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As the Credits Roll... A visual essay on movies of romance, fantasy, and science fiction and the factors that affect their creation th.

Table of Contents Introduction... 1 Romance... 2-6 Science Fiction...7-12 Fantasy...13-18 Conclusion...19



How Time and Progress Changed the Movie Industry

One thing not many people know is when the first film was made. Sure, we might have faint recollections of silent movies and black-white flicks, but the truth is, it all began in 1888 with a two second clip called “Roundhay Garden Scene�, which is the oldest surviving film. Now, one hundred fourteen years later in 2012, with millions of films shown on the silver screen, the movie industry has grown phenomenally and become a huge part of the world’s economy and entertainment. From silent films to 3-D movies, technology just keeps on advancing in leaps and bounds, providing more and more fodder for busy studios. More importantly, filmmaking is a way for people to tell stories and express new ideas through a different medium. But the question you have to ask yourself is: how exactly has time impacted the making of films and different genres? Taking a look at three different genres, namely romance, fantasy and science fiction, discussing various move elements through comparison might just give us some answers.



Screw-ball comedy, laugh out loud dialogue, what fun! Through the passage of time and changes in society, romantic comedies have become less based on comedy and sharp writing, choosing to focus more on cliches and explicit content well-fitted with modern values. Class separation, the role of women, and appearances are just some of the similarities and differences explored in this next section regarding the film genre of romance, most specifically romantic comedies.


From the very beginning, romantic comedies have always been crowd-pleasing, with happy endings for young girls to dream of and a common first date outing. The idea of a romantic comedy dates back as early as Shakespeare with his plays “Much Ado About Nothing” and “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” which combine both elements of romantic love and comedy. Screwball comedy, a popular subgenre of romantic comedies involving witty banter in place of suggestive footage that mostly revolved around love and social differences, was firmly established in 1934 with one of the earlier examples “It Happened One Night” which won five Academy Awards. One of the first road trip films ever made in an era that rarely included transportation in its films, “It Happened One Night “ tells the story of Ellie Andrews, a rich heiress who runs away from home to be with her husband and her meeting with Peter Warne, a down on his luck journalist who is in need of an exclusive. Of course, they inevitably fall in love, but the film takes time to explore the characters as separate people before showcasing their compatibility as a couple, a total difference for modern day rom-coms that often have kissing scenes within the first five minutes. The dialogue is sharp and the acting marvelous with both Claude Colbert and Clark Gable oozing charm and charisma. Christopher Plummer was equally dashing in his role of Captain Von Trapp in the 1965 movie version of Sound of Music, one of the most famous movie musicals of all time. Julie Andrews lights up the screen with her angelic voice and youthful portrayal of the sometimes too-innocent Maria, a prospective nun sent to be governess to the Captain’s seven children. Much more than a romantic comedy, Sound of Music tended to focus more on familial relationships rather than romantic love, also bringing in a riveting war subplot that took away some of the focus from the love story. This might have been because of the time period the film was released in; barely fifteen years past World War II, people was still recovering from the loss of love ones and scars left by the Holocaust.


Edelweiss, Edelweiss The songs were a high point of the film and one of the main reasons why the movie remains so popular nowadays, expressing not only romantic love but also love for country “Edelweiss, edelweiss, every morning you greet me… Edelweiss, bless my homeland forever.” Maria’s encompassing love for music and nature is also demonstrated through the many renditions of Sound of Music “the hills are alive with the sound of music…my heart wants to beat like the wings of the birds that rise from the lake to the trees,” something that is rarely found in film nowadays when people are completely focused on the boy girl dynamic. Music was an inconsequential part of the 1934 romantic comedy, apart from a few catchy tunes here and there, but for Sound of Music, songs provide the basis for the entire movie, used not only to entertainment but also to convey emotion and character development through a new medium and to adjust the pacing of the movie. The changes implemented in the movie industry from the 1930s to 1960s as time went on become much too apparent when we compare and look at the movies side by side. While Sound of Music makes the most of it’s setting and includes many beautiful panoramic shots, It Happened One Night is always solely focused on the characters and their journey, nary blinking an eye at all those other little details. Marriage and Love There is also a very important difference regarding the relationships between the characters in both films; in Sound of Music, marriage between the Captain and Maria takes place more or less in the middle of the movie, with a lot of the plot continuing on after the wedding, while It Happened One Night ended with an implication of a marriage, demonstrating also a change in audience attitude. In the 1930s, all was needed was one of those cookie cutter, reliable happy endings for someone to leave the theatre satisfied, with an empty wallet; thirty years later, people wanted more, wanted to dig beyond the big reunion to see what happened after, demanding a more fleshed out and mature story.


