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The Re-Enactor Issue 17, May 2010

The Battle of Nations

136 Groups listed 123 Traders Listed 103 Events Listed

Readership 792


Greetings all Welcome to issue 17

A huge thank you to everyone that contributes to this ezine, it would not still be going if it wasn’t for your input. If anyone has anything they would like to let the rest of the reenactment world know about then please do get in contact with me.

A new book competition this month with a difference as it’s not about reenactment.

Still a few weeks to go to win 1 of the 3 CD’s up for grabs in the

latest competition as well as a

I am still after more groups, traders and events so please pass on any details. I also want more readers so start spreading the word!

Features This Month 1: Battle of Nations 2: Competitions 3: Author: John Fitch V 4: Grand National contest of The Old West 5: Vedan Kolod-Group Profile 6: The Battle of Mortimer‟s Cross (Invite) 7: Military and Flying Machines Show 8: Conversion of Britain by Tavia Minnich 9: Event Listings 10: Bewl Water Event

Contact: jason.okeefe@btopenworld.com http://thereenactor.webs.com Thank you to all those that are supporting this magazine, without your support I could not continue to produce the magazine. Please do keep sending me your articles, stories, pictures and details.


… 4 countries, 4 national teams, 4 armies and only one battle… BATTLE OF THE NATIONS! The first international medieval historical reenactment festival “Battle of the Nations” will take place in the spring 2010 and will become the largest such event not only for Ukraine, but also for Europe, with nothing remotely like it, anywhere else in the world. You may not be interested in history. You may not like realistic battle scenes or be keen on weapons. Even if you are not a big fan of sport championships, the historical reenactment of the Middle Ages cannot leave you indifferent. “Battle of the Nations” is for you! The concept of “Battle of the Nations” differs from everything which was earlier – there is nothing remotely similar to this event. In the ancient Khotyn fortress of Western Ukraine, behind centuries-old walls, the reality of those harsh times will be clear. You will see massed full-contact battles between national teams of fighter, and the best of the best will be defined. They will create a new history. A history of the new victories and heroic deeds! The Ukraine, Russia, Poland and Belorussia national teams were formed out of the most professional and experienced fighters. These men practice medieval full-contact fights and will gather in the medieval castle of the X-XVIII cent. More than 50 medieval historical reenactment clubs will be conducted, and the teams will challenge each other in fierce battles, plunging themselves, and you, into the times of armor, courage and heroes. At Khotyn fortress, memories of bygone days will live again – real martial encampments, customs and everyday life of the Middle Ages, authentic medieval arms and armor made by modern armorers, historical costumes and so on. Real victories and defeats, not just staged battles, no scripts and no theatre sketches! Full contact – sparks of steel, crackle of shields and glittering swords – your adrenaline will explode! The atmosphere of the struggle, spirit of the Middle Ages and action on the battleground will leave no one indifferent. There will be various cultural-sport activities, original master classes in medieval arms and armor manufacturing, medieval soldiering training, courses in medieval dancing, archery, competitions and concerts, as well as fire-shows and theatre performances. The festival activities are intended to arouse a lively interest in medieval martial art and to revive interest and excitement in a unique and new kind of sport. See how the air sparkles with tension when armies clash on the battlefield. Feel the energy of medieval battles! Get participated in the new world sport which is being born about your ears! www.battleofthenations.com.ua


Competition One I have 3 CD‟s to give away in this brand new competition, 3 lucky winners will each receive one of the CD‟s. To be in with a chance of winning one of the 3 CD‟s just answer this simple Question: The Groups name is Vedan Kolod: What is the English Translation? Send me an email with your answer and your full postal address to the usual email address. The competition will run until May 15th 2010 The competition is free to enter, no purchase required and I will post the CD‟S out to wherever you live in the world!

Competition Two A brand new competition this month, it‟s a chance to win a book by John Vitch V! “Turning Back The Clock” See the next page for some more information about the author and the book in question. Just send me an email telling me that you would like to be entered into the competition, it‟s as simple as that! John has the book sat upon his desk and he will gladly sign or dedicate the book to the lucky winner. The competition will run until June 15th 2010

I would like to extend my gratitudeto John Vith V and Vedan Kolod for their support of this ezine and the offer of the book and CD’s.


Web site: www.johnfitchv.com

Fitchburg author rights a terrible sporting wrong in time travel novel Just picture it for a second: Babe Ruth was never traded from the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees, and the 1919 World Series wasn‟t thrown by the Chicago White Sox. Then, in a bit of irony, Ruth is swapped for Shoeless Joe Jackson and Buck Weaver. Could it have happened? That‟s the gist of Fitchburg, Massachusetts author John Fitch V‟s newest novel, Turning Back The Clock, released in October 2009. Fitch has chosen the print-on-demand imprint CreateSpace, a division of Amazon.com, as the publisher. The alternative history novel is originally set in October 2003, just after the Red Sox lose the American League Championship Series to the Yankees. But protagonist Greg Patterson, as he goes to sleep on that dreaded night, has a vision of going through time and changing the fortunes of Red Sox Nation. As he begins his research the next day, he finds that two of the greatest scandals in the history of baseball – the Sale of Babe Ruth and the Black Sox Scandal – could be linked together. Greg and his friend, Brandon Roy, then embark on a time traveling journey that must be kept secret: No one must know what they are trying to do, for if they fail the mission, the status quo – the Yankees continuing to dominate the Red Sox – would continue. Turning Back The Clock has a little bit of everything for every reader – sports and adventure for the guys, a little love story for the girls – and is a must have for any Red Sox fan that wanted the team to prevail before 2004.

