call out in class. You can play a game of dominoes with the whole class in which they compete with others to call out the right definitions for the key terms. If you would prefer them to work in groups, you can divide the class into groups of around five students and give them a set of dominoes per group, which they have to put into the right order before you call out ‘stop!’. » Activity 2: The three briefing sheets (7r2) are of slightly different complexity, with the Election Observation sheet being most accessible and the Apartheid and the Commonwealth Principles sheets being most challenging.

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 7 » Democracy and the Commonwealth continued...

Homework or extension tasks

Resources needed

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You could ask students to: » Compare the Commonwealth Principles to the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Information on the latter can be found on the UN website: www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml). What are the similarities and differences? Which Declarations do they think might have the most impact and why? » Write a half-page reflection on the experience of constructing an advert for an organisation such as the Commonwealth; and a paragraph summary of each group’s advert identifying a range of different democratic processes in which the Commonwealth has been involved. » Film or record their advert (if this has not been possible in class), or use an online tool to make their advert into a cartoon video. » Note down and finish answering the questions on the Commonwealth Leader Messages PowerPoint (7r4). » Find and read autobiographical literature written by past and present Commonwealth Heads of Government, such as Nelson Mandela’s ‘Long Walk to Freedom’. » Find out how to take part in one or more of the Royal Commonwealth Society’s Commonwealth youth programmes: for example, the essay or film-making competitions – and take part if they can! » Activity 1 (starter): Democracy Dominoes cards (7r1) (one domino for each student in the class, or one set for each group of around five students) » Activity 2: Democratic Commonwealth Briefing Sheets (7r2) (one to each group of five-eight students); Recording (video / audio) equipment if available; computers and internet access for each group if available. » Activity 3: Advertising Standards Authority Critique Sheet (7r3) (one for each student); Stopwatch; Video/audio playback equipment if available. » Activity 4: Commonwealth Leader Messages PowerPoint (7r4)

» Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 1 (starter): Democracy Dominoes Each domino card (7r1) contains a key term and a definition that doesn’t match that term. The object is to form a chain of key terms and their definitions and therefore complete the whole paragraph about democracy. There are two ways to play the game:

0-10m

» Either: (a) Get students into groups of around five and give each group a cut-up set of dominoes (7r1). They have to work out the term that matches each definition and get themselves into a line or a circle to read out the terms and definitions to you in order when you call out ‘stop!’. If they have time they could write down the entire paragraph they have formed using the dominoes and this could be peer- or teacher- assessed. » Or: (b) Give out a different domino card (7r1) to each individual or pair of students around the classroom. Ask a student with the ‘Democracy’ domino to read out their word and get a student with the matching definition (‘where power is in the hands of the people…’) to read it out, then they have to give their domino key term and someone else supplies the definition, and so on until all the cards have been read out. You may have to give some hints or prompts, such as the start of the definition, if students are unsure, particularly to get the ball rolling. » If you give out more than one set of dominoes, students can compete to call out the definitions before the other student(s) with that card.

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 7 » Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 2: Commonwealth Advertising Campaign Divide the class into groups of around five-eight and give each group one of the Democratic Commonwealth Briefing Sheets (7r2).

10-30m

Each resource sheet has a slightly different focus around the Commonwealth’s involvement with democracy around the world: Election Observation Missions, Anti-Apartheid and the Commonwealth Principles. Give groups 15-20 minutes to construct a television or radio advertisement presenting the main points in the resource in an interesting and fun way. Each group will only have two minutes to present their advert so they need to make it very snappy with only important points covered. It would be useful if you could discuss with the class some basic standards you would expect from the adverts, which you could draw from the Advertising Standards Authority Critique Sheet (7r3). » If you have recording and playback equipment you might be able to get groups to film or record their adverts and play them back during Activity 3. If not, they can simply write the script and perform the advert to the rest of the class in ‘live action’ during Activity 3. Students could also use an online tool such as Xtranormal (www.xtranormal.com) r2 r3 to make their advert into a cartoon video if they have computer and internet access.

7

7

» Activity 3: Time for an Advert Break

30-50m

Give out the Advertising Standards Authority Critique Sheet (7r3) to each student. Explain that they are now representing the Government’s Advertising Standards Authority and they have to make sure that the adverts are clear, understandable and relevant. As they are watching each advert, they should use the Advertising Standards Authority Critique Sheet (7r3) to write down some constructive feedback for the makers of the advert.

Then ask each group in turn to present their two minute advert. Be very strict about timing – do cut them off if they go over two minutes. At the end of each advert ask the Advertising Standards Authority to give a brief critique of the advert, using their Advertising Standards Authority Critique Sheets (7r3). If there is time: Students from the groups could respond to the critiques and you could foster a dialogue or debate within the class about democracy in general or any of the topics in particular, using some of the prompt questions below (the first of which is on their sheet, 7r3): » Is democracy the best form of government? Why/ why not? » What do we mean by rights and responsibilities? How are the election observers, anti-apartheid activists and the people who drafted the Commonwealth Principles making use of their rights and responsibilities? How are these linked to Human Rights? (Information on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights can be found on the UN website: www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml) » Are the principles of democracy, diversity and development universal ideas or are they ‘Western’ constructs imposed on others? » What difference might it make if the Commonwealth suspends one of its members for breaching Commonwealth Principles?

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Co mm on we al th SC HO OL RE SO UR CE S » Lesson 7 » Suggested time allowance for activities

» Activity 4: Messages from Commonwealth Leaders Display the Commonwealth Leader Messages PowerPoint (7r4) and ask individual students to read each one out in turn. After each message there are a few questions that you could either ask students to write down quick answers to, or note down to answer for homework.

50-60m

If you have time: You could have a class discussion around each question slide. If you run out of time, choose your favourite quote and focus only on that slide and the final slide. Ask students to consider their ideas for the final slide. They could think of an action that would make a difference to democracy, diversity and/or development. Even very small actions such as using less electricity or taking fewer car journeys to reduce carbon emissions could make a big difference. Encourage students to think in the long term: could they make a difference through their career choices? In the shorter term, they could begin by writing letters, joining internet campaigns and teaching others about the issues. If you are able to organise this, you could ask students to teach something they have learned in these lessons to a group of younger students. Give students confidence that they can make a difference, even if it is through very small steps. Students might already know the following saying: ‘That’s one small step for man… one giant leap for mankind’. If they are stuck for ideas you could point them to the UN Millennium Development Goals ‘Get Involved’ website: www.un.org/millenniumgoals/getinvolved.shtml, which contains lots of ideas for actions and campaigns. Good luck!

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View p22-23 CommonGround guide

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…who are people sent by an independent organisation to check that elections are run fairly, which in a democracy means the promotion of…

Equal Rights

…which are communities (groups of people) who live together without fighting.

Media Political Integrity

Parliament

…which is when people do things to try to change society, for example writing letters to their political representatives who they hope will act with…

Democracy

…where laws give everyone the same opportunities, no matter what their gender, sexuality, ethnicity, or faith, so everyone can live together in…

Election

…which is when political representatives act according to principles of truth, justice and equality and make sure they do not steal or cheat (which is called corruption)... in elections this is inspected by…

Government

…which is the main way for people to find out information about what is happening in society, and to advertise the ways in which they are taking…

…which is the body that organises how the country or area is run, and is held accountable by parliament, the courts and by the journalists of the…

Citizen action

…which is an institution that decides on the rules that everyone in that area has to follow (laws), which are then implemented (put into practice) by the…

…which is a process in which people in an area (called a constituency) choose their leader by voting for the person they want to represent them in…

Election Observers

…where power is in the hands of the people. In a representative democracy, citizens decide who they want to be their political representatives through an…

Peaceful communities

De mo cr ac y Do mi no es » Resource 7r1

» Democracy Dominoes - ANSWERS Democracy…where power is in the hands of the people. In a representative democracy, citizens decide who they want to be their political representatives through an…Election…which is a process in which people in an area (called a constituency) choose their leader by voting for the person they want to represent them in…Parliament…which is an institution that decides on the rules that everyone in that area has to follow (laws), which are then implemented (put into practice) by the…Government… which is the body that organises how the country or area is run, and is held accountable by parliament, the courts and by the journalists of the…Media…which is the main way for people to find out information about what is happening in society, and to advertise the ways in which they are taking…Citizen action…which is when people do things to try to change society, for example writing letters to their political representatives who they hope will act with…Political Integrity…which is when political representatives act according to principles of truth, justice and equality and make sure they do not steal or cheat (which is called corruption)... in elections this is inspected by…Election Observers…who are people sent by an independent organisation to check that elections are run fairly, which in a democracy means the promotion of…Equal Rights…where laws give everyone the same opportunities, no matter what their gender, sexuality, ethnicity, or faith, so everyone can live together in…Peaceful communities…which are communities (groups of people) who live together without fighting.