Class differences are represented in both movies, albeit in different ways; in Sound of Music, Maria ignores her feelings for the Captain on the grounds of her being a commoner and not worthy of him, while Georg clings to his engagement with the rich and appropriate Baroness in order to keep up appearances, only giving up when his heart can fool him no longer. Peter Warne, Clark Gable’s character in It Happened One Night, makes several comments in the film regarding social classes, expressing his disdain for rich businessmen and accusing Ellie of being spoiled because she comes from a higher-class family made of money. This is also why he rejects her feelings at first, too caught up with first impressions and stereotypes, believing that they were too different to actually work. This issue was also explored in the famous chick flick of 1990, Pretty Woman, which served as a vehicle to stardom for the endlessly vibrant Julia Roberts, who plays a prostitute in need of cash flow. She sets her sights on Edward Lewis, a rich businessman played by the stoic Richard Gere who is looking for directions. The two eventually reach a deal: $3000 for a week. What’s especially interesting about this movie is not the plot, nor the acting, (although Roberts is definitely a standout), but rather the audience. The fact is, the public was willing to accept and even embrace the idea of a hooker and a rich man finding love together during the 90s decade, showing how society is changed since the 1930s and 1960s. This is reflected in the film but shows how women’s roles have transformed along with the passage of time as well. Although it is realistically difficult for me to imagine a future playing out between these two characters, it works well on most levels as a romance if not taken too seriously, and has some good laugh-out-loud moments. Romantic Societal Changes It is also easy to see that methods of socializing change as time passes; in Sound of Music, people get acquainted mostly at balls and appropriate settings where there would be chaperones, while in Pretty Woman, a call girl propositioning a lonely rich man on the side of the road doesn’t look out of place at all. Perhaps this is because post War World Two, societal values changed and people were given a lot more freedom than before and more openminded. Actors’ appearances have also changed as decades pass; in 1934, the women had to wear long dresses while men were decked out in suits and hats; it was only until the late 1960s that women were allowed to wear pants, but by the time Pretty Woman was released, revealing clothing was the norm. Through discussion of the similarities and differences between romantic comedies of the 20th century, it is clear that passing of time along with social and technological progress over the years is the cause of many changes that have altered the film genre of romance. Observing the changes in romance comedy films through the years can help us predict trends for that genre in the future. Based on what I have seen, I believe that romantic comedies will continue on their current towards becoming more radical, which is interesting. However, future romantic comedies might rely more on audience attracting topics such as sex and dating (becoming more and more dirty) instead of good writing to gain more profit, which is an unfortunate effect of modernization. Societal changes can have a great impact on any genre and evidently it has had a huge effect on the genre of romance, but will there be the same degree of impact on the movie of genre of science fiction? Sci-fi is a category, which relies more on plot, rather than character development, which would suggest a subtler shift through time.


