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The Re-Enactor Issue 18, June 2010

Histoirenscene

167 Groups listed 130 Traders Listed from 28 Countries

Readership 952


Greetings All Welcome to the latest issue of the ever expanding ezine, we now reach 28 countries worldwide and we are getting close to 1000 recipients. The number of groups and traders listed also continues to grow so if you‘re after a group or looking to purchase something you are in the right place.

Congratulations to Sacha, Jane and Chris as they each won a CD by Vedan Kolod. There are 2 book competitions still runningnot directly linked to re-enactment but both good reads. The authors give their time and money to support this ezine so please take the opportunity to win yourselves a brand new book. The competitions are totally free to enter and always very easy! I also have 3 or 4 more book competitions lined up for future issues. I am also after other prizes to give away so if anyone has something they would like to donate as a prize in return for lots of free advertising space please do get in contact with me.

Features This Month 1: Another Arrow which changed history? 2: Competitions 3: Author: David Alderman 4: Author: John Fitch V 5: ―Clock to Clock‖ Charity Walk 6: The Battle of Mortimer‘s Cross (Invite) 7: Military and Flying Machines Show 8: Cilgerran Castle, Wales. 9: Event Listings 10: Bewl Water Event 11: Ty Mawr Medieval hall 12: Excerpt from Black Earth, End of the innocence

I am still on the look out for more groups, traders, event details, stories, articles and reports. Please contact me at the normal email address with details! Jason.okeefe@btopenworld.com

Competitions: All competitions are free to enter Winners will be selected at random on the 15th of each month for the relevant competition. Winners will be notified via email shortly after the draw takes place. No correspondence will be entered into. The editor’s decision is final.


ANOTHER ARROW WHICH CHANGED HISTORY? By Kevin Goodman M.Sc. http://bowsbladesandbattles.tripod.com King Henry V of England (c.1387–1422) The hero of Agincourt; the man who broke the French; the ideal knight - the epitome of piety and chivalry. He tends to be regarded as a medieval superman, applauded for his genius and dynamism, yet, his shortcomings overlooked. To Mortimer (2009): “He was an extraordinary man, in that he demonstrated phenomenal organisational skills, focus, determination, resilience, leadership and – above all else – religious conviction; but…he was a deeply flawed individual. He lacked the simpler qualities of compassion, warmth, and the understanding of human frailty that one naturally looks for in all men – yeomen and paupers as well as kings.” (Seward 198, p1-2)

Henry V, painting by an unknown artist; in the National Portrait Gallery, London

Such aspects of Henry’s personality have proved something of a conundrum for many historians and chroniclers of his life: his sudden transformation from a wild, brawling, drinking, womanising youth to a fervently pious King upon the death of his father Henry IV in 1413; his devout religious beliefs - a contrast to the atrocities he commited: the ordering of the slaughter of noble prisoners at Agincourt in 1415 which defied the chivalric law; his treatment of the inhabitants and defenders of towns he besieged and his persecution of the Lollard sect, (Barker 2005, 2009, Curry 2000, 2005, Dockray 2007, McGlynn, 2008, Mortimer 2009). According to legend, and to Shakespeare in his play “Henry V”, (written in 1599), Henry, the wild prince who enjoyed taverns and carousing turned into a pious overnight. As a youth, the anonymous “Vita et Gesta Henrici Quinti” (Hearne 1727) describes him as: “Passing the bounds of modesty he was the fervent soldier of venus as well as mars; youthlike he was fired by her torches, in the midst of his brave deeds as a soldier, he also found leisure for the excesses of untamed youth” (p.21, Dockray 2007). th

However, upon ascending the throne as King Henry V on April 9 1413 following the death of his father Henry IV: “…[He] suddenly changed into a new man and henceforth devoted himself single-mindedly to live as virtuously as maintaining Holy Church, destroying heretics, keeping justice and defending his realm and subjects” (Anonymous English Chronicler in Dockray 2007, p. 96)


“[He] reformed and amended his life and manners…all his acts were suddenly changed into gravity and discretion” (Tito Livio in the Vita Henrici Quinti in Dockray 2007, p.96); “…as soon as he was made King he was changed suddenly into another man, zealous for honesty, modesty and gravity, there being no sort of virtue that he was not anxious to display” (Thomas Walshingham, in Dockray 2007, p.23) This was, and has been, interpreted as Henry having a religious conversion (Seward 1987). A number of his personal characteristics and behaviours have been seen as admirable in the past and today: his piety; his passion for justice; his bravery and courage; his skills as an administrator and manager who recognised talent and rewarded loyalty; his honesty; his decisiveness in planning and effectiveness in delivering policy. As a military commander he has been admired for: his gift of command: planning and masterminding of strategies and sieges; diplomatic negotiations; maintaining firm control over deployment of manpower; enforcement of discipline and the redistribution of conquered territories, (Barker 2005, 2009; Curry 2000, 2005; Dockray 2007 ; Mortimer 2009; Seward 1987). In contrast, he is also described as: severe; cold; humourless; aloof; domineering; ruthless; bad tempered vindictive and inhumane. He was intolerant of dissent and prepared to punish, even remove those whose loyalty he suspected. Men feared his anger and avoided questioning the wisdom of his judgements or the rightness of his decisions - when his honour was impugned he could suddenly become very angry (Dockray 2007; Mortimer 2009; Seward 1987): “*Henry was+ much feared and dreaded by his princes, knights and captains and by people of every degree because all those who disobeyed his orders or infringed his edicts he would put to death without mercy.” (Waurin: Hardy 1868, p.429) Many of his behaviours have been viewed as excessive. His religious behaviour was extreme, even for the time (Mortimer 2009). He constantly went on pilgrimage to the shrines of saints, heard several masses a day, (refusing to be interrupted while at prayer). The Gesta states: “*Henry was+ devoted to the hearing of divine praises and to his own private prayers that, once he had begun them there was not anyone, even from amongst his nobles and magnates, who was able, by conversation however brief, at anytime to interrupt them. There cannot, therefore, be denied by the Prince of princes to a prince also, in the judgement of all men, is of such goodness and obedience, whatever he may justly ask of them.” (p.155, Taylor and Roskell 1975) He founded monasteries for the most zealous orders: Celestines, Bridgettines and Carthusians (Dockray 2007; Seward 1987; Taylor and Roskell 1975). He has been described as “Messianic”, (Dockray 2007; Mortimer 2009), believing he was divinely ordained as the servant of God, with full divine approval for his actions, (Dockray 2007). Thus, his every deed was moved by God: his will was God’s will and his war against the French was God’s war and the ensuing victories were God’s victory. So fervent was his belief that he had been blessed by God he fought in the front line at Agincourt because God protected him (Mortimer 2009) As he stated: “I am the scourge of God sent to punish the people of God for their sins” (Dockray 2007, p.222). This may also explains the atrocities he commited. His persecution of the Lollards, who followed the teachings of John Wycliffe (Hudson 1988; Lutton 2006; Rex 2002), resulted from his intolerance of religious dissent (Dockray 2007). His slaughter of the prisoners at Agincourt (1415) and the savage reprisals against the inhabitants and defenders of Caen (1417), Rouen, (1418), Pontoise (1419), Rougement (1421) and Meaux (1422) were punishments authorised by God. Henry cited the “Law of Deuteronomy”, as justification for his behaviour towards besieged towns in his own correspondence (Taylor and Roskell 1975): “When you march up to attack a city, make its people an offer of peace. If they accept and open their gates, all the people in it shall be subject to forced labour and shall work for you. If they refuse to make peace and they engage you in battle, lay siege to that city.