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» Resource 7r2 ets She ing ief Br th eal nw mo Com ic at ocr Dem » Election Observations

ELECTION OBSERVATIONS It is important that elections are conducted fairly. A country cannot be a true democracy if its elections are plagued with corrupt practices such as bribery or voter or electoral fraud. Bribery is when someone in a position of power gives or takes money in order to give them an unfair advantage over someone else. Voter or electoral fraud is when the votes in an election have been tampered with in some way – for example, counting the same person twice on the list of voters (electoral roll); pretending to be someone else when voting; harassing or intimidating people during an election; or not counting the votes properly. In order to strengthen democracy, the Commonwealth Secretariat is sometimes asked by a Commonwealth member state to send an independent panel called a Commonwealth Observer Group (COG) to observe their elections. They are asked to report on how credible the elections were (for example, whether any corruption seemed to be happening; whether people of voting age were all allowed to vote freely; and whether the result seemed to go against the strong wishes of the people). The COG report also contains practical recommendations to help improve the election arrangements for the future. Here are two quotes from a COG report relating to elections in Tanzania: “During the election period political parties campaigned in both urban and rural areas around the country and enjoyed freedom of movement, speech and assembly. The campaign was generally peaceful and rallies were conducted in a festive and jubilant manner. Women and youth were highly visible during the campaign but played a vital, but more supportive role during the elections.” “While the application of procedures was largely adhered to, there were also inconsistencies. But it was felt that in most instances practices were within the spirit of the law. Some of the general issues raised by the observers were: • The  layout of the voting booths, with the front of the booth facing the room, could compromise the secrecy of the vote. • In some polling stations pregnant women and less-abled voters were specifically assisted, but in others they were not. • In many instances staff did not appear to check the fingers of voters for ink prior to voting.” Notes about Commonwealth Observer Groups (COGs): 1. COGs are never forced on countries against their will – they only go to elections where they have been invited by the Government or the election management body and where they have the broad support of political parties and the people of the country. 2. The COGs and their advisors spend some time in the country and make sure they report on the election as part of the whole democratic process and not just as a one day event. 3. COGs don’t interfere in the processes of elections – they are only there to observe. 4. C  OGs are made up of “eminent and highly experienced Commonwealth citizens drawn from countries familiar with democratic processes and institutions”.

t the key Your task: pick ou iefing sheet points from this br to a and make them in regarding two-minute advert h’s the Commonwealt ocracy. commitment to dem

Information from Commonwealth Secretariat website (www.thecommonwealth.org/Internal/39079/election_observation and www.thecommonwealth.org/files/232431/FileName/FinalReport-TanzaniaCOG.pdf)

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» Resource 7r2 ets She ing ief Br th eal nw mo Com ic at ocr Dem » Fighting Against Apartheid

FIGHTING AGAINST APARTHEID South Africa was colonised for a long time by the Dutch and British and its people were divided into three ‘races’: white, coloured (mixed race) and black, based mainly on their skin colour. Each of these groups were given different rights and restrictions. After South Africa gained independence in 1931, it was still ruled by the white minority: the majority of people in the country were black but they were not given the right to vote in elections. In 1948, the National Party were elected and they took the segregation and discrimination (mainly against black people) a step further, calling it ‘Apartheid’ (which means ‘apartness’). They passed new laws which said black people had to live in separate neighbourhoods, and often forced people to move. They separated out schools, universities, hospitals and other public facilities, giving the ones for white people much more funding than the ones for black people. They made it illegal for black and white people to get married or have intimate relationships. They made it almost impossible for black people to get a South African passport. There were signs all around saying ‘Whites Only’. People started to rebel against the apartheid system and to call for international action against the racist government of South Africa. In 1961 when South Africa became a Republic (removing the Queen as Head of State), the Commonwealth countries had to decide whether it could still remain a member. It became clear that most of the African and Asian member states would vote against South Africa because of the government’s racist policies, so it withdrew from the Commonwealth. In 1963 Nelson Mandela, one of the leaders of the black resistance movement, was sent to prison on a life sentence. An international boycott began against South African goods (people refused to buy things that came from South Africa to encourage the government to change its policies). The Anti-Apartheid Movement used Commonwealth meetings during the 1960s and 1970s to lobby Commonwealth Heads of Government to impose sanctions (financial punishments) on South Africa. By the 1980s the international anti-apartheid actions included the cutting of sporting and cultural ties and a ban (embargo) on selling weapons and materials that could be made into weapons to South Africa. These sanctions were opposed by the British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, who felt that the black resistance against the white government’s policies was a form of terrorism. In the late 1980s the South African government started to rethink its apartheid policies and, with the support of a ‘Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group’, finally released Nelson Mandela from prison in 1990. Through intense negotiations, they decided to hold an election where black people would be allowed to vote for the first time. Nelson Mandela won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 and was voted President of South Africa in 1994. The country rejoined the Commonwealth as a new democracy. Nelson Mandela said “The Commonwealth makes the world safe for diversity”. South Africa became known as the ‘rainbow nation’ and continues to work to resolve the inequalities and cultural divisions caused by apartheid.

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Information from Commonwealth Secretariat website (http://www.thecommonwealth.org/YearbookInternal/145185/history/) and ‘Your World Your Commonwealth’ (www.thecommonwealth.org/files/167596/ FileNameYourWorldYourCommonwealth.pdf)

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» Resource 7r2 ets She ing ief Br th eal nw mo Com ic at ocr Dem » Commonwealth Principles

COMMONWEALTH PRINCIPLES In 1971 Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting in Singapore made an agreement about the main principles the Commonwealth should follow. This was called the ‘Singapore Declaration’. Twenty years later, in 1991, Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting in Harare, Zimbabwe (which was then a member of the Commonwealth), reaffirmed and restated the principles of the Singapore Declaration and agreed in the ‘Harare Declaration’ to concentrate on some key themes. “We believe in the liberty of the individual under the law, in equal rights for all citizens regardless of gender, race, colour, creed or political belief” “We recognise racial prejudice and intolerance as a dangerous sickness and a threat to healthy development, and racial discrimination as an unmitigated evil” “We oppose all forms of racial oppression, and we are committed to the principles of human dignity and equality” Extract from the Singapore Declaration, 1971

In 2009, the Commonwealth’s core beliefs from these two main Declarations were brought together into one document, the ‘Trinidad and Tobago Affirmation of Commonwealth Values and Principles’. “We reaffirm that the special strength of the Commonwealth lies in the diversity of its membership, bound together not only by shared history and tradition but also by an ethos of respect for all states and peoples, of shared values and principles, and of concern for the vulnerable.” Extract from the Trinidad and Tobago Affirmation of Commonwealth Values and Principles, 2009

OUR VALUES AND PRINCIPLES We solemnly reiterate our commitment to the Commonwealth’s core values: International peace and security (expressing commitment to a system based on inclusiveness, equity and international law for achieving consensus and progress on major global challenges) Democracy: (reaffirming the right of the individual to participate by means of free and democratic political processes in shaping the society in which they live) Human rights (recalling that these are universal, indivisible, interdependent and interrelated) Tolerance, respect and understanding (recognising that these strengthen democracy and development) Separation of powers (recognising the importance of maintaining the separation of the roles of the Executive (government), Legislature (parliament) and Judiciary (courts)) Rule of law (emphasising that access to justice and an independent judiciary (judges) are fundamental) Freedom of expression (emphasising that peaceful, open dialogue and the free flow of information, including through a free media, enhance democratic traditions and strengthen democratic processes) Development (stressing the importance of economic and social transformation to eliminate poverty and meet the basic needs of the vast majority of the people of the world, guided by the Millennium Development Goals) Gender equality (reaffirming gender equality and empowerment as an essential component of human development) Access to health and education (reaffirming our commitment to health and education for all citizens, both as human rights and as instruments for poverty alleviation (reduction) and sustainable development) Good governance (reiterating our commitment to promote transparency and accountability and root out corruption) Civil society (acknowledging the important role that civil society plays in our communities and nations)

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Material from Commonwealth Secretariat website (www.thecommonwealth.org/Templates/Internal.asp?NodeID=32987 and www.thecommonwealth.org/document/181889/34293/35468/216908/ commonwealth_values_and_principles.htm) and from the Commonwealth Foundation’s booklet ‘CommonGround: A practical guide to the Commonwealth’ (www.commonwealthfoundation.com)

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St ud en t Fee db ac k Sh ee ts » Resource 7r3 » Use this sheet to critique the adverts you have seen today and to give some constructive feedback.

dards

General Advertising Stan ar and concise (a) Adver ts should be cle to the allocated time (b) Adver ts should keep slead people (give them (c) Adverts should not mi ut something) by the wrong impression abo ggerated claims; telling lies; making exa too small to read; g itin wr putting things in ng) important details. or omitting (not mentioni m any person or animal (d) Adver ts must not har a reasonable  dverts must not offend (e) A table for children sui be uld person and sho . if presented before 9pm about the Advert What was good advert? rds did Which advertising standa it meet?

Name:

Group:

How could the advert be improved? rds does Which advertising standa et? me to rk it need to wo

1 2 3 4 5 6 ing the adverts? Further notes: learned while making or watch you g thin ting res inte st mo • What was the an to you?

• What does democracy me

y not?

m of government? Why/ wh

• Is democracy the best for

7r3 ority Critique Sheet Advertising Standards Auth

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» Resource 7r4 nt poi er pow s ge ssa me r de lea lth ea onw Comm » Please view PowerPoint presentation supplied on resource disk

» Commonwealth Leader Messages PowerPoint presentation

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» We have developed two ready-to-use Assembly Plans, to help inform the whole school about the Commonwealth and get everyone thinking. For your ease, scripts and prop lists are provided, but there is also scope to adapt the sessions if you are feeling creative! » The sessions take Commonwealth Day (which is the second Monday in March) and the Commonwealth Games as their starting point, but they can be run at any time of the year. » We have include the following Assembly Plans as Word files on the CD accompanying this pack, in case you want to edit and print the scripts for your students.

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y As sem bly 1: De mo cr at ic Sc ho ols & Co mm on we al th Da Note: These materials could be used as a script for students to enact or as a starting point for their research, after which they could write their own assembly. The existing script can be amended to suit the context of your particular school. More information about Commonwealth Day and Democratic Schools can be found by investigating the ‘Useful Websites’ - page 126. » Plot: Three students chat in the playground and one discovers that another doesn’t know that the school has a democratic School Council. Later on, the School Council get together to discuss how they could make the Council more visible and more relevant to other students. They explore the Commonwealth’s values and principles for help formulating their own guiding principles. Then they decide to have a launch day for their new democratic School Council, with a fantastic event for the whole school to get involved in. The whole assembly votes on the focus topic for their launch day, and then the students decide to hold it on Commonwealth Day, which is the second Monday in March. The last scene shows the three original students chatting at the launch day as they discover that these activities can be fun as well as being important.