You want some fun facts about Turning Back The Clock? Well, here you go. Fitch wrote the first draft of TBTC during a five-week period between the first week of December 2006 and the first week of January 2007. He averaged about 5,000 words per day on the project. His final word count for the first draft checked in at about 102,000 words; he ended up cutting about 1,000 words total, or about 2-3 pages in Microsoft Word. At 307 pages, TBTC is Fitch‟s longest novel to date, not counting the 586-page compilation he released in 2008. While writing the bulk of the scenes involving the 1919 World Series, Fitch watched the movie Eight Men Out repeatedly in order to be as accurate as possible. In the end, he deleted portions of text that included dialogue from the movie. In addition, he found a web site dedicated to Crosley Field, home of the Cincinnati Reds during the 1919 World Series, which gave him plenty of material to work with. Incidentally,


the manager of the Reds that year was a man named Pat Moran, who was born and raised in Fitchburg, Mass. – ironically the same city where Fitch was born and raised. The present day portion of the novel was based on Fitch‟s hometown of Fitchburg. The prologue was set in Slattery‟s Front Room, where Fitch watched Game Seven of the 2003 American League Championship Series. Depot Square in the heart of the city is also mentioned, as well as Leominster Hospital in neighboring Leominster, Mass. When he was researching the novel, Fitch spent several hours trying to figure out how the old telephone exchange system with switchboards worked, calling many different phone companies to see if they had information on the subject, or if they could point him in the right direction. He was finally able to find information through the Massachusetts Historical Society. The telephone exchange system was in use in the early 20th century; it still is in the minds of those who know the old Big Band hit “PEnnsylvania 6-5000” by the Glenn Miller Band.


Grand National Competition of the “Old West”…. Gold Strike Hotel & Gambling Hall Jean Nevada. No. 1 Main Street, Jean, Nevada 89019 Hold this date, April 30th, May 1st and 2nd, 2010. Get your Stage tickets, gather up the wagons, pull out the buckboard, hop the old Union Pacific, saddle up your horse. Head‟em up move‟em out. Find out how the real Las Vegas was started.... Long before the flashing lights, the Marquees, and the big name draws. That‟s right The Reenactment Guild of America and Gold Strike Hotel & Gambling Hall want to offer you a big HOWDEEEEEEE.... and welcome you …..to the first Southwest gathering of the “Old West“, Jean Nevada Style. Sponsored by the California, Nevada and National Reenactment Guild of America. This event holds the promise that the streets of Old Jean , Nevada will have you stepping back to the years of days passed. Gunfighters, Chuck Wagons, Native Americans….Teepees‟ and all. Living History Encampments, Mountain Men, the Yankees and Johnny Reb, Florence Nightingale, along with the Southern Belles, Gold Panning, Black Smithing. Music pouring out of the old saloon, Gunfighters looking to boast of being the fastest draw with Fast Draw Competitions, along with Wild West Shows and Buffalo Bill, Medicine Men and traveling Mercantile vendors, selling the wares of period clothing, and tonics to heal your woes. Dance Hall Girls, sporting girls, proper ladies, school marms, your mail order brides, cowpokes, wranglers, working cowboys, Indians, Buffalo Soldiers and the folks that made up the old west, the likes you haven‟t seen gathered in a old west working town, especially in this part of the southwest. Real Gold Panning and Historical Displays: The Monty Laird Memorial Saloon Shootout For A Championship Belt Buckle and awards: Wagon Camps: Mountainman Camps: Cowboy Camps: Civil War Camps: Working Gattling Gun Display: Beard and Moustache Contest: Sunday 1880's Fashon Show: And So Much More, Bring The Whole Family To The Greatest Living History Event Ever Heald in the State of Nevada. Along with the colorful old west sitting that pulls you back to the simpler ways of life, we will offer you the story of the very beginning of the Las Vegas Era. How it really began, who the founding fathers were and how it all came about all along the "Mormon Trail", how the Union Pacific became involved, the land deals, the pioneers who encountered all the hardships of the old west and how they survived this harsh, rugged country and built a life and new beginnings the way of the Wild, Wild West. Living history and period correctness will play a big part of this venue and we ask that you will become part of our event and we do encourage you to partake in the activities, dress the part of an old west character, walk in their footsteps, step back in time and along with this hands on experience, the


Reenactment Guild of America and the Gold Strike Hotel & Gambling Hall will present the 2010 Grand National Competition of the “Old West”. Not only in this competition you may win bragging rights, but you also stand to walk away with some carpetbags full of money. Gunfight Competition 1st Place $1500.00, 2nd Place $900.00 and 3rd Place $500.00 Along with a very intriguing , unusual Remembrance of the occasion. Entry fee $75.00. This is a two day event, you will need two skits and a tie breaker for this competition. Living History Competition lst Place $400.00, 2nd Place $200.00 and 3rd Place, $100.00. Entry fee $15.00. Encampment Competition 1st Place $800.00, 2nd Place $300.00 and 3rd Place, $200.00. Entry fee $20.00. Non competition encampment is free. Costume Contest Period Correct Attire Lawdog, Gunfighter, Townsman, Townswoman, Working Cowboy, Sporting Lady/Madame, Children Under 18 Male and Female, Specialty. And a (New Category) 50‟s Cowboy/Cowgirl Hollywood Style. This category you need to do your homework, strictly based upon how the Saturday Matinee Stars dressed. Entry Fee $5.00 . Break down of categories and description will be posted on website. Vendors Fees for Event 3 Day Event, Set up on Thursday. Fee $125.00 Dry camping will be provided on premises Accommodations Gold Strike Hotel and Gambling Hall wishes to welcome all reenactors to this gathering and will offer reduced room rates for your stay while attending this event Reservations are Still available. The Gold Strike will be hosting this event in their Casino right along side the Old West gathering. The activities don‟t stop when the sun sets in the West. Their doors will be open and activities will continue indoors at the Gold Strike Gambling Hall. Watch for the old west movie stars, you just might be surprised who will be walking the streets of the old west with You. Viva Las Vegas only 20 minutes down the road Contacts for Event: Lester P. Larceny 760 252-3693 e-mail santafedrifters@hotmail.com Ambassador of Good Will MollybDam e-mail mollyboutlaw@hotmail.com California State Director rgamerica.org website for RGA - Watch for the posting of: Applications, Entry Forms, Vendor Forms. Informational items regarding event. www.rgamerica.org/gn.htm


