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The Re-Enactor Issue 28, April 2011

The Norfolk Living History fair, 2010

Readership 1362

Greetings All Welcome to issue 28 of the Re-Enactor, Easter is fast approaching here in the UK and it‟s the “traditional” start to our reenactment season and this year we have the Royal Wedding which has given us consequetive 4 day bank holiday weekendsso much more time to play at our hobby.

Grand Joust-Norfolk Living History Fair

Congratulations to all those that were the lucky winners of last month‟s competitions. Your prizes will be in the post as youread this magazine, so make sure to look out for postie! There are 3 competitions in this month‟s issue with 2 superb books and 24 Modbods up for grabs, so make sure you get your answers into me as soon as you can! I will post out the prizes to wherever in the world the winners live! A huge thank you to both authors and Nidderdale Archery for the prizes! I have added quite a few more traders to the traders list after my weekend at The International Living History fair, BUT I still want more so please do let me have contact details of any traders that you know of.

Everything stops for tea Norfolk Living History fair 2010

Features This Month 1: The Poet Knights of medieval Germany 2: The Archers 3: Competitions One & Two 4: Military & Flying machines Show 5: Competition Three 6: The Battle of Sark 1448-Stephen Maggs 7: The Tournament at Walraversijde 8: Mary Arden‟s Farm 9: Event Listings 10: First Aid Course for Re-Enactors, UK.

As always, I am still on the lookout for more groups, traders, event details, stories, articles and reports. Please contact me at the normal email address with details! I would also like to hear from you the readers with feedback about the magazine, suggestions, ideas or just general comments Competitions: All competitions are free to enter Winners will be selected at random on the 24th of each month for the relevant competition. Winners will be notified via email shortly after the draw takes place. No correspondence will be entered into. The editor’s decision is final. The views and opinions expressed in the articles in this ezine are those of the individual authors themselves and not those of the Editor

The Poet-Knights of Medieval Germany By Clive Kelly My usual re-enacting persona is that of a late twelfth century Knight Templar, but recently, in seeking to develop a new High Medieval impression, I decided to turn for inspiration to a subject that has held my fascination for many years. Over the autumn/winter, I have been working on recreating one of the Minnesinger of the twelfth to thirteenth centuries. However, conversations I have had with re-enacting friends and colleagues while engaged in this project have highlighted the fact that while many of my fellow medievalists are aware of the existence of these characters, there is a lack of in-depth knowledge either in the subject as a whole or of the fascinating personalities of the German Minne culture. To others outside of medieval re-enacting, the idea of a knight being a poet as well has met with surprise. The intention of this article is in no way to redress this situation. Rather, it is hoped that it will help to introduce the subject to my readers; and, from a more selfish point of view, it gives me the opportunity to talk about my journey in trying to re-create one of these remarkable fellows. The first thing to establish is that not all Minnesinger were knights. Some, like Gottfried von Strasbourg, were civilians; a couple were clerics: Heinrich von Mure and Eberhard von Sax; and one was Jewish – Susskind of Trimburg. Others came from the very highest ranks of the nobility; and as the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI (reigned 1191-97) composed a few verses (known as Minnelieder) in his time, he could be considered a Minnesang as well. However, by far the largest proportion of these poets came from a rank of the German knighthood known as the Ministerialis. The principle of Minne is best translated as Courtly Love. A typical Minnelied involves the young lover hoping, praying and striving for even the slightest indifferent glance in his direction from the object of his desire and devotion. The lady, in her turn, remains aloof and unattainable. However, this is by no means the full extent of the Minnesinger repertoire: and some poets even had some fun at the lady‟s expense. In Standing on the Castle Wall, by Von Kurenburg (Fig. 1) – a pioneer of Minne culture the lady‟s lust gets the better of her and she vows that she‟ll seduce a knight who has attracted her by his fine singing voice. On hearing this, the young knight, suspects she merely wants him as a plaything. She’d have me paying court, indoors or out, he exclaims. He therefore does no more than send for his horse and armour and prepares to skedaddle! Nevertheless, the classic Minnelieder aspire to the highest ideals of courtly love; and if this sounds like the standard literature of the cult of chivalry of the period, then this is not surprising: it was all part of the same Fig.1. Von Kurenburg, fl. 1150-70

tradition. And, while there was an existing Minne culture in Germany of the mid to late twelfth century (of which Von Kurenburg was the greatest figure), it flourished in the thirteenth century under the imported influence of French troubadour culture. Nowhere is this best demonstrated than by the epic Parzival by one of the greatest Minnesinger, Wolfram von Eschenbach (Fig. 3). This tale, which involves the eponymous hero‟s quest for the grail, is essentially a German adaptation of a French original authored by Chretien de Troyes.

Minne culture embodied the ideals of both courtly love and the cult of chivalry, and by coincidence, an oft-reproduced image in modern publications as an exemplar of this very point is of the Minnesang, the Schenk von Limpurg (Fig. 2), kneeling to receive his crested helm from his lady-love. This image comes from the greatest collection of Minnesinger poems, the Manesse Codex, which is also known as the Great Heidelberg Songbook. This was compiled for the Manesse family of Zurich between the years 1300 to 1340, and it contains not only the single largest collection of Minnesinger verses, but over 130 illustrations of the poets themselves; although some of these are more the product of imagination than a faithful representation of the individuals concerned. Von Eschenbach‟s portrait, for example, shows him decked out as the fearsome Red Knight from Parzival, rather than wearing his own coat-of-arms. However, we should not be beguiled by all this chivalric display and fine expressions of the highest sentiments of courtly love. Some of the miniatures contained in the Manesse Codex warn us against supposing that the era of the Minnesinger was an Arthurian-like golden age such as the nostalgic Victorians, with their Beardsley illustrated editions of La Morte d’Arthur clasped under their arms, would have liked to imagine. Nowadays, we cease to see parallels between the medieval code of chivalry and late nineteenth century etiquette. The Manesse Codex intersperses miniatures of knights wooing their ladies with scenes of vicious combat. Opponents are dragged from their horses by the scruffs of their necks; helms and the skulls beneath are cleaved in two by broadswords while armed retainers indulge in a bit of pillaging. Excavations of medieval battlefield cemeteries have revealed that this Fig.3. Wolfram von was indeed the real face of knightly warfare; and the Parfait Gentill Eschenbach, fl. circa 1200. Knight has been largely relegated to the realms of the fairytale. I think it is for this reason that when I have spoken to people within and without of the re-enacting community of how these members of a brutal warrior class could turn their talents to writing love poetry, the main reaction I have encountered is one of surprise. The Minnesinger‟s output does indeed belie the mistaken belief that most knights were illiterate thugs. Hartmann von Aue, for example, was not only a knight-poet and a crusader; he was also a Latin scholar. Wolfram reveals in Parzival that he envied Hartmann his language skills; but to regard Wolfram‟s masterpiece as simply an adaptation of the French original is to do an injustice to both it and its author. Parzival is an epic and complex tale which reveals the subtle intricacies of his mind, his limitless creativity and imagination, and also his down-to-earth sense of humour. He also reveals some remarkably advanced thinking on his part, for he believed that Muslims and Christians were equal in the eyes of God. Parzival‟s father even marries a Saracen princess, and their son becomes a famous knight in his turn. We should not, however, suppose that because of this attitude the world of the Minnesinger was an enlightened utopia: far from it. Life in Germany during their era was harsh and violent; and it was this that paradoxically provided the Minne culture with its catalyst: not as an indictment, but as an expedient. Fig.2. Schenk von Limpurg. Note the design of the surcoat, and the fact that his horse‟s caparison does not match his arms either.

