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Obesity – is physical activity the key? Stuart Biddle and Terry Dovey debate the issue

Incorporating Psychologist Appointments £5 or free to members of The British Psychological Society

forum 2 news 10 careers 66 looking back 84

stigma and help seeking 20 gossip – tales of the human condition 24 testosterone and male behaviours 28 an interview with Daniel Kahneman 36


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The British Psychological Society

Contact The British Psychological Society St Andrews House 48 Princess Road East Leicester LE1 7DR Tel 0116 254 9568 Fax 0116 227 1314

Welcome to The Psychologist the official monthly publication of The British Psychological Society. It provides a forum for communication, discussion and controversy among all members of the Society, and aims to fulfil the main object of the Royal Charter, ‘to promote the advancement and diffusion of a knowledge of psychology pure and applied’. It is supported by a website, www.thepsychologist.org.uk, where you can view this month’s issue, search the archive, listen, debate and seek information, contribute, subscribe, advertise, and more.

Society website www.bps.org.uk The Psychologist e-mail psychologist@bps.org.uk General Society e-mail mail@bps.org.uk Advertising Reach 45,000 psychologists at very reasonable rates. For rates and deadlines, e-mail psyadvert@bps.org.uk or tel 0116 252 9552 For job advertising, in print or online at www.psychapp.co.uk, e-mail psychapp@bps.org.uk tel 0116 252 9550 December 2008 issue 47,945 dispatched Printed by Warners Midlands plc, Bourne: from next month, on 100 per cent recycled paper. Please re-use or recycle See the online archive at www.thepsychologist.org.uk ISSN 0952-8229 © Copyright for all published material is held by The British Psychological Society, unless specifically stated otherwise. Authors, illustrators and photographers may use their own material elsewhere after publication without permission. The Society asks that the following note be included in any such use: ‘First published in The Psychologist, vol. no. and date. Published by The British Psychological Society – see www.thepsychologist.org.uk.’ As the Society is a party to the Copyright Licensing Agency (CLA) agreement, articles in The Psychologist may be photocopied by licensed institutional libraries for academic/teaching purposes. No permission is required. Permission is required and a reasonable fee charged for commercial use of articles by a third party. Please apply to the Society in writing. The publishers have endeavoured to trace the copyright holders of all illustrations in this publication. If we have unwittingly infringed copyright, we will be pleased, on being satisfied as to the owner’s title, to pay an appropriate fee.

Your publication needs you! You can shape the content in all parts of the publication – we rely on your submissions. In return we help you to get your message across to a large and diverse audience. ‘It's important for psychologists to develop ways of writing that really communicate: not just journal intricacy and not just glossy-magazine chat. The Psychologist offers a fine opportunity for this development. The editors are excellent, in their work with authors and in their production of this wonderful publication.’ Keith Oatley, University of Toronto

What are we looking for? Topics which will inform our wide audience, written in a style which will engage them. We aim to publish quality, accessible overviews of research and practice (but not ‘journal style’ reports of unpublished studies), along with a wide range of more personal formats. There are options to suit all areas and authors – contact the editor to discuss, on jon.sutton@bps.org.uk or via the Leicester office. We are also keen to receive news, letters, conference reports, pieces about careers, methods, teaching and learning, the history of psychology and more. Again, contact the editor.

How do I go about writing my piece? You may find it helps to contact the editor for advice on the approach you should take and

Editor Jon Sutton Assistant Editor Peter Dillon-Hooper Production Mike Thompson Staff journalist Christian Jarrett Advertising Sarah Stainton Kirsty Wright Editorial Assistants Fiona Chapman Debbie James

Associate Editors Articles Vaughan Bell, Kate Cavanagh, Elizabeth Gilchrist, Marc Jones, Rebecca Knibb, Amina Memon, Tom Stafford, Miles Thomas, Pete Walpole, Monica Whitty, Barry Winter

how long the piece should be. You can also see www.thepsychologist.org.uk for guidance, and examples of different formats in the archive of past issues. To allow anonymous review, authors’ names and full contact details should not appear on the typescript, but should be presented on a separate page. Send your work as an attachment to psychologist@bps.org.uk, or post three copies to The Psychologist at the Society’s office.

What happens next? After an initial assessment of suitability by the editor, our feature articles are blind peerreviewed to ensure scientific quality. The editor reserves the right to edit all copy accepted for publication. However, this is a collaborative process with the author, aiming for the best possible end product in terms of layout and accessibility. An author or the editor may feel that an article is suitable for web-only presentation due to considerations of time, length or breadth of interest. For full details of the policy and procedures of The Psychologist, see www.thepsychologist.org.uk. If you feel these policies and procedures have not been followed, contact the editor on jon.sutton@bps.org.uk, or the Chair of the Psychologist Policy Committee, Dr Paul Redford, on paul2.redford@uwe.ac.uk

Conferences Simon Bignell, Sandie Cleland International Nigel Foreman, Asifa Majid Interviews Nigel Hunt, Lance Workman History of Psychology Julie Perks

The Psychologist Policy Committee Paul Redford (Chair), Nik Chmiel, Olivia Craig, Jeremy Horwood, Alexa Ispas, James Jackson, David Lavallee, Fenella Quinn, Sheelagh Strawbridge, Henck van Bilsen, Peter Wright, and Associate Editors