SLAVIC ETHNO-BAND “VEDAN KOLOD” «Vedan Kolod! Your music is really full of Slavonic spirit, respect of tradition and Slavonic culture. When a man is listening your music on the forest clearing even in the deep melancholy, your music cheering up and rising spirit like a musical anaesthetic. When a man is traveling along in the forest and in his ears plays your musical magic, he has a feeling like he is back to the ancient times, times of ancestries and he‟s walking on paths, where ancestries walked and lived. All the nature and the world which is dead now born again with your music. Slava for you!» – Dmitrii Pochinski (Poland) Slavic ethno-band Vedan Kolod (meaning „Prophetic tree‟) was created in 2005 in Siberia, Russia, by Tatyana Naryshkina. Already in July of 2005 Vedan Kolod won the prize as the best Russian folk band in the International World Music Festival Ustuu-Huree. “Vedan Kolod” in it‟s creative work gives clear root in an ancient tradition and based on the last investigations and analysis of archaeologists and folklore specialists, music of ancient and pagan Russia before Christian‟s coming. “Vedan Kolod” shows the culture of original Russian traditions and songs in author‟s acoustic working. During the time of its existence, “Vedan Kolod” had revived numerous almost forgotten Russian Folk instruments – gusli, okarina, Slavonic drums, Scythian horn, sharkuncy and other, - restored and reconstructed by musical Master Valerii Naryshkin. All this ancient kinds of instruments are used actually in a program of band, as a low throat style of singing which is existed in native for Siberian musicians Siberia. All songs played without any electronic processing just live sound. Slavonic ethno-band "Vedan Kolod" has in its repertoire tradition folk songs, author‟s songs, stylized as folklore with real historical and legend material. Members: Tatyana Naryshkina – group leader. Main vocal, plays flutes, Slavonic drums, ocarina, fuyara, vargan and others. Valerii Naryshkin – musical instrument maker, on vocals, two kinds of gusli, Scythian horn, ocarina, Slavonic drums, vargan, zhaleika, Slav bagpipe, fuyara, gudok and others Daryana Antipova – Art-manager, on vocal, Slavonic big and small drums, fuyara, sharkuncy Polina Lisitsa – Slavonic small drum, vocal, lozhki, sharkuncy, flutes, vargan. Album "Tribes" (2005)

"The dance of the wood spirits" (2007)

Wolf's path" (2008)


The Battle of Mortimer‟s Cross C1461 September 18th & 19th 2010 The Wharf Field, Main A49, Leominster, Herefordshire, UK An annual recreation of this Wars of The Roses Battle, between the houses of York and Lancaster. The Battle of Mortimer‟s Cross was originally fought on February 2nd 1461 in Herefordshire between the forces of the 18 year old Edward, Earl of March and Owen Tudor. Owen Tudor had been on route to join the rest of the Lancastrian army when he was stopped by Edward at Mortimer‟s Cross.

Come and join us: Battle Re-Enactment including archery in large arena Living history encampment Medieval traders Beer tent Food stalls Entertainment including medieval dancing and a barber surgeon!

All authentic groups are welcome, traders too! (reasonable pitch fees) Check out the website for more details Separate plastic camp site, water on site, toilets, wood for fires

www.mortimerscross.co.uk


Tavia Minnich

Conversion of Britain The Pagan religion contributed many elements to the Christian religions after the conversion of Great Britain. The churches used traditions of the Pagans to blend them into Christianity. During the next generations, the old religion that was converted became something that society condemned. The fear of witchcraft and other pagan beliefs started a massive panic, the Witch Craze. The persecution of Pagans would have not existed if Christianity remembered the origins of many of the Pagan traditions and beliefs taken during the conversion process. Churches and political leaders gave stigmas that have remained since the conversion in many churches. Christian leaders and political leaders made remarks on the supposed devil worship of the witches, and governments also played a big role later on in history with the Witch Craze.i The writing of Hugh Trevor-Roper gives a great explanation of things that must be done by historians to write on the subject of witchcraft. Hugh Trevor-Roper wrote about the persecution in his essay “The European Witch-craze of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries.” The article discusses the history of persecution with institutional and cultural environment attributes.ii Historians are looking at the inter-community relations and the social values of the time. They believe that earlier historians let their own opinions change the writings and not look at social and psychological beliefs of witchcraft. The changes in scholarly thought have found new interpretations to the evaluation of documents and relevancy of topics to history.iii Europe consisted of many religions with different beliefs and traditions. Paganism involves many types of groups and practices. This paper will draw heavily into just one pagan religion, witchcraft. The term “witch” has many definitions and beliefs. In early modern Europe, a witch was an ancient sorcerer. In Germany, sorcerer and witch were called “Zauber” and “Hexe.” In French areas the witches were given the name “sorcier,” that derives from the Latin term “maleficus.” The village magicians that existed in the Medieval Ages sold love potions and charms. They practiced primarily “magic” for good and not evil. The townspeople believed in their magic that gave them “demonic” help (27). The townspeople would have physical and psychological effects from the “medication” given to them. The magician then became accused as being harmful and poisoning the recipient (27). The belief in magic did exist in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and was seen as a cure to ailments. However, the practices and customs of the old religions have no evidence before Christianity. William Chaney stated this in his article with the following: “Although no Anglo-Saxon work gives us full information on pre-Christian religion in England, almost no poem from before the Norman Conquest, no matter how Christian its theme, is not steeped in it, and the evidences for pagan survivals and their integration into the new faith go beyond even the literary sources.” iv The stories are only legends and superstitions not all are proven factual. v The converters were often instructed to use Pagan temples and sacred things for Christian churches and beliefs. This was first told by the Pope Gregory the Great to Augustine. Later is found said to Abbot Mellitus. Abbot Mellitus was told to convert the Pagan temples of England into churches and to take those sacred animals to be used in Christian festivals. (197)The proof of these symbols can be taken from the history found in modern day witch craft books, such as Creating Circles and Ceremonies by Oberon Zell-Ravenheart and Morning Glory Zell-Ravenheart. The book describes the Sabbats, of ancient traditions, that have been marked as Christian. This includes the Yule tree converted to the Christmas tree. The bunny and colored egg from the Sabbat Ostara converted to be known in Christianity as