For some of the princes who practised the art of the Minnesinger, writing love poetry was a recreation. However, by far the largest number of these poets came from the ranks of the Ministerialis. This was a rank of knighthood peculiar to medieval Germany; hence the title of this article. Ruling over medieval Germany and its territories was the Holy Roman Emperor. This monarch occupied a unique position, since his throne was not hereditary, but elective. And, far from being absolute monarch of all he surveyed, he was more a first among equals. For, although the princelings of the Empire were his vassals, within their own domains, they were absolute rulers. Their iron grip, however, depended on armed support. This came from the ranks of the Ministerialis. Thus feudal bonds in medieval Germany were stronger and more rigid than in the rest of Europe, and the Ministerialis are sometimes (although misleadingly) referred to as Serf-Knights because of their legally un-free status. The Ministerialis‟ origins are obscure, but by the mid to late twelfth century they had emerged as a class of minor nobility. They were proud of their status, and Wolfram tells us, my hereditary office is the shield. Thus their overlords guaranteed their social status, and indeed there are instances of free-born knights taking service as Ministerialis because of this. The loss in rank that this entailed was actually negligible; and so they can in no real sense be considered serfs. However, they were technically owned by their lords, and they were subject to important legal restrictions; and two of the most significant were that they could not take service with another lord, and nor could they marry without their lords‟ permission. This prevented the Ministerialis from selling their swords to the highest noble bidder and from making advantageous marriage alliances and building up hereditary power-bases of their own. The Ministerialis guaranteed the lord‟s place by being kept in theirs. With their ambitions held in check, the Ministerialis sought to shine in other ways, and this was the stimulus for Minne culture. However, for some it was a necessity. Although their status was guaranteed by inheritance, their financial security was not. One of the most famous Minnelied is Under der Linden (Under the Lime-tree) by Walter von der Vogelweide (Fig. 4). His name translates as something like Walter of Song-bird Meadow. This is not some quaint name for a feudal fief, but the literal truth: he seems to have been born in a cottage at the edge of some field. Inevitably in a feudal society, there were never enough fiefs to go around, and although technically the Ministerialis were not at liberty to go seeking their fortune with other lords, there was an unavoidable degree of mobility amongst them. Knights like Walter and Wolfram, who also complains of poverty in his surviving works, could not go hiring their swords out to any lord Fig.4. Walter von der who would enfeoff them: they were probably too poor to afford Vogelweide, fl. circa 1190 the necessary accoutrements of knighthood. Elsewhere in Europe, this was the prerequisite of knighthood. Yet for all that, the Ministerialis had all the pride of their European brothers in arms. In the Manesse Codex, even those knightly Minnesinger who are shown in their civilian garments have their swords, crested helms and shields resting nearby to proclaim their status as members of the chivalric brotherhood. Therefore, lacking the tools of their knightly trade, and facing the unthinkable prospect of losing their status and having to work for a living, poorer Ministerialis would seek to attract the patronage of great lords through their poetry. This had a currency with their noble patrons, because according to contemporary mores, after a day‟s aforementioned scruffing hold of opponents, splitting their skulls and pillaging their lands, a civilized lord would be expected to sit in his great hall and listen to poems that idealized knightly society.

The character I have chosen to recreate was a Ministeriale of Margrave Dietrich von Meissen; and he seems to have been both valued and comfortably well-off, for in old age the Margrave gave him a pension. We possess a little biographical information about Heinrich von Morungen (Fig. 5), but as with a great many Minnesinger, they are hardly known (if at all) outside of the catalogue of their surviving works (35 poems in Heinrich‟s case). Such details as we possess cannot be regarded as absolutely certain. Several places called Eschenbach claim Wolfram as their own, and although the ruins of Morungen castle survive near Sangerhausen, it is not known if our Heinrich had any connection to them as they lie in Saxony and he is documented in Thuringia. However, some genealogies claim that he styled himself Prince of Morungen and Count of Reischach. Even if this is so, it does not preclude him from having been a Ministeriale, because it was hardly unknown for them to adopt grandiose titles. But what I am trying to get across is that this difficulty in getting really close to my chosen character because of a lack of hard facts has governed the whole direction that I have taken in recreating him. It is this that has made it such an interesting project for me. Consider, for example, the main source for this recreation: the Manesse Codex. Heinrich is depicted reclining on a day-bed with his helmet and shield displayed in the top corners of the miniature. However, I wanted to show him in full armour. Other miniatures in the collection show Minnesinger so equipped so I should have had all the source material I needed at my fingertips: but nothing is so straightforward with the Codex. Minne culture outlasted the Troubadour culture of (mainly Sothern) France that influenced it; and this is why the poems contained within the Manesse Codex represent nearly two hundred years of literary output. Thus the portraits of the poets themselves in many cases post-date their actual lifetimes. In Heinrich‟s case, he is thought to have died around 1222; but his portrait dates to 1300 at the earliest. Essentially, therefore, the Fig.5. Heinrich von Morungen, Codex is a confection: but the problem is a deeper one. It is not fl. circa 1190-1200. The silver always possible to say how accurate a heraldic record the Codex foil on the crescents in this is, but clearly in some cases, the artist of this manuscript was just miniature from the Codex has guessing. Wolfram‟s imaginary coat-of-arms has already been now oxidized, making them mentioned; and Walter von der Vogelweide‟s device of a caged appear blackened songbird (Fig.4) is probably too much of a coincidence to be his actual arms; although it‟s by no means an impossible charge as heraldic puns, known as canting arms, were a popular motif. Heinrich‟s arms are an azure (blue) shield charged with three argent (silver) crescents, arranged 2,1; the horns of each surmounted by an eightpointed star of or (gold). Now at first glance, there seems to be no reason to question that these were indeed Heinrich‟s real arms. However, his particular forte was the Taglied: a subgroup of the Minnelied. The plot of the Tagelied involves the parting of lovers at dawn; and the best known of Heinrich‟s poems is entitled I’d Gaze Forever, which is famous for its erotic imagery. In it he talks about the glow of his lover‟s naked body lighting the night, the passing moon, and each verse ends with the line, And then day dawned. It is therefore possible that the Codex artist, lacking the necessary heraldic information, simply invented a coat-of-arms for Heinrich inspired by his best known work. Although proof absolute is lacking, it would seem that Heinrich married Adelheid, Countess of Winnenden. Their eldest son was Heinrich II Count of Neuffen; and both the Winnenden and Neuffen seem to have used the device

of three hunting horns (Fig.6). So it could be that our Heinrich made a good marriage and adopted his wife‟s arms, which were then passed on to their son. There remains, however, another possibility. In the chivalric literature of this era, knights sometimes adopt fictitious arms for a tournament or other adventure. Perhaps Heinrich did the same and the Codex miniature is a record of it. All this aside, I remained fascinated by Heinrich. According to tradition he made an epic pilgrimage: not to Rome, or even Jerusalem, but to India. Here, then, was a fellow who went the extra mile, literally. The reason for his voyage was probably to seek the relics of the Apostle Thomas, or Doubting Thomas as he is sometimes known. It‟s certain that Heinrich did have a particular devotion to St. Thomas, for around 1217, after transferring his pension to the monastery of St. Thomas at Leipzig, he entered the cloisters there himself. Now there‟s a real Arthurian quest for you; and if Heinrich was not daunted by the prospects of his epic journey to the sub-continent, then I wasn‟t going to be put-off by a few unknowns and uncertainties. But I faced a choice between trying to reconstruct as accurately as possible Heinrich‟s appearance, or joining in with the masquerade a little. The latter I think is much more in the spirit of the Minnesinger and in keeping with the style of the Codex. The first point to be made is that although the Codex dates to 80 to 100 years later than Heinrich‟s lifetime, the style of armour and equipment it illustrates is not that far removed from those that our knight would have known. This is because German arms and armour was technologically more advanced than in other parts of Europe. Curiously, though, the Codex contains some older-fashioned features alongside some of the latest innovations. The sword-belts, for example, are of the older laced variety (Fig.7); whereas we would normally expect to see the newer buckled type in use by 1300. The reason for this is not known, but we could speculate that the older style of sword belt may have been a fashion that survived longer in Germany; it is possible that it may even have evolved into a status symbol: i.e. the laced sword belt was traditionally associated with the rank of knight in Germany, and so it was retained long after it Fig.7. My laced sword belt by Tod became outmoded elsewhere. Probably the most striking feature of the Codex is the fabulous Booth of Foxblade Trading. three-dimensional crests worn atop the knights‟ helmets. These Compare with that shown in Fig. 4. were especially popular in medieval Germany, and a feature of this country‟s heraldry is that whereas in England and France, for example, marks of cadency would be added to the shield to denote the bearer‟s position within the family (eldest son, second son and so-on); here different crests served the same purpose.