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forum all your letters; and a new range of guest columns

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news 10 air pollution; child mental health services; buggies; social identity; hypnosis; implementing guidelines; and a report from the Society’s Manchester Lectures

ANNA HEATH

media brain training; and the US election

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Stigma and help-seeking David Vogel and Nathaniel Wade explain that it’s not just about what others think

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Gossip – tales of the human condition Toni Brennan on the socio-psychological functions of an important social activity

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Testosterone and male behaviours Nick Neave and Daryl O’Connor describe their research into the complex effects of this hormone

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The most important living psychologist? Lance Workman interviews Nobel Laureate Daniel Kahneman

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book reviews neuroplasticity; forensic psychology; cognition and sex differences; evolutionary psychology; and drugs and crime

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society the President’s column; Award for Distinguished Contributions to Professional Practice; competencies in psychological therapies; and more

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careers applied practice and academia; PsyPAG; life at the Royal Hospital for Neuro-Disability; how to advertise; and all the latest jobs

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looking back sex in psychological warfare: Herbert Friedman on the how and why of an unusual form of propaganda

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one on one …with Lynne Segal

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january 2009

THE ISSUE Another new year, and another fresh start for The Psychologist. Although it is only a year since our major redesign, I felt the time was right to build on that and respond to the dominant views in our recent online survey of almost 900 members. Amongst the changes, you will hopefully now find this page clearer, and the ‘Careers’ section easier to navigate to and within. We should be moving to 100 per cent recycled paper next month, and we are looking to share this issue with the world as a pilot in offering alternative electronic publishing options to our members (see www.thepsychologist.org.uk). May I particularly draw your attention to the revamp for ‘Letters’? The new ‘Forum’ includes a range of guest columns, intended to spark discussion and debate, and now opens the publication. This is, after all, our main function. Please help us to make it a success. Dr Jon Sutton (Managing Editor)

Obesity – Is physical activity the key? Stuart Biddle thinks so, but Terry Dovey disagrees 32

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A call to cooperate In his ‘call to arms’ Tony Ward questions the role and legitimacy of the British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies (BABCP) in the accreditation of CBT therapists, including applied psychologists (Letters, November 2008). The BABCP was founded in 1972, and its purpose is to advance the theory and practice of cognitive and behavioural psychotherapies (including CBT) by the promotion of scientific research and the application of evidence-based practice, including assessment, therapy and consultancy. BABCP is a charitable organisation that has 7000 members, including just under 3000 psychologists, 429 of whom are accredited cognitive behavioural therapists. Along with BABCP, the BPS supports the government’s Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme. In fact, the establishment of a psychological therapist career pathway to help to deliver safe and effective psychological interventions was one of the Society’s recommendations in

its New Ways of Working for Applied Psychologists 2007 report published jointly with the Department of Health

(see www.newwaysofworking.org.uk/ psychology.aspx). As the only organisation in the UK that currently accredits CBT-specific

training courses, BABCP was invited and is well placed to support the IAPT programme in the accreditation of highintensity training. Clearly this is in line with the Association’s purpose. This arrangement was supported by the BPS members on the IAPT Education and Training Project Group, and the accreditation process is in fact supervised by an Accreditation Oversight group that includes representatives from the BPS and other stakeholder organisations. BABCP acknowledges and welcomes the fact that other organisations (including the BPS) may become involved in IAPT accreditation, although the likely regulation of psychotherapists by the Health Professions Council in the near future will change the whole landscape. Beyond its work to support the initial £173 million investment in IAPT, BABCP, through a well-established liaison group, is working with (and indeed has provided some resources to help) the BPS to look at how psychologists with relevant CBT competences can be accredited in the most efficient way in future. In fact, this joint work on psychologists’ CBT competences significantly pre-dates the

contribute

The need to think philosophically

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Ron Dultz is right that psychology suffers from ‘A paucity of philosophy’ (Letters, December 2008) – indeed I would take an even stronger line than him and argue that such paucity has seriously hampered proper theory development within the discipline. However, one cannot just ‘bolt on’ philosophy to a preexisting discipline; one needs

to completely restructure the discipline so that a philosophical style of thought becomes incorporated into the way psychologists do their business. The split between psychology, philosophy and physiology that occurred in the 19th century needs to be repaired. Consider the fate of neuropsychology. This is a discipline that seeks to

These pages are central to The Psychologist’s role as a forum for discussion and debate, and we welcome your contributions.

Send e-mails marked ‘Letter for publication’ to psychologist@bps.org.uk; or write to the Leicester office.

discover the relationship between neural and mental events, yet the contribution that philosophy is able to make – even though it is a discipline seeking the same aim – is close to zero. This is because the concepts that philosophers deal with are not such that they can engage with the empirical activities of neuropsychologists. An examination of the fate

Letters over 500 words are less likely to be published. The editor reserves the right to edit or publish extracts from letters. Letters to the editor are not normally acknowledged, and space does

of attempts to improve on this situation is instructive. Bennett and Hacker (2008) are two philosophers who have made an important and noble attempt to bring philosophical thinking to bear on neuropsychology in a serious way. For example, they point out how neuropsychologists have confounded levels of description by applying to neural subsystems a

not permit the publication of every letter received. However, see www.thepsychologist.org.uk to contribute to our discussion forum (members only).