symbols on Easter Sunday.vi The traditions merged together are found in William Chaney‟s article: “The culture of the tribes and the old religion which helped form it in their turn shaped Christianity, which was assimilated to them, is in its principle surprising to no historian of the Conversion Period.” (199) Symbolism and traditions were converted over into Christianity without recognition from religious leaders for the old religions. The conversion of England was not a violent time and only some issues happened with those chief-kings against conversion.vii The conversion reached to political decisions for one religion in their realm. Kent King Eadbald converted back to the old religion after the passing of his father. In 640, King Eadbald‟s song received the throne and had the realms idols destroyed. (198) In East Saxon, three King sons gave the people the right to practice any religion freely. The people did not convert after the death of all three Kings. (198) The king has the belief of freedom of religion found in the medieval ages that changed. The conversion of Anglo-Saxon England was extensive due to the stages of progress, and different town values. Also not all were taught the same things and the towns did not believe Christianity was the only desired belief. Then, one might ask how so many towns of different origins have similar stories. viii The Christian version of God and Christ has similar stories with pagan legends. The version of Thor in the Pagan religion of Norse has similarities with Christian God, found in research from Chaney: „In the case of Thunor or Thor the Thunderer, we may well ask if an Anglo-Saxon warrior would react as we do to a land-grant of King Edward the Elder in A.D. 901, which opens, "In the name of the High Thunderer, Creator of the world," or a generation earlier (A.D. 872) to the phrase, "by the abundant grace of God and the gratuitous gift of him who thunders and rules."‟(204) Chaney gave examples of pagan stories with a Christ-like figure in two stories of the PreViking Norse god, Baldur, and Othinn in Norse Woden master. Both have a tree symbolism much like Christ‟s cross. Baldur‟s depiction is of darts thrown on him, when he was on a marvelous tree, and a cosmic tragedy occurred calling the event “bleeding god.” (207) Othinn is believed in stories that he hung on a World-Tree to fast. Othinn made magic runes, while people were throwing runes at him, much like some beliefs with Christ with herbs on the cross and people throwing spears. (202) There is a similarities between stories that have no affiliations to each other. The Catholics has elements of the pagan religion in the faith from the conversion process. Catholics were often told of being close to witchcraft, such as for their use of rituals. Such is the case with a Witch Craze accuser, Alex Sanders I, hitting his wife, Maxine, and saying that “a Catholic is the closest thing to the craft.”ix Catholics are known for their charms of good health and their view of Christ as alike with witchcraft. Catholics believe in the relationship with good and evil, similar with white and black magic. Luther believed that Germany was filled with devils and demons. Protestants were insecure and their idea of sin was unlike that of Catholicism. These two religious groups have continued claims to each other centuries after the Reformation (73). The accusations led to many deaths of innocent people that had stigmas placed on them. The fear of witches led to the famous Witch Craze that hit majority of Europe. The conversion process of England was subject to fears and stigmas. Many writings were made to put witches in to a bad stigma. One example of these writings was by Reginald Scot and later discussed by Robert West. In 1584, Reginald Scot wrote The Discoverie of Witchcraft which was an in-depth research on the practice of witchcraft to justify evidence found in the Witch Craze in sixteenth century England.x His writing discussed cases in Europe of trials of witches. He wrote all the details on those cases of accusations and practices. The book


contains occult literature that was available to Shakespeare and other writers to use at their discretion.xi Reginald Scot influenced other historians to look at writings with discretion against biased reactions. Robert West wrote about Scot‟s writing for his use of study. West agreed with Scot‟s uses of both the background of witchcraft and the trials to form a distinction between witchcraft and the magician. He researched the craze of witch-hunts instead of English witchcraft found in Norman Cohn‟s Europe’s Inner Demons.xii Scot discussed not only cases, but tried to get into witches‟ covens to gain proof to the claims. He did not let his own thoughts of science change his views on his data. Scot found in his research a point to the trials which is that witches only having spiritual functions and not physical ways of operating, such as flying on a broom. Scot believes in the trials that often both the accusers and the accused were mean-spirited people and subject to laws. xiii He did not sympathize with either of the parties in that respect. He uses data on happenings in his society and ties in what drove people to persecute witches. Scot is an historian in the way he found historical evidence to tie into his research. Witches became the scapegoats of society. Women were considered to be the weaker sex and more vulnerable to witchcraft. There were only a few men who were thought of as witches. Most of the accused were low classes in societies. During the witch trials only a few were sentenced to death. A statistical study from Essex County in England showed that only 23 of the 291 accused witches were male. In Louis XIII reign, a formula was devised by Michelet that “for one Sorcerer, ten thousand Sorceresses”. xiv They were accused by woman and charged with sorcery and hurting animals. xv The stereotype was that witches were more frequently women. Female witches fit many of the stereotypes given to them. The usual stereotype was some containing these characteristics: female, old, poor, and odd in nature. These were common stereotypes found mostly in towns. These people were hardly ever a real witch, and no documents could prove them as such. xvi In the Lancaster Witch Trials of 1612 and 1634, accusers brought for evidence that these accused witches had the ability to heal the sick. The accused were asked to cure sick animals and if something went wrong with the animal, the accused were committed as witches.xvii Negative attitudes on un-traditional women were found in the English witch trials. These woman accusers were acting as a good wife or mother that persecuted those who did not follow proper family life. The accusations often followed all-female gatherings in which woman feared the health of their children and food from a given woman.xviii The accused fit a person that people could fear and call a scapegoat for their troubles. The medieval ages brought different classes into stereotypes of witches. Fashions could call point for someone being a witch. The second aspect in aristocratic witches was the fashions of magic in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Among these fashions were learned astrology and special amulets. The nature, fashions, and attitudes of witchcraft were often seen on wealthy women. The people believed that aristocratic witches would use magic to take control. The amulets were thought to contain poison. The amulets today are known for containing herbs for healing, such as ginger for headaches. (81) The class system was a key role in the later Witch Craze. Society believed an aristocratic female witch had the ability to persuade other to do acts by the use of her status. One of these is that the witch herself did not practice witchcraft, but professionals in the village were used to fill out the act or give her the tools to commit the spell. These spells were used to do harm. The acts were done by a team of magicians that were servants hired to perform evil. In the conviction, the servants were guilty and punished along with the aristocratic witch.xix