15-20m

» Characters, Timings and Props: Names can be changed and the script can be split among a smaller or larger group of students. The script should take between 15 and 20 minutes to enact, but some of the text could be cut down if there is less time. You will need an exercise book and three large signs saying ‘DIVERSITY’, ‘DEVELOPMENT’ and ‘DEMOCRACY’. » The Cast: Scene 1 Scene 2 Scene 3

Florence, Mehmet, Sam Anand, Layla, Paul, Rania, Alex, Sam, Tolu Florence, Mehmet, Miss Smith, Sam

» The Play: Scene 1: Florence, Mehmet and Sam in the school playground Florence: Hey, how’s it going Mehmet? You look a bit down! Mehmet: Hey, I don’t know, Florence. I’m having a bit of a bad day. Everything just seems so unfair! Miss Smith just told me off and it’s only half past eight on a Monday morning. I’m fed up with being told what to do. Why do we have to follow all the rules in school but we don’t get to make the rules ourselves? Florence: Well, we kind of do… Isn’t there a School Council here where students get to help decide on the rules? Sam, is that right? Aren’t you on the School Council? Do you get to make the school rules? Sam: Well, we help to make the school rules, it’s all about communication and dialogue between teachers, parents and students. I’ve been on the School Council since we had that big election a few months ago to choose who was going to be on it! We have class representatives and year representatives, so it’s more democratic. Don’t you remember?

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As sem bly 1: De mo cr at ic Sc ho ols & Co mm on we al th Day Mehmet: Never heard of it! What’s all that talk about ‘dialogue’ and ‘democracy’? Florence: Democracy is really important. It’s where power is in the hands of the people! If we didn’t have a democratic system, we might not be able to criticise the people in power, the government. Democracy helps us to get involved in making the decisions that will affect our lives – and that includes in school as well as out of school. You’re too busy breaking rules to find time to make them, Mehmet! Ha ha! Mehmet: Too busy being picked on by the teachers, you mean? Sam: Well, getting involved in dialogue and communication can help to change your mind about the teachers. They really want us to succeed in life and be great people! [pauses to think] You know, it’s not a good thing that you didn’t know about the School Council. Funnily enough, we have a meeting later today… I’ll bring it up that not enough people know we exist. We have to change that… maybe we need some new publicity and advertising. This is our school and it’s up to us to make sure it’s democratic, which means including everyone in the discussions. Really, we all want the same thing – teachers and kids. Mehmet: Yeah, right. What’s that? A detention every day and extra homework in the holidays? Florence, Sam & Mehmet:

[all laugh] See you later.

Scene 2: School Council Meeting: Anand, Layla, Paul, Rania, Alex, Sam and Tolu Sam: OK, guys, welcome to the School Council Meeting. First, we need to talk about the lack of visibility of the School Council in this school. I was talking to a friend today who didn’t even know we exist. Paul, didn’t you say something similar happened to you the other day? Paul: Yeah, I think it’s the same for a lot of people. And out of the ones who have heard of the School Council, some of them think it’s a lunch time sandwich club! Rania: You can’t really blame them, that’s kind of what it is! Sam:

Rania!

Rania: No, hear me out. School Council is a great idea but we’ve lost our way. Or maybe we never really found our way in the first place. What are we really here for? Sam: We just need more advertising. People need to understand what we do. How we represent everyone’s views, like the politicians who win elections. Anand, you’re great at art, couldn’t you design us some new posters? Anand: Yeah, Sam, but we need something to advertise. And it can’t just be that School Council members get to leave our lessons five minutes early to set up meetings!

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y As sem bly 1: De mo cr at ic Sc ho ols & Co mm on we al th Da Layla: We don’t have strong enough principles, values and activities. That’s what we need. Then we’d have something to advertise. Hold on a minute. Tolu, remember in Citizenship the other day? That discussion we had about human rights and development. Tolu: I remember Mehmet causing trouble as usual. Asking what human rights had to do with kids in the classroom. ‘We don’t have any rights’, he said. Layla: Oh yeah, that’s so not true, look at us, we have so many rights and privileges compared to some kids around the world! Sometimes we don’t appreciate the good things we have. You were there, Alex. What was that stuff Mr Kramer said about the… Com…? Com something. I can’t remember the name of it. It’s a group of countries around the world that are working together to solve global problems… Alex:

Commonwealth. [Open Citizenship exercise book and reading from it] Fifty-four countries that have agreed to work together by sharing ideas and experiences, skills and knowledge. It promotes ideas such as diversity, democracy and development. Common wealth, that is, good things for everyone.

Layla: That’s it – the Commonwealth! They had a list of principles and values, didn’t they? Rules that all the countries agreed to live by… that were for the highest good of everyone? Really nice things like respect and equality and justice. Couldn’t we use some of them for our School Council principles and values? And then we could have a big launch day when we run activities to help people to understand the principles and take them forward through action! Alex:

[Counting from his exercise book] But there are loads of Commonwealth principles and values… one, two, three… umm… let me read some of them out: Human Dignity; Equality; Respect; Inclusiveness; Participation; Human Rights; Tolerance and Understanding; Justice; Development; Democracy; Diversity; Sustainable Development. 12! That’s too many to present to everyone!

Tolu: Well, I’ll tell you what, I reckon some of those words are broad enough to cover the other ones… let’s see… we could group together respect, inclusiveness, tolerance and understanding under the heading of ‘diversity’… human rights, human dignity, sustainable development and equality could come under ‘development’… and then participation and justice could come under the heading ‘democracy’. So our three core values could be Diversity, Development and Democracy. The three ‘Ds’. What do you think? Anand: Hmm, Diversity, Development and Democracy. That would look quite good on the adverts! Shall we agree on it? I think it would be best if we are all happy with the core values… so we should agree by ‘consensus’, which means everyone agrees with the decision. What do you think? Alex: I think they are good… they sound catchy. I definitely agree we should go with those three… Diversity, Development and Democracy. Anyone else? Can we have a quick show of hands for those who agree we should go for these? All:

[all put their hands up] Me too! I agree.

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As sem bly 1: De mo cr at ic Sc ho ols & Co mm on we al th Day Anand:

Brilliant! Then we are agreed. All our advertising from now on will display our new core values: Diversity, Development and Democracy. So let’s start planning the launch day.

Sam: OK, but before we do that we have to decide which of the three ‘Ds’ we are going to focus on during the launch day. It would be too much to try to cover all three in one day – they are massive topics! Rania: How about we just choose one to focus on at the launch day… but which one should we choose? Paul: Well, we are supposed to be a democratic School Council, so let’s make them decide! Rania:

Who?

[Pointing to the audience] Them! Our school belongs to all of us. We can’t Paul: have a democracy unless we involve the people. We could take a vote on it, right here, right now. That’s what democracy means – the rule of the people. Let’s have a referendum. That’s where people vote on an issue so a direct decision can be made. Sam: Wait, before they all vote they have to be clear on what the three terms mean to us! Otherwise they won’t know what to vote for! To be honest, I’m not sure I know what the terms mean to us at the moment either… Tolu: Good idea Sam. OK, I’ll start with Diversity. Everyone listening? Diversity means differences or variations between people in communities and societies. So we know that we are all different and we want to celebrate our differences, but at the same time we want to remember that we are all human beings and we have lots in common. So diversity is about respecting people, and about including people in our communities. Go diversity! [Holds up a sign saying ‘Diversity’] Rania: OK, I will do Development. Everyone ready? Development means improving people’s access to health, education and technologies in countries around the world. It’s about giving people their human rights, human dignity, a good environment to live in and equal opportunities to shine, whether they are male or female, and wherever they live around the world. In school, we need to make sure we help everyone to develop into happy, fulfilled people. Everyone should be able to access their education, so we shouldn’t have any bullying, we should look after the environment, and we should help people around us to achieve their potential. Development is really important – go development! [Holds up a sign saying ‘Development’] Alex: My turn! Everyone focused? Democracy means that power is in the hands of the people. This makes our communities more fair and just, because decisions can be questioned and criticised. Democracy encourages people to take part in society, both to stand up for their rights and to take on responsibilities for others! In school, democracy can help us feel like the teachers, the headteacher and even our parents are listening to what we want and need, so together we can work to make school better for everyone. Democracy is crucial – go democracy! [Holds up a sign saying ‘Democracy’]

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y As sem bly 1: De mo cr at ic Sc ho ols & Co mm on we al th Da Paul: Right then everyone. We have heard from our three Ds, so it’s time to vote. Which one should we choose for our School Council launch day topic: Diversity, Development or Democracy? Which one do you think is most important, right here, right now? Could we first have hands up for Diversity! [Tolu holds ‘Diversity’ sign up high, and counts the hands up in the audience] Now for Development! [Rania holds ‘Development’ sign up high, and counts the hands up in the audience] Now Democracy! [Alex holds ‘Democracy’ sign up high, and counts the hands up in the audience]. So, which of our core values will we be presenting at our launch day? Drum roll please… It’s… [Diversity / Development / Democracy!] Woo hoo!

[Alternative voting system – Tolu, Rania and Alex go to different parts of the room and the whole assembly has to decide which value to choose: Diversity, Development or Democracy, and go and stand in that part of the room. The biggest group is the winner!] Sam:

Fantastic. Thank you everyone. Now we need to start planning our big launch day, with some really good activities to show everyone how they can contribute towards [Diversity / Development / Democracy] and a better school for everyone. First thing – when are we going to hold the launch day?