Did you know? Another thing that is very noticeable when you look at the movies together is the modes of communication used in films. In It Happened One Night, telegrams and the telephone were the main forms of communication, but in Pretty Woman, Edward contacts his clients by email and cell phone, making business much more efficient. Newspapers were also the main medium used to convey information in the past (shown in It Happened One Night when the news of Ellie Andrew’s escape makes front page); while they are still important now, they no longer have a monopoly on spreading knowledge. One small change in romantic comedies over the years is smoking. In the 1930s, smoking was a very popular social habit that was even encouraged, with a glimpse of it seen in 1963’s Sound of Music, but with the tobacco agreement, which was signed in 1998, smoking in movies is seen very rarely nowadays, and it is always portrayed in a negative light. It Happened One Night had a budget of $325,000 with Claude Colbert getting a total of $50,000. The film was at first considered to be a flop and was referred to by the lead actress as “the worst picture in the world.” The necklace Edward (Richard Gere) gives Vivian (Julia Roberts) in Pretty Woman to wear to the opera was a real piece of jewelry worth $250,000. There were armed guards on the set the entire time that Julia was wearing it. Richard Gere was really playing the piano immediately preceding the love scene on top of the piano. In fact, the piece was was playing was one of his own compositions.


Science Fiction To infinity and beyond ...

The themes of technology and family have been widely explored throughout the science fiction genre throughout the years, although with more advanced technology produced as time passes, the joy of exploration captured in earlier science fiction films along with the spark of adventure has slowly faded as science fiction is now mainly used as a tool to discover the limits of human creation and ability.


Science fiction films are one of the most popular genres in the industry, beginning with “Le Voyage Dans La Lune” by George Melies in 1902; 14-minute clip, which revolutionized Hollywood with its then mind-blowing special effects. A genre that turns the impossible into reality, with everything from aliens to time travel, science fiction enthralled and amazed crowds. Star Wars, a modern sci-fi classic, succeeded in changing peoples’ views on space opera, a subgenre that was once relatively unsuccessful. A typical hero-defeats-villain story, Star Wars succeeds on a large scale not because of its “complicated” plot, or its characters, but because of its intoxicating atmosphere of discovery and phenomenal special effects that give life to an epic scale of battle and adventure in space. That is No Moon, It is a Space Station Once upon a time in a galaxy far, far away, there lived a boy named Luke Skywalker. With the arrival of two robot droids, he discovers a secret message from Princess Leia, who is trapped on the Death Star, with the evil Darth Vader threatening to destroy her homeland. Together with the old Jedi Fighter Obi-Wan Kenobi, he boards ship Millennium Falcon in search of the Death Star, captained by the dashing mercenary Han Solo. The acting is perfectly adequate for a script that revolves more around action than characters, with a standout performance from the wickedly smoldering Harrison Ford, though they could have gone much more in depth with story. Stars Wars, although one of the most successful franchises of the 20th century, relies a little too much on its flash and bang, but the relationships between the characters are depicted marvelously.

9 Turn Back Time Likewise, the 1985 movie Back to the Future depends on the main character’s changing relationships with his family to carry most of the plot, with the element of time travel used as a foil for these relationships to flourish. Marty McFly is a typical teenager in 1985, in love with music and the beautiful Jennifer Parker. With a father who is bullied at work, an alcoholic mother and two older stay-at-home siblings, he dreams of something bigger and better, something he looks for in his eccentric friendship with Doc Brown, the outcast scientist that every science fiction movie seemingly needs. When Doc invents a time machine powered on plutonium, Marty ends up in 1955 and accidentally prevents his parents from meeting, endangering his very existence in the process. The plot in the movie is second to characterization; stuck thirty years in the past, Marty has to become friends with parents in order to concoct a plan to get them together. This gives him a chance to re-evaluate his relationships with his father and his interactions with them are both heartwarming and laugh out loud funny. I applaud Michael J. Fox for his energetic, realistic portrayal of a teenager with a good heart trying to find his place in this world while balancing his out of control family, and Christopher Lloyd is an absolute riot as the scatterbrained mad scientist with big dreams. Everybody Runs Minority Report is a very different sort of science fiction movie, one born from the beginnings of the twenty first century and the ideas of modern technology instead of the lure of the impossible. The year is 2049. John Anderton is the chief of Precrime, a government initiative that manipulates Precogs, babies born from drug addicted mothers, to predict murders so they can arrest criminals for crimes they would commit in the future. Struggling with the loss of his son who was kidnapped six years ago, Anderton’s world turns upside down when the Precogs predict the next murderer; himself. A film with a highly developed technology-based world, Minority Report does only what the best films do; make us question the world we live in. Is there such thing as fate, and is free will really possible? Is it right to convict criminals based on actions they will commit? A multi-layered movie that hooks people in with its unique premise, it’s the movie’s wonderful storytelling that keeps the audience glued to their seats. Tom Cruise is effective in his role as Anderton, with enough charm to carry the part off, also managing to convince audiences of his struggle between his predestined choice and the choice to change his future. Max Von Sydow is one of the best villains ever seen in modern day sci-fi films; twisted, powerful and even heroic in his last sacrifice for the conquering hero.