When the lord your God delivers it into your hand, put to the sword all the men in it. As for the women, the children, the livestock and everything else in the city, you may take these as plunder for yourselves. And you may use the plunder the LORD your God gives you from your enemies.” (Deuteronomy 20:10-14) His acquired chasteness has also been linked to his religious fervour. His friends claimed he never took a mistress or slept with a woman after becoming King until he married Catherine of Valois in June 1420 and fathered only one child, Henry, (1421-1471), taking no mistresses or siring any illegitimate children, (Dockray 2007; Kingsford 1911; Mortimer 2009). Mortimer (2009) attributes these contrasts and the enigmas of Henry’s character to his upbringing; however, they may result from the injury he suffered at the Battle of Shrewsbury in 1403. THE BATTLE OF SHREWSBURY (1403) AND THE WOUNDING OF PRINCE HENRY On Saturday 21 July 1403 the armies of King Henry IV and the rebel Henry Percy met in battle just north of the town of Shrewsbury. The royal forces were victorious, (Priestley 1979), but during the battle Prince Henry was wounded in the face by an arrow while leading a cavalry charge. Despite the severity of the wound, he continued to fight on refusing to leave, demanding, according to one of his chroniclers, Tito Livio: “Lead me, thus wounded, to the front line so that I may, as a prince should, kindle our fighting men with deeds not words” (Dockray 2007 p.85). Henry IV’s surgeon, John Bradmore, treated the wound. He described it as: “…smetyn in the face be syd the nose on the lefte syd with an arrow the wyche sayd arrow entryd overwharte and after the schafte was takyn owt and the hede ther of a bod styll in the hyndyr parte of a bone of the hede after the mesur of vj ynche” (p.129, Lang 2003) Cole and Lang (2003) translate this as: “…[the arrow] struck in the face with an arrow beside the nose on the left side, which arrow entered from the side , and the said arrow, after the arrow was extracted, remained in the back part of the bone of the head six inches deep.” (Cole and Lang 2003, p.95). Strickland and Hardy (2005) as: “…[the arrow] entered at an angle (ex traverso), and after the arrow shaft was extracted, the head of the aforesaid arrow remained in the furthermost part of the bon e of the skull for the depth of six inches.(p.284) To Cole and Lang (2003) the arrow was embedded in the interior bone of the skulls posterior. Pollard and Oliver (2002) describe the arrow as being “lodged in a bone behind the nose” (p.45), although this differs from Bradmore’s description. The arrowhead was left imbedded in the skull and Bradmore invented a set of tongs to remove the arrowhead, (recreated by Hector Cole: Cole and Lang 2003) (below)


(Photograph by Jo Homfray)

According to Cole and Lang (2003): “…it is just possible for an arrow to enter beside the nose and lodge at the back of the head without causing immediate death or lasting disability, but the margin of error either way is extremely small, and the Prince was clearly very fortunate indeed to survive the wound.” (Cole and Lang 2003 p.96) THE WOUND: The injury Henry received would be classed today as a “penetrating head trauma caused by a missile”. This is a wound in which a projectile breaches the skull but does not exit it, (an injury in which the projectile passes entirely though the head, leaving both entrance and exit wounds, is described as “perforating”), (Vinas and Pilitsis 2006). Patients with penetrating wounds have a greater survival rate than those with perforating wounds, (Aarabi 1999). In a missile wound, the amount of damage to the brain depends on numerous factors including: The kinetic energy imparted The trajectory of the missile and bone fragments through the brain Intracranial pressure changes at the moment of impact Secondary mechanisms of injury, (infection caused by the penetrating missile or shards of bone) (Vinas and Pilitsis 2009) Injury is related to: The direct crush injury produced by the missile The cavitation produced by the centrifugal effects of the missile on organ tissue The shock waves produced (Vinas and Pilitsis 2009) Due to Bradmore’s account we know that Henry was struck in the face some where beside the nose on the left side, the arrow entering from the side with the arrowhead remaining in the posterior interior of the skull at a depth of six inches (Cole and Lang 2003; Lang 2003; Strickland and Hardy 2005). Unfortunately, there are number of unknown variables: The rate the arrow was travelling at when it struck Henry. The trajectory of the arrow when it struck, (did it come from the left or right side?) The exact location where the arrow penetrated Henry’s face. The trajectory of the arrow through the skull. The exact location where the arrowhead was imbedded in the skull’s interior. The length of time before the arrowhead was removed, (Henry was transported to Kenilworth Castle after the battle, yet how long it was before the arrow was removed is unknown and Bradmore was not the first physician to attempt to remove the arrow, Lang 2003). A variety of arrowheads were in use during this period, (Jessop 1996), but Bradmore refers to the arrow as a “bod” (p.129, Lang 2003) or bodkin. This was an arrow head used to penetrate armour and maille, (Strickland and Hardy 2005). The remains of bodkin arrowheads have been found at the site of the battle (Pollard and Oliver 2002).


The rate the arrow was travelling at when it struck Henry is unknown. Stretton (2006) found when shot from a yew war-bow with a draw weight of 144 pounds (65.3 kg), an arrow with a bodkin head weighing 86 grams (1,324 grains), travelling at 47.9 m (157 ft) per second has a kinetic energy of 99 joules. The draw weight is defined as the amount of force, expressed as a weight, which needs to be applied to the string in order to 2 bend the strung bow to its full extent. The formula for calculating kinetic energy: 1/2mv = Mass (kg) x 2 Velocity 2 A fragment or missile striking a vital area with a kinetic energy of 80 joules or more is considered a fatal blow, (Health and Safety Executive 2002). An arrowhead travelling at this rate is capable of penetrating armour 1.6mm thick to a depth of 7.62cm (3 in), (Stretton 2006). Should the target be moving towards the archer, as in the case of a mounted knight, then the bodkin can penetrate a further 2.54 -5.08 cm (1-2 in), (Stretton 2006). However, the caviation and shock wave damage would be far less than those caused by bullets, (Davies and Harbinson 2002). The injuries inflicted by medieval arrow wounds have been documented (Fiorato et al 2000; Karger et al 2001; Thordeman 2001). It is not recorded whether Henry lost consciousness. It appears he did not as he was able to continue fighting, (Dockray 2007). This may indicate that the penetrating arrow had ricocheted and its speed and kinetic energy had substantially decreased. There is also no record of any impairment immediately or after treatment. He was also fortunate in the medical care he received. The arrow head was left in place, patients in whom the penetrating object is left in place have a significantly lower mortality than those in whom the objects are inserted and then removed (26% versus 11% respectively), (Vinas and Pilitsis 2009). The wound was also treated with honey. Research has shown that honey has antibacterial properties and promotes tissue healing and blood vessel formation, (Dunford et al 2000ab; Dunford 2005; Simon et al 2009). However, despite Cole and Lang’s (2003) assertion that Henry was fortunate to have escaped without lasting disability, Henry may not have escaped entirely unscathed, as his later behaviours are indicative of temporal lobe impairment. PERSONALITY CHANGES AS RESULT OF LEFT TEMPORAL LOBE DAMAGE The temporal lobes are areas of he cerebral cortex, located on both the left and right hemispheres of the brain, (below).

Impairment affecting temporal areas tends to leave intellectual functions intact while causing alterations in personality (Blumer and Benson 1975). Left temporal lobe damage produces a number of effects: Altered sexual behaviour: Increase or decrease in libido (Blumer, 1975; Blumer and Walker, 1975; Geschwind ,1975, 1979; Kolb & Wishaw, 1990)


Extreme, heightened sense of religiosity with augmented sense of personal destiny (Bear and Fedio, 1977; Blumer, 1975; Geschwind 1975, 1979) Extreme morality and ethical concerns: Bear and Fedio, 1977; Blumer, 1975; Geschwind 1975, 1979) Paranoia and aggressive rages (Blumer and Benson 1975; Geschwind ,1975, 1979; Kolb & Wishaw, 1990) Sudden Mood Changes (Bear and Fedio, 1977; Blumer, 1975; Geschwind 1975, 1979) Deepened Emotional Response: (Bear and Fedio, 1977; Geschwind 1975, 1979) Humourlessness (Bear and Fedio, 1977; Blumer, 1975) All of these are prominent in Henry’s character and behaviour: the disinterest in sex; the extreme religious and messianic beliefs and behaviours; the deeply held moral and ethical beliefs; the cold, severe humourlessness; the feared aggressive and violent rages which would swiftly appear. It may explain his change from a “…fervent soldier of venus” (p.21, Dockray 2007) into“… another man, zealous for honesty, modesty and gravity” (Thomas Walshingham in Dockray 2007, p.23). However, it is unlikely such a transformation occurred as soon as he was crowned as believed by his chroniclers. The observable impairments may have commenced several years earlier. In 1408, an Oxford academic, Richard Ullerston, noted Henry’s desire for spiritual study and knowledge of the scriptures, (Dockray 2007). By 1409, there were problems developing between Henry and his father, King Henry IV, as Prince Henry launched an attempted coup and in 1412 when Prince Henry had to be restrained from seizing his father’s throne by force, (Dockray 2007; Mortimer 2007; Seward, 1987). While there appeared to be no immediate impairment after being wounded, it is possible that an abscess on the left temporal lobe may have caused such impairment. Patients who survive penetrating head injuries are at risk of experiencing multiple complications, including infections and abscesses from bone or missile fragments imbedded in the brain, (Vinas and Pilitsis 2006). Brain abscess can occur after a long period of silent infection. Hida et al (1978) reported a case of delayed brain abscess following a penetrating gunshot injury 38 years after the injury; Pencek and Burchiel (1986), 15 years after an injury and Lee and Kim (2000) 47 years after. Thus it is feasible that Henry could also have experienced similar damage either from a fragment from the arrow or fragment of bone. This also may indicate a possible trajectory through the skull: not coming in contact with the brain, but passing close to the left temporal lobe from the entry point in the left half of the face. There are obvious problems in formulating a hypothesis concerning the personality and behaviour of a major historical figure. In this instance, not only is there a lack of archaeological evidence but there is also a deficit of contemporary accounts regarding Henry’s life. The only contemporary accounts of Henry’s life which survive are the anonymous “Gesta Henrici Quinti” (c.1416) (Taylor and Roskell 1975), Thomas of Elham’s “Liber Meticus de Henrico Quinto” (“Memorials of Henry V”) (Cole 1858) and Thomas Walsingham’s "Ypodigma Neustriae”(Riley 1876). Later works copied them and modern historians place their own interpretations upon them. Further, such original works can be regarded as being propaganda as can later works, which created a medieval superman much removed from reality: “…the ideal Englishman: plucky and persevering, austere and audacious, cool-headed, stiff-lipped and effortlessly superior: simply the greatest man, ever to rule England” (Fernandez-Armesto 2009). For example, stories of Henry’s wild, misspent youth and his dramatic conversion at his coronation into a sober and righteous King were written long after his reign was over and have become accepted as historical because of Shakespeare, (Barker 2005). Dockray (2007) concludes that there is no evidence of wild behaviour, or at least for a sudden change when he was crowned, although to Curry (2005) “The stories of a misspent youth have never been proven, but neither have they been disproved” (p.30). The aim of this article has been an attempt to forward a possible explanation for the puzzles surrounding Henry’s character and behaviour, albeit based on the limited information possessed. However, while such information is limited and the conclusion controversial, is it merely coincidence that many of his behaviours match the characteristics that are symptomatic of injuries to the left temporal lobe? References