Anand: I know just the day - Commonwealth Day, the second Monday in March! That will be very appropriate. Tolu:

Perfect. The second Monday in March it is. We should put some posters up about it… Anand, shall we work on that together? If anyone else wants to help, let me know!

Anand: This is going to be great! Scene 3: Florence, Mehmet, Sam and Miss Smith at the Commonwealth Day Celebrations in the school playground [the chosen sign should be up: Diversity, Development or Democracy] Florence: Hey, how’s it going Mehmet? Mehmet: Great thanks Florence. You? Florence: I’m fine. Isn’t all this Commonwealth Day stuff good? I’ve signed up for two workshops already… Sam:

[Joining Florence and Mehmet] All right?

Mehmet:

Sam, I was going to ask you something…

Miss Smith: Oh, Mehmet... Florence: Miss Smith! Oh no, what’s Mehmet done now? Miss Smith:

Hi. I just wanted to thank you again, Mehmet, for helping me with my first years this morning. You have a way with words and they really listened to you. They keep asking me when you can come into the lesson to help out again. You know you are welcome any time. Thanks so much!

Mehmet:

Power to the people, Miss. [As Miss Smith leaves, Florence opens her mouth in disbelief and goes to speak but Mehmet interrupts]. I was going to ask you Sam. You got any spaces on that School Council thing? [They all laugh] ASSEMBLY 1 PAGE 5 OF 6

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As sem bly 1: De mo cr at ic Sc ho ols & Co mm on we al th Day Âť Useful websites Commonwealth Day

Commonwealth Day website: www.commonwealthday.org

Young Commonwealth website: www.youngcommonwealth.org/commonwealth-day

Commonwealth Secretariat website: www.thecommonwealth.org/Internal/191086/34493/148532/commonwealth_day

Royal Commonwealth Society website: www.thercs.org/youth/commonwealthday

 ritish Monarchy website: www.royal.gov.uk/MonarchAndCommonwealth/ B QueenandCommonwealth/CommonwealthDay.aspx

Democratic Schools Commonwealth Secretariat website, Democracy and Consensus-Building: www.thecommonwealth.org/subhomepage/190591

Open Democracy website: www.opendemocracy.net

BBC Schools website, Democracy and School Councils animation: www.bbc.co.uk/schools/citizenx/local/democracy/animation.shtml

School Councils UK website: www.schoolcouncils.org

Involver website: http://involver.org.uk

The Commonwealth Foundation is an intergovernmental organisation that works to empower Civil Society (charities, non-governmental organisations, professional associations, trade unions, faith groups and cultural practitioners). Find out more in CommonGround and at: www.commonwealthfoundation.com

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As sem bl y 2: Div er sit y & th e Co mm on we al th Ga me s Note: These materials can be used as a script for students to enact or as a starting point for their research, after which they could write their own assembly. The existing script can be amended to suit the needs of your particular school. More information about Diversity and the Commonwealth Games can be found by investigating the ‘Useful Websites’ - page 131. » Plot: A group of Commonwealth Games athletes has come to the school to share their experiences as participants. They discuss the meaning of diversity and describe their countries. The play finishes with students being asked to consider how they might employ Commonwealth values in their own lives.

10-15m

» Characters, Timings and Props: Names can be changed and the script can be split among a smaller or larger group of students (for example, by giving a number of students the different ‘narrator’ paragraphs). The script should take between 10 and 15 minutes to enact, but might be more depending on the audience responses. Each actor could also dress up for the part: for example, Queen Elizabeth II could wear a crown and carry a sceptre and the athletes could wear appropriate sporting gear. You will also need some swimming trunks and a baton. » The Cast: Narrator(s) Queen Elizabeth II Adine Wilson (New Zealand, Netball Captain, Gold Medal in 2006 Commonwealth Games) Ryan Pini (Papua New Guinea, Swimmer, Gold Medal in 2006 Commonwealth Games) Damian Brown (Australia, Weightlifter, Gold Medal in 2002 Commonwealth Games) Prasanta Karmakar (India, Swimmer (disability events), Bronze Medal in 2010 Commonwealth Games)

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As sem bl y 2: Div er sit y & th e Co mm on we al th Ga me s » The Play: Narrator: I’d like to introduce you to some friends. OK, they’re quite famous but they’re still my friends. Well, we have a message for you all, so please listen up. We want you to get involved too. You all know how to clap and cheer… so let’s give them a big round of applause for coming to visit our school! [start clapping… then wait for applause to die down] You can do better than that… give them a big cheer! [clap again and after a few seconds put hands up to stop the applause] Queen: Hello, I am Queen Elizabeth the Second. I am the Head of the Commonwealth. The Commonwealth, as you probably know, is a group of 54 countries that have agreed to work together for their common good, promoting ideas such as diversity, development and democracy. Every four years, athletes, supporters and sports fans from the Commonwealth countries come together in a celebration of sport and culture, which is called the Commonwealth Games. There are special events for disabled sportsmen and women, and for young people. I am glad to have this opportunity to offer my best wishes to every athlete and official who takes part in the Commonwealth Games. Adine: As you may have guessed, we are athletes and we’ll be talking to you about our experiences of competing in the Commonwealth Games. I’m Adine Wilson and I grew up in New Zealand. I am a lawyer, which is quite a competitive job, so it was natural to me to follow my competitive streak into the world of sports. I play Netball and was the captain of the team that won a Gold Medal at the Commonwealth Games in 2006. Queen: The first Commonwealth Games were held in 1930 in Hamilton, Canada. I was only 4 years old then, and my grandfather was King. That first time in Canada 11 countries sent 400 athletes to take part in 6 sports and 59 events. The City of Hamilton provided thirty thousand dollars towards the travelling costs of the participating nations – a lot of money in those days. Adine: It still is a lot of money now but it must have been a fortune then! How many bus journeys can thirty thousand dollars buy you now in our country? [ask for responses if time allows] Since then, the Games have been conducted every four years, except for 1942 and 1946 due to World War Two. They have been held all around the world, from India to Australia to Jamaica to Wales. I hope you all have good imaginations because we want you to be there with us, sharing the occasions down the years, hearing the roar of the crowd. Ryan: Thank you for that bit of history Adine! Let’s hear it for Adine Wilson everyone! [clap and then wait for applause to die down] I’m Ryan Pini and in 2006 I swam to victory in the Men’s 100 metre Butterfly event of the Commonwealth Games Swimming competition. I actually won Papua New Guinea’s second Commonwealth Games gold medal in 16 years! My time to swim 100 metres was 52.64 seconds. I wonder what the fastest time is for some of the students at [insert the name of your school here]. Does anyone here like swimming? Give me a wave if you do! [pause] You guys can borrow my spare trunks if you want! [wave swimming trunks around head, then throw to Queen Elizabeth II!] ASSEMBLY 2 PAGE 2 OF 5

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As sem bl y 2: Div er sit y & th e Co mm on we al th Ga me s Damian: It is so exciting winning a medal. It makes you so proud to have everyone in your country supporting you and cheering you on. I am Damian Brown and I’m from Australia. I am a weightlifter and at the 2002 Commonwealth Games I was the Flag Bearer for Australia at the opening ceremony. There was no prouder person in the Commonwealth than me when my name was read out and I knew I would be carrying the flag in front of so many people. I won a gold medal as well! Ryan: Taking part is unbelievable and I felt so good in the competition. The crowd were amazing. Just like all of you. They cheered for everyone. That’s why taking part in the Commonwealth Games is so special – it brings together and unites people of very different backgrounds, beliefs and nations around the world. It’s incredible. And there are so many different sports. [You could try to act the following sports out while you are saying them] There are always athletics and swimming, rugby sevens, netball and lawn bowls. But there can be lots of other things too, such as boxing, cycling, gymnastics, tennis, triathlon and wrestling. Damian: All the countries of the Commonwealth are very different but we have our similarities too that can bring us together… such as our love of sports! Ryan, what’s it like in your country? I’ve never been to Papua New Guinea. Ryan: Well, it’s quite close to your country, Australia, so you should pay us a visit! The amazing thing about Papua New Guinea is that it has so much diversity – for example, we have over 820 different languages. But we still manage to communicate with each other – there are at least six universities in the country and lots of schools just like this one. Papua New Guinea does suffer from some major problems though, like most countries – in our case it is earthquakes, poverty and diseases such as HIV/AIDS. The Millennium Development Goals set in the year 2000 have been a useful way of bringing these problems to the world’s attention. There is a lot we can all do to improve people’s lives in these areas! Damian: You’re right. We should all think about what we can do to help. What about writing to the government to see what they are doing about global poverty and to give them your own suggestions? Narrator: Great idea… and it’s something everyone can do. Ryan, what do you mean when you say that Papua New Guinea has so much diversity? What’s diversity? Isn’t that a dance group? Ryan: Yes, but the word diversity really means differences or variations, in this case between people in communities and societies. For example, the Commonwealth countries are spread across every continent and ocean in the world. 2 billion people live in Commonwealth countries – that’s 30 per cent of the world’s population – and they are of many faiths, races, languages, cultures and traditions. The Commonwealth is very diverse. Just like schools are diverse. Put your hands up if there is something different about you than everyone else in this room! [everyone should have their hands up!] ASSEMBLY 2 PAGE 3 OF 5 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