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IAPT concept and inception. Further, along with the BPS and other stakeholder groups, BABCP continues to support and lobby for the expansion of the IAPT programme to include other evidence-based psychological therapies, to improve access to effective therapies for a wider range of client groups (e.g. those with longer-term mental health problems, children and adolescents, people with intellectual disabilities), and to extend the initiative to the other home nations. Thus, Ward’s claim that BABCP ‘undermines the credibility and competence of psychologists’ is without foundation; and the evidence points to the contrary. BABCP, rather like the therapeutic approaches it promotes, is working in a collaborative and inclusive way with the BPS and other stakeholders. Instead of a call to arms to fight for passé inter- and intraprofessional rivalries that will likely alienate service users and policy makers alike, I would encourage BPS colleagues to join with a collaborative and concerted campaign to extend the IAPT programme to better meet the needs of more of those who would benefit from access to safe and effective psychological therapies. John L. Taylor President British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies

terminology that should only be applied to the psychology of whole organisms. The idea that an image of the world is reconstructed in area V1 of the primate cortex is one such idea challenged on this basis. But their efforts have been met largely with a mix of irritation and puzzlement, and sometimes open hostility. They have defended their position by arguing that all a philosopher can do is help to clarify the concepts used by neuropsychologists. This is true and is probably the best that can be done under the circumstances. But it is the circumstances that lead to members of one discipline having to clarify the concepts used by another that is surely at fault. The empirical work done by neuropsychologists is

Where forensic meets clinical Denis McVey (Letters, December 2008) raises some pertinent questions about the competencies required in a forensic mental health setting, which the Chair of the Professional Practice Board has not adequately answered. However, Mr McVey only addresses one side of the issue. It is indeed hard to understand why forensic psychologists should be employed in non-forensic services. However within forensic mental health settings exactly the same questions that Mr McVey poses about psychologists without mental health training could and should be asked about psychologists without forensic training who work with offenders. Forensic and clinical psychology are distinct disciplines and practitioners in the field of forensic mental health require competencies from both disciplines to practise effectively. The professional, ethical and clinical risks associated with employing clinical psychologists who lack the appropriate competencies to work with this serviceuser group are just as grave as they are with forensic psychologists.

nowadays very sophisticated, but it is not matched by an equivalently sophisticated system of thought. Such a system of thought is held by philosophers, but the two need to work together. This could be achieved either by having research teams comprising both philosophers and neuropsychologists, or – what is probably better – by having neuropsychologists schooled in a philosophical style of thinking. John Campion Liphook Hampshire Reference Bennett, M.R. & Hacker, P.M.S. (2008). History of cognitive neuroscience. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

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Although forensic psychologists continue to be regarded as second-class citizens by some of our less enlightened colleagues in the health service, the expansion of forensic psychology in forensic mental health services in recent years has brought many benefits, and it can be no coincidence that those services which employ both forensic and clinical psychologists and which encourage members of both disciplines to extend their competencies are among the most innovative and highly regarded. Petty and divisive wrangling about which discipline is the better equipped to work in this setting diminishes the whole profession and distracts from the reality that both disciplines have much to learn from each other and that forensic mental health employers and managers have a duty to ensure that all their psychologists, from whatever discipline, have access to appropriate training and supervision in order to meet the complex needs of this service-user group. Phil Willmot Psychology Department Rampton Hospital

Psychology in confusion? Any newcomer to the discipline would need to look no further than the December issue of The Psychologist to appreciate its confused state. On the one hand, we have correspondents warning us of our continuing philosophical and sociological naivety or ignorance (Dultz and Nel respectively). On the other hand, our current leaders are assuring us that professional psychology has unique answers borne of linear scientific incrementalism and unreflective naive empiricism. From the news pages, one example was the announcement that psychology now has a superior understanding of well-being

(‘the bank account of the mind’ from Cary Cooper et al., which now replaces social capital with ‘mental capital’). Another was Professor David Clark reassuring us that models of change preferred by mainstream clinical psychology (for now CBT) should be privileged over the personal qualities of the helping relationship (cf. Pilgrim et al., 2009). Such non-reflexive reductionism ignores the continuing discourses from philosophy, sociology and religion, which offer some stimulating alternatives about the relationship between experience and behaviour. For example, we could consider

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Foucault on the unending contestation in the human sciences about ontology, epistemology and methodology (Foucault, 1973). We might also consider the insights of social network analysis (Freeman, 2006) to Michel Foucault – for us to consider? account for why the current onedimensional policy of CBT in England has emerged particular metropolitan elite not because of its inherent which signed the ‘Depression scientific merits but from the Report’. It consisted of three