10 World-Building One common theme I’ve seen in these three science fiction movies is the relationship between mentor and student, which is a symbol of heroism passing from one generation to the next. An important element, it emphasizes the coming of age story that all heroes have to go through in order to triumph. This makes it easier for the audience to relate to the characters, while reminding them that although the plot may impossible situations, the characters are normal people trying to accomplish great things, providing people with a sense of hope. A trend that has evolved and changed in the sci-fi genre over decades is the setting. 1977’s Star Wars was set in a far away galaxy with fantastical beasts audiences had never seen before, but more recent science fiction movies like Minority Report have chosen instead to remain in a more familiar realm, choosing to portray an not-too distant future rather than some far off world. One of the reasons for this could be that with the evolvement of space technology, the lure of exploration in outer space as a genre has lost its novelty for audiences, with people being more attracted to movies set in the future because of the unpredictability and uncertainly of the world we live in now. The idea and use of special effects has also changed over the years, albeit more subtly. While Star Wars was all about firepower and boom, arguably the first blockbuster of its kind, recent science fiction movies have wisely chosen to rely on the story and plot for substance rather than costly special effects, using the genre as a tool of communication and not only profit, although many people are still nostalgic for the good old exploding sci-fi flick of the 60s and 70s. Women were once shown as fierce warriors in older sci-fi films, fighting alongside men for freedom, a far-away hope for an era, which still had prejudices against women and were hesitant against equal rights for both genders. Newer movies, however, reflect the equal role that women now play in our society, though unfortunately actresses are too often only cast as the love interest and not as a character in their own right. Character Stereotypes Before, science fiction movies also relied heavily on the use of stereotypes and the interplay between good and evil; every movie had to have a hero, and every movie had to have a villain. Good always won over evil; it was as simple as that. More recently, writers have chosen to take it a step further, introducing to audiences flawed, three dimensional characters whose struggles to make choices reflect those of reality. Some even dispense of stereotypes all together, focusing instead on the use of characters to tell the story they wanted.


What’s The Future? The use of technology in such movies has transformed as years passed; in previous generations, it was used as a tool of exploration, taking audiences on journeys they had never even dreamed of, with children of the 70s fighting with light-sabers and pretending to be Jedi Knights. For 21st century audiences however, it is used instead as a weapon of communication, demonstrating the consequences of human actions, losing much of the genre’s brighteyed innocence. Technology was viewed as positive back in the days when not many people had their own computers and no one had even thought of cell phones, but now technology, in this new century, it comes with a warning label. With technology comes knowledge, but does it restrict our freedom? Sadly, some of the joy of science fiction is lost through this transition; gone is that sense of exhilaration; instead there is just expectation and a sense of dread. In our world, even heroes have to pay the price. From what we have seen of science fiction movies, I predict that in the future, such movies will continue to tell stories based on future times in order for people to learn more and gain a sense of stability in a changing world. As we examine the differences and similarities between science fiction films we can see that the genre has changed in many ways, some for the better but always because of the evolution of time and the benefit provided to us by technology.