-Aarabi B. (1999) History of the management of craniocerebral wounds. In: Aarabi B, Kaufman HH, Dagi TF, George ED, Levy ML, (eds.) Missile Wounds of the Head and Neck. Vol 1. Park Ridge, Ill: American Association of Neurological Surgeons. -Barker, J. (2005) Agincourt: The King, the campaign, the battle. London: Little Brown. --- (2009) Conquest: The English Kingdom of France 1417-1450. London: Little Brown. - Bear, D. and Fedio, P. (1977) Quantitative analysis of interictal behaviour in temporal lobe epilepsy. Archives of Neurology, 34, 454-67 - Blumer, D. (1975) Temporal lobe epilepsy and its psychiatric significance. In: In D. Benson and D. Blumer, eds. Psychiatric Aspects of Neurologic Disease. New York: Grune & Stratton. - Blumer, D., & Benson, D.( 1975) Personality changes with frontal and temporal lobe lesions. In D. Benson and D. Blumer, (eds.) Psychiatric Aspects of Neurologic Disease. New York: Grune & Stratton. - Cole, C. A.(ed.) (1858) Thomas,of Elmham ,Memorials of Henry the Fifth, King of England. London : Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, and Roberts - Cole H and Lang T. (2003) "The Treating of Prince Henry's Arrow Wound, 1403" in Journal of the Society of Archer Antiquaries, 46, 95-101. - Curry A. (2000) Henry V: A life and reign. In A. Curry (ed.) Agincourt 1415. Tempus: Gloucestershire - --. (2005) Agincourt – a new history. Tempus: Gloucestershire de Viriville, V. (ed) (1858) Chronique de Charles VII, roi de France. Paris. - Davies, J. and Harbinson, M. (2002) Military Surgery 1300-1600. Bristol: Stuart Press. - Dockray, K. (2007) Warrior King: The life of Henry V. Gloucestershire: Tempus - Dunford C (2005) The use of honey-derived dressings to promote effective wound management. Professional Nurse, 20(8): 35-8 - Dunford C, Cooper R, Molan P(2000a) Using honey as a dressing for infected skin lesions, Nursing Times. 96(14 Suppl):7-9. - Dunford C, Cooper R, Molan P, White R., (2000b) The use of honey in wound management. Nursing Standard. 15(11) 63-8. Fernandez-Armesto,F. (2009) The Myth of Henry V (http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/middle_ages/henry_v_01.shtml) - Fiorato, V, Boylston, A., and Knusel, C. (2000) Blood Red Roses: The Archaeology of a Mass Grave from the Battle of Towton, AD 1461. London: Oxbow Books - Geschwind, N. (1975) The clinical setting of aggression in temporal lobe epilepsy in Fields, W.S and Sweet W.H. (eds.) The Neurobiology of Violence. St. Louis, Warren H. Green - -- (1979) Behavioural Changes in temporal lobe epilepsy. Psychological Medicine, 9, 217-19 -Hardy, W, (ed) (1868) Jehan de Waurin Recueil des croniques et anchiennes istories de la Grant Bretaigne, a present nomme Engleterre.1399 to 1422. London: Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer. -Health and Safety Executive (2002) Controlling risks around explosives stores. London: HMSO - Hearne, T. (ed.) (1727) Vita et Gesta Henrici Quinti . Kessinger Publishing - Hida K, Tsuda E, and Sato H. (1978) Brain abscess discovered 38 years after head injury. No Shinkei Geka, 6(8), 811-3. - Hudson, Anne. (1988) The Premature Reformation: Wycliffite Texts and Lollard History. Oxford: Clarendon Press, - Jessop, O. (1996) A new artefact typology for the study of medieval arrowheads. Medieval Archaeology, 40, 192-205. - June-Ho Lee, and Dong Gyu Kim (2000) Brain abscess related to metal fragments 47 years after head injury. Journal of Neurosurgery, 93(3), 477-479 - Karger B, Sudhues H, Brinkmann B,(2001) "Arrow Wounds: Major Stimulus in the History of Surgery" In World Journal of Surgery, 25, pp.1550-1555. -Kingsford, C. L. (ed)( 1911) The first English life of King Henry the Fifth, written in 1513 by an anonymous author . Oxford : Clarendon Press. -Lang, S.J. (1992) John Bradmore and His book Philomena, Social History of Medicine, 5(1), 121-30. - Lutton, R. (2006) Lollardy and Orthodox Religion in Pre-Reformation England Woodbridge and Suffolk, U.K.: Boydell and Brewer. - McFarlane, K.N.(1936) “England : The Lancastrian Kings 1399-1461: Cambridge Medieval History Vol.III. Cambridge. - McGlynn, S. (2008) By Sword and Fire: Cruelty and Attrocity in Medieval Warfare. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.


- Mortimer, I. (2007) The Fears of Henry IV: The Life of England's Self-Made King. London: Cape. -- (2009) 1415: Henry V’s year of Glory. London: Bodley Head. - Pencek, T.L. and Burchiel, K.J. (1986) Delayed brain abscess related to a retained foreign body with culture of Clostridium bifermentans. Journal of Neurosurgery, 64(5), 813-815 - Pollard, T. and Oliver ,N. (2002) Two Men in a Trench. London: Michael Joseph - Priestly, E.J. (1979) Battle of Shrewsbury, 1403. Shrewsbury: Shrewsbury Museums Service. - Riley, H.T, (ed.) (1876), Ypodigma neustriae a Thoma Walsingham, quondam monacho monasterii S. Albani conscriptum. London : Longman - Richard, R (2002) The Lollards: Social History in Perspective. New York: Palgrave - Seward, D. (1987) Henry V as Warlord. London: Penguin - Shakespeare, W. (2010) Henry V. London: Penguin Classics. - Simon A, Traynor K, Santos K, Blaser G, Bode U, Molan P. (2009) Medical honey for wound care--still the 'latest resort'? Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 6(2):165-73 - Stretton, M. (2006) Experimental tests with different types of medieval arrowheads. In D.H.Soar (ed.) Secrets of the English Warbow. Yardley: Westholme. - Strickland S and Hardy R, The Great Warbow, Sutton, 2005, pp 284-5. - Taylor, F. and Roskell, J.S. (eds) (1975) Gesta Henrici Quinti : the deeds of Henry the Fifth Oxford : Clarendon Press, - Thordeman, B. (2001) Armour from the Battle of Wisby. Chivalry Bookshelf - Vinas, F.C. and Pilitsis,J. (2009) Penetrating Head Trauma. (http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/247664overview) (Biography: Re-enactor and academic by nature, Kevin Goodman appears regularly at venues across the country delivering presentations and demonstrations on Medieval Medicine and Surgery. His article on Historic aspects of medicine can be found in “Adventures in Archaeology: Past Horizons Magazine”: http://calameo.com/books/0000627296b9a5eb2153b)

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Competition One A few more weeks to win a book by John Vitch V! ―Turning Back The Clock‖ There is no question for this prize, simply email me with your full postal address stating that you would like to be entered into this competition and I will enter you into the prize draw. For more information about this book, just scan down a couple of pages and you‘ll find out all the details of this book. John has the book sat upon his desk and he will gladly sign or dedicate the book to the lucky winner. The competition will run until June 15th 2010.