Moral evil was a reason to prosecute aristocratic witches. This is found when Anna Bathory was accused by Prince Brethlen as a “killer demon whore” of incest with her brother and killing her son (81). The act of incest and killing was religiously immoral. Her cousin, Elisabeth Bathory, was tried in 1609 to 1611 for accusations of torturing and killing hundreds of servants, as well as doing witchcraft. She was found guilty, spent her life in prison, and lost her properties. In 1637, the same accusations were placed on another aristocrat, named Anna Rozina Listius, in Hungary (81). As is seen in the previous documents, witches were scapegoats to the problems of the society. They were accused of doing harmful acts against a person or their property, making men or animals unfertile, and atmosphere changes. xx People were easily convinced of this by anyone of power (29). Folklore made fantasies and encouraged people to view females as witches. Jones points out that “The combination for torture and threat of the witches and preChristian and non-Christian folk myths gave the demonology complex of the late Middle Ages” (27). Church officials believed that these witches would turn anyone evil too. The government officials believed that those blamed should be tried. Decrees and laws were given to the public by both churches and governments. The first one was Pope Innocent VIII‟s Papal Bull of 1484.xxi It warned the public of the danger of witches and changed the views on the accused. The bull was that witches did exist and needed to be extinguished from the population. The bull gave the citizens the right to use what force needed to end witchcraft. This led to the burnings. This was one of the first manuals on how to accuse and trial witches was called the Malleus Maleficarun by Dominicans Kramer and Sprenger written in 1486. xxii The documents made society fear the witches and anything uncommon. The image of the witches had changed by the sixteenth century into a mythical creature of demon characteristics. Some of these characteristics included: night-flying, the Sabbat, the Black Mass, and orgies (29). The religions of society based people on how many were persecuted and why. The religions created church documents given to the people to be obeyed. Society listened to the church and would act on the stigmas given out. Unfamiliar ones caused for speculation. (79) Religion in medieval society was important to every citizen and the conflicts between them were undeniable leading to government involvement. The government and state of the British Isles had to do with the public fear. Brian Levack‟s State-building and Witch hunting in the Early Modern Europe explains how the public believes that the victims of the witch trials are reactions from the modern state. There are four strands of this argument: judicial and administrative centralization, judicial power, society that is transformed into a godly community, and the relationship between the church and state. The administrative power, being central to the monarch power, is the attack that insisted the state to develop by the trials of those scapegoats in society. The power of the judicial branch was to commit tortures on men with physical force and was legal in the court of the law. The tortures helped to bring about a confession from those accused. Rural society was made to change by hierarchy of officials, being branched out from the king, to give society parish priests and local judges. This was a form of acculturation that witchcraft prosecution was one part of. Church and state was found separate from the judging in the trials. The state gained control over the church. The prosecution of the witches was mainly the government‟s power; therefore, the crime of witchcraft was more capable of being condemned by the state.xxiii The four strands, discussed by Levack, are the prime elements of the powers that conducted the witch trials. Witch trials went through most countries of Europe, but Scotland found a high percentage of the trials. Scotland had a major witch hunt of Europe estimated as much as twelve times as high as in England, but not as high as Germany. Scotland was going through changes in the power of the central government during the sixteenth and seventh century. Scottish


monarchy reached imperial status, even before England, in the fifteenth century. The trials had elements with aspects of Roman law and used inquisitional procedures in their judging. These types of trials were not only for the witch hunts. The change of government gave a relationship between church and state in prosecuting the witches. King James VI of Scotland was an absolutist and wrote a decree to prosecute witches. His effort brought together the subject witchcraft and political agenda. The Scottish Witchcraft Statute of 1563 was a law to prosecute witches and was sent forth condemning witchcraft. Scotland witch trials were long and cruel in their judgment. Scotland was a growing country that had used power found abroad to prosecute in such cases as the witch trials (58). Other Britain towns had witch trials that were documented. In Lancashire or Pendle, the trials were so famous that the literatures of the trials were dispersed to the public. Writings centuries later are important for the continuation of research and thought about the Witch Craze. Texts were written about the 1612 trials that include The Lancashire Witches by Harrison Ainsworth in 1849, and Mist over Pendle by Robert Neill in 1951. The most famous primary book for Lancashire was the 1613 writing of Thomas Potts‟ The wonderful discover of witches in the country of Lancashire.xxiv The first trial was that of Alizon Device. She was accused of making John Law ill. John Law was a peddler and refused to sell or give Device any pins. He then suffered a stroke and accused Alizon Device. The trial went on to include members of her family that confessed to being witches. The accused committed to taking part in the act to Law and his son. A few weeks later on April 4th, Alizon, her grandmother, and two women from another family were sent to trial for being a witch. Alizon‟s grandmother, Old Demdike, confessed to the court of having a pact with the devil made twenty years prior. Alizon admitted to making a pact as well. Later, the final two witches confessed (62). The trials are long and contained family members in majority of the recorded cases. The aftermath of witch trials can be seen in the Pendle and Lancashire trials. In 1634, many years after the Pendle trials ended the rest of Device‟s family and friends were interrogated for being witches. It was believed that Old Demdike‟s house was a place of worship. These people who worshipped for called the Pendle‟s forest citizens. The Pendle‟s forest citizens had arguments with each other that led to witchcraft accusations. During these times, the village was unable to make economic ends meet and the witches were seen as a scapegoat for the worries and troubles. They were financial motives that had people being paid off to erase the accusations laid on by another (63). The accusations were made from placing blame and the conditions of the town, leading to the trials that occurred. The fear of the unknown drove the witch trials to become widespread in Europe and America. The fear is an aspect that could have been resolved if remembering the conversion and legends of paganism. The legends of Pagan gods and goddess are turned into superstition throughout time since the conversion. Those are found previously with Thor and Othinn being seen as Christian figures. The Pagan symbols and traditions are proven by Pope Gregory‟s words of converting using the old religion in Christianity. The political reactions of fear and condemning set the stage for the witch trials. The stereotypes of witches were found in these trials, which went on to include upper class accused. In conclusion, the conversion was a time that Paganism was converted and had the traditions borrowed without recognition by Christian religious officials. Therefore, the witch trials would not have existed if fear was not instilled by Christian leaders of the forgotten Pagan influences onto Christianity. Jones, W.R. Abracadabra-Sorcery and Witchcraft in European History. The History Teacher. Vol5:1. (1971): p 26-36. Jstor Database. (Kutztown University, Kutztown, Pa. October 19, 2008); available from http://links.jstor.org/ Trevor-Roper, Hugh. The European Witch-craze of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Jones, 26