Did you know? Destiny has always been a strong contender themewise in the science fiction genre. It revolved mainly around a quest in older movies but recently leaned more towards the issue of choice and freedom. The question asked by Minority Report is: can we have both freedom and fate? Michael J. Fox, who plays Marty McFly in Back to the Future is only ten days younger than Lea Thompson who plays his mother, and is almost three years older than his on-screen dad, Crispin Glover. This is not very surprising, since most of their scenes take place in 1955. They were cast to match their younger self 's ages. In describing Minority Report’s technology-oriented dystopia world, Steven Spielberg said: “I wanted all the toys to come true someday. I want there to be a transportation system that doesn’t emit toxins into the atmosphere. And the newspaper that updates itself. At the same time, the city is not all skyscrapers with coils around them. We mixed the old and the new.”



Wizards, Dragons and Hogwarts, Oh My! The genre of fantasy in film has always been about experiencing and exploring the impossible, with the concept of otherwordly unverses and magic capturing the hearts of audiences young and old. With rapid technology advances in the world of film, techniques used in fantasy films have evidently evolved over the years, as well as the use of music in films. The tone and mood of fantasy movies also changes along with society, adopting lighter or dark moods depending on the time period.


Fantasy represents many things to an audience, and mostly importantly, it presents new possibilities. A movie genre that creates reality out of abstract imagination that has common elements such as magic and mythology, it shares its origins with science fiction and horror. The Yellow Brick Road One of the most famous fantasy movies of the 20th century is The Wizard of Oz, the most-watched movie of all time, and for many, and the greatest. Also one of the first movies to be shot in Technicolor in 1930s, Wizard of Oz uses color change from sepia to color to signify a transition between two worlds. It all starts with sixteen-year-old Dorothy Gale, a girl with big dreams of the land over the rainbow living with her aunt and uncle on a small farm. When someone threatens to take away her beloved pet, a distraught Dorothy runs away from home, right into the eye of a tornado. The tornado lifts them high up into the sky, and when Dorothy next wakes up, she finds herself in the mysterious Land of Oz, with a price on her head for killing the Wicked Witch of the West. Desperate to return home, Dorothy goes on a quest to find the Wizard of Oz, making friends like the Scarecrow, the Tin Man and the Cowardly Lion who help her find her way back. A classic musical in its own right as well as a fantasy masterpiece, Judy Garland is a shining jewel in this movie with her absolutely beautiful voice and flawless acting. The supporting characters are all wonderful ad the scene-stealer for me was definitely the Scarecrow, played Ray Bolger who managed to give audiences around the world the most heart-warming scarecrow with a brain. The unique thing about Wizard of Oz is that it is not only a story about a girl finding her way home, rather, it is about these characters who are searching for things that right in front of them except they are too blind to see it. The Scarecrow, who is actually the wisest of them all, wishes to ask the Wizard for a brain, while the Tin Man who is the most affectionate of them all bemoans the fact that he has no heart, and the Cowardly Lion who rescues Dorothy from the clutches of the Wicked Witch but believes that he is too afraid to do anything right.