Probably the best surviving example of a crest is that belonging to the Black Prince (died 1376), which is preserved in Canterbury Cathedral. This depicts a lion, and it is made from boiled and shaped leather, with some of the finer details sculpted in plaster: the whole being gilded. Wood, feathers, silks, parchment and any number of other lightweight materials could also be employed; so it is doubtful if such an arrangement would have lasted upwards of one encounter. And, obviously, crests would be more appropriate to the tournament than the battlefield. Nevertheless, they are shown in the Codex being used in actual combat. In this respect, however, the artist is most likely idealizing his subject. I therefore chose to attach my crest with a leather strap arrangement; thus making it easily removable before I go into combat as I don‟t fancy getting all my hard work destroyed in its first outing. It is carved in wood which has then been painted; and it consists of a Fig.8. Helm and crest of Heinrich von crescent with each tip surmounted by an eight-pointed Morungen star: just like those painted on the shield (Fig.8). Beneath the crescent, the Codex shows a curious lattice-shaped affair. This actually represents a cushion; which is an item that features in a number of German crests. Another characteristic of German crests is the lack of a torse. This is the twisted wreath that usually encircles the top of the helm. German crests, however, mainly flow straight into the mantling (the hood-like object that covers the helm). The helm itself is one from around 1200. This is not yet a true bucket helm, as it is not fully enclosed: there is, though, a small neck-guard. Having said all of this; just how authentic is it to depict a late-twelfth/early thirteenth century knight wearing a crested helm? Elsewhere; in England or France, for example; fan crests were known from the latter part of the thirteenth century. These were flat pieces of wood which resembled an open fan. However, true crests did not make their appearance until the fourteenth century. In Germany, on the other hand, the situation was very different. Manuscript illustrations from circa 1190 -1200 show true crests in use this early on. This is confirmed by comments by Wolfram in Parzival; which is of the same date. And, speaking personally, I‟ve always felt that the value of this text as a source for contemporary arms and armour has been largely overlooked. It is, after all, a book about the knight and his world written by a medieval knight. Interestingly, the earliest example of a fan crested helm outside of Germany dates also to the 1190‟s. This appears on the second great seal of King Richard the Lionheart of England. By coincidence, this seal was engraved for Richard after his return from being imprisoned in and around Austria and Germany; so this may well be how he picked up on the fashion. In the opposite corner to Heinrich‟s crested helm, the Codex artist has illustrated his shield. This was a relatively straightforward project for me. The only thing I can point out about this item of kit is that the heater variety shown in the Codex and that I have copied was a new innovation for circa 1200. It replaced the late Norman flat-topped shield, and it was christened the „heater‟ shield by later antiquarians because of its resemblance to the bottom of a flat-iron. However, I have chosen not to repeat the arms displayed on Heinrich‟s shield on his surcoat in my re-creation. As this garment is not depicted in the Codex in our knight‟s case, I decided to allow myself a certain amount of licence in its design.

Although the surcoat was an outer garment worn by both men and women, in this context it means a tunic worn by knights over their armour. The origins of this fashion and the purpose of this garment are a matter of debate. I have my own theories on this subject; but that‟s another story. Wolfram mentions that some wealthy knights wore surcoats made from imported Islamic silk; but wool could also be used. Elsewhere in the Codex, surcoats are shown which bear no relation to the wearers‟ arms: and for Heinrich‟s I used as my inspiration the one worn by the Schenk von Limpurg (Fig.2). This is adorned with a repeating pattern of Gothic letter „A‟s. This probably stands for Amor: the universal word for love. This is made clearer by another knight‟s surcoat because it is embroidered with the letters A, M, O and R. However, I have chosen another character. This is not to be un-romantic: far from it. Indeed, I‟ve remained true to the coat-of-arms depicted in the Codex which, as we‟ve seen, most likely allude to Heinrich‟s reputation for love poetry rather than his family origins, for this reason. However, towards the end of his life, he seems to have had a change of heart. There is a tradition that he went on Crusade to the Holy Land with Walter von der Vogelweide; and from this point onwards, he seems to have become increasingly ascetic in his outlook. Therefore, as knights often used their own patronymics as war-cries, I have chosen to emblazon my surcoat with the letter M for Morungen (Fig.9). Fig.9. Heinrich‟s surcoat; inspired by that of I‟ve now been working on this project for some the Schenk von Limpurg, and with the colours months, although the roots of it go much, much taken from his horse caparison (cf. Fig.2). farther back; but this is only the beginning. At the time of writing I‟m working on a set of civvies for Heinrich as well as an alternative surcoat. This design will possibly feature a repeating pattern of masons‟ squares (the symbol of the Apostle Thomas): and I certainly feel that the more work I put into my impression, the more of a talking point and a learning exercise it will become both for me and for those I meet along the way. My research is ongoing, and I‟m looking up all the examples that I can find of Heinrich‟s surviving poems. In addition, I‟m also trying to track down a copy of a Brothers Grimm story that was inspired by our knight. However, such a project as this is bound to raise issues of authenticity, which is why I‟ve chosen this stage in my work to begin to talk about some of those that I‟ve faced and how I‟ve tried to address them. It is for this reason that I‟ve steered towards the term recreation, rather than reconstruction in this article. When working with a period that is 800 years removed from our own that has left little physical evidence as regards surviving examples of arms and armour, the sources that we have to rely upon as an alternative are subject to differing interpretations. Furthermore, general comments that we might make about contemporary armour technology and fashions in France or England do not necessarily apply to Germany, Iberia or Italy. I‟ve obviously avoided being blatantly anachronistic and stuck to what can be supported by an interpretation of the sources for a date of circa 1200, rather than for 1300. In doing so, I hope that at least

I‟ve highlighted for you that something that, at first, might seem a distant and obscure subject is in truth incredibly rich. Select Bibliography:  Die Minnesinger In Bildern Der Manessischen Handschrift, Leipzig  German Knighthood 1050-1300, B Arnold, Oxford, 1985  Le Role d‟Armes de Zurich, M Popoff, Paris, 1986  Parzival, Wolfram von Eschenbach, Transl. A T Hatto, London, 1980

The Archers A re-enactment society with a difference The Archers has been designed around utilizing archers from every re-enactment society and group no matter what period. The idea of bringing archers together at events to put on a show with like-minded people with the love and enthusiasm of the history of the longbow in one too great to miss. By joining The Archers you will have access to events that you may have previously never thought to attend as they are out of your period, now you can just don kit of the period, join massed archers and feel the exhilaration of seeing hundreds if not thousands of arrows blackening the sky before you! A sight every longbow archer wants to experience. Annual shoots will be held for your enjoyment The Archers will have several events a year with the likes of English Heritage and Plantagenet Events to name but two. If you are interested check out the website for more details.