Competition Two Black Earth, End of the innocence David N. Alderman Copyright © 2009 by David N. Alderman

To be in with a chance of winning this book by David Alderman, just check out his website and answer this simple question: Q. What is the name of the upcoming sequel to Black Earth: End of the Innocence? Website: http://www.davidnalderman.com Just email me with your answer and full postal address before July 15th and you will be entered into the draw to receive a signed/dedicated copy of this book. Note: There is an extract from this book within The Re-Enactor this month!

I would like to extend my gratitude to both John Vitch V and David Alderman for their support of this ezine and the offer of the books.


Black Earth, End of the innocence

Book Description:

On the evening of his high school graduation, Nathan Pierce collapses on stage. Plagued with visions of a strange girl intent on killing herself, he wonders if his mental instability is a consequence of the deadly car accident he was in days earlier.

Heather Rhodes, wracked with guilt because of the fatal wreck, finds she is unable to forgive herself and begins to question her own beliefs. While the death of a newborn weighs on her heart, on her mind is the strange gift she was able to use to protect her and Nathan in the accident…a gift that Heather wonders may have just been a figment of her imagination.

Cynthia Ruin, aka The Pink Rabbit, decides that her high school graduation night should be used for partying, not traveling down the football field. At a nightclub in Scottsdale, Cynthia finds more than she bargains for when a stranger from her past decides to exact his revenge on her for a prior rejection.

Nathan, Heather, and Cynthia come to realize that their current problems are nothing compared to the stars falling from the sky. During the global crisis, the President of the United States makes it her personal mission to keep the country on the right track to becoming a world superpower, while a hostile entity known only as Absolute threatens her administration.

Meanwhile, word starts to spread that the falling stars may not be stars at all...


Web site: www.johnfitchv.com

Fitchburg author rights a terrible sporting wrong in time travel novel Just picture it for a second: Babe Ruth was never traded from the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees, and the 1919 World Series wasn‘t thrown by the Chicago White Sox. Then, in a bit of irony, Ruth is swapped for Shoeless Joe Jackson and Buck Weaver. Could it have happened? That‘s the gist of Fitchburg, Massachusetts author John Fitch V‘s newest novel, Turning Back The Clock, released in October 2009. Fitch has chosen the print-on-demand imprint CreateSpace, a division of Amazon.com, as the publisher. The alternative history novel is originally set in October 2003, just after the Red Sox lose the American League Championship Series to the Yankees. But protagonist Greg Patterson, as he goes to sleep on that dreaded night, has a vision of going through time and changing the fortunes of Red Sox Nation. As he begins his research the next day, he finds that two of the greatest scandals in the history of baseball – the Sale of Babe Ruth and the Black Sox Scandal – could be linked together. Greg and his friend, Brandon Roy, then embark on a time traveling journey that must be kept secret: No one must know what they are trying to do, for if they fail the mission, the status quo – the Yankees continuing to dominate the Red Sox – would continue. Turning Back The Clock has a little bit of everything for every reader – sports and adventure for the guys, a little love story for the girls – and is a must have for any Red Sox fan that wanted the team to prevail before 2004.

You want some fun facts about Turning Back The Clock? Well, here you go. Fitch wrote the first draft of TBTC during a five-week period between the first week of December 2006 and the first week of January 2007. He averaged about 5,000 words per day on the project. His final word count for the first draft checked in at about 102,000 words; he ended up cutting about 1,000 words total, or about 2-3 pages in Microsoft Word. At 307 pages, TBTC is Fitch‘s longest novel to date, not counting the 586-page compilation he released in 2008. While writing the bulk of the scenes involving the 1919 World Series, Fitch watched the movie Eight Men Out repeatedly in order to be as accurate as possible. In the end, he deleted portions of text that included dialogue from the movie. In addition, he found a web site dedicated to Crosley Field, home of the Cincinnati Reds during the 1919 World Series, which gave him plenty of material to work with. Incidentally,


the manager of the Reds that year was a man named Pat Moran, who was born and raised in Fitchburg, Mass. – ironically the same city where Fitch was born and raised. The present day portion of the novel was based on Fitch‘s hometown of Fitchburg. The prologue was set in Slattery‘s Front Room, where Fitch watched Game Seven of the 2003 American League Championship Series. Depot Square in the heart of the city is also mentioned, as well as Leominster Hospital in neighboring Leominster, Mass. When he was researching the novel, Fitch spent several hours trying to figure out how the old telephone exchange system with switchboards worked, calling many different phone companies to see if they had information on the subject, or if they could point him in the right direction. He was finally able to find information through the Massachusetts Historical Society. The telephone exchange system was in use in the early 20th century; it still is in the minds of those who know the old Big Band hit ―PEnnsylvania 6-5000‖ by the Glenn Miller Band.


Hello and welcome to the online home of Clock to Clock Armed Forces Support March 2010. We are currently enlisted Territorial Army Soldiers primarily from C Company 6 Battalion, The Rifles. Based in and around Dorchester and Poole in Dorset. Like many we are horrified about how Soldiers, nay Heroes fare upon return from life threatening operations around the world, and like many we want to help but don't know how, so we called a pub talk. We take pride in our Armed forces as much as we do our own fitness so when we were talking and drinking too much I jested about marching from Exmouth to Weymouth along the coast to keep or fitness up and raise money for our servicemen and women that serve overseas, the boys said it‘s a great idea, so here it is and it‘s for everyone to have a go, anyone may join us, as we will march in our own time as civilians, with civilians like you. We will march 53 miles over two days, June 12th and 13th along the South West Coast Path from Exmouth Town Clock to Weymouth Town Clock, hence the name "Clock to Clock". For route and admin details see 'About Us' and 'Arrival' section. We will be doing this march as civilians apart from our reserve duties. We think it is the least we can do stand by our servicemen and women serving overseas and help people like you that want to offer their support those that went before. It‘s our way of supporting them, as some of us may never have the honour to serve alongside them.

Fund Management by Kevin Hale of the Undentable trust.


We are proud to announce that the Undentable Trust will manage our funds on our behalf. This charity was established to commemorate the life of Rifleman Captain Mark Hale RIP and has gone from strength to strength in fund raising for forces charities and by sheer jolly luck exactly the same three as we have chosen below. http://www.theundentabletrust.co.uk/Ă‚ click on 'challenges' and then 'clock to clock'

The Charities we wish to benefit are as follows; The Royal British Legion- For the Veterans.

As we will be one day. The Legions across the country are being forgotten and Ă‚ we wish to spread the word that they are for all servicemen and Women, and their families, for life and beyond. We chose 'The Legion' as our prime cause as they not only support the local communities around them, they filter funding down to many other causes that can often be overlooked.

The Rifles Benevolent Fund-For the Families


Of those of our seven Rifles regiments, five of whom serve overseas. It seems everyday that another Rifleman has fallen, that is only the beginning of the battle for the families left without them. Also it is an all too common story to read about yet another Soldier who has seen active duty and come back to his home country battle scarred and even to a broken home, to live on the streets like a pauper when most often they are heroes, but deep down they are still people just like you and me. We all know that home is where the heart is. This charity is a wing of comfort, support and fraternity to our families while they are gone, and if we never return we know they will have the benevolence of The Rifles Charities.

Help for Heroes-For the wounded.

It is highly commendable the work of this volunteer organisation that has in just a few short years raised the profile of our nations armed forces in the public eye to such a level that almost nowhere and from nobody is there scorn towards our service personnel, only thanks and praise. We owe them a great debt of gratitude, we wish to honour them as they do us. With your support we will March! Join us! Swift and Bold. Rifleman Luke Du Laic.


The Battle of Mortimer‘s Cross C1461 September 18th & 19th 2010 The Wharf Field, Main A49, Leominster, Herefordshire, UK An annual recreation of this Wars of The Roses Battle, between the houses of York and Lancaster. The Battle of Mortimer‘s Cross was originally fought on February 2nd 1461 in Herefordshire between the forces of the 18 year old Edward, Earl of March and Owen Tudor. Owen Tudor had been on route to join the rest of the Lancastrian army when he was stopped by Edward at Mortimer‘s Cross.

Come and join us: Battle Re-Enactment including archery in large arena Living history encampment Medieval traders Beer tent Food stalls Entertainment including medieval dancing and a barber surgeon!