Are You Afraid of Dragons? One of the lesser known fantasy movies in a decade dominated by the comedy likes of The Princess Bride or the darker Labyrinth, Dragon is classic fantasy at this best; familiar and yet unpredictable at the same time. A 4000-year-old dragon, Vermithrax Pejorative who is only appeased by the sacrifice of one virgin girl who is chosen by lottery two times a year, is terrorizing the land of Urland. A sorcerer’s inexperienced apprentice Galen takes on task of defeating the dragon. A simple story on the surface complete with stereotypes, Dragonslayer takes audiences’ preconceptions and turns them upside down; instead of being a damsel in distress, Princess Elspeth stands up for her people and sacrifices herself for country, and instead of a safe rescue, the audience is shown a gruesome shot of the Princess being devoured by baby dragons. The movie also subtly hints at a struggle between religion and magic; by the end of the film, when Galen has killed the dragon by bringing his old master back from the dead (a very common staple in fantasy), magic has almost been completely wiped out of the entire country and replaced by the values of Christianity. Although this is of course purely fiction, this brings to mind a very interesting question: What if there had once been magic, but mankind choose to ignore in favor of religious beliefs?” The Lighting Scar Adapted from one of the most popular best-selling fantasy novels series of the 21st century, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone marked the beginning of a most famous film series. Harry Potter is an orphan living with his abusive aunt and uncle. Maltreated and looked down by his snobby relatives, the lonely boy can’t seem to find a way out… but when a strange man named Hagrid shows up at their door on his eleventh birthday claiming Harry is a wizard and one who is famous for surviving the Dark Lord’s death curse, his only life changes. Enrolled in Hogwarts, Harry makes new friends and learns more about magic through the year while struggling with this new knowledge about his parents and coping with a dark threat out for revenge. A movie that is both relatable to kids and adults Potter succeeds on so many levels because of good solid writing and nice special effects but mostly because of the bright energy that infuses every second of this film, even as it’s a little too perfect at times.


Fantasy and Reality Transitioning between two different settings is something I’ve seen in both Wizard of Oz and Harry Potter, providing the audience with two different perspectives and giving a sense of flexibility to the story, but maintaining one setting also makes things less confusing, the choice made for Dragonslayer. Fantasy creatures are of course expected with munchkins in Oz, goblins in Harry Potter and monsters in Dragonslayer, but they are presented in different ways as time passes. In Oz, animals are shown through costumes, which lend an authentic air to the movie but also make it seem rather out of place; in Dragonslayer and Harry Potter however, fantasy creatures are shown purely using CGI special effects. Vermithrax Pejorative is one of the most famous movie dragons in film history and was a pioneer for special effects in the fantasy genre. Social Progress Class difference is also an issue explored in the later movies, like in the genre of romance although less in Wizard of Oz, as Dragonslayer depicts a king who presides over an unfair lottery where girls are sent to their deaths, where only names of poor girls with no connections to nobility are sacrificed to the dragon. This is symbolic of the power kings and the wealthy had over the peasants in the medieval times, which used the feudal system as a political base. In Harry Potter, a division is shown between Muggles and wizards, with many wizards treating Muggles as inferior simply because of their lack of magic and believing that Muggle-borns (wizards with human parents) do not deserve to be part of the Wizarding World. The roles of women in the fantasy genre has also evolved slowly over time; in Wizard of Oz, Dorothy was presented wholly as a damsel of distress unable to escape the Wicked Witch, but by the time Dragonslayer and Harry Potter came along, development of women’s rights and society ensured that female characters were presented as strong and independent. Family is a recurring theme in all three movies; going back home to her aunt and uncle is Dorothy’s main motivation throughout the entire movie, and Galen’s only family is his mentor (a relationship seen more in sci-fi movies), while Harry’s fight with Voldemort stems from his parents’ demise years earlier. Wizard of Oz is much more abstract than the next two movies, with an implication that the entire quest is simply a fabrication of her imagination, but the settings of Dragonslayer and Harry Potter are firmly rooted in real life, with the idea of school and apprenticeship, with Harry Potter set partly in the modern 20th century, with both of the later films containing orchestra scores as background music rather than an musical score.