Competition one In the shadow of the Tainted Crown by Fran Norton Roger Mortimer stepped onto the pages of history as Queen Isabella's paramour rising from Marcher baron to first Earl of March. Researching this turbulent period prompted author, Fran Norton, to pen this tale of love, loyalty, courage and vengeance. Much of the action is set against the backdrop of Ludlow, the Marcher capital, at a time when England was continually at war in Wales, Scotland and France. Fact is woven into fiction to highlight the enthralling events that took place during the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries. When Edward I was crowned he was hailed as the second King Arthur and the Age of Chivalry and Honour dawned. All too quickly his continual pursuit of lands and wealth plunged the nation into wars. Heavy taxes and levies brought poverty and unrest.

ISBN 978-0-9563079-2-7

To be in with a chance of winning a copy of this book, go to the website and answer this question: Where can Fran Norton be seen reading her book?

Competition two Much has been written about the so-called Infamous Lady, Tiger of Csejthe, and Blood Countess, Erzsébet (Elizabeth) Báthory of Hungary. Reviled as the World's Worst Female Serial Killer, Countess Báthory is said to have bathed in the blood of the 650 servant girls she tortured and murdered. Upon her arrest, she was condemned to life imprisonment and walled up in a tower of her castle. Reputed to be a vampire, lesbian, and witch, her shocking story inspired the Brothers Grimm, Bram Stoker, and gothic horror fans around the world for the past four hundred years.

ISBN 978-1449513443

Numerous rumors and legends evolved over time. In her own day, Countess Báthory was simply referred to as the Infamous Lady. Two hundred years later, with a vampire craze sweeping Europe, legends had her bathing in blood as a magical means of sustaining her youthful appearance. History has painted the Countess as an insane murderess; yet she was a far more complicated figure--the wife of a national war hero, a mother, generous benefactor, and socialite who routinely attended court and even the king's coronation, just months before her arrest. This biography explores the life of the 16th-century "Blood Countess" of Hungary, Erzsébet Báthory. Based on newly-found source material, translated into English for the first time, this book explores the actual life and trial of Countess Báthory, through letters, documents, and trial transcripts.

To be in with a chance of winning a copy of this book, go to the website and answer this question: Q: History has painted the Countess as an insane What? Send your answer for either one or both of this month‟s competitions along with your full postal address to: before April 24th 2011 to be in with a chance of winning!

Military & Flying Machines Show

Military & Flying Machines Show th


6 & 7 August Over 17,000 attendees in 2010 Arial Displays Trial Lesson in a WW2 aircraft Pleasure Flights Living History Displays 300+ Vehicles Live Entertainment Arena Activities 15+ Tanks & Armoured Vehicles

70th Anniversary Celebrations th

The Military & Flying Machines show are delighted to be celebrating the 70 anniversary of the almighty “Jeep” at this year’s show on 6 & 7 August, Damyns Hall Aerodrome, Upminster, Essex. During our commemoration we will look back at the history of this backbone of the battlefield, including a fantastic line up of rare editions and examples of how the Jeep has evolved over the years. The original Jeep was born of necessity and hand-built in just seven weeks! Jeep’s early history began with the first orders of Ford GPWs and WILLYS Mbs in 1941. During World War 2 Willys and Ford filled more than 700,000 orders, and the vehicles travelled countless miles, over difficult terrains and through all weathers. These vehicles, recognized for their mobility, durability, and mechanical simplicity, fulfilled a host of duties including transporting military officials and carrying out reconnaissance missions. The Jeep is a hardy beast, and as it continues to survive the elements of time we are thrilled to celebrate this iconic vehicle. This year our main focus will be looking back at the history of the Jeep don’t miss your chance to see some very rare and exceptional examples of the workhorse of the battlefield during our 70th Anniversary celebrations at our unique show. For more information about our celebrations and latest updates on the show line up visit Tickets are available NOW on or visit for the latest show news.

General Enquires:

Note to Editor: Interview Requests: If you would like more information about the weekend’s activities or to arrange an interview with the main co-ordinator of the event, either over the phone or in person please contact

Colin Tebb 01245 476249

Tickets: Tickets are available on or visit 

What’s it all about: There are some fantastic video clips and pictures from the 2010 show, please have a look at the following links; or have a look at some the pictures from last year’s



 The Military & Flying Machines show was recognised as one of the top 10 events to attend in 2010 by an industry specialist magazine.  The Military Vehicle Trust is a registered charity with over 5000 members with branches throughout the UK and dedicated to the restoration and preservation of historic military vehicles and more importantly those who used them. We see them as “mobile memorials”  Damyns Hall Aerodrome, Aveley Road, Upminster, Essex. RM14 2TN is situated just five minutes drive within the M25 situated close on the Essex/Kent border close to London with easy access from the M25/A13.  Over 17,000 public attended the show last year.  Last year we welcomed 16 local and London borough Mayors to the show, all of which will be invited again this year.  Essex MVT donate profits raised from this event to several charities, including Help for Hero’s, Back to the Beaches, Essex Air Ambulance and many more. nd  This year is the 22 Anniversary of Essex branch of MVT, but only the 4th year of this show!  We are happy to arrange press/radio and TV interviews for more information, if you would like to attend over the weekend then we will happily arrange a special MEDIA pass for you which will give you access to restricted areas giving a unique opportunity.  For more information, a media pack or to arrange an interview please contact Tracey Brew; 07903 104102 or or Colin Tebb; 01245 476249 or .

Competition Three Nidderdale Archery has sent me 24 Black 5/16‟‟ Modbods, so two lucky winners will be in with a chance of winning 12 each!

What colour fletching thread do Nidderdale Archery sell?

Check out the website to find the answer. Email me with your answer and full postal address to: All answers must reach me by April 24 th to be in with a chance of winning.

NIDDERDALE PREMIUM ARROW SHAFTS Reviewed By Steve , 18 March 2011 Most people will be familiar with the phrase " you get what you pay for", it usually refers to something cheap that turned out to be crap, I have a friend who's philosophy in life is " always buy the very cheapest", I have lost count of the times I have gone round to his place to find him fixing a thing which refused to work correctly or bemoaning the fact that "such and such" has just broken... I am also constantly amazed that he has never been able to grasp the connection between buying cheap and buying crap, still he is convinced that his way is best because when he is throwing out the offending article he will say " well at least it didn't cost much". There are always exceptions to rules and in the past I have on occasion paid more than I should have for something which turned out not to be worth the money. Very occasionally and this doesn't happen very often, but, very occasionally, you get more than you paid for, because these occurrences are so rare these are the times when that special purchase will have you grinning like the cat that got the cream... For Cat read "me" and for cream read "shafts". Nidderdale archery are producing a range of arrow shafts that include services you would expect to pay extra for, such as each shaft being hand spined and hand selected at the extraordinary price of just £14.95 per dozen. When something appears too good to be true ones first instinct is to view it with scepticism, here at archers review we try to keep an open mind, after all that‟s why we review stuff. We decided to check out a selection of the shafts offered to see exactly what you get for £14.95

To see the rest of this review check out:

Bromsgrove Militaria, Medal & Arms Collectors Fair Sunday May 29th 2011

Spadesbourne Suite, Council House, Burcot Lane, Bromsgrove, B60 1AA 9.30am - 2.00pm. Admission £2.50 e-mail Olde England Presents A Victorian Fete 10th & 11th June 2011 Templecombe, Somerset, England

The Mortimer History Society Spring Conference Saturday May 21st 2011 The Ludlow Assembly Rooms, Ludlow, Shropshire, SY8 1AZ Morning Dr Ian Mortimer The Mortimers & the Royal family

The Border Waites Music at the Royal Court & castle

Afternoon The Border Waites Full Music Concert

Alison Weir Queen Isabella-She France



Ticket prices: Members £20, Non Members £25.00. To book use link below:

Midland History Festival 6th & 7th August 2011 Ragley Hall, Alcester, England

A Neo-Victorian Medieval Fete and A multi-period event, Roman through to campout where Steampunk gets to go WWII medieval, Victorian style. Large Living History displays Historical Craft Market Weekend ticket: £40.00 Battlefield and small arena Saturday ticket: £25.00 (includes evening) Archery, Man-at-arms competitions Sunday public day: £5.00 Trolls Bottom re-enactors bar Forge work demonstration Lots to see and do all weekend including Falconry Victorian cuisine, scrapheap challenge, Craft Marquee medieval men-at-arms competitions, historical dance, steam organ, music and 10% of profit to Royal British legion burlesque.