FORUM BEYOND BOUNDARIES The body of psychologist Ignacio Martín-Baró was found bullet-ridden and bloodied on the lawn of his house. His 1989 murder by members of the El Salvador army highlighted both the atrocities of the country’s bitter civil war and his contention that violence and trauma can only be addressed as a problem of the community. Both a Jesuit priest and one of the most prestigious Latin American psychologists of the time (see www.bps.org.uk/baro), Martín-Baró starkly rejected the individualistic model of trauma, where we treat people by helping them to manage their emotions while considering ourselves, as professionals, separate from the society from which the violence arose. In his view, if we are at all serious about helping the troubled then we must consider ourselves part of the same community, lest we become little except temporary relief for afflicted and willingly blind to our role in preventing the causes of the problems. Martín-Baró’s concept of community was formed more than 20 years ago, but the information revolution has made his work more starkly relevant than ever. We are now part of a global network, and, as psychologists, our decisions resonate across the globe. I’m currently working in Colombia, which, like El Salvador, is a beautiful country still affected by violence. Psychologists here are committed to tackling both the effects and causes of trauma but being denied access to up-to-date research is a persistent problem that has grave consequences. As researchers we like to think that our work will help people where it is needed most, but we largely rely on a distribution system where the public pay for research only for academics to give their work away to publishing companies who rent it back to those who can afford it on a yearly basis. In many parts of the world, this means that the preventable causes and effects of violence, trauma and mental illness cannot be tackled as effectively because they are described in privately owned, out-of-reach research papers. Many of these psychological problems are already being tackled by the global research community, but we need to ensure that the distribution of the solutions is equally inclusive. It is no accident that most Latin American mental health journals are freely available on the web, although ironic that while we consider ourselves world leaders in psychology, we can learn more from Latin America than Latin America can learn from us. Vaughan Bell is visiting professor at the University of Antioquia, Colombia. This column aims to prompt discussion surrounding crosscultural and interdisciplinary issues.

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closely connected peers of the realm and their circle of preferred academic colleagues at the University of London. Disciplinary disloyalty might be required in order to understand psychology and its claims of preeminence on the grander stage of life. David Pilgrim Faculty of Health and Social Care University of Central Lancashire

References Foucault, M. (1973). The order of things: An archaeology of the human sciences. New York: Vintage Books. Freeman, L. (2006). The development of social network analysis. Vancouver: Empirical Press. Pilgrim, D., Rogers, A. & Bentall, R. (2009). The centrality of personal relationships in the creation and amelioration of mental health problems: The current interdisciplinary case. Health, 13(2), 237–256.

Hypopituitarism and our son’s suicide Our son took his life this August at the age of 31. We made a discovery after his death that we feel needs to be shared widely as it has a bearing on depression. Although our son had a girlfriend for four years, we found from old letters that he had been impotent. This, together with his depression, were what led to their breakup, according to a conversation we had with his girlfriend after his death. This was a terribly sad discovery for us, and it explained so many things, particularly his lack of confidence when he was so attractive, had so many friends and was so capable at his job. It also explained why he had never ‘moved on’ in the six years after his girlfriend left him – because of course he must have thought his problem would make it impossible to sustain any new relationship. And it made it clear to us why this year had been so hard for him, filled as it was with weddings and babies among his family and friends. But this was not all we discovered. We also found research that showed his impotence was very likely to have been caused by a bad head injury he’d suffered when he was seven. Damage to the pituitary gland in childhood

can show itself years later in adolescence. But nobody ever warned us of this, because the research has mostly only been written in the past few years (e.g. see Einaudi & Bondone, 2007). Brain-injury-induced hypopituitarism is often not diagnosed, or diagnosed years too late, because professionals do not realise just how common it is. At least five people treated our son for depression, but his past brain injury rang no warning bells. If they had checked his hormone levels, in all probability he could have been treated with testosterone and be alive today. In fact, between 28 and 69 per cent of head injury survivors have pituitary damage – one article describes it as a ‘silent epidemic.’ We are now doing all we can to make sure people everywhere know, because we do not believe our son can have been the only victim of this lack of awareness. Names and address supplied Reference Einaudi, S. & Bondone, C. (2007). The effects of head trauma on hypothalamic-pituitary function in children and adolescents. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 19(4), 465–470.

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obituary

Gwen Thorstad (1922–2007) Gwen Thorstad can be described as an educational and clinical child psychologist of the old school who initially trained, and later worked, at the Child Guidance Training Centre (CGTC) in the 1960s, 70s and 80s. Many generations of trainee psychologists, psychiatrists and social workers thus passed through her hands and with great benefit. She was one of the first cognitive psychologists working in a period before that term became fashionable. She specialised in mental testing and in the assessment of specific learning disabilities. She carried out original research on children’s drawings of a ‘Plan of a House’. In using this method she was able to demonstrate how children’s poor performance at this task pointed to possible neurological and emotional dysfunction. Her work represented an important diagnostic addition to the then prevailing psychoanalytic climate at the CGTC. It was also as a participating member of a multidisciplinary clinical unit that Gwen excelled and so was highly valued by the team members. Much against the spirit of the times, she strongly believed in the traditional child guidance model and once remarked: ‘Just keep talking about it and it will come back into fashion.’ The success of the method was displayed by the number of former CGTC trainees who obtained posts throughout Great Britain and who were a major influence on the work of child guidance clinics. As a teacher Gwen was strict and uncompromising in her assessment approach and methodology, and some students inevitably found this attitude tough going at times. However, later in practice, her

students readily acknowledged how much they had benefited from her personal supervision. One of us recalls with gratitude that when he was a newly appointed, anxious child psychiatrist in charge of a clinical unit, Gwen had shrewdly commented: ‘You don’t have to know everything.’ If a word were selected to sum up Gwen’s outstanding contribution to psychology and child guidance it would be ‘integrity’. Through an era of great change in the profession and the world at large she held on strongly to certain professional values and standards of care and competence. She was a rather private person, but once her initial reserve had eased, one found a colleague whose warmth, steadfastness and loyalty could be utterly relied upon. Using her exceptional blend of toughness and tenderness, she also had a remarkable manner of securing and putting a child at ease in the assessment situation. It can be said with conviction that as an all-round practitioner and teacher we will not see her like again. Bernard Barnett Director of Psychological Training, Child Guidance Training Centre, 1971–1986 Sebastian Kraemer Consultant Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist, CGTC, 1980–1985