17 Fantasy movies in general are geared towards a younger target audience, one who is not so world-weary as to still believe in magic, but many of them contain dark undertones and themes that would appeal to adults. Because of this, a love story is rarely tackled in fantasy movies, although a notable exception is Dragonslayer, in which Galen and Valerian fall and love and is definitely intended for older audiences. Because of this, the main theme of Wizard of Oz is friendship, with three of Dorothy’s friends risking their lives to save her and bring her to the Wizard of Oz, despite considerable danger to them. Friendship is the crux of the entire Harry Potter series, with the Golden Trio experiencing everything together from three headed dogs to Quidditch World Cup. Without his friends, Harry would just be another wizard. Character Relationships and Happy Endings A common relationship depicted in the fantasy genre is the relationship between the hero and the villain. In the early movies, the line between good and evil is very clearly defined, but by the 1990s, audiences were tired of old clichés and looking instead for fleshed out characters with real flaws and issues to deal with, because this made it relatable to viewers. The villain’s goal in this genre is usually to get hold of an object (for the Wicked Witch, it’s Dorothy’s ruby slippers; for Vermithrax, it was the virgins; and for Voldemort, it was the Sorcerer’s stone) because in a genre that ade its living out of the impossible, having one goal and one object made it easier for the audience to immerse themselves in the movie and gave a more finished feeling to the story. Interestingly, in 1939, Wizard of Oz was shown with a happy ending, but as time passed and we reached the 1980s and 90s, ambiguous and “grey” endings were more often seen, with Dragonslayer tainted by Princess Elspeth’s sacrifice and Harry’s happiness brought down by the fact that he has to leave Hogwarts for the summer. In Dragonslayer especially, dark subjects are explored, perhaps because of the time period; it reflected the fear experienced by Americans during the 1980s at the thought of attack from the USSR, while the happy ending in Oz provided hope for people at the beginning of WWII. Fantasy movies in the future will possibly contain a mixed number of elements, with a society similar to reality but also referring back to the olden days of witches and sorcerers which are still filled with mystery and can attract crowds of audience. Fantasy, which shares many commonalities with science fiction such as the focus on action and adventure rather than character and the exploration of the impossible, has changed less than the romantic comedy genre over the years in regards to society, but there has been a definite shift as time passes, especially with the contents of the movies (its themes and audience) as well as the technology it uses to present the film medium.


Did you know? The Wizard is also a movie that leans more towards the abstract side of the spectrum, making it completely different from a straightforward fantasy movie, which is what you find in 1981’s Dragonslayer. Magic is also shown in Dragonslayer as a skilled to be learned rather than a natural born talent, which separates it from Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone where wizards are identified on their eleventh birthday and sent to Hogwarts. Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone was the first of eight movies responsible for propelling young stars Daniel Radcliffe, Emma Watson and Rupert Grint into stardom, since J. K. Rowling desired the casting of unknown British actors in the lead roles. Dragonslayer was the first film to use go-motion, a variant of stop-motion animation in which parts of the model (in this case, the dragon) were mechanized and the movement programmed by computer. During shooting, the computer moves the model while the camera is shooting, resulting in motion blur, which makes the animation more convincing. Including the hydraulic 40 foot model, 16 dragon puppets were used for the role of Vermithrax, each one made for flying, crawling and breathing fire.


Conclusion In conclusion, as we can see from this in-depth analysis of how time affects the movie industry and three genres in particular; romantic comedies, science fiction, and fantasy, there has been many minor and major changes in all of these movie genres over the years. Many of them owe themselves to societal change; one that is seen in all three genres is the ever-changing role that women play in movies as well as the theme of family and how that has changed both society-wise and film-wise. Technology also has had a huge impact on changes in the film industry over time; as our techniques and special effects improve, this gives filmmakers the ability to tell stories they were never able to before (James Cameron spent fifteen years creating the technology needed to make Avatar) and to explore new ground. CGI effects also made props and background seem so much more real and made it much easier for everything to blend and mix into the story. So, what is the answer to the question: “How time and progress changed the movie industry?� The truth is, the impact of time on the film industry is so huge that we are only to examine a few of them. The change is infinite and will continue to happen as years pass.

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As the Credits Roll  

A visual essay on different movie genre showcasing how society and progress have impacted the creation of movies.

As the Credits Roll  

A visual essay on different movie genre showcasing how society and progress have impacted the creation of movies.