Chaney, William. Paganism to Christianity in Anglo-Saxon England. The Harvard Theological Review. Vol 53: 3 (July 1960), 197-217. Jstor. (Kutztown University, Kutztown Pa. October 8, 2008); http://www.jstor.org/stable/1508400/ Chaney, William. Paganism to Christianity in Anglo-Saxon England. The Harvard Theological Review. Vol 53: 3 (July 1960), 197-217. Jstor. (Kutztown University, Kutztown Pa. October 8, 2008); http://www.jstor.org/stable/1508400/ Zell-Ravenheart, Oberon and Morning Glory. Creating Circles and Ceremonies. New Jersey: The Carreer Press, 2006. Chaney, 198. Yorke, Barbara. The Conversion of Britain:600-800. London:Pearson, 2006. Nugent, Donald. The Renaissance and of Witchcraft. Church History. Vol 40: 1. (1971): p 69-78. Jstor Database. (Kutztown University, Kutztown, Pa. October 19, 2008); available from http://links.jstor.org Scot, Reginald. The Discoverie of Witchcraft. Dover Publications: [c. 1584] 1989. Traister, Barbara, ed. West Robert H. Reginald Scot and Renaissance Writings on Witchcraft. Shakespeare Quarterly. Vol 37:4. (1986): p543-544. Jstor Database. (Kutztown University, Kutztown, Pa. October 19, 2008); available from http://links.jstor.org Cohn, Norman. Europe’s Inner Demons. London: Chatto of Sussex Univ. Press, 1975. Traister, 543. Nugent, 73. Wiesner, Merry. Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2007), 6 and 52. Ibid, 6. Swain, J.T. “The Lancashire Witch Trials of 1612 and 1634.” In Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe. Merry Wiesner (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2007), 62-73. Wiesner, 6. Jones, 81. Jones, 27. Pope Innocent VIII. Papal Bull of 1484-Summis desiderantes affectibus. Italy: 1484. Kramer, Heinrich, and Jacob Sprenger. Malleus Maleficarun. Germany: 1486. Levack, Brian. “State-building and witch hunting in Early Modern Europe.” In Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe. Merry Wiesner (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2007), 62-73. Swain, 62.


Events Listing May 2010 1st & 2nd Gettysburg of the West, Santa Fe, New Mexico(El Rancho de las Golondrinas L/H Museum) http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=110232392324260&n= 1st - 3rd The Knights of Royal England at Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire, UK www.knightsroyal.co.uk 1st – 3rd Cosmeston Battle weekend, Cosmeston Medieval Village, nr Cardiff, Wales www.valeofglamorgan.gov.uk/ 1st & 2nd Margam Park South Wales, Multi-Period Event www.webster.uk.net 2nd & 3rd Henry Morgan‟s Buccaneers, Caldicot Castle, Monmouthshire, Wales. http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=10150127737430277&n= 8th Fete Historique au Chateau de Fleville, Nancy (54) France http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=108525185847338 8th & 9th Two day Costume and Textile Fair, Rodber Suite at Northamapton Saints Rugby Club, UK Contact for information: david.smith34@ntlworld.com or smcnern@googlemail.com 8th & 9th Snailwell Medieval Festival, Snailwell, Uk, CB8 7LX www.yayevents.co.uk 15th Conferenza Accademia Studi Cavallereschi e Medeivali (Maggio) Italy http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=110475325645177 15th & 16th Bunker Bash 2010, Living History & Military vehicle show, Brentwood, Essex, CM15 0LA http://www.facebook.com/l/e0e21;www.bunkerbash.co.uk 20th & 21st Open Day Cambs Assoc for local history & Cambs community Archives http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=114922368521120 21st – 24th KMM: Copenhagen Medieval Market For Information: http://www.kmm.dk/default.asp?pid=49 22nd & 23rd Hawkwoods Feast & Faire, Yarra Valley Archery park, Launching Place, Victoria, Aus. For information contact: mickey65@optusnet.co.au (Michelle Barraclough-White Company) 22nd & 23rd The Boughton Bash, Boughton, Northamptonshire, NN2, UK Dark age/early medieval re-enactment. Tourney & Living History Contact: art4uframercathy@msn.com or Tel: 01604 464615 23rd Fetes Historiques et Tradionelles de la Pentecote, Wissembourg (67), France http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=106646922707868 29th 30th Traquair House, Innerleithen, Scotland Medieval entertainment, traders and a tournament before King James IV (1491) http://www.traquair.co.uk/medieval.html Contact: ahmuir@hotmail.co.uk 30th & 31st The Knights of Royal England at Hedlingham Castle, Essex, UK


www.knightsroyal.co.uk 29th – 4th June. 2010 Pirate Festival at Lulworth Castle, Wareham, Dorset, UK http://pikeandshot.com 29th – 31st Ealdfaeder at West Stow Anglo Saxon Village, Suffolk, UK For information contact: pete@gippeswic.demon.co.uk 29th – 31st The MSS are re-enacting part of The Battle of Barnet (1471) on the original battle site! For information: http://www.medieval-seige-society.co.uk