All authentic groups are welcome, traders too! (reasonable pitch fees) Check out the website for more details Separate plastic camp site, water on site, toilets, wood for fires

www.mortimerscross.co.uk


Cilgerran Castle is a mainly 13th century castle situated on the northern most point in Pembrokeshire, west Wales overlooking the river Teifi. It is best known for the abduction of Princess Nest in 1109 when her husband, Gerald of Windsor, unceremoniously escaped capture by escaping down a latrine shaft. Its origins are still uncertain but we know that the great William Marshal, first Earl of Pembroke captured the castle from the Welsh in 1204 and in 1223, his son, William the younger , began building the impressive towers which still dominate the site. The site changed hands many times over its Welsh/Norman history but eventually fell into disuse in the 1500s and became one of the first tourist sites in Britain when visitors would row up the river Teifi to gaze upon its ‗romantic ruins‘. The site is owned by the National Trust and managed by Cadw who regularly hold events at the site throughout the year including several re-enactments covering the many periods of history that have passed since its building. The site is well-suited to re-enactments due to the ‗amphitheatre‘ effect of the towers and curtains wall which still surround the grassed Inner Ward whilst the Outer Ward provides a great base camp for living history and demonstrations. We are very keen to offer as many ‗hands-on‘ activities as possible and are currently building up a collection of dressing up clothes and other living history items to enhance the visitor experience. If any groups have some items that they would kindly donate to the site then it would be greatly appreciated. We are especially looking for children‘s clothes that maybe your children have grown out of or that they have lost interest in! Or clothes that you will be replacing in the coming season! The site can be contacted by email cilgerran@btinternet.com or telephone 01239 621339. You can also find us on Facebook.


Westernbedarf Halang – history tents and more The handicraft business ―Westernbedarf Halang― is working since 1990 for adventurer, fans of camping and outdoor, personalities who enjoy the special kind of freedom and free time experiences and for friends of historical groups who like to empathise authentically the life of past adventures in their free time. Over the past years our tent factory has developed into one of the leading producers of historic tents at home and abroad. Our specialities are true to original tepees, military-tents, baroque-tents and historic tents of different ages of the contemporary history. The basis of our tent constructions are traditional sources. But we design and produce also tents for travelling horsemen and other mobile persons, lodges as well as original tarpaulins as protection against sun and wind. We use solely high quality fabric. The fabric is equipped especially for our climatic conditions so that a long durability is guaranteed. The wood is knocked down in our local forests. We set a high value on historical documented clothing and equipment for the re-enactment of historical events. If desired we sew chaps and western clothing of fine deerskin according to the standard of the Indians and trappers as well as we bind leathern bull and riding crops. The personal background of Eva-Maria and Hartmut Halang helps to realise the business concept. Long before the foundation of the handicraft business ―Westernbedarf Halang― Eva-Maria and Hartmut Halang dealed quite intensive with the history of the natives and the settlement of the North American continent as well as the historical documented re-enactment of the past ages. They sewed their first tepee after original documents of the Sioux-Indians, designed and tailored clothes and uniforms for hobby Indians and settlers after authentic documents. From leather they made chaps and western clothing after the role model of the Indians and trappers. Leathern bull and riding crops were bound. Halangs and their friends looked after their hobby, to re-enact the American history, with a lot of love of detail. This year we will supply the Battle of Waterloo with our tents. This takes place on 18th – 20th of June. It is a great possibility for showing our tents and participate at one of the most spectacular events of the year. Over the past years we have also participated at the Living History Fair in Warwick, which is a great event for meeting new people, who are interested in Re-enactment and more. We will attend at the History Fair also in October 2010, if you like to meet us!

Contact: www.halang.de

www.history-tent.eu

tel . : 0049 3731213580


Events Listing 15th May until 21st August: feu d artifice en mer, golfe du lion http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=113416475368185 17th May until 29th June: Medieval Rose Festival 2010 - Castle Fayres, Rhodes. http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=119037108110872 29th May The Queen's Tale: Margaret of Anjou, York, UK http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=124378534258501

June 2010 1st -6th The Knights of Royal England at Leeds Castle, Kent, UK www.knightsroyal.co.uk 4th – 7th Pencampwr 2010, Wandi, Western Australia http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=336376266428 5th & 6th Ealdfaeder at Sutton Hoo, near Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK For information contact: pete@gippeswic.demon.co.uk 5th & 6th Torneo Medioevale di Combattimento ® di Milano, Italy http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=119066458124016 5th & 6th De Quaeye Werelt anno 1477, Sterckshof, Deurne, Antwerp, Belgium http://www.facebook.com/l/79d80;www.delegendevzw.be/ 5th & 6th The MSS at Weald Country Park, Essex, UK For information: http://www.medieval-seige-society.co.uk 5th & 6th Templecombe Medieval fayre, Templecombe, Dorset, UK 5th & 6th Taverne Medievale de Dourdan, Dourdan http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=111471575549327 5th & 6th Medievales de Neauphie-le-Chateau, Neauphie-le-Chateau http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=123335851014591 10th Sista Chansen att se ―Sista Rycket‖, Sodra Teatern http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=116226918412160 10th 453 Anniversario Fondazione Citta‘ Di Massa, Massa http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=117223961651072 10th Convivio Rinascimentale – Cena A Pallazzo, Massa, Italy http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=121599171195656 11th An evening of Egyptian Music and Dance, Chester, UK http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=375134741765 12th Encuentro Con Mio Cid XII Edicion, El Poyo del Cid Teruel Espana http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=278872408260 12th & 13th The Knights of Royal England at Royal Gunpowder Mills, Essex, UK www.knightsroyal.co.uk


12th & 13th Tournoi de Joute a pied de Provins 2010, France http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=106281349402181 12th & 13th Fifth Annula Battle of Mace‘s Hole, Colorado, USA http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=108870579140869 12th & 13th Animations et Ateliers Medievaux, France http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=110714075624772 12th & 13th Les 27 Medievales de Provins 2010, Provins(77), France http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=202832923593&n= 12th & 13th Forrest‘s Great Escape, Parker‘s Crossroads, TN, USA http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=122177087798204 12th – 14th Guild Combat Weekend Invitation, 5 Schofield Rd, Wyee, New South Wales, Australia For Information: http://www.swordguild.com/pdf/Guild-invite_to-June-2010.pdf 18th – 20th The Knights of Royal England at Cardiff Castle, Wales www.knightsroyal.co.uk 19th & 20th Tatton Park, UK Contact: plantychrisb@yahoo.co.uk 19th & 20th Artifest at Museum of Indian Culture, 2825 Fish Hatchery Rd, Allentown, PA, USA http://artifest.intuitwebsites.com/ 25th, 26th & 27th Chatteris Historic Festival, Chatteris, Cambridgeshire, UK For information contact: thebeardeddragon30@hotmail.com 26th Animations et Ateliers Medievaux, Ferrette (88), France http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=102694079772465 th

th

26 & 27 Tourneo Nazionale LAM + Giullari in Festival, San Leo http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=319911802765 26th & 27th The Knights of Royal England at Ruthin Castle, Wales www.knightsroyal.co.uk 26th & 27th The Winslowshire Festival, Winslowshire animal sanctuary, 37 Eddy St, Norton, MA, USA See more details and RSVP on RenaissancePerformers: http://renaissanceperformers.ning.com/events/event/show?id=2212446%3AEvent%3A5017&xgi=5SBQFRLZc2bLIZ&xg_so urce=msg_invite_event

20th June until 31st August: Camp Chantier Patrimoine-Chateau fort de Guise. http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=119346998088002 22nd June until 31st August: L‘Archange Saint-Michel, Presence dans L‘Histoire Exhibit, Dol-de-Bretagne (35) http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=119994071366989

July 2010 2nd – 4th ISCAR Medieval, Valladolid, Spain http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=105599409474637&n= 3rd & 4th The Knights of Royal England at Linlithgow Palace nr Edinburgh, Scotland www.knightsroyal.co.uk