THE BATTLE OF SARK 1448 By Stephen Maggs

The Battle of Sark was one of the most dramatic, and bloody, battles ever to have taken place in Dumfriesshire, which then makes it all the more surprising that it has been all most totally forgotten. The battle was fought on the 23rd of October 1448 between Scottish forces under the great clan leader Hugh Douglas, Earl of Ormonde and English forces under one of the most powerful and influential families of the time, the Percyâ€&#x;s, Earls of Northumberland.

The battle was brought about by a personal and bitter feud that would result in an overwhelming Scottish victory and humiliation for the English King, Henry VI. It was a victory that would place the Scots in a position of strength over the English for the coming decade. For the Clan Douglas it meant ever increasing power, so much power in fact that they would even become a danger to the Scottish Crown. After the 14th century War of Scottish Independence, Scotland and England continued to engage in battles, skirmishes and sieges along the entire border. By 1438 Scotland was preoccupied with problems of a royal minority, (James II being but eight years old) and England with her war in France. Both sides had little stomach for the continued conflict on the border. As a result hostilities were brought to and end by the signing of a nine year truce in May of that year, but lasted till 1454. However by 1448 hostilities erupted once more, possibly sparked by one of the many minor cross-border raids, but this seemed to suit the English and in May Henry Percy, son of the Earl of Northumberland crossed the border at the Western marches, the Earl of Salisbury by the Eastern Marches, each with a large army. Dunbar was burnt to the ground. In June Salisbury continued the hostilities by crossing the river Esk near Gretna and made all haste to Dumfries, where the castle was seized and the town set ablaze. Although these two raids did not constitute a war with Scotland it did mean however trouble with the house of Douglas, whose lands had been so wantonly savaged.

The English knew that retaliation would not be long in coming, but of course they knew not where. Crossing the border once more a large Scottish army, under William the 8 th Earl of Douglas, together with his kinsmen, Hugh Douglas, Earl of Ormond, the Earl of Angus and

Earl of Orkney, destroyed the towns of Alnwick and Warkworth. The Douglas‟s meant business and further raids took place in to Cumberland and Northumberland. King Henry VI was now so concerned at events that he travelled to Durham where he ordered the Percies and their allies to muster all the forces they could. Scotland was going to feel the effects of one of the biggest punitive assaults on its soil for sometime. By late September 1448, the 2nd Earl of Northumberland had gathered about him some 6,000 men, including many Welsh bowmen. In October the English crossed the border through the West Marches, over the river Sark at Gretna. With him he had very capable commanders; his own son, Henry 3rd Earl of Northumberland, Sir John Pennington, Sir Thomas Harrington and Magnus Redmane. Once across the river Sark the Earl ordered a camp to be made, adjacent a local feature know as the Lochmaben Stone (the only surviving stone from an ancient prehistoric circle).

Presumably the day was getting late by the time of the crossing was made as it seems a rather curious place to make camp, it restricting the entire armies movement should it have need to vacate the area in a hurry. It was certainly an ill advised location with its back to the sea, with a dangerous tidal flow flowing up the river Sark. The Percies well knew the power of the Douglas‟s, whose area they had now entered, and so perhaps believed the location was secure from attack, the left flank situated on slightly rising ground, and further protected by the Kirtle Water. The Right flank was secured on the River Sark. Rather naively the English may have though the Scots not capable of raising sufficient forces to intercept men.

With their tents erected and sentries posted the English settled down for the night, knowing full well that their presence would be well known to the Scots. By early morning outriders (scouts) were sent out to spy the land, no doubt pillaging and burning as they went, to try to locate any Scottish force coming their way.

Indeed the Scots had been well aware of the

English armies presence, spies having tracked their movements as they crossed Cumbria, giving the Earl of Ormond time to gather in his forces and predict the route the English intended to take.

Men were gathered in from Annandale, under Sir John Johnstone,

Nithsdale, under Herbert Maxwell of Caerlaverock, and from Ayrshire, under Sir John Wallace of Craigie. Expert bowmen would undoubtedly have joined Ormond‟s army from the Ettrick and Galloway Forest regions- the Ettrick men only too eager to be part of Ormond‟s army to avenge the killing and plundering of their region by an English army,

under Henry of Monmouth, Prince of Wales, in 1405.

Along with other border gentry,

around 4,000 men were thought to have been mustered to meet the English threat- the Scots had long memories.

The Earl of Northumberland it seems clearly believed that the Scots had no army in the area capable of resisting them; indeed he must have thought Dumfries was to be left to its fate once more, as it had been when the Earl of Salisbury ransacked it earlier in the year. So when the English scouts hurried back in to camp crying alarm, crying that the Scots were hurrying upon them from the north, it must have come as great shock to him. Trumpeters sounded the alarm and the English camp swiftly erupted into a hive of activity. Knights hurried into their armour, soldiers donned their quilted „jacks‟ or chain-mail coats and arrows were unloaded from the supply carts and issued to the archers. Three divisions were formed, running from west to east, Sir Pennington commanding the left flank, mostly the Welsh archers, the two Percies the centre division and Redmane, the English champion, who had an implacable hatred of the Scots, commanded the right hand division. With banners unfurled the English stood awaiting the Scots.

More of the English raiding parties soon flooded back to their lines, each no doubt telling of their lucky escape from the fast approaching Scots. But unbeknownst to many was an unseen force, rapidly advancing upon the English from the rear, the Solway tide had turned and was fast making its way to the shoreline just beyond where Northumberland‟s army was stood. The river Sark also began to rise slowly, but surely, as if it too was playing its part in the coming battle. All English eyes were now firmly fixed to the north. Marching steadily closer long columns of Scots spearmen could be seen snaking their way on to the field of battle, clearly visible were the unmistakable Scots banners, Satires, proudly fluttering in the breeze.

Ormond deployment his divisions to mirror that of the invaders. Sir Adam Johnstone and Sir Herbert Maxwell led their division to the right. Ormond himself commanded the centre, whilst Sir John Wallace of Craigie commanded the left hand division. Like the English the Scots did not have a reserve, but perhaps the English saw no need too. For the Scots they could not afford such a luxury, they having to make everyman count, having 2,000 m men less with which to fight the coming battle. It was the English archers, on the right flank, who were the ones to open the battle after Redmane ordered then forward, perhaps in an attempt to goad the Scots into an advance. Having advanced as far as they dared, Redmane ordered his

men to let fly a flurry or arrows. Like a shower of rain many arrows found their mark, dozens of men crumpled to the floor in writhing agony, for a moment it seemed like the English would destroy the Scots in the same old way without even coming into contact with them. But the English now had Sir John Wallace of Craigie to contend with.