June 2010 1st -6th The Knights of Royal England at Leeds Castle, Kent, UK www.knightsroyal.co.uk 4th – 7th Pencampwr 2010, Wandi, Western Australia http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=336376266428 5th & 6th Ealdfaeder at Sutton Hoo, near Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK For information contact: pete@gippeswic.demon.co.uk 5th & 6th De Quaeye Werelt anno 1477, Sterckshof, Deurne, Antwerp, Belgium http://www.facebook.com/l/79d80;www.delegendevzw.be/ 5th & 6th The MSS at Weald Country Park, Essex, UK For information: http://www.medieval-seige-society.co.uk 5th & 6th Templecombe Medieval fayre, Templecombe, Dorset, UK 11th An evening of Egyptian Music and Dance, Chester, UK http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=375134741765 12th & 13th The Knights of Royal England at Royal Gunpowder Mills, Essex, UK www.knightsroyal.co.uk 12th & 13th Tournoi de Joute a pied de Provins 2010, France http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=106281349402181 12th & 13th Fifth Annula Battle of Mace‟s Hole, Colorado, USA http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=108870579140869 12th & 13th Animations et Ateliers Medievaux, France http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=110714075624772 12th & 13th Les 27 Medievales de Provins 2010, Provins(77), France http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=202832923593&n= 12th – 14th Guild Combat Weekend Invitation, 5 Schofield Rd, Wyee, New South Wales, Australia For Information: http://www.swordguild.com/pdf/Guild-invite_to-June-2010.pdf 18th – 20th The Knights of Royal England at Cardiff Castle, Wales www.knightsroyal.co.uk 19th & 20th Tatton Park, UK Contact: plantychrisb@yahoo.co.uk 25th, 26th & 27th Chatteris Historic Festival, Chatteris, Cambridgeshire, UK For information contact: thebeardeddragon30@hotmail.com


26th Animations et Ateliers Medievaux, Ferrette (88), France http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=102694079772465 26th & 27th The Knights of Royal England at Ruthin Castle, Wales www.knightsroyal.co.uk 26th & 27th The Winslowshire Festival, Winslowshire animal sanctuary, 37 Eddy St, Norton, MA, USA See more details and RSVP on RenaissancePerformers: http://renaissanceperformers.ning.com/events/event/show?id=2212446%3AEvent%3A5017&xgi=5SBQFRLZc2bLIZ&xg_so urce=msg_invite_event

July 2010 2nd – 4th ISCAR Medieval, Valladolid, Spain http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=105599409474637&n= 3rd & 4th The Knights of Royal England at Linlithgow Palace nr Edinburgh, Scotland www.knightsroyal.co.uk 3rd & 4th Chetwynd Medieval Fair. Commemorating an actual historical market and Chetwynd, Shropshire in1318. The current location is at Shropshire Lavender http://www.shropshirelavender.co.uk 3rd & 4th Dorset Medieval Festival, http://www.dorsetmedievalfestival.co.uk/

Winterbourne

Came,

Dorchester,

3rd & 4th Fete et marcher medieval, Chateau d‟helecine, Belgium http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=318225612880 9th – 11th Tournoi de Franche-Comte 2010, Moncley (Besancon-25), France http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=377227486349&n= 10th & 11th The Knights of Royal England at Linlithgow Palace nr Edinburgh, Scotland www.knightsroyal.co.uk 10th & 11th Abbey Medieval Tournament, Caboolture, Australia http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=374015126574 10th & 11th Tewkesbury Medieval Festival, Tewkesbury, UK www.tewkesburymedievalfestival.org/ 10th & 11th Romans Live, Ribchester Roman Re-Enactments, Ribchester, uk http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=142209745905 13th – 18th Viking Market in Gudvangen http://www.facebook.com/gudvangen 15th – 17th The Battle Tradionaly of Grunwald (1410-2010) at Grunwald, Poland http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=358736576231&n= 17th & 18th MSS at Royal Gunpowder Mills, UK For information: http://www.medieval-seige-society.co.uk 17th & 18th The Knights of Royal England at Hever Castle, Kent, UK www.knightsroyal.co.uk 17th & 18th Kelmarsh Hall, Northamptonshire, UK

Dorset,

UK


Multi-Period event 17th & 18th Ealdfaeder at Sutton Hoo near Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK For information contact: pete@gippeswic.demon.co.uk 23rd – 24th The Knights of Royal Engalnd at Hever Castle, Kent, UK www.knightsroyal.co.uk 24th & 25th Berkeley Castle Skirmish, Gloucestershire, UK www.berkeley-castle.com/reenactments.php 24th & 25th Coracles & Castles, Cilgerran Castle, Pembrokeshire, Wales http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=111450295534065&n= 24th & 25th The Battle of Azincourt, France www.azincourt-alliance.org.uk 24th & 25th MSS at Appuldurcombe House, Ventnor, Isle of Wight, UK For information: http://www.medieval-seige-society.co.uk 31st & 1st The Knights of Royal England at Hever Castle, Kent, UK www.knightsroyal.co.uk 31st & 1st The Tournament of Walraversijde, Oostende, Belgium http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=152000491459 31st & 1st Ealdfaeder at Sutton Hoo near Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK For information contact: pete@gippeswic.demon.co.uk

August 2010 6th – 8th The Knights of Royal England at Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire, UK www.knightsroyal.co.uk 7th & 8th Midlands History Festival at Stratford Armouries, Stratford, UK http://www.stratfordarmouries.co.uk 7th & 8th Feathers & Flights, Cilgerran Castle, Pembrokeshire, Wales http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=103269639709469&n= 7th & 8th De fer et de feu, Rebecq, Belgium http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=316716813226 7th & 8th Military & Flying Machines Show, Daymns Hall Aerodrome, Upminster, Essex http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=291940703278&n= 14th Belton House National Trust WW2 RAF event, Lincolnshire, UK http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=338066422154 13th – 15th The Knights of Royal England at Hever Castle, Kent, uk www.knightsroyal.co.uk 14th & 15th Spetchley Park-Multi-period event, Worcester, UK www.lhiw.org.uk 14th & 15th Lincoln Castle, Lincoln, UK For information contact: plantychrisb@yahoo.co.uk