FORUM WEB CHAT For much of last year, psychologists (tinyurl.com/57wy9l) and medics (tinyurl.com/36ybr9) were asking us to consider the rights and wrongs of popping pills to boost our productivity and concentration. In September, a fresh perspective on this cognitive enhancement debate stood out from the crowd. Psychiatrist Sean Spence of the University of Sheffield, writing in the British Journal of Psychiatry (tinyurl.com/5c2wgu), pointed out that all the focus to date has been on the taking of psychoactive drugs to boost competitiveness, but no one has considered the more important idea of taking pills to enhance human morality. ‘To emphasise the point,’ he asked, 'would “brighter humans” have been any less likely to have devised the Holocaust, slaughtered their neighbours in Rwanda, or committed atrocities in Bosnia and Darfur?’ In fact, Spence said that moral enhancement is already going on in subtle ways in the form of psychiatric treatment, but that we choose not to describe it in those terms. Consider, he suggested, a man with a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder who requests antipsychotic medication so that he might reduce the likelihood of hurting his girlfriend. Other examples include ex-substance users or alcoholics choosing to take deterrent medications, or sex offenders who take antilibidinal medicines. ‘Wherever patients take a prophylactic medication that helps prevent the relapse of a condition that might lead to aberrant behaviour, harming themselves or others, they have behaved responsibly,’ Spence wrote. ‘If they specifically intend to protect others then they are behaving morally, altruistically.’ Spence said he hoped to open up a debate about how we might better help people to help themselves, and to show that in clinical psychiatry it is clear that pharmacology is already being used to help people shape their future conduct. However, online respondents to his essay were largely unimpressed (tinyurl.com/6mbyu5). For instance, David Cohen, Professor of Social Work at Florida International University, said that Spence had failed to mention the most important moral issues: ‘Is there morality in imposing drugs on [patients who don’t want] them? And whose ends are being served by the patients taking the drugs?’ Meanwhile, Shubh Singh (Gyan Sagar Medical College, India) was perturbed. He argued the idea of morality-enhancing drugs raises important questions about diversity. ‘Pharmacology or indeed any psychiatric intervention as a means to improve “immoral” behaviour should only be used when such behaviour arises from a psychiatric disorder and not otherwise,’ he argued. Christian Jarrett is staff journalist on The Psychologist. This column aims to prompt discussion surrounding psychological debate online.

Baby P – what is our response? As psychologists and mothers, we share the distress echoed by the British public over the recent death of Baby P. We have been wondering what we can do as practitioners, educators and parents in order to increase support for parents and professionals, ensuring the protection of children and teenagers. We appreciate that within this case, there

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have been numerous discussions over blame and responsibility, and we do not wish to repeat these here. We acknowledge that Baby P was just one of thousands of children who are vulnerable and who live with parents in need of support or greater supervision. It would be helpful if individual Society members and the BPS as a whole could take a lead on providing information to both members

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COMMUNITY NOTICEBOARD I Are you a qualified clinical and organisational/occupational psychologist, or a clinical psychologist with substantial experience in organisations? Do you believe that the clinical aspect of psychology has a role in organisations? Are you interested in joining me in writing about this topic, or offering business solutions from this angle? If so, please contact me Oleen Miranda-Stone oleen.miranda@gmail.com, 01233 712532 I I wish to ask for the support of your readers for an online petition to the Prime Minister. I would like the law changed so that all children taken into the care system have a trained clinical psychologist make a assessment on their future mental health needs and treatments plans. The petition can be signed at http://petitions.number10.gov.uk/ childrenincare Ray Timlin Seaham Durham I ‘PsychMap: Clinical Psychology Training Across the World’ is an ambitious collaboration between the University of Leicester, the University of Leeds and regional partners to systematically survey the training of clinical psychologists worldwide. The project will develop a communitybased, interactive online resource to benefit trainers, practitioners and trainees, and to encourage sustainable research and education partnerships between training providers. We are initially developing a ‘map’ of clinical psychology training in Africa, and would very much like to speak with those with relevant expertise or regional contacts. Rebecca Graber RG122@le.ac.uk www.le.ac.uk/pc/cap/clinical/psych map

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and the public on the following areas, from an evidence-based perspective: I adoption and fostering I preventing violence and abuse I educating and supporting social workers and allied professions I training for teachers and health workers I examples of good practice in community, counselling and clinical care I providing support for members of the public affected by the recent distressing media coverage of Baby P. We would be interested to hear from the Society

what steps the organisation may be taking in their response to Baby P’s death? We would also like to hear from those psychologists working with families and children in a clinical, counselling educational, research or voluntary capacity about how they feel we can work with communities and individuals at all levels to ensure child and family welfare is improved. Petra Boynton Department of Primary Care and Population Health University College London Irina Anderson School of Psychology University of East London