A second and a third volley of arrows rained down upon the Scots left wing and noticeable gaps started to appear within the tightly packed ranks of spearmen. Seeing his men begin to waver Wallace stepped out in full view of his men and turned to them. Addressing them, he cried, “Why do we stand thus, to be wounded afar off? Follow me, and let us join in handstrokes where true valour is only to be seen!” A cry of approval filled the air and as one 2,000 spearmen began to press forward, swiftly crossing the ground that separated them from the English archers. Having no time to react to the Scots advance Redmane stood with his archers and grappled savagely with his sworn enemy, only to fall dead in an instant, possibly pieced by many vengeful spear tips. Seeing Redmane fall was more than the archers could stomach, turning about they fled back in utter panic, the Scots closely on their heels.

Although seeing the archers on the right falling back Northumberland was probably powerless to help, for directly opposite him Ormond‟s division had begun rolling forward, no doubt inspired by Wallace‟s, advance.

A flurry of arrows poured down into the Scots


Here I will have to leave the narrative but for readers wishing to know more about this dramatic action the guide is available from GC Books priced at £4.95 plus postage.

I have been interested in walking battlefields for many years and I am fortunate to live less than six miles from where the Battle of Sark was fought. Much of the battlefield seems to have been little changed, for it is still open farmland, beach and the river Sark still flowing into the Solway, it too having its deadly part to play in the battle. As with many smaller battles (around 10,000 combatants, so not that small) there is little information as to the course of the action and so being ever curious I scoured local history books and visited local libraries, Dumfries and Carlisle.

It was just meant to be a personal project with which to

write a wargaming article but found enough information to see if GC Books would like to

publish it as a battlefield guide – to my delight the publishers have commissioned me to write six such guides to make a local battlefield guide series. The writing of this guide has inspired me to try and develop the battlefield further, perhaps with land owners‟ permission, get a few interpretation boards placed at key points and perhaps introduce a battlefield walk pamphlet. The possibility is endless but certainly needs to be done in the hope that the land is not swallowed up with yet more housing estates as seems to be the fate of many of our battlefields.

Looking south from Scots positions on their right flank. The English were deployed atop the high ground clearly showing the advantage they had on that flank.

Editor’s Note: I have a couple of Stephens Battle guides to review, so look out for those soon!


New battlefield guides from local publisher The peaceful fields and hedgerows of the region's beautiful countryside once resounded to the clash of swords and the beat of the drum. Two new battlefield guides vividly bring to life the blood soaked encounters between armies of men bent on brutal revenge. The Battle of Dryfe Sands near Lockerbie and the Battle of Sark near Gretna are detailed in new books by Annan based author Stephen Maggs. “Although these are less well known battles they were much more than minor skirmishes. The Battle of Dryfe Sands was Scotland's largest and bloodiest clan battle while the Battle of Sark was a great victory for the Scots and a humiliation for the English King, Henry VI,” Stephen explained. Fought in 1448 between the Scots under Hugh Douglas and the English forces led by the powerful Percys, Earls of Northumberland, the Battle of Sark was brought about by a bitter and personal feud. The victory put the Scots in a position of strength against the English for many years and led to such a rise in the power of the Clan Douglas that the Scottish throne came under threat. The Battle of Dryfe Sands was also the result of a power struggle that had plagued the Borders for generations, this time between the Maxwells and the Johnstones. In December 1593 the eighth Lord Maxwell decided to end the rivalry once and for all hoping to finally gain complete control of the Scottish West March, little knowing that his actions would lead to the biggest and bloodiest clan battle Scotland had ever known. These two new books are the first in a series written by battlefield enthusiast Stephen Maggs for Wigtown publisher GC Books. Ideal for anyone interested in local history or battle reenactment they are well researched and illustrated with detailed information about the build up to the encounters, the armies, weaponry and the political aftermath. The format makes these guides ideal for anyone interested in retracing the steps of our ancestors who faced injury and death in battles that helped to create the Border Country. The son of a military family, Stephen started his interest in war gaming at school and has served in both the Territorial Army and as a Special Constable with the police force. He has lived in Eastriggs for a number of years after moving to the area from Orkney with his wife and three children. Currently studying at Dumfries College he plans to start a book selling business specialising in military and war gaming titles. The books 'Death of a King's Man' and 'Where True Valour is Only to be Seen' are available from the GC Books website price £4.95 plus p&p.

Further information from Stephen Maggs at or Jayne Baldwin for GC Books at

Historia Originata 14th & 15th May 2011 The market place for re-enactors, historical enterpreters, the heritage industry and historical enthusiasts. The Swallow Hotel, London Road, Carlisle, CA1 2NS Free Car parking on site-easy public transport access Open from 10am – 5pm daily FREE preview evening on Friday 13th 4pm – 7pm

Macclesfield Royal Charter th 750 Celebration 16th & 17th July 2011 Come to the Pageant & Carnival Gawsworth Carnival and the Rotary Club of Macclesfield have joined forces to bring you a spectacular event. Site open to the public 10am Saturday Car Boot Sale 7am Display & blessing Macclesfield Town Centre Saturday morning. Carnival Procession through Gawsworth at lunchtime. Afternoon displays include Engine Rally, Classic Cars, Motorbikes & Tractors, Medieval Battle, Pirates, Ceremonial Mass, Arrow Shoot, Living History Displays, Fun Fair, Beer tent, Bands, Fireworks. Gates Close 6.30pm Re-open 7.30pm for evening shows, close at midnight Sunday shows: 10am until 4.30pm

Scotland‟s Festival of History


20th & 21st August

Getting excited about history


24th & 25th September 2011 King‟s Manor, York

Archery, Battles, Historic Market, Music & Dance, Jesters & Jugglers Children‟s Activities Falconry, Craft Displays Romans, Vikings, Medieval Covenanters, Jacobite, Napolenic, WWI, WWII Fun for all ages exploring the ages at the Country‟s largest re-enactment event.

Workshops, demonstrations, lectures, period traders.

Guest Speakers Comedian, screenwriter, actor, director, author & historian

Terry Jones (Subject to work commitments) Archaeologist & Television presenter

Mark Olly Historical interpreter & moneyer

David Greenhalgh Limited tickets available Contact:

The Tournament of Walraversijde The 30 and 31 ofJuly 2011 Organised by v.z.w. “Het Gruuthuse Huishouden” First of all, we would like to thank all the re-enactors who came to the tournament the last 2 years. It was a successfully 1st and 2nd edition. The re-enactors and the public loved the whole event, so in 2011 we organise it again.

So, Noble and redoubted knights, honoured and gentle squires, craftsmen, musicians, dancers and jesters. the very noble Lord Louis of Gruuthuse, Lord of Bruges and Earl of Winchester, my very redoubted Lord, greets you, and has charged me to deliver these invitations to each and one of you.

We would appreciate if you and your entourage could join us again for the tournament, which will be held on the 30 and 31th of July 2011 at the Walraversijde, Ostend, Flanders, Belgium The highlights on the program: *Opening of the camp with a huge ceremony *Combat for knights on foot with swords, daggers, spears and pole arms *Combat for squires on foot with swords, daggers, spears and pole arms *Archery tournament on a course with different targets *Mêlée, Demonstrations, Craftsmen, Market, Living History, Cooking,... Every tournament will have his winner and shall be awarded with a price. Prices are *Knights champion *Squire champion note the winner of the squires tournament will have the chance to show his skills and participate in the knights tournament on Sunday *Archery champion *Best camp And many more

Only re-enactors and traders, doing the medieval 15th century in authentic equipment, and with a confirmed invitation form, will be allowed on site. People who don‟tt have a confirmed invitation will be asked to go away We want this to be a top event, I think you all understand. It is possible to camp on site from Tuesday 27th July until Monday the 1st of August I truly hope to see all of you at the tournament. To inscribe your self and your group please visit our website at If you have any questions, then feel free to contact us on Frederiek De Smeyter President and Captain of The Gruuthuse Household Phone: 0032(0)486/881386 (*)Only authentic tents will be allowed!!!