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As sem bl y 2: Div er sit y & th e Co mm on we al th Ga me s Adine: My country, New Zealand, also has a diverse population. We can trace our family histories back to a whole range of different countries, including Pacific Islands such as Samoa, the Cook Islands and Tonga, China, India and Europe. Our country is also home to many Maori people, who are the indigenous population which means they have lived there for thousands of years. [pause to think] You know, even though we are all diverse, we can all work together to achieve amazing things. A big thing with the Commonwealth Games is friendliness – we’re all in it together. It’s a celebration of difference and of what we share in common. The same rules work for the Commonwealth Games as for school. We respect each other and value everyone’s achievements. It’s shouldn’t be so important how we look or where we come from. We can learn a lot from each other. We may be competitors but really we’re one big team, one community. Narrator: The competition is actually nicknamed ‘the Friendly Games’ and there is a great atmosphere. There are also inclusive events for athletes with a disability. Prasanta Karmakar won India’s first ever Commonwealth Games medal in a swimming event, in 2010. How did you get involved in the Games, Prasanta? Prasanta: When I was a child I lost part of my right arm in a car accident. I always loved swimming and I made myself train really hard while I was working at a swimming pool. But I didn’t earn enough money to sustain my diet, rent and other basic needs so I nearly stopped training. Many a time I thought of calling it a day but then there was this urge to do something for my country… sheer grit carried me through. Luckily, some organizations and individuals came forward and helped me out, so I was able to start competing internationally! I am hoping that by winning a medal I have raised awareness in India about para-sports. Narrator: Wow, can we have a round of applause for Prasanta Karmakar please! Can I just ask one question - how do you stay so focused and achieve your goals, even with your disability? Prasanta: I don’t like the world disabled at all… see, everyone is disabled in one sense or another: we all have certain shortcomings. It’s just that my shortcoming is that I have one hand missing. All I would like to say is work hard and never lose hope. These are the two main ingredients for achieving your dreams. Narrator: That is a really important point, thank you! We do have to remember that underneath, we are all human beings so we should value each other. The Commonwealth Games is a great example of how people from very diverse countries can get together and be friendly, even though they are competing against each other. This happens for young people in the Commonwealth Youth Games. These are open to athletes under 18 years of age and under, our age in fact. The Youth Games provide an excellent opportunity for aspiring young athletes from the Commonwealth with a taste of what the Commonwealth Games has in store for us in the future. Think about it… you could be [insert your country’s name] next star athlete!

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As sem bl y 2: Div er sit y & th e Co mm on we al th Ga me s Adine: The thing is, it’s not just about winning sports medals. We can also make a difference through loads of different careers… for example, I’m a lawyer and there are lots of lawyers all over the world working to promote human rights and international justice. There is so much work to do - most people in my country, New Zealand, are able to live long, healthy lives, and 99% of children go to primary school when they are old enough. But sadly that’s not true throughout the Commonwealth. For example, in Malawi, over 1 in 10 people live with HIV and only 42% of people have access to safe drinking water. Put up your hand if you have easy access to clean water. It’s really unfair that there is so much inequality in the world! Narrator: There is definitely still a long way to go. The Commonwealth countries need to work together to help to solve these global problems. Despite the diversity of the people living around the Commonwealth, we are all similar in many ways too and together we can make a difference. That unity in diversity is symbolised in the Commonwealth Games by the Queen’s Baton Relay, in which a baton is carried around the world by different athletes and presented by the last relay runner to the Queen, the Head of the Commonwealth, at the start of the Games. Ryan: One day I would like the Commonwealth Games to be held in Papua New Guinea and then maybe I would get to hand over the baton to the Queen. The Queen’s Baton has a great history and it is a reminder of the unity in diversity which is what the Relay is about. [Handing the baton to the Queen] Your Majesty. Queen: Thank you, Mr Pini. And thank you too, to our wonderful athletes, without whom there would be no Commonwealth Games. I hope in future years, some of you will be joining them. The Games are for everyone and the Commonwealth works towards the development of all its countries so that people’s lives change for the better. Your school is like the Commonwealth and I would like you to think about ways in which you can apply the Commonwealth values of respect, diversity, tolerance and justice to make it an even better place for everyone than it already is. » Useful websites

Also view p31 CommonGround guide

What is the Commonwealth? www.youngcommonwealth.org/what-is-the-commonwealth www.thecommonwealth.org Facts about the Commonwealth Games www.youngcommonwealth.org/the-commonwealth-games www.thecgf.com (Commonwealth Games Federation) www.thecommonwealth.org/Internal/143537/145351/commonwealth_games www.thecgf.com/cyg (Commonwealth Youth Games) Facts about Diversity and the Commonwealth www.youngcommonwealth.org/diversity-and-unity

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» Involving your students in a Commonwealth Youth Summit (a model Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting) can bring to life a wide variety of international issues, as well as build public speaking skills, political literacy, diplomacy and understanding of the Commonwealth. » In this section, you will find a step-bystep guide to running a Summit for young people, explaining how students can play the roles of Prime Ministers, Presidents and Foreign Ministers to discuss pressing global issues such as climate change, conflict and poverty. » You will see that the Summit format can be easily adapted for anywhere between five and 130 students, and for a variety of timeframes, between one hour and a full day. » The pages that follow provide everything you need to run a Summit and the CD accompanying this pack also includes editable, printable materials.

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» A Toolkit

» Introduction In this section, we will share some easy-to-follow steps and resources to help you run a Commonwealth Youth Summit – or mock CHOGM – with your students.

M?

What is a CHOG

and Foreign isters, Presidents in M e im Pr lth lth itself, Commonwea the Commonwea th bo g in Every two years, ct fe af discuss issues wealth Heads Ministers meet to called a Common is g tin ee m e Th orld. by a different and the wider w and it is hosted M G O H C or g, eetin of Government M untry each time. co lth Commonwea tries have the lth member coun ea w on m om C cia or Tonga all of the 54 state such as St Lu nd la is At the meeting, l al sm a Canada or to speak, so rge country like la a as same opportunity ay w e m inion in the sa can voice their op India. omics, the ent, politics, econ pm lo ve de e ud cl well current d may in and security as ts Topics discusse gh ri an m hu uth affairs, environment, yo member states. issues affecting all) and, at e agreement of th ith (w s su en half of all ached by cons are issued on be ts en em Decisions are re at st of decisions eeting, a series muniqué and the om C e th the end of the m as n ree years. ements are know the next two or th leaders. The stat r fo s an pl lth ea monw made shape Com

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d Tobago in Trinidad an om the 2009 CHOGM fr ph ra og Official phot

Thanks to funding from the UK’s Department for International Development, the Royal Commonwealth Society (RCS) has developed, tried and tested a formula for running a mock CHOGM, referred to here as a Commonwealth Youth Summit. The Summit helps build students’ empathy, public speaking and listening skills, as well as their political literacy and awareness of global issues.

1-7hrs

A Summit can involve between five and 130 students, and take between one hour and one day, depending on the time and resources you have available and how

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» A Toolkit

As we will explain in detail in this section… T  he Summit involves young people being assigned a Commonwealth country to represent and research. Students then discuss global issues in a group debate format. S  tudents can also play the role of the Commonwealth Secretary-General and Deputy Secretary-Generals to take charge of managing the meeting, but teachers or older students can also play these roles if you prefer.  he issues on the agenda are up to you, but could include climate change, economics T or (the example we use here) inequalities in access to education and health. If you like, you can also present the students with a real-life or pretend crisis situation to resolve in-role (for example, the outbreak of a conflict, or the emergence of a new disease).  ou can also add an ‘out of role’ debate to encourage students to think about what Y they as young people can do to make the world a better place.  tudents can summarise the decisions made at their Summit in their own Communiqué, S or declaration, which could be presented to a school, local or Commonwealth leader at the end of the Summit. If you wish, and particularly if you have a larger group, some students could also play the role of journalists, forming a media team who will report on the Summit by taking photos, interviewing the delegates and writing a press article. We will run you through the Summit step-by-step, moving from a simple one hour debate to a full day programme with all the extras! The CD with this pack contains all the materials you will need for the activity. You can download, adapt and print resources including country research guides, sample speeches and Communiqués, name plates and a full-day programme. This symbol identifies that relevant resources available on the CD.

ing a Interested in runn t few Summit? The nex ou pages will show y how…!

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» A Toolkit

» A Step-by-Step Guide to Running a Commonwealth Youth Summit

1

Establish who will be taking part in the Summit. The model can be adapted for any age range, and can involve just a few students, a class, a whole year group, or even students from a number of different schools. You can easily engage up to 130 young people in a Summit if you like!

2 3

Fix a time and date for the Summit. Remember that you want to allow students enough time to do some research to prepare for their roles.

4

Decide on the scope and theme of your Summit. You could run a single debate, or up to four debates in a full day, each with a different theme and each lasting roughly one to one-and-a-half hours. Themes should be internationally relevant (e.g. climate change, human rights or the Millennium Development Goals), but it completely is up to you to choose the issues that you think would be most interesting and relevant to your students. For example, you might choose to fit the debates around existing topics you have been studying, from Antigua to Zambia or from your curriculum.

Find a suitable location for the Summit. If you are working with just one class, you might be able to set up the classroom with chairs and desks in a square or rectangle with a top table for the Secretary-General.  owever, where possible, students respond well when the debate is in a different or H ‘special’ environment, so you may want to consider holding the Summit in a community or school hall, at a local university, or even in a debating chamber if you can. If possible, choose a set up where students can see and hear their peers easily. If you are opting for a full or half-day programme, don’t forget about important logistics like travel to the venue, refreshments and toilet facilities! If possible, visual projection facilities and a laptop are also helpful for writing and amending the Communiqué, but you could also use a black/white board, pens and notepaper.