14th & 15th Aarschot 1489 – editie 2010, Domein Elzenhof http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=296931636114&n= 14th & 15th Ealdfaeder at Sutton Hoo near Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK For information contact: pete@gippeswic.demon.co.uk 14th & 15th Barnas Viking Festival, Trondenes/Harstad http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=445461745236&n_= 14th & 15th MSS at Bodium Castle, Sussex, UK For information: http://www.medieval-seige-society.co.uk 21st & 22nd Scotlands Festival of History, The Royal Borough of Lanark, UK http://www.scotlandsfestivalofhistory.co.uk 21st & 22nd The Knights of Royal England at Hever Castle, Kent, UK www.knightsroyal.co.uk 22nd Fete Medievale De L‟Alpe D‟Huez, France http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=105661962798645 25th – 29th Invitational European Championship Horsens 2010, Denmark http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=106580086045154 27th & 28th The Knights of Royal England at Hever Castle, Kent, UK www.knightsroyal.co.uk 28th – 30th Herstmonceaux Medieval Festival, Herstmonceaux Castle, East Sussex, UK 28th – 30th Military Odyssy, Kent Show Ground, Detling, Kent, UK. http://www.military-odyssey.com/ 28th – 30th Medieval Spectacular at Pensthorpe Park, Fakenham, Norfolk http://www.blackknighthistorical.co.uk 29th & 30th The Knights of Royal England at Hedingham Castle, Essex, UK www.knightsroyal.co.uk 28th – 29th September 10 Jahre mim IG Mensch im Mittelalter e.V (63165 Mulheim am Main) http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=273595664687 28th – 30th The 6th Medieval Spectacular Festival, Pensthorpe, Norfolk, UK http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=375662809571&n=

September 2010 4th & 5th Campaign of La Boissiere-Ecole 1815 The village of La Boissiere-Ecole situated 17km west of Rambouillet near Paris 5th The Knights of Royal England at Knebworth House, Hertfordshire, UK www.knightsroyal.co.uk 11th & 12th Early Medieval Alliance (EMA) event at Caldicot Castle, Wales, UK 11th & 12th MSS at Battle of Edgecote & Tournament Spectacular, Chipping Warden, Banbury, UK For information: http://www.medieval-seige-society.co.uk 11th & 12th Caldicot 2010, Caldicot Castle, Wales, UK http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=344037991340


18th & 19th The Battle of Mortimerâ€&#x;s Cross (C1461) Main A49 1 Mile North of Leominster, Herefordshire, UK For information: http://www.mortimerscross.co.uk 18th & 19th The Knights of Royal England at Leeds Castle, Kent, UK www.knightsroyal.co.uk 25th & 26th The 17th International Napoleonic Fair 2010 www.internationalnapoleonicfair.co.uk

October 16th & 17th The Norfolk Living History Fayre, Mannington Hall, Norfolk, UK http://www.facebook.com/event.php?eid=343838790024 17th MSS Autumn Clout Shoot, Bodium Castle, Sussex, UK For information: http://www.medieval-seige-society.co.uk 29th-31st The Living History Fair, Warwickshire Exhibition Centre, UK http://www.livinghistoryfairs.com/ 30th & 31st Medieval Fair & Market, Tutbury Castle, Staffordshire, UK Contact: david.smith34@ntlworld.com

November 27th & 28th Ludlow Castle Medieval Christmas fair, Ludlow, Shropshire, UK Craft fair, medieval traders, combat, have a go archery http://www.ludlowcastle.com/

December 12th MSS Christmas Clout Shoot at Bodium Castle, Sussex, UK For information: http://www.medieval-seige-society.co.uk


Step back in time 600 years for the ultimate Medieval experience at Bewl Water! Where entertainment & education blend seamlessly into one. Located just 10 miles from Tunbridge Wells, Kent, Bewl Water offers tranquil green meadows as well as a stunningly beautiful Lakeside surroundings. On the weekend of August 14th & 15th, 2010, Bewl Water will be transformed into a slice of 15th Century England with the full panoply of medieval life on display. Don't miss challenging Medieval combat in glittering steel armour on foot in a Fight Arena - cheer on your favorite warrior and boo the villains. Fighters wearing Gothic, Milanese and various examples of 15th Century cuirass will be knocking Seven Bells out of one another with a variety of weapons including Medieval Poleaxes, Flails (ball on chains), Flambards - 4ft long swords - bills, glaives and spears The ground will also be thumping and thundering with the beat of 14 medieval warhorses as the armoured Jousters do their best to unseat one another in an afternoon of competition and rivalry. Enjoy the Have-A-Go Archery and take in the sights, sounds and smells of Medieval Living History, cookery, crafts and woodwork. This is an opportunity to Meet The Ancestors - real-live Medieval folk in fully accurate Medieval costumes who can answer all your questions about Life in the Past. There will be coin-minting displays where you can punch out your Medieval pewter coins - plus a chance to poke through the contents of a replica Medieval Toilet complete with rats and archaeological finds! As you wander through the Medieval Encampment Village don't miss the opportunity to try on some of the vast range of replica body armour we have on display, heft the weapons, look at what they can do - you will be closely supervised so you cannot use them on anybody. You can even spend your modern money shopping at stalls belonging to Historic Traders - 15-20 of the UK's top artisan-traders and dealers in reenactment artefacts will be here. Beer, food and refreshments will be freely available onsite. Showers & full camping facilities - both authentic and plastic available to all participating re-enators. FIrewood SUPPLIED. Come for the day or stay for the weekend - it's up to you! Altogether you and your family can enjoy a BEWLiful day!


Free entry to participating re-enactors. Please arrange this by emailing: Mrsjo@aol.com


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The Re-enactor issue 17 PDF