Events 2011 MARY ARDEN’S TUDOR FESTIVAL & SHEEP SHEARERS FEAST (3rd year running) 28th 29th & 30th MAY Please come and join us for an action packed long weekend of Tudors, their treasured sheep and all things woolly! To celebrate the first cash crop of the year – the Tudors will be merry making and engaging in most woolly activities, from shearing, spinning, weaving and also the female farmers felting competition!! We also hope to involve sheep dog trails, archery and of –course- our excellentfalconers will be present throughout the day Ever FELT like joining us?! We are looking for rural crafts stallholders – both authentically Tudor and modern day – to fill our large site over this special weekend. We only charge low rents and estimate that we will welcome 800-1,000 visitors per day. As we are a farm – we have limited under cover space – so for optimumease when setting up, and as to maximise the spaces available – we ask that you make yourself as weatherproof as possible.

CRAFTY BEASTS NEW FOR 2011 23rd & 24th JULY Kicking off the school holidays we are offering an event for all the family. Avoiding all Cockerel puns – we will be focusing on our great British rare breeds. We hope to showcase many of our country’s oldest breeds and amongst all, create an offering of education and fun, including pig parading, goat grooming, chicken chasing and rabbit racing. An action packed weekend where we need crafts and stallholders of a rural and traditional nature to add value and atmosphere to our site. Again, both authentic and modern stalls will be divided, and despite the date, we still wish people renting a pitch to be as weatherproof as possible.

TUDOR HIRING FAIR (2nd Year running)

27th, 28th & 29th August Our new event for 2010 proved immensely popular and saw the largest amount of visitors to the site in any 3 day period. Focused on the Tudors wishing to seek out their household staff for the up coming year – there were Tudors securing their employment both young and old. This year we seek to improve the fair by engaging yet more Tudor personnel. We will be including more Tudor skull duggery, with archery, gambling, game playing, falconry and mummers plays. We largely wish to attract period stallholders to this event – but are willing to look at modern traders so long as the product reflects something connected to the era. If you are interested in a pitch at this event, please be aware that there will be limited undercover area.

APPLE DAY’s Established Event

1st & 2nd October As our longest running event – apple day is well supported by visitors and traders alike – and proves a real fun event where any thing goes!! With the focus of the great old English apple – we have apple tasting, juicing, bobbing, apple pie making......just about anything involving the faithful apple. Because of the time of year – this event focuses itself to harvest time – and all the products created from it. Because of its great success – and also popular request – we are now looking at an apple day weekend where people wishing to rent a pitchwould have a tariff based on a 2 day period. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Please register your interest with any of the above events by emailing or telephoning 07590245096 Additional Information on Mary Ardens Farm can be found at Ideally we would like you to be available throughout all the days of an event period, with our pitch tariffs based on the attendance of the whole event. Due to popular demand – we predict that that these events will fill up quickly – and as we have limited space we would suggest you book with us before March 2011. We are also offering a tariff discount for those booking all four events before February 28 th 2011

NORFOLK LIVING HISTORY FAYRE at Mannington Hall & Gardens, Norfolk NR11 7BB 15 & 16 October 2011

For more information on this event please visit:

The Grumpy Olde Archers In Assoc. with Marks hall Estate

April 9th & 10th 2011 Marks Hall estate Coggeshall England A weekend of archery including clout, wand and popinjay shoots. Medieval Market & living history encampment In aid of Help for Heroes All shoot and pitch fees to charity

Artifest 2011 Pennsylvania USA



The second annual Artifest, sponsored by the Museum of Indian Culture, will take place June 11th and 12th, 2011, on Museum grounds, in the beautiful Lehigh Parkway in Allentown, Pennsylvania. This year, the Museum of Indian Culture celebrated its 30th year anniversary. To kick-off the celebration, the museum hosted its first ever multi-cultural event, Artifest 2010, featuring live performances and exhibits by Native Americans, African-Americans, Asian Indians, Australians, Colombians, Mexican, Moravians, Pennsylvania Dutch, and many more. Visitors overwhelmingly agreed that Artifest 2010 was truly remarkable. “One moment you are entwined in Shakespearean parody, then the next you find yourself on stage hoola hooping!” Artifest 2011 is currently inviting performers from all cultures and ethnicities to participate. If interested, please fill out the performer application by emailing interest to, or by visiting the event website The medieval fortress of Mrač Czech Republic June 24th – 26th 2011 Theatrical performances, contemporary music, fire shows, Bewitched show of master Edward Kelley, medieval villagers and noble dancers, Hungarian prisoner torturing followed by execution, gunner„s show, battle, foot tournament, jousting, night battle Fortress Mrač in the village of the same name between towns of Benešov, Čerčany and Poříčí nad Sázavou, southeast of Prague on the bank of Sázava river 49 ° 49 '59 "N, 14 ° 42' 5" E

at The Battle of Mortimer’s Cross 550th Anniversary

September 17th & 18th 2011 Main A49, 1 mile north of Leominster, Herefordshire England Battle re-enactment each day with fully armoured knights, archers and gunners. Separate arena for barber surgeon, medieval dancing, mummer’s plays and music. Living history encampment Traders row Beer tent Local food stalls Passamezzo Early Dance Owain Leech (Barber Surgeon) Nominus Adults £5, Under 16s FREE, Concessions £4 Free Parking for all 486978236730&index=1 Contact: Bob & Pennie:01989 762159 Or Jason: 01432 352755

Event Listing April 2nd SCCWA Prado Dam Reenactment, Chino, California, USA 8th – 10th EMA training session at Tournament Stud, Brackley, Berkshire, NN13 5TR 9th & 10th The Grumpy Olde Archers at Marks Hall Estate, Coggeshall, England Email: 10th Boughton House, UK(Roving Mark Shoot) 16th & 17th Celebrate the Renaissance in The Castle Loumarin 16th & 17th Ealdfaeder Dark Ages Re-Enactment, Re-enactors Bring & Buy, Wimpole Hall, Cambridgeshire. Event Plan 24th & 25th The Knights of Royal England ( at Knebworth House, England 24th & 25th Kenilworth castle, UK 30th Ealdfaeder Dark Ages Re-Enactment, Combat Workshop, Sutton Hoo, near Woodbridge, Suffolk. Sutton Hoo 30th – 2nd The Knights of Royal England ( at Blenheim Palace, England

May 31st & 2nd The Medieval Siege Society at Hedingham Castle, England 1st & 2nd Hedingham Castle, UK 1st & 2nd Ealdfaeder Dark Ages Re-Enactment, Show with Textiles Theme, Sutton Hoo, near Woodbridge, Suffolk. Sutton Hoo 7th & 8th The Medieval Siege Society at Cressing Temple Barns, England 7th Prior Purslove College, Guisborough, Yorkshire 450th anniversary celebrations 8th Northampton, Battlefield Walk 14th

Las Vegas Helldorado Days Parade, Downtown Las Vegas, Nevada, USA 14th World War II Day, Calvert County Fairgrounds, Prince Frederick, Maryland, USA 14th & 15th Bentley Wildfowl Trust, UK 14th & 15th The Gold Strike Casino‟s Grand national Competition of The Old West, Jean, Nevada, USA or from the RGA Home Page Link 21st The Mortimer History Society Spring Conference, Ludlow Assembly Rooms, Ludlow, SY8 1AZ For more details: 28th – 30th Ealdfaeder Dark Ages Re-Enactment, Show With Food Theme, Sutton Hoo Sutton Hoo 29th Bromsgrove Militaria, Medal & Arms Collectors Fair, at the Spadesbourne Suite, Council House, Burcot Lane, Bromsgrove, B60 1AA. 9.30am - 2.00pm. Admission £2.50 e-mail 29th & 30th The Knights of Royal England ( at Hedingham Castle, England