5

Once you have the logistics arranged, you will need to assign roles to the students you want to involve in the Summit.  ost of the students will be playing the roles of Commonwealth Heads of State – M Prime Ministers or Presidents (see opporsite for a full list of Commonwealth countries). If you have a large group, or if your students are less confident, you can also pair students, with two representing one Commonwealth country – one Prime Minister/ President and one Foreign Minister. If you like, you can inform the students that the hierarchy between the two roles is irrelevant, as this will encourage them to work together.  hen allocating roles, try to include a range of countries. One of the most W interesting thing about the Commonwealth is the diversity of its members and the different perspectives each brings, so try to reflect this, even if you have a small group. It is ideal if you can include countries from every region of the Commonwealth (Africa, Asia, the Americas, Europe and the Also view p14-15 Pacific), developing countries as well as developed countries, CommonGround guide and at least some of the 32 small island Commonwealth states.

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» A Toolkit

» A list of Commonwealth countries you could include in your Youth Summit are listed below. If you can, try to include a range of states from different parts of the world, as well as some small island states. Country Antigua and Barbuda



 Bahamas  Bangladesh  Barbados  Belize  Botswana  Australia

Brunei Darussalam

 Canada  Cyprus  Dominica  Fiji  The Gambia  Ghana  Grenada  Guyana  India  Jamaica  Kenya  Kiribati  Lesotho  Malawi  Malaysia  Maldives  Malta  Mauritius  Cameroon

Practising Head of Executive

Country

Practising Head of Executive

Prime Minister

Mozambique

Prime Minister

Namibia

President

Prime Minister

Nauru

President

Prime Minister

New Zealand

Prime Minister

Nigeria

President

  

Prime Minister

Prime Minister

 Pakistan 

President

Papua New Guinea

King

Rwanda

Prime Minister

St Kitts and Nevis

Prime Minister

St Lucia

President

St Vincent & Grenadines

Prime Minister

Samoa

Prime Minister President President Prime Minister President Prime Minister Prime Minister President President Prime Minister President Prime Minister President Prime Minister Prime Minister

President Prime Minister



Prime Minister President





Prime Minister Prime Minister



Prime Minister

 Seychelles  Sierra Leone  Singapore  Solomon Islands  South Africa  Sri Lanka  Swaziland  Tonga  Trinidad and Tobago  Tuvalu  United Kingdom  Uganda  United Rep. of Tanzania  Vanuatu  Zambia 

Prime Minister President President Prime Minister Prime Minister President President King/ Prime Minister King/ Prime Minister Prime Minister Prime Minister Prime Minister President President Prime Minister President

Key

(SID), nd Developing State la Is l al Sm =  ce based on UN practi a wealth state in Afric  = Common wealth state in Asia  = Common cific ealth state in the Pa w on m om C =  ate in the Americas st h lt ea w on m om C  = pe wealth state in Euro  = Common

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» A Toolkit

If you wish, you could let students pick their roles, enabling them to choose countries they feel an affinity towards. Alternatively you could keep things simple and pick names out of a hat, or assign roles at random.  ou will also need to find students to play the role of the Commonwealth SecretaryY General (who Chairs the debate), a Timekeeper who assists the Chair and helps keeps the debate on schedule, and someone (or a small team) in charge of note-taking and drafting the Communiqué (see page 148).  lthough it is not technically accurate, you could refer to the note-taker and A timekeeper as Deputy Secretary-Generals to stress the importance of the roles. If you are concerned that your students may find these roles too much of a challenge, you could appoint adults or an older students instead, or offer support to students to boost their confidence.

6

Prepare your students for their roles. If you have time, it is a good idea to help your students prepare for the debate. The Summit will be much more successful if students feel confident with the subject matter they are discussing, with the format of the debate and with the idea of speaking out in front of a group.  our preparation could involve running Lesson 1 from Antigua to Zambia (Blue or Y Green, depending on the age group), or even just one or two of the activities from the lesson plan. This will introduce students to what the Commonwealth is, how it works, its members and what a CHOGM is. It would also be helpful to spend a little time introducing students to the subject matter of the debate. If you are not basing your debate on existing work on a topic, you could theme it around global inequality (Blue Lesson 3), education (Blue Lesson 4), malaria (Blue Lesson 5) or Climate Change (Blue Lesson 6), and use the activities in this pack as warm-up activities.  tudents will also need to learn about the S country they are representing at the Summit. An encyclopaedia or the Internet should provide all the information you need. Y  ou could also give students Workshop 1 over the page to complete either in class or as a homework exercise. The activity could also be supplemented with more focused research related to the theme of the debate and how it affects their country – for example, if the theme is health, what are the major health challenges in the country and how are they being addressed? D  ebriefing the activity in a classroom discussion will begin to help students see the ways in which their country is both similar and different to those that their peers are learning about.

These online country factfiles might be useful fo r students’ country research : BBC News Country Profile http://news.bbc.co.uk /1/hi/ country_profiles/defa ult.stm

s

CIA - The World Factbo

ok

https://www.cia.gov/ library/ publications/the-wor ld-factbook

Commonwealth Secretariat

http://www.thecommo

nwealth.org

Worldmapper

http://www.worldmap

per.org

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138

percentage of population living in cities, ratio or men to women

POPULATION statistics e.g. total population, percentage of youth and elderly, birth rate,

Year joined the Commonwealth

Head of State

What kind of political system

Environment

e.g. parliamentary democracy, constitutional monarchy, military government

Major religions and ethnic groups

Official languages

e.g. coasts, island, landlocked, mountains, volcanoes, climate, size, current issues

Region/neighbours

Official country name

Basic information

stats Why not check out the you go, as try un co for another to compare the data?

In

ime

ations - free

Communic

about cr formation

press?

of aid?

Conflicts in

on (e.g. comm

the last 30

l system Type of legalaw or civil law)

years?

rties in the f political pa sembly Number o as r o t rliamen national pa

Net giver o

r receiver

ports

rts and ex

Major impo

ta

me per capi

co Average in

st election

rnout at la

Date and tu

P o l it ic s

Natural re

sources

ent rate

Unemploym

GDP

Economy

Co mm on we al th Yo ut h Su mm it » Worksheet 1

» Imagine that you are a university researcher in the country you are representing. The Commonwealth Information Bureau has asked you to help them. They are producing a Fact Book that will give people around the world important information about every member country. You have been asked to fill in the blank boxes on the following pages, providing information about your country’s geography, population, economy, politics and social services. You have been asked to be honest about the challenges your country faces.

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© Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

Education provisions (do you have to pay?)

Average number of years a child attends school

Infant mortality rate

Major infectious diseases and prevalence

Maternal mortality rate

Death rate

Life expectancy at birth for men and women

Type of health care (state provided or private?)

HEALTH

Age of compulsory education

Literacy rate for men and women

Education National anthem? (try to listen to it online!)

National flower?

Draw a pic tu countr y’s fl re of your ag here.

National animal?

National symbol?

What is the:

identity

page to note Use the space on this u find out yo down anything else ch. during in Your resear

Co mm on we al th Yo ut h Su mm it » Worksheet 2

untryresearch » Please go to www.thercs.org/youth/co research! this with for resources that might help you

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» A Toolkit

» A Step-by-Step Guide to Running a Commonwealth Youth Summit ...continued  inally, you may want to help boost students’ confidence with speaking out in front of a F group. Share your own experience, lead a group discussion and give students the handout below if you think it will help them.

A brief guide to effective public speaking Speaking well in public is a very valuable and difficult skill. There is no substitute for practice but some of the tips and ideas below will help you be confident at the Summit. Whenever you have to speak in public remember: everyone who does it is nervous no matter how experienced they are, the audience will always forgive you for making a mistake, and be yourself; there is no “right” way of speaking or giving a speech!

Speaking Out Whatever you are speaking about, it is essential that you structure your points well, so that your audience can clearly follow the issues you address. Make sure you don’t try to cram in too much; the sessions during the Commonwealth Youth Summit are quite short and there will be lots of different opinions. Keep your comments to less than three minutes.

Delivery Good delivery is absolutely vital. Unfortunately if your audience is distracted by odd mannerisms or turned off by a dull delivery then they will be less likely to hear your message.

Verbal Think about the acoustics of the room – for example; lots of people or furniture will absorb the sound of your voice and large halls which echo mean you need to speak even slower than normal. R  ate: Are you speaking too quickly? A good thing to ask yourself is “Am I speaking too slowly?” If you think the answer is “Yes” then you are probably speaking at the right rate. Pauses: Do you use pauses to add impact to your speech or do you simply race through it? V  ariety: Do you vary your voice? Does the pitch of your voice rise during questions? Does the volume of your voice decrease when you are describing a quiet moment? You will do this all the time while speaking, try saying the word “really” as a question, a statement and as a sarcastic remark – same word but three different ways to use your voice.  ronunciation/ Articulation: Don’t try to use words because they are long and sound clever if you wouldn’t P normally do so. Odd words which don’t fit with the rest of your speech sound out of place rather than making you sound smart. Language: Is your language appropriate? Avoid slang terms that may not be understood by your audience.

Non-verbal Gestures: Do you use gesture effectively? Do you over gesture? M  ovement: Do you move around too much when you speak? Some movement is natural when you speak but pacing or swaying become distracting. E  ye contact: Do you maintain good eye contact? Using small notes helps to make sure you don’t hold anything in front of your face and make sure you look at your audience.