3rd & 4th Chetwynd Medieval Fair. Commemorating an actual historical market and Chetwynd, Shropshire in1318. The current location is at Shropshire Lavender http://www.shropshirelavender.co.uk 3rd &4th Dorset Medieval Festival, Winterbourne Came, Dorchester, Dorset, UK http://www.dorsetmedievalfestival.co.uk/ 3rd & 4th Fete et marcher medieval, Chateau d‘helecine, Belgium http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=318225612880 9th – 11th Tournoi de Franche-Comte 2010, Moncley (Besancon-25), France http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=377227486349&n= 9th – 11th Celtival 2010, Villa Wassermann, Giavera del Montello (TV) http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=119012884790739 9th – 11th Tournoi international de chevalerie de Franche-Comté http://tournoi.franchecomte.free.fr 10th & 11th The Knights of Royal England at Linlithgow Palace nr Edinburgh, Scotland www.knightsroyal.co.uk 10th & 11th Abbey Medieval Tournament, Caboolture, Australia http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=374015126574 10th & 11th Tewkesbury Medieval Festival, Tewkesbury, UK www.tewkesburymedievalfestival.org/ 10th & 11th Fonmon Castle, Fonmon, Rhoose, Barry, Wales http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=110029069031955 10th & 11th Romans Live, Ribchester Roman Re-Enactments, Ribchester, uk http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=142209745905 13th – 18th Viking Market in Gudvangen http://www.facebook.com/gudvangen 15th – 17th The Battle Tradionaly of Grunwald (1410-2010) at Grunwald, Poland http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=358736576231&n= 17th & 18th MSS at Royal Gunpowder Mills, UK For information: http://www.medieval-seige-society.co.uk 17th & 18th The Knights of Royal England at Hever Castle, Kent, UK www.knightsroyal.co.uk 17th & 18th Kelmarsh Hall, Northamptonshire, UK Multi-Period event 17th & 18th Tournoi International de Combat Medieval, Laroque http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=123313331027411 17th & 18th Ealdfaeder at Sutton Hoo near Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK For information contact: pete@gippeswic.demon.co.uk 23rd – 24th The Knights of Royal Engalnd at Hever Castle, Kent, UK www.knightsroyal.co.uk 24th & 25th Berkeley Castle Skirmish, Gloucestershire, UK www.berkeley-castle.com/reenactments.php


24th & 25th Coracles & Castles, Cilgerran Castle, Pembrokeshire, Wales http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=111450295534065&n= 24th & 25th The Battle of Azincourt, France www.azincourt-alliance.org.uk 24th & 25th MSS at Appuldurcombe House, Ventnor, Isle of Wight, UK For information: http://www.medieval-seige-society.co.uk 31st & 1st The Knights of Royal England at Hever Castle, Kent, UK www.knightsroyal.co.uk 31st & 1st The Tournament of Walraversijde, Oostende, Belgium http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=152000491459 31st & 1st Ealdfaeder at Sutton Hoo near Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK For information contact: pete@gippeswic.demon.co.uk

August 2010 6th – 8th The Knights of Royal England at Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire, UK www.knightsroyal.co.uk 7th & 8th Midlands History Festival at Stratford Armouries, Stratford, UK http://www.stratfordarmouries.co.uk 7th & 8th Feathers & Flights, Cilgerran Castle, Pembrokeshire, Wales http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=103269639709469&n= 7th & 8th De fer et de feu, Rebecq, Belgium http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=316716813226 7th & 8th Military & Flying Machines Show, Daymns Hall Aerodrome, Upminster, Essex http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=291940703278&n= 14th Belton House National Trust WW2 RAF event, Lincolnshire, UK http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=338066422154 13th – 15th The Knights of Royal England at Hever Castle, Kent, uk www.knightsroyal.co.uk 14th & 15th Spetchley Park-Multi-period event, Worcester, UK www.lhiw.org.uk 14th & 15th Lincoln Castle, Lincoln, UK For information contact: plantychrisb@yahoo.co.uk 14th & 15th Aarschot 1489 – editie 2010, Domein Elzenhof http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=296931636114&n= 14th & 15th Ealdfaeder at Sutton Hoo near Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK For information contact: pete@gippeswic.demon.co.uk 14th & 15th Barnas Viking Festival, Trondenes/Harstad http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=445461745236&n_= 14th & 15th MSS at Bodium Castle, Sussex, UK For information: http://www.medieval-seige-society.co.uk


21st & 22nd Scotlands Festival of History, The Royal Borough of Lanark, UK http://www.scotlandsfestivalofhistory.co.uk 21st & 22nd The Knights of Royal England at Hever Castle, Kent, UK www.knightsroyal.co.uk 22nd Fete Medievale De L‘Alpe D‘Huez, France http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=105661962798645 25th – 29th Invitational European Championship Horsens 2010, Denmark http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=106580086045154 27th & 28th The Knights of Royal England at Hever Castle, Kent, UK www.knightsroyal.co.uk 28th – 30th Herstmonceaux Medieval Festival, Herstmonceaux Castle, East Sussex, UK 28th – 30th Military Odyssy, Kent Show Ground, Detling, Kent, UK. http://www.military-odyssey.com/ 28th – 30th Medieval Spectacular at Pensthorpe Park, Fakenham, Norfolk http://www.blackknighthistorical.co.uk 29th & 30th The Knights of Royal England at Hedingham Castle, Essex, UK www.knightsroyal.co.uk 28th – 29th September 10 Jahre mim IG Mensch im Mittelalter e.V (63165 Mulheim am Main) http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=273595664687 28th – 30th The 6th Medieval Spectacular Festival, Pensthorpe, Norfolk, UK http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=375662809571&n=

September 2010 4th & 5th Campaign of La Boissiere-Ecole 1815 The village of La Boissiere-Ecole situated 17km west of Rambouillet near Paris 5th The Knights of Royal England at Knebworth House, Hertfordshire, UK www.knightsroyal.co.uk 11th & 12th Early Medieval Alliance (EMA) event at Caldicot Castle, Wales, UK 11th & 12th MSS at Battle of Edgecote & Tournament Spectacular, Chipping Warden, Banbury, UK For information: http://www.medieval-seige-society.co.uk 11th & 12th Caldicot 2010, Caldicot Castle, Wales, UK http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=344037991340 18th & 19th The Battle of Mortimer‘s Cross (C1461) Main A49 1 Mile North of Leominster, Herefordshire, UK For information: http://www.mortimerscross.co.uk 18th & 19th The Knights of Royal England at Leeds Castle, Kent, UK www.knightsroyal.co.uk 25th & 26th The 17th International Napoleonic Fair 2010 www.internationalnapoleonicfair.co.uk


October 2nd & 3rd Fete Medievale des Vendages, Pierrevert (04860) France http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=106808456027168 16th & 17th The Norfolk Living History Fayre, Mannington Hall, Norfolk, UK http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=343838790024 17th MSS Autumn Clout Shoot, Bodium Castle, Sussex, UK For information: http://www.medieval-seige-society.co.uk 29th-31st The Living History Fair, Warwickshire Exhibition Centre, UK http://www.livinghistoryfairs.com/ 30th & 31st Medieval Fair & Market, Tutbury Castle, Staffordshire, UK Contact: david.smith34@ntlworld.com

November 27th & 28th Ludlow Castle Medieval Christmas fair, Ludlow, Shropshire, UK Craft fair, medieval traders, combat, have a go archery http://www.ludlowcastle.com/

December 12th MSS Christmas Clout Shoot at Bodium Castle, Sussex, UK For information: http://www.medieval-seige-society.co.uk


Ty Mawr medieval hall celebrates 550 years with events and documentary Ty Mawr near Castle Caereinon, Powys celebrates its 550th anniversary this year with special weekend events and a television documentary. The largest restored medieval aisled hall in Wales will open its doors to visitors the first weekend of every month from June to September with a costumed guided tour and medieval living history displays in the grounds, including 15th century cooking, crafts and archery. Open from 11 am to 4 pm the day offers a unique insight into life in medieval Wales and is supported by the local heritage group ‗History Matters‘ and reenactors from the ‗Montgomery Levy‘ living history society. June the 5th and 6th sees them host a visit from members of the William Stanley‘s Household, whose members from throughout the UK will help to transport the visitors back to the life and times of the mid 15th Century. Free car parking with toilets facilities and light refreshments available, disabled access on request and tickets are £6 for adults, children £3 and concessions £4. Ty Mawr will feature in a documentary as the octogenarian Dr. Peter Smith (formerly of the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historic Monuments of Wales) visited Ty Mawr in April for S4C‘s filming of the ‗Houses of the Welsh Countryside‘ produced to celebrate the reprinting of this landmark publication. The first episode is the medieval hall house and features Ty Mawr described by Dr Smith as his most spectacular discovery. The hall whose timbers date from 1460 was identified in 1972 and restored by Cadw and the Powis estates in 1998 , winning the prestigious building of the year award in 2000 from the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors. The documentary makers spent two days filming at Ty Mawr, which will be shown later this year and features interviews with the Chairman of the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historic Monuments of Wales Dr Eurwyn Wiliam. Support History Matters for free when shopping online with over 2000 popular retailers. http://www.easyfundraising.org.uk/historymatters Raise funds for History Matters when you search the Web with easysearch - the best results in one simple search. http://historymatters.easysearch.org.uk


Paul Remfry will be having his latest book published later this year! Medieaval Battles, 1055 to 1295 www.castles99.ukprint.com The Re-Enactor will have a signed copy to give away in a competition as soon as the book is available.