June 1st- 5th The Knights of Royal England ( at Leeds castle, England 3rd – 6th Pencampwr Gan Abertridwr, SCA Camping Event, Wandi Community Grounds, DeHaer rd. Wandi For information: Email: 4th & 5th Ealdfaeder Dark Ages Re-Enactment, Show With Slavery Theme, Sutton Hoo Sutton Hoo 4th & 5th Great Northen Expo, Collingwood, Ontario, Canada 4th & 5th The Duncannon Fort multi period Re-enactment and Military vehicle Show, USA 10th – 12th Olde England Presents A Victorian Fete at Templecombe, Somerset, England 11th & 12th The Medieval Siege Society at Weald Country Park, England 11th & 12th Museum of Indian Culture 2825 Fish Hatchery Road, Allentown, Pa USA 18103 Information: 11th & 12th, Chester Roman Festival Contact: 17th – 19th The Knights of Royal England ( at Cardiff Castle, Wales 18th & 19th Tatton Park Medieval Fayre, England

18th & 19th Eltham Palace, Greenwich, London, UK 18th &19th Blickling Hall, Norfolk. Tudor Pageant 25th & 26th Ealdfaeder Dark Ages Re-Enactment,Show - Rune Theme, West Stow Anglo Saxon Village, Suffolk. Anglo-Saxon Village 25th & 26th Peterborough Cathedral Living History Event

July 2nd & 3rd Chetwynd Medieval fair, Chetwynd, Shropshire, UK For information: 2nd & 3rd The Knights of Royal England ( at Linlithgow Palace, Scotland‟

3rd & 4th fête médiévale de briançon!/group.php?gid=148203611869332 4th Summerlin 4th July Parade, 2011, Summerlin or NW Las Vegas, Nevada, USA 9th Old Fort MacArthur Days Timeline, San Pedro, California, USA 9th & 10th The Knights of Royal England ( at Linlithgow Palace, Scotland

9th & 10th Tewkesbury Medieval Festival, Tewkesbury, England 9th & 10th July Tenbury on the Home Front, 1941 July 12th – 17th Viking Market in Gudvangen 16th & 17th The Knights of Royal England ( at Hever Castle, England 16th & 17th The Festival of History, Kelmarsh, UK 22nd – 24th The Knights of Royal England ( at Hever Castle, England 22nd – 24th Viking Rock 2011, Folk & Rock Festival, Norway 23rd & 24th The Arthurian Centre, Slaughterbridge, Camelford, Cornwall, England 24th MSS 1469 Edgecote Commemoration (Battlefield Walk, UK)

26th – 31st Das Drachenfest 2011, Diemelstadt, Germany 29th – 31st The Knights of Royal England ( at Hever Castle, England 30th & 31st Berkeley Skirmish at Berkeley Castle, England 30th & 31st Ealdfaeder Dark Ages Re-Enactment, Show - Runes Theme, Sutton Hoo. Sutton Hoo 30th & 31st The Tournament of Walraversijde, Ostend, Flanders, Belgium

August 5th – 7th The Knights of Royal England ( at Blenheim Palace, England 6th & 7th Midland History Festival at Ragley hall, Alcester, England or Email: 6th & 7th The Great Wagon Road Encampment at East Montgomery Park, Elliston, Virginia, USA 6th & 7th The Great Road Encampment, USA 6th & 7th The Military Flying machines Show, Damyns Hall Aerodrome Upminster, Essex RM14 2TN 6th & 7th Ealdfaeder Dark Ages Re-Enactment, Show - Spear Dance Theme, Sutton Hoo Sutton Hoo 6th & 7th Hoveton Hall Gardens Victorian Extravaganza 6th Victorian Extravaganza - Rule Glorious Britannia!!/event.php?eid=104883102922870&notif_t=event_invite 7th FETE MEDIEVALE CELTIQUE 2011 FAUGERES 34600!/event.php?eid=190994780927888&notif_t=event_invite

12th – 14th The Knights of Royal England ( at Hever Castle, England 13th & 14th The Arthurian Centre, Slaughterbridge, Camelford, Cornwall, England 13th & 14th The Medieval Siege Society at The Siege of Bodium Castle, England 13th & 14th Lincoln Castle “Preparing for Siege”, Lincoln castle, England 19th = 21st The Knights of Royal England ( at Hever Castle, England

19th – 21st Fight Camp 20th & 21st Ealdfaeder Dark Ages Re-Enactment, Show - Hunting & Fighting Theme, Sutton Hoo Sutton Hoo 20th & 21st Ruislip Castle, UK 27th & 28th The Knights of Royal England ( at Hever Castle, England 27th – 29th England‟s medieval Festival at Herstmonceaux Castle, England 27th – 29th Pensthorpe Medieval Spectacular 28th & 29th The Knights of Royal England ( at Hedingham Castle, England

September 3rd Huntington Beach Reenactment, Hunington Beach, California, USA 4th The Knights of Royal England ( at Knebworth House, England 17th & 18th The 550th Anniversary of The Battle of Mortimer‟s Cross, Leominster, Herefordshire, UK 17th & 18th Ealdfaeder Dark Ages Re-Enactment, Brandeston Hall, near Framlingham, Suffolk Brandeston Hall 18th & 19th The Knights of Royal England ( at Leeds Castle, England 25th Bromsgrove Militaria, Medal & Arms Collectors Fair, at the Spadesbourne Suite, Council House, Burcot Lane, Bromsgrove, B60 1AA. 9.30am - 2.00pm. Admission £2.50 e-mail

October 8th ACWS Helendale Re-Enactment, California, USA 15th & 16th Norfolk Living History Fayre, Mannington Hall 29th ACWS/SNLHA Spring Mountain Ranch Reenactment, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

November 5th & 6th Timeline Fair, Old Cheese Factory, Homestead Rd, Berwick, Victoria, Australia. 11th Las Vegas Veteran‟s Day Parade 2011, Downtown Las Vegas, Nevada, USA 26th & 27th Ludlow Castle Medieval Christmas fair, Ludlow, Shropshire, UK Craft fair, medieval traders, combat, have a go archery

December 4th Bromsgrove Militaria, Medal & Arms Collectors Fair, at the Spadesbourne Suite, Council House, Burcot Lane, Bromsgrove, B60 1AA. 9.30am - 2.00pm. Admission £2.50 e-mail

"First Aid for Re-enactors & Historical Demonstrators. A certificated one day course designed to provide practical training in the management of injuries and conditions that we could sustain on the battlefield, during demonstrations and around camp (and home / workplace). The venue is the Green Wood Centre, near Coalbrookdale, Telford. Date: Saturday May 21 The HSE Emergency First Aid at Work syllabus is widely expanded to include: Deep woundings & impalements, Gunshot, Fragmentation, blast & black powder injuries, Horse trampling, Head injuries, Eye injuries, Spinal Injury management, Heat exhaustion / Stroke or Hypothermia, The management of persons wearing armour etc., Persons demonstrating competence in the core skills will also be provided with the HSE EFAW certification, that lasts for 3 years. The fee is £45 per person. Training is provided by Andy Sherriff (of the Marcher Freemen) ---- who's day-job is the provision of first aid / medical care training for remote environments, and HSE courses for industry.

Please contact Andy on 01824790195 "

The Re-enactor issue 28 PDF  
The Re-enactor issue 28 PDF  

Readership 1362 Issue 28, April 2011 The Norfolk Living History fair, 2010