Finally All speeches do a combination of three things: entertain, inform and persuade. Getting the right balance between these three aims depends on the purpose of your speech. Make sure you know what you are trying to achieve before you start. Thank you to the English Speaking Union’s Discover Your Voice team for their help with this worksheet! www.esu.org

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» A Toolkit

» Room Set-up (especially relevant for larger groups) If you are not holding the Summit in a chamber or hall that is already prepared for a debate, you will need to set up the room before your students (the Summit delegates) arrive. Ideally, you will need chairs arranged behind tables or desks. If possible, arrange chairs and tables in a rectangle or semi-circle, so that delegates can see and hear one another easily. If you have a large number of delegates, you may have two or more students representing one country (e.g. a Prime Minister and a Foreign Minster). Group chairs by country accordingly. If possible place country nameplates and country flags in front of each delegate, or group of delegates. You will find nameplates and flags ready to print on the Resources CD, but you could also instruct students to make their own. It is Commonwealth protocol to order countries alphabetically – from Antigua & Barbuda to Zambia. You will need a ‘top table’ at one end of the room, where the Secretary-General (the Chair) and his or her deputies should sit. The Timekeeper should sit next to the Chair with access to a notepad and pen (for passing notes to the Chair) and a stopwatch or wristwatch. The Communiqué Team should sit close to the Secretary-General, and be provided with chairs, a table and writing equipment. If possible, they should work on a computer that is connected to a projector, so that delegates can view the Communiqué as it progresses. The Chair, deputies and Communiqué team should also be provided with a nameplate and, if possible, the Commonwealth Flag. These are also provided on the Resources CD. If you have a student media team – or professional journalists – covering the Summit, you could make a separate area for them where they have a good view of the debate, or you could allow them to move freely and provide a separate space elsewhere for writing up, or processing audio and visual material.

Sample Room Layout for a Youth Summit h tor wit al) Projec ué (option iq n u Comm

Commonwealth Countries A to Z

Special guests, teachers, parents and other observers can be accommodated wherever there is room, but it is preferable to seat them towards the back of the room, so that students do not feel intimidated or nervous. If you have a large group and have access to audio equipment such as microphones and speakers, this will improve the acoustics – and delegates’ experience of the debate – dramatically. Otherwise make sure all delegates speak loudly, clearly and slowly! Once the room is ready, delegates can enter the room and take up their positions! Each should bring a notepad and pen, as well as the key findings from any country reseach they have done.

Key:   

= Commonwealth Secretary General = Timekeeper (Deputy Secretary-General) = Communiqué Team = Country or Commonwealth Flags

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» A Toolkit

» Components of the Debate Each Summit debate lasts around 60 – 90 minutes, and typically includes the following components:

Suggested timing

Component of the Debate

Around 2 minutes

Secretary-General’s Introduction

Around 15 minutes

Countries Introduce Problems

Around 7 minutes

First Lobbying Session

Around 3 minutes

Communiqué Statement on Problems Agreed

Around 10 minutes

Countries Present Possible Solutions to the Problems

Around 7 minutes

Second Lobbying Session

Around 20 minutes

Final Chance for Discussion and Agreement of Communiqué

Around 10 minutes

Presentation of the Communiqué and Close of the Debate

Please see over the page for a fuller description of each component and examples.

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» A Toolkit

» Components of the Debate (continued) Secretary-General’s Introduction The Chair welcomes all present and introduces him/herself, the Timekeeper and Communiqué Team. The Chair explains how the debate will run, that delegates must raise their country nameplate if they wish to make a contribution and that contributions should be kept brief and on topic. The Chair provides some background context to the debate. P  lease see page 144 for a sample Secretary-General’s Introduction on the theme of education. Countries Introduce Problems The Chair invites delegates to outline the problems being faced by their citizens – and citizens across the Commonwealth – related to the theme. So for example, if the theme of the debate is education, delegates might highlight a lack of qualified teachers, inadequate schools, large class sizes or gender inequality as problems. The Chair should aim to hear a range of problems from a range of countries, ensuring that no delegate/s dominate the discussion. The Timekeeper plays a central role helping with this. When countries make their contribution, their contribution need not follow any specific protocol in terms of length and format, although you could introduce a style guide or time limit if you wish. The Chair should summarise key points intermittently to keep things clear, and keep the debate focused on problems at this stage (solutions come later). First Lobbying Session After a range of issues have been raised, the Chair will next invite delegates to circulate – out of their seats – discussing informally with one another the problems raised and considering possible solutions to these problems. They should try to form alliances with countries facing similar problems and attempt to discuss ways to collaborate towards shared solutions. D  uring this time, the Communiqué Team should write up (from their notes) the first part of the Communiqué, to briefly summarise the issues that have been raised in the debate so far. Please see page 148 for an example of what a Communiqué may look like.

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» A Toolkit

Communiqué Statement on Problems Agreed The Chair or Timekeeper should call the group to order after the allotted time and when the Communiqué Team indicate that they are ready. The Chair should request that delegates return to their original seats and then invite a member of the Communiqué team to read the first part of their statement. If projection equipment is available, the draft Communiqué can also be screened so that the delegates can see what has been written. The Chair should ask the delegates if they are satisfied with the statement and if it is an accurate reflection of their discussions so far. Consensus must be reached on what to include in the Communiqué and on the wording of the statement. The Chair must work with delegates to edit and amend the statement until it is approved by all as a fair reflection of the issues raised. Countries Present Possible Solutions to the Problems The Chair should next encourage delegates to propose possible solutions to the problems raised earlier in the debate. For example if the problem discussed was poor standard of education due to large class sizes, delegates may propose that teacher training schemes be established. Again, the Chair should aim to hear a range of countries’ viewpoints and attempt to get agreement on which options are the most popular and feasible. The Timekeeper should keep a close eye on time and who hasn’t yet had the chance to speak. Second Lobbying Session After a range of solutions have been raised, the Chair should invite delegates to lobby, as before but discussing possible solutions to countries’ problems. During this time, the Communiqué Team should write up (from their notes) the second and final part of the Communiqué, to briefly summarise the issues that have been raised in the debate. Please see page 148 for an example of what a Communiqué may look like. Wrap-up of Debate and Agreement of Communiqué At this stage in the debate, the Secretary-General should call the group to order and encourage the group to identify a few key actions that they think the Commonwealth should take forward in response to the issue discussed. The Communiqué team incorporate these decisions into their document and share this with the group. The Chair should ask those present to agree the Communique as a fair reflection of the debate. Final changes can be made if necessary and approval of the Communiqué should be by consensus (i.e. with the agreement of all). If possible, the Communiqué should be presented to a leader (e.g. from the school or the local community) such that they can take forward the matters raised. The leader can be given an opportunity to respond.

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» Sample Chair’s Commentary

» This commentary is a guide for the Secretary-General (Chair) on how to guide the debate and introduce the key issues. Feel free to build on this as you wish (within the time limit!). You will find this text as an editable Word document on the CD with this pack. The sample commentary below is written using the example of a debate on global education issues. You may find it useful to research the topic the young people will be discussing in your Summit and amend accordingly. Opening Statement Distinguished Heads of State and Government from around the Commonwealth, Ministers, members of the media, ladies and gentlemen. I am ………………, the Commonwealth Secretary-General, and I am delighted to welcome you to……………… today. I am also pleased to introduce my wonderful Deputy SecretaryGenerals, ………………, who will be taking notes on our proceedings, and ………………, who is our trusty timekeeper. I wish to thank to our kind host, ………………, for allowing us to use these wonderful rooms. But now to business. We are gathered here this morning to address the important issue of education – the education of our children and our future leaders. As you are all aware, we recently marked a milestone in our efforts towards the Millennium Development Goals. We are now over two-thirds of the way towards the deadline we set to provide free primary education for all. Yet still, more than 70 million under-16s do not have access to this basic level of education that we promised them, for reasons including family pressure, discrimination and lack of access. Further still, I hear reports that those in school do not always receive an adequate standard of education due to insufficient funds, teacher shortages, lack of facilities and overcrowded classrooms. Esteemed Heads of Government and Foreign Ministers of the Commonwealth, I urge you to address this pressing issue. I would now welcome contributions from the floor. In this first phase of the debate, please share with us the education-related problems that your countries are facing. We will return to discuss solutions shortly. Open Debate: Education Problems Across The Commonealth Invite contributions from a wide range of countries. Keep the debate focused on education problems at this stage (solutions will come later). To keep things clear, summarise or rephrase delegates’ contributions when necessary. If possible, ask for their verification of your rephrasing (e.g. “So there simply aren’t enough qualified teachers in many of your schools, is that what you are telling us?”) If possible, group together similar answers and keep the debate moving forward and covering new ground – e.g. so we have heard from Sierra Leone and Sri Lanka about the impact of conflict on education, does any one else want to raise a new issue they face? N.B. The notetaker will be making accurate notes of what’s said as you go along. SUMMITS TOOLKIT PAGE 13 OF 19 © Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth

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» A Toolkit

Secretary-General: Thank you, everyone, for your wise and interesting comments. I am saddened to hear of the problems our Commonwealth children continue to face. I know that not all of you have had the chance to share your concerns. Therefore, you now have …… minutes of lobbying time. This period will enable you to circulate, discussing education problems with others gathered here today. This is a unique opportunity to meet leaders from far and wide. Please use it to establish which other Commonwealth countries are facing similar education difficulties to your own. After …… minutes, we will reconvene to agree a statement on the issues, which our able Communiqué team will now draft. You will have an opportunity to suggest amendments and additions to this statement. We will then move to consider possible solutions to these education problems and agree the final Communiqué. So, for now, please move freely to discuss education issues with your fellow leaders. Lobbying Time: Education Problems Across The Commonwealth

Timekeeper: Please keep a close eye on time. Communiqué Team: During the lobbying period, please work with the Communiqué Team to come up with an accurate summary of the key points raised so far. Timekeeper says (loudly but calmly!): Honourable Ladies and Gentleman, Delegates of the 2010 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, please take your seats and fall silent. Thank you for your cooperation.

Secretary-General: Our able Communiqué Team have been busy summarising our earlier discussions. I now call upon……………… who will represent this group and read you the Communiqué as it currently stands. Young person from the Communiqué Team reads out the statement.