ABA – a question of misinformation? The accurate dissemination of research findings is crucial for the uptake of scientific practices by a community. Unfortunately, because there are no other avenues, I find myself in the uncomfortable position of publicly highlighting an issue created by the BPS that runs counter to the professional standards we expect of our organisation. After lobbying by me, I persuaded the then President (Pam Maras) to instigate a review on the Northern Ireland task group report on autism (commissioned by the Minister for Education). The focus was on the responsibility of the BPS to ensure that the public are not misinformed about psychological treatments; much of the Northern Ireland task group report contained serious misinformation about applied behaviour analysis (ABA). My request for the review was supported by leading international professionals in ABA who agreed on the extent of the misinformation I had identified. To aid the review I was asked to submit material for consideration. The final document, however, incorporated little of the material I had submitted. Even a comment in the

Northern Ireland report that intensive ABA might cause psychological damage to children was not addressed. Worryingly, there were no ABA professionals involved in

Lord Maginnis

producing the review. This is a remarkable omission given the remit and the Society’s code of ethics and conduct on operating outside one’s area of competence. Now the BPS is engaged in stonewalling. They have declined to answer incisive questions from the chairperson of a local autism charity concerned with teaching ABA to parents (his letter can be viewed at tinyurl.com/567mp6). Furthermore, an offer to meet with representatives of the European Association of Behaviour Analysis (EABA) to discuss the review was declined.

Currently the BPS is coordinating a response to the Northern Ireland consultation on the Autism Spectrum Disorder Strategic Action Plan 2008/9–2010/11. Documents to be discussed include a recent report from Lord Maginnis (commissioned by the Minister for Health). As in the Education task group, ABA professionals were excluded from participating and again serious inaccuracies appear in the depiction of ABA. In stark contrast to support parents have received from the BPS, other international organisations have written directly to Lord Maginnis (see www.peatni.org). Behaviour analysis has few proponents within the BPS, and generally the teaching of this science lags far behind developments in the field. Antagonism to the science for historical reasons, however, does not justify misrepresentation of its findings. A cognitive psychologist and past President of the American Psychological Society agrees: Behaviorism is alive and well.. Counting affiliate organizations around the world, there are some 12,000 members…and…

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around 250 new members a year just in the U.S. … Why the enthusiasm? Because behaviorist analyses work! ... For an autistic child, Lovaas's behaviorist techniques provide the greatest (indeed, so far the only) hope. (Roediger, 2004)

I urge members to write to the President to persuade the BPS to answer the questions posed by a parent and to reconsider its refusal to meet with EABA. Policy decisions in our community need to be protected from misinformation. Mickey Keenan School of Psychology University of Ulster Coleraine Reference Roediger, R. (2004). What happened to behaviorism. APS Observer, Vol. 17. No. 3. Retrieved 2 December 2008 from www.psychologicalscience.org/ observer/getArticle.cfm?id=1540

Reply from Professor Martin Conway, Chair of the Research Board, and Dr Martin Crawshaw, Chair of the Professional Practice Board: The Society’s commentary on the Northern Ireland task force report was prepared, at the request of the Research Board and

Professional Practice Board, by a number of members of the Society with specific expertise in the field of autism (they had also been key contributors to the Society’s Working Party Report on Autistic Spectrum Disorder). The remit of the group was to review the Northern Ireland report and to identify any shortfalls in the document and specifically in relation to the current empirical evidence base for different treatments and interventions for autism (including applied behavioural analysis). Whilst we acknowledge that proponents of ABA are dissatisfied by the conclusions drawn in the commentary on the report, when preparing commentary on official reports it is incumbent upon the Society to remain impartial and to consider the best available scientific evidence base. The empirical evidence base for applied behaviour analysis was therefore reviewed by the group and reported accordingly. Responses have been made to the letters from the Chairman of PEAT and from EABA outlining the scientific basis upon which the document was prepared and acknowledging that there are strong differences of opinion in this area.

obituary

Joan Allan (1923–2007) Joan Allan, née Reed, was born in Tottenham, London. As she grew up, Joan developed a strong interest in psychology and had ambitions to become a child psychologist. Joan left school at 16 at the outbreak of the Second World War. She worked as a shorthand typist for an insurance company during the day and studied for Matric, to enable her to go to university, in the evenings. This pattern of working hard on two or more jobs at the same time was repeated time and again throughout her life. Joan undertook teacher training at Furzedown. The principal, Mr Bradley, wrote in her final report in July 1947 that ‘Miss Reed… is sympathetic towards the child with difficulty. If she can find scope for her powers she may accomplish outstanding work.’ Joan taught during the day and studied in the evenings at Birkbeck College where she graduated in psychology. She was the first in her family to graduate from university. She then trained as an educational psychologist. Although she took a broad interest in psychology, qualifying in the

use of the Rorschach test among others, for 50 years she combined a rigorous use of standard psychometric testing with accumulated experience to guide many children and students with learning and other psychological problems. Joan worked both at the Royal Alexandra Children’s Hospital and the child guidance clinic in Brighton for over 20 years. She undertook extensive work, mainly voluntary, on the low birthweight project led by Sue McCreedy, which continued for many years. When new legislation meant she was forced to retire at the age of 60, Joan continued in private practice until she was 78. Joan then continued her professional interest by keeping up to date through the British Psychological Society. Joan was particularly pleased to hear that one of her granddaughters had joined the Society as a student member and would have been delighted to know that she graduated this year. Joan leaves four sons. Jeff Allan Moseley, Birmingham