Step back in time 600 years for the ultimate Medieval experience at Bewl Water! Where entertainment & education blend seamlessly into one. Located just 10 miles from Tunbridge Wells, Kent, Bewl Water offers tranquil green meadows as well as a stunningly beautiful Lakeside surroundings. On the weekend of August 14th & 15th, 2010, Bewl Water will be transformed into a slice of 15th Century England with the full panoply of medieval life on display. Don't miss challenging Medieval combat in glittering steel armour on foot in a Fight Arena - cheer on your favorite warrior and boo the villains. Fighters wearing Gothic, Milanese and various examples of 15th Century cuirass will be knocking Seven Bells out of one another with a variety of weapons including Medieval Poleaxes, Flails (ball on chains), Flambards - 4ft long swords - bills, glaives and spears The ground will also be thumping and thundering with the beat of 14 medieval warhorses as the armoured Jousters do their best to unseat one another in an afternoon of competition and rivalry. Enjoy the Have-A-Go Archery and take in the sights, sounds and smells of Medieval Living History, cookery, crafts and woodwork. This is an opportunity to Meet The Ancestors - real-live Medieval folk in fully accurate Medieval costumes who can answer all your questions about Life in the Past. There will be coin-minting displays where you can punch out your Medieval pewter coins - plus a chance to poke through the contents of a replica Medieval Toilet complete with rats and archaeological finds! As you wander through the Medieval Encampment Village don't miss the opportunity to try on some of the vast range of replica body armour we have on display, heft the weapons, look at what they can do - you will be closely supervised so you cannot use them on anybody. You can even spend your modern money shopping at stalls belonging to Historic Traders - 15-20 of the UK's top artisan-traders and dealers in reenactment artefacts will be here. Beer, food and refreshments will be freely available onsite. Showers & full camping facilities - both authentic and plastic available to all participating re-enators. FIrewood SUPPLIED. Come for the day or stay for the weekend - it's up to you! Altogether you and your family can enjoy a BEWLiful day! Free entry to participating re-enactors. Please arrange this by emailing: Mrsjo@aol.com


Black Earth: End of the Innocence Excerpt…

Falling Her shimmering white hair flowed in waves behind her, as if the strands were banners that were moving with the rhythm of the dark wind. It was too much for one person to handle, immortal or human. The air felt dead around her, the chilly night whipping at her with intense prejudice, as if its single desire was for her to die, and die horribly at that. The feeling of hopelessness was now threatening to consume her whole being, and so she would allow it, if she could. But nothing would be able to consume her this night. Nothing seemed able to rescue her from this internal agony. She peered over the edge of the skyscraper, taking in the busy city below. Vehicles of different shapes and sizes were milling around the grid of streets. They all looked like blurry, chunky dots in her tear-filled eyes. She wiped the liquid drops from the corners of her pupils as they transformed into crimson flower petals and were swept away with the wind to start the long trek down toward the hapless beings below. She cupped her fragile, trembling hands over her face and took a deep breath. The smell of roses filled her senses with a sudden beauty that made her heart smile slightly. So, it has all come to this, she thought. This is the end. The end of this beautiful planet. The end of everyone‘s life on it. Hopefully the end of my own life. She glanced down at her wrists, the red scars fresh in her skin, the incident mostly fresh in her mind. Trying to kill herself with the razors hadn‘t worked. She rubbed her neck, which was still slightly sore from trying to hang herself. Even throwing herself in front of that semi hadn‘t worked. She glanced down at her bare knee and scanned the bruise for a moment, not surprised that it was almost completely healed. A violent gust of wind swept through, chilling the skin underneath her short, white dress. She wrapped her arms around herself, shaking her head. I can‘t do this! ―I can‘t do it!‖ She sobbed, falling to her knees there on the roof of the tallest building in Phoenix as flower petals swept across the space in front of her with manic intensity. Her mind flashed back to clips of her evil mother, Evanescence, or the Great Witch, as she had heard some call her. She was a breed of evil that the world, this world anyway, had never seen. She had given birth to Pearl, but that was where the connection to the two ended, at least in Pearl‘s mind. Pearl had been born at the ripe age of eighteen. Nobody else on Earth had been born at such an age, and she quickly reminded herself that this was indeed Earth. This wasn‘t Heaven and it wasn‘t Hell…yet, anyway. It was about to be hell on Earth, and she didn‘t want to be here for that. She didn‘t want to see the slaughter, the fire and brimstone, the end of the world. The end of this world. The visions she had in her mind of the ways those on Earth were going to perish were gruesome and morbid, and had prompted her to try and end her life, unsuccessfully. She didn‘t know if she could be killed by another, but even if she could, she didn‘t want to put that guilt on anyone else. Neither did she want to die by her mother‘s own enchanted hands. She knew the witch would torture her, listen to her own daughter squeal with erratic horror just before ripping her tender heart out. This is why Pearl had to do what she was setting out to do. She had to escape this horrible planet. She wanted to be with her father. She wanted to go home. She wiped the blur from her eyes and peered off the edge of the building again. The end was so near. What better time to meet her creator? Before the whole planet became swallowed in


darkness, she could go be with the one who had actually formed her, despite what her mother tried to make her believe. She stepped up to the edge, the wind threatening to knock her off balance. She certainly didn‘t want to tumble down the side of the building. That would be painful. She wanted a quick, easy way out. A way out of my responsibilities? Perhaps. But staying here was not an option at the moment. Not with what she knew was about to occur on this poor planet. This poor, defenseless planet. They don‘t stand a chance. She heard a loud bell ring in the distance. She listened for a moment, keeping her balance on the ledge, until she was able to count eight chimes in all. She then closed her eyes and tipped her body forward. For a long moment, she felt herself caught in a gust of air, as if she was flying. The feeling was spectacular, but then the tremendous pull of gravity yanked at her dress, at her skin, at her very soul, and beckoned her toward the streets below. As she fell, she smiled at the thought of being in Heaven tonight. Her face swept through some of the rose petals she had cried earlier as their floral scent added a beautiful irony to her coming death. The sounds of the streets grew louder and louder. Someone shouted something about her falling through the air. Then the noise ceased altogether…

Chapter 1 Thursday, May 22, 2008 - 8:01 p.m. Gilbert High School Graduation Ceremony Gilbert, Arizona Nathan‘s eyes opened. Massive pain coursed through the wound in his forehead. Noise crept into his senses, and he suddenly realized where he was. He scrambled to move his arms, legs, even his hands. People were pulling him up, standing him to his feet too quickly for his brain to catch up. The blurriness left his eyes and the whole graduating class came into focus. Hundreds of seniors in their black and gold gowns were staring, gasping, standing in awe of his collapse. The teachers who were holding him up helped him to take a seat in one of the folding chairs on the stage reserved for the faculty themselves. He bent his head down into his hands and tried to come back to reality. The girl…and the building ledge…and the darkness—it was all too real. As if he was there. As if he was the girl. Okay, that‘s disturbing. ―It‘s okay, folks. It looks like Nathan Pierce is going to be alright.‖ He turned his head and saw Principal Carter at the podium. He was smiling at the audience with intense nervousness. He adjusted his blue tie. ―We‘ll have medical personnel take a look at Mr. Pierce to make sure he‘s doing okay, and then we will continue with the names.‖ One of the teachers, one Nathan didn‘t recognize, walked over and handed him his rolled-up graduation certificate. ―You dropped this.‖ He took it from her, and that‘s when he noticed his hand shaking uncontrollably. His eyes met those of the aging woman, and he found himself staring into her eyes for a moment—her calm, blue eyes. He wondered if he knew her from somewhere, somewhere other than school. ―Take heart, Nathan. You have been chosen for something great.‖ ―What?‖ Her gaze suddenly shifted behind him. He turned to follow it and spotted two paramedics approaching the stage. The female of the two moved in on Nathan as he turned back and saw