Secretary-General: I now invite any comments or further suggestions that you may have for this education issues section. Allow further comments from the floor – new issues to be added, or changes to the statement as it stands. Try to get consensus on the statement. Useful approaches/ phrases: Do we have agreement that this statement can stand? (People agree) Thank you delegates, we have consensus, this section of the communiqué is approved. Or I hear nothing, and so take it that this section of the Communiqué is approved. Are there any other suggested amendments or additions to this section of the Communiqué? If there are suggested changes, the DSG/Communiqué Team amends the statement, and the SG reads the amended version for approval.

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» Sample Chair’s Commentary

Secretary-General: Ladies and Gentlemen, we have approved this first section of our Commonwealth Communiqué, thank you. Delegates, we will now move on to raise possible solutions to the issues we have raised. As before, I will welcome contributions from the floor before allowing you some lobbying time and a chance to review the Communiqué. Open Debate: Solutions Please invite contributions from a wide range of countries. Please keep the debate focused on education solutions, and ensure that the debate remains on topic (ie not veering back to problems without solutions being raised).

Secretary-General: Thank you, everyone, for comments and suggestions. I am sure you will agree that we have come up with some interesting approaches to solving the problems we face. We will now have …… minutes of lobbying time, to allow you to discuss the solutions with others gathered here. After …… minutes, we will reconvene to agree a statement on the solutions, which our able Communiqué team will now draft. You will have an opportunity to suggest amendments and additions to this statement. We will then agree the final Communiqué. So, for now, please circulate to discuss our proposed solutions with your fellow leaders.

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» Sample Communiqué

A team of young people from Glasgow, Scotland worked with the Deputy Secretary-General to summarise all of the key points that delegates raised during their Summit debate on the topic of Health and Education for All. The resulting Communiqué - or declaration - was passed unanimously by those in attendance and presented to Councillor Archie Graham, Deputy Leader of the Council, and Executive Member for the Commonwealth Games. The extract below gives a flavour for what a Communiqué looks like. You can read the Glasgow Youth Summit Communiqué in full at www.thercs.org/youth/glasgowcommunique.

Glasgow Commonwealth Youth Summ

it Communiqué

Heads of Governments have express ed a concern for education and gen der issues where in some countries males have a high er literacy rate than women. Other gov ernments sighted problems with infrastructur e such as lack of teachers; in South Africa and Pakistan the teachers may not turn up for teaching. Basic resources like boo ks and transportation and young peoples’ health are also issues raised by heads of govern ments. In countries like Uganda only 50% of young people go to primary sch ool, followed by 10% making it into secondary sch ool. In nations like Swaziland and Mozambique, 65% of young people go to primary sch ool and for secondary school it dro ps to 45% so this issue needs to be addressed. Lim ited funds for young people in rura l communities was also sighted as a problem for acc ess to education. The method of funding for educati on also needs to be addressed, with individuals often being required to pay fees in add ition to government funding. Proposals Some nations felt reinvesting the countries’ resources into educati on was a step in the right direction. Promoting gen der equality is vital to combat the difference in literacy rates. It was suggested that teacher training can be fully implem ented in other Commonwealth countries. Setting a compulsory education for all and incentives like free sch ool meals should be taken into account. Ensuring an infra structure of higher and vocational training would encourage continuous education. Wealthier nations should issue stud ent visas to allow young people to come and study courses which are not available in developing nations’ schools and univ ersities. Teachers from wealthier nations can go and teach in poorer nations for a limi ted period. Another contribution from wealthie r nations would be to donate any non-monetary resources not being used to poo rer nations. Transport should be pro vide d to poorer areas so that people can have the opportunity to attend school. Community building and peer train ing can encourage cohesion and adds education benefits. This would include health issues like HIV/AIDS. Some recommendations for fund ing include from the private sector, taxation and imports and exports.

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» Full or half day programme

» A longer version of the Summit If you wish, you can make your Summit last longer than just one debate by adding additional elements, to create a half day or full day format. For example, the box opposite shows a full day programme that the RCS has previously used on a number of occasions and, in this case, in Newcastle in the north-east of England. An explanation of the additional elements you could add follows. Warm-Up Activities To help students focus, get to know one another and feel confident in front of the group, it might be a good idea to run some icebreakers or energisers at the start of the session, or at intervals throughout the day. You could also use activities from elsewhere in this pack to build students’ understanding of the issues they will later be debating. Crisis Situation In reality, you can never quite predict what will happen at a meeting of global leaders. Major world events can pop up, completely changing the course of a discussion. To give students the feel of this kind of exciting – and challenging – Summit, you could throw in an unexpected ‘Crisis Situation’ which delegates must discuss and (where possible) resolve. Preparation is important for a Summit, but this exercise tests students’ ability to think on their feet and to use the information they have available creatively. The RCS tends to deliver the Crisis Situation around ten minutes into a debate, when delegates are least expecting it. To create some drama, we deliver breaking news with a statement, radio newsflash or video clip – sometimes even pre-recorded by a real broadcaster in a news studio! The Secretary-General must be aware of what will happen, but it is important to keep the news secret from the delegates so that they treat the situation seriously. You will find two sample Crisis Situations on the CD with this pack, both using examples of disease outbreaks. Other crises could centre on natural disasters or outbreaks of conflict. A Presentation or Speech If you can, it can make the Summit even more memorable if you are to invite along a speaker with some expertise or interest in the Commonwealth or in the topic of the debate. The speaker need not be someone famous or an adult, you could also think of inviting someone who could relate well to the students such as a Commonwealth Youth Games athlete or a younger person who has recently visited another Commonwealth country and could talk about their experience. Incorporating Commonwealth Cultures The real Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings always include not only politics but a showcase of dance, art, music, performance and food from the host country and from across the Commonwealth. If time and resources permit, you could try to capture something of this global flavour by, for example, inviting along performers, offering international foods or getting the encouraging to learn songs or dances from other parts of the Commonwealth.

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» Full or half day programme

y Sample Full Day Itinerar th Summit ou Y h lt ea w on m om C a r fo

C o m m o n w me amlitths Youth Su Be a lea der ma rc h) y 2 (w ed ne sd ay 17 e NE1 8PP Pr og ra mm e fo r Da civ ic ce nt re , ba rr as Br idg rs be am ch l ci un co ne w ca st le ci ty 9. 00 am 9. 30 am 10 .0 0a m 11 .0 0a m 11 .3 0P m 12 .3 0p m 1. 30 pm 1. 40 pm

- African drummers istration, look through info Arrivals and breakfast, reg ping ALL DAY, FROM 10AM th leaders and housekee Official welcome from you il unc Parallel sessions for the der of the Co Welcome from the Lea e mm gra Youth Media Team (the pro ’s day to the Icebreakers and an intro Commonwealth re Education for All? Journalists) the Is 1: te ba De h alt Commonwe ple peo ng you ms ble education pro A chance to discuss the h some country and come up wit ed qué. ign ass r you in are facing first part of the Communi the of afting and approval Dr s. on uti sol tive ova inn lls and entertainment! Break - check out the sta in a State of Crisis? Is World Healthcare 2: te ba De h alt we Common at solving a serious once more and have a go y ntr cou r you ent res A chance to rep onwealth. t is sweeping the Comm healthcare dilemma tha Communiqué. the the second part of Drafting and approval of a, Fashion Show) ertainment (Music, Dram Lunch plus stalls and ent Inspirational speaker Say to share your Debate 3: Have Your is a unique chance for you s thi es, rol y ntr cou r locally, nationally or Coming out of you t matter most to you tha ics top on ws vie al own person Communiqué. al of the final part of the rov app and ng afti Dr ly. global

2. 40 pm 2. 50 pm

Draw the raffle

3. 00 pm 3. 05 pm 3. 15 pm

Singing performance n Big thanks and evaluatio

sent the Common Youth representatives pre Newcastle leaders

Close of the event and

wealth Youth Summit Co

mmuniqué to

goody bags

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© Royal Commonwealth Society | www.thercs.org/youth


Ru nn ing a Yo ut h Su mm it

» Full or half day programme

Out-of-Role Discussion The RCS often likes to give students the opportunity to discuss local and national issues that are important to them, as well as the international themes they have learnt about. Debating as themselves, rather than in their country roles, students could put forward topics that mean most to them, or a youth Chair could set the agenda. We have often found that the opportunity to discuss local issues (including transport, education and new technology) have been the part of the Summit that students most enjoy, especially if there are teachers or local leaders present to hear their views. You could also use an out-of role discussion to allow students to think practically and proactively about what they – as young people – can do to make a positive difference in the world, in relation to the issues they have been discussing. Student Media Team Journalists come from all over the world report on real Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings. To recreate this media buzz at a Commonwealth Youth Summit, the RCS often appoints a Student Media Team to document the Summit. This job can be done by one or two students, or by a larger group. It is often best to choose students who have an interest in journalism or are studying English or Media Studies to form the Media Team, but you could also involve students who are less confident speaking out in the debate and might prefer this alternative role. If you have several students in the team and also have equipment available, you could assign specific roles to members of the group. For example, some students could produce a written article, and others could photograph or film the event. Don’t forget to encourage students to interview their peers to get some good quotes! If possible, it can also be advantageous to invite professional, retired or student journalists (for example from the local newspaper or radio station) to mentor the group. The RCS has found that students benefit from the opportunity to find out what journalism is really like, get tips from professionals and ask questions. Don’t forget to allow the media team to showcase their work to the rest of the group and to the school. You could allow them to show their photographs or read out their work at the end of the Summit, distribute their article at the end of the day, or see if it is possible to include an article in the school’s newsletter or the local newspaper.

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» Reviews so far… “ The activities in this scheme of work are interesting, varied, challenging and educational.” “ This scheme of work provides an ideal opportunity for putting Commonwealth values into practice, encouraging active citizenship at grass roots level within the classroom. ‘Be the change you want to see,’ as Gandhi said.” To share your feedback, please email youth@thercs.org.


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