The autism ‘trip’ – a lifetime of altered perception? Following my son’s diagnosis of autism some years ago, I have developed a theory that I would like to share with readers and ask whether anyone has any related evidence or would like to seek some. I published a paper on my theory with the National Autistic Society, and delivered it at the NHS research conference Experimental Biology and the Autistic Syndromes at Sunderland University. Many behavioural characteristics typical of autism closely parallel the effects of psychoactive compounds such as LSD and mescaline. I believe that if one were to be in a permanent state of altered perception, such as would be the case if

the brain was spontaneously producing an endogenous psychoactive compound, you would effectively get the autistic state, which was why I called the paper ‘The Trip of a Lifetime’. One of the most common findings in the biochemical makeup of autistic children is the presence of high levels of bufotenin. Bufotenin is a minor metabolite of tryptophan, the amino acid precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Another reason to suspect bufotenin is that the tryptophan molecule’s structure is ‘indole’; it is the only amino acid in the body to be so and shares this characteristic with psychoactive compounds such as LSD and mescaline. It

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is, if you like, the common ‘link’ between the two states. Bufotenin levels are normally held in balance by monoamine oxidase (MAO). If, however, MAO was inhibited, bufotenin levels could rise to a point where concentrations become such that behaviour is affected and the subject effectively begins to ‘trip’. This idea seems to be supported by recent research, published in New Scientist, carried out by Dr Ira Cohen, a psychologist at New York’s State Institute for Basic Research in New York. Dr Cohen’s research team has identified a relationship between the more severely affected autistic boys in their control

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group and a variation in the length of a control region at the start of the MAO gene. The variation determines how much of the enzyme is produced. Dr Cohen’s work also seems to support the prevalence of autism in males, inasmuch as boys have only one copy of the gene, because it is only found on the X chromosome, while females of course have two. In summary I believe that we should be doing studies to confirm the presence of bufotenin in both the autistic child and in their parents – this would be relatively simple because it’s detectable in urine – and then perhaps developing a drug to block bufotenin receptor sites in the brain. David Selwyn Tooting London SW17

Gendered occupations? John Sloboda, in his ‘One on one’ interview, asks ‘Why has psychology at degree level become more and more gender-unbalanced (currently 85 per cent female in my institution)?’ I have not examined this in detail for about 10 years, but I have noticed nothing that radically changes the conclusions I reached then (e.g. Radford, 1998). Subjects, and occupations, are seen as more or less ‘suitable’ for males and females. They are placed on a continuum of psychological masculinity–femininity. This seems to be based not so much on content as on what the subject is perceived as ‘for’

or ‘about’. This in turn roughly corresponds to ‘things’ or ‘people’. Technology, for example, is generally strongly masculine, with two exceptions, food and textiles. Psychology is well towards the feminine end. Ratings of subjects on this scale by students correspond closely to actual enrolments. Individuals are similarly placed on this continuum, and the two tend to match. Men tend to be more ‘masculine’ and women more ‘feminine’, with of course many exceptions. Within a particular subject, the inclinations of men and women tend to be similar. These differences show up

prize crossword The winner will receive a £50 BPS Blackwell Book Token. If it’s you, perhaps you’ll spend it on something like this... Judgment and Decision Making is a refreshingly accessible text that explores the wide variety of ways people make judgements. Topics covered include dynamic, everyday and group decision making; individual differences; and the nature of mind and brain in relation to judgement and decision making. Price £24.99 ISBN 978 1 4051 2398 3 Visit www.bpsblackwell.co.uk

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Send your entry (photocopies accepted) marked ‘prize crossword’, to the Leicester office (see inside front cover) deadline 12 january 2009. Winner of prize crossword no 42 Mike Heap, Sheffield no 42 solution Across 1 Transference, 9 Mittelman, 10 Annul, 11 Sicily, 12 Stanford, 13 Livery, 15 Dialogue, 18 Observer, 20 Slated, 22 Province, 23 Assays, 26 Sinew, 27 Incognito, 28 Hypnotherapy. Down 1 Tomasello, 2 Antic, 3 Siegler, 4 Elmo, 5 Einstein, 6 Channel, 7 Unsought, 8 Bled, 14 Viscount, 16 Endoscopy, 17 Reaction, 19 Railway, 21 Lasagne, 22 Post, 24 Anima, 25 Echt.