that the teacher with the calm eyes was nowhere in sight. A cold stethoscope was slipped down his black gown and buttoned shirt, pressed cold to his chest. He shivered with the chill of the metal. ―My name is Janelle.‖ Then she motioned to the other paramedic who was opening up a large black case to the side of them. ―This is my partner, Michael.‖ Michael smiled and pulled a small flashlight from the case, shining it into Nathan‘s eyes. ―Looks a little glazed.‖ The woman glared at Nathan while she listened to his heartbeat. ―It‘s important that you be honest with me, okay?‖ He nodded. ―Have you taken any drugs today at all?‖ He shook his head slowly. Drugs? She continued glaring at him but spoke to her partner. ―Elevated heart rate.‖ He took his turn to glower at Nathan now. Nathan found he had to turn away from the both of them, as if he was actually guilty of something. Janelle held onto his arm. ―Are you experiencing any pain?‖ ―My head hurts.‖ She reached up and pulled his forehead toward her as she gently moved his brown bangs out of the way and peeled back a black bandage, revealing a stitched gash that was still healing. ―Where did this come from?‖ Michael nudged her arm. ―He was the one in the paper. The one I told you about.‖ Her gaze went soft and she replaced the bandage with nimble fingers. ―Sorry.‖ Nathan tried to smile, but it came off as more of a grimace. ―It‘s okay.‖ They dumped their tools into the trauma bag and stood to their feet. ―Take it easy, okay? Don‘t do anything overactive tonight. Just enjoy your graduation, and then go home and rest. That cut is still a long way from healing.‖ He nodded. ―Yeah.‖ They left him there. He looked out as the crowd began to seat themselves again, commotion stirring in the football field as everyone started chatting with each other. He could hear some of the students laughing in the midst and it made him feel embarrassed. How could he have passed out in front of the whole Gilbert High School senior class? Stupid. ―Now, now. The paramedics have cleared Nathan, so we will continue with the ceremony.‖ The names were being called again. Nathan sat in his chair, burying his aching temples in his hands as his mind replayed his vision over and over again. Who was this strange girl who kept showing up in his thoughts when he passed out? What was her name? Where did she come from? The pain in his head was agonizing, and he found himself wishing he would pass out again so he wouldn‘t have to feel it. The hammering made it to where he could barely open his eyes to watch the next set of students approach the stage and grab their diplomas, some sneaking glances at the now infamous boy who had collapsed on stage the night of their high school graduation. ********** Pine Shadows Christian Summer Camp Hume, California Heather tried her hardest to worship and not think about the accident. She kept her eyes closed and didn‘t bother with thoughts of those who were around her. She focused all of her concentration on God, on singing her heart out to him.


Your mercy stirs my heart to sing, a melody I was taught in creation’s womb… Heather‘s voice, though, only merged with the sounds she already had echoing through her head: the sound of crunching metal, of shattering glass, of chaotic destruction. These things were louder than the rest of the camp attendees who were singing the song. Though the stars fall to the earth, and darkness plagues the land, Your love will remain… The memory of the newborn being crushed in the metal jaws of that vehicle almost made her throat lurch. She took a deep breath and raised her hands above her head, determined to worship. She had gone the last couple days without letting the accident affect her on an uncontrollable level, but now the music was playing, fiddling with her very soul. She felt guilt coating her heart like a can of spilled motor oil. She wanted to worship her God so badly, but it was so difficult with this guilt, with this memory, with this burden. The flowers of the field will sing Your praise, and all the world will dance for You… The burns on her face started to feel warm. She knew it was the heat from the bonfire in front of her, but the idea of the fire alone was enough to send a shudder of fear through her body. She hated fire more than anything in the world, and being this close to one that the camp personnel had put together was a little too close for comfort. She continued to worship, continued to try focusing on the one thing that mattered, but it was pointless. Her mind and heart were outweighing her soul with grief and anxiety and fear. Her eyes shot open and she found herself shoving past Kari Preen and Evelyn Sun on her way to the back of the crowd. As eyes turned on her in curiosity and general concern, she rushed toward the back of the circular clearing to the small gravel pathway. The cool forest air hit her like a sack of campy potpourri, the scents of the pine trees and the bonfire sweeping across her. She started in a fast walk toward the forest area, hoping to find some privacy. The last thing she needed was one of the nosy adult counselors, or worse, Ryan, poking into business that wasn‘t theirs. The trees rustled their massive pine branches, knocking needles and cones to the forest floor. It was almost as if they were dancing to the music, worshiping God in their own uncanny way. She remembered a Bible verse from her childhood, something about the rocks singing out to God. She pulled a small flashlight from her pocket and shined it around her, finding a nice clearing near the edge of the first line of trees. She took a seat on a massive log and suddenly found herself struggling to hold back the tears. She didn‘t feel like she should be allowed to participate in the worship services, let alone hear the songs. She felt like a freak, one whom God himself didn‘t want anything to do with. She had done her fair share of crying over the last week and wanted to do it no more. She was tired, still having nightmares of the horrible car crash, of the newborn who was now dead. Why would God want to take someone out of this world so soon? Why would he allow something so heinous to happen to someone so small, defenseless and innocent? And why in the world would God allow Heather herself to have performed the act, to have steered their car into the other vehicle? To commit an act of murder? She had asked herself these questions many, many times already and only wanted to shut her mind off now. It was time to try and move on, but she didn‘t feel like she could. Only she knew what had really happened. When her vehicle had hit the SUV with the mother and child on board, something had released from Heather, something definitely not of this world. A strange shield had gone up over her and Nathan and had protected them from the accident,


had at least protected them from getting killed. He ended up with a wound to the head and she wound up with these airbag burns that covered a third of her face. She touched part of the wound, feeling the irregularities in her skin that were scarring over. She held her hands out in front of her and stared at them for a long moment, wondering what powers they held. Was it magic? If not, then was it an alien power? There were no such things as aliens, right? If it wasn‘t magic or an alien power, than what was it? Had it been her imagination? No! If it was her imagination, then she and Nathan, along with that crazy driving instructor, would all be dead right now. The rest of the camp was ringing out in a more upbeat song now, one that she liked to consider one of her favorites. She listened to the chorus for a moment, trying her best to worship in her own little way, in her own little corner of the forest. You, oh Lord, give me light to battle the shadows, You, oh Lord, give me healing with the pain, You, oh Lord, give me shelter in the storm, Oh Lord, I live to give glory to your name! She turned her hands over and stared some more. She had tried a couple times in secret to release the protective shield again, but had had no luck. She wondered if it had been a onetime gift from God to protect her and Nathan. Then why wouldn‘t he allow her to protect the ones in the other car as well? The newborn deserved to live far more than any of them, in her opinion anyway. And that innocent mother…she didn‘t deserve this horrible curse, did she? Her heart sank at the thought that, despite the topic of the song, there was no shelter for her, there was no healing, and there was no light to help her fight the internal shadows she struggled with. The singing stopped. She readjusted the chopsticks in her chignon and started walking back toward the camp, flashlight in hand. She made her way around a patch of poison oak, her thoughts wandering to Nathan. She missed him. Little did he know how she felt about him. It was something she was heavily regretting while she was this far from him. Her foot snagged a rock and she fell toward the ground, but before she hit the dirt, a bright violet light appeared from her hands, stopping her freefall. She quickly pushed herself off of it and stood to her feet, stumbling back in surprise as it disappeared into a thin purple mist. She stared down at her palms again. There was nothing unusual there. Was it her imagination? Was there something in the air causing her to hallucinate? No, she hadn‘t hallucinated in the car accident. She knew that for a fact. She took a deep breath and exhaled it slowly, making her way toward the camp again. She focused her gaze down toward her palms and tried to imagine the shield appearing before her, but nothing came from such a frivolous activity. She reached the campground as a large crowd of teenagers piled out of the bonfire area. That was her queue that it was dinner time. A young boy, Heather‘s age with curly black hair and a chubby face, made his way toward her with a confused look. He was wearing a white shirt that said, ―Allergic to stupid people.‖ Heather rolled her eyes. ―Hey, why did you leave in the middle of worship? You almost knocked Kari over on your way out.‖ She shrugged. ―I just had to get some fresh air, Ryan, that‘s all.‖ He eyed her suspiciously. ―Something wrong?‖ They started walking side by side toward the cafeteria. Ryan reached over and grasped Heather‘s fingers in his. She yanked them away and then pulled her hands into the sleeves of her brown hoodie.


―I‘m fine! Don‘t worry about it. I just had to clear my mind of some things.‖ ―Like what?‖ ―Don‘t worry about it. It‘s personal.‖ He kicked a small pebble. It bounced along the road in front of them and hit a young girl in the ankle. She swung around, cast him a scowl, and then jogged ahead to catch up with her friends. ―Why is everything personal with you?‖ ―What are you talking about?‖ ―I get the feeling that you just don‘t trust me.‖ ―Ryan, I really don‘t feel like talking about this right now, okay? Can I just have dinner in peace, please? I have a lot on my mind, especially with the car accident, and I don‘t really feel like talking about it. Not just to you, but to anyone.‖ He nodded. ―The accident, huh? I forgot about that.‖She sighed. Of course you forgot about that, she thought, you forget about everything unless it pertains to you. ―It‘s just not something I‘m ready to talk about yet.‖ ―I understand. You probably feel self-conscious about your burns, huh?‖ ―What?‖ ―You know. The burns on your face.‖ ―Yes, I know about the burns on my face. What do you mean I‘m self-conscious about them?‖ ―Well, I mean if I had burns that bad on my face, I would feel a little embarrassed around people too. It‘s nothing to be ashamed of. I mean, I respect you for not wanting to bandage them up. They‘re kinda like battle wounds, know what I mean?‖ Heather shook her head, marching ahead of him. ―What? What did I say?‖

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The Re-enactor issue 18 PDF