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rather dramatically when the National Curriculum years end, and students immediately divide along these lines for A-levels. The pattern is also widely found, for example in China, Europe and the United States. The main reason for this increasingly affecting psychology at degree level is the growth of numbers of women in higher education. Women entrants exceeded men for the first time in 1993, and the gap is still widening. There is probably a consequential factor, that increasing numbers of women have changed the psychology that is offered in a ‘feminine’ direction. And there is

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probably also a tendency for a large majority in one sex to put off members of the other. Male nurses have told me that they get odd reactions when they reveal their occupation. More women students have also meant more women teachers of the subject, with their own interests. A colleague some years ago had a weekly seminar. One week only four men were present. He gave them a choice

of what they would like to talk about. They looked sheepishly at each other and then one, who had clearly been designated as the spokesman, said ‘Anything but f—g babies!’ John Radford University of East London Reference Radford, J. (Ed.) (1998). Gender and choice in education and occupation. London: Routledge.

FORUM POLL For more discussion, and to participate in this month’s online poll, see www.psychforum.org.uk. This month’s question: Will the current proposals for the statutory regulation of psychologists succeed in increasing public protection?

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No enclave disturbed by Kurt Lewin’s psychological value of anger, say (8,7) Procedure for OCD ritual? (7) Keep showing reluctance in social participation (7) Portent showing yours truly in cricket side (4) Rejecting a go with youth leader’s exercise discipline (4) Threaten with weaving apparatus (4) Led move around green (7) Sense needed for aesthetic judgement (5) Excellent copper? (5) Causes irritation - it’s largely unnecessary (7) Award to conceal in the hand (4) Drive the French showing laziness? (4) Before noon, get second supply of bullets (4) Constant description of triangle (7) Touching digression? (7) Disturbed nature with hypocrisy shown by branch of medicine (15)

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Number getting discharge slope off with unknown sleep disorder (10) Good game requires year before getting cheese (7) Follow story we hear (4) German physiologist to compete with doctor involved in hill climbing (8) Clever ballad has it in words (6) Missing post for technique evaluating helping behaviour? (4-6) Tense breakdown or wreck(7) Regards positive replies in audition (4) Old support for religious ceremony – in California? (10) Report fit? (10) Systematic and excessively fussy about financial district (8) Partially stop late autism in period of stability (7) Lab term for fluctuating unit of light intensity (7) Branches of study for researcher into pain control? (6) Restraint for rule no good (4) Against gas out and about (4)

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FORUM THE REAL WORLD On the night Barack Obama was elected, it was perhaps the pictures of his wife and children greeting the ecstatic crowd in Chicago that were the most moving. Forty years after black people were excluded from lunch counters, schools and swimming pools in the United States, a black family stood poised to enter the White House. But still, we are entitled to ask – indeed we cannot help but ask – what will happen next. And, as soon as he began to speak, the President-Elect signalled an ambivalence that lay at the heart of his appeal: the aspirational slogan ‘Yes we can’ (which presumably, in the US, does not invoke Bob the Builder). The unifying and mobilising power of such devices often lies in the fact that they mean different things to different people, and indeed Obama’s phrase has readings that lead in opposed political – and psychological – directions. One reading is an assertion of individual mobility that lies at the heart of the ‘American Dream’. In the US, it says, anyone can achieve anything if they try hard enough. To quote Obama’s opening sentence: ‘If there is anyone out there who still doubts that America is a place where all things are possible, who still wonders if the dream of our founders is alive in our time, who still questions the power of our democracy; tonight is your answer’. Attractive as it sounds, the flip side of such an individualist argument is that if anyone fails it is their own fault. They haven’t tried enough. At its extreme, this position was expressed by John Bolton, Bush’s erstwhile ambassador to the UN, in a telling exchange with Simon Schama during the BBC’s coverage. If America votes Obama, Bolton warned, I hope you will never again say America is racist. But the real danger of such an argument is not how it is used by whites but how it impacts on black people. The illusion that racism is dead, that the barriers to progress are removed, that all corners of society are permeable is, as social identity research has shown, profoundly demobilising for subordinated groups in society. Indeed it tells them to ignore the group and set off in an individual quest for personal advancement. But of course Obama is not John Bolton, and the American Dream is only one side of his appeal. The other side is a reading of ‘Yes we can’ which is clear later in his speech where he echoes Martin Luther King’s famous ‘I have a dream’ address: ‘The road ahead will be long. Our climb will be steep. We may not get there in one year or even one term, but America – I have never been more hopeful than I am tonight that we will get there. I promise you – we as a people will get there.’ This is a rhetoric which carries with it the three key ingredients which facilitate collective mobilisation. First it emphasises the lack of permeability and the existence of barriers which require collective action (rather than emphasising permeability which allows for individual mobility). Second it stresses the legitimacy of the cause (and hence the illegitimacy of existing inequalities). There is a sense of collective entitlement which is central to the original Spanish version of Obama’s slogan ‘Si se puede’ (used by Cesar Chavez in the 1960s as a slogan for organising farm workers in California): a combination of ‘Yes we can’ and ‘Yes we may’. Third, there is a sense of possibility, of strength and the prospect of building a new world. In the language of social identity, this is a rhetoric of cognitive alternatives. All together, the contrast is between a reading of ‘Yes we can’ that separates Americans into equal individuals living in a world that is fair in the here and now and one that unites people in a collective force dedicated to creating a fair world in the future. Two visions. Two psychologies. Which one will come to predominate? Steve Reicher is at the University of St Andrews. Alex Haslam is at the University of Exeter. This column aims to prompt discussion concerning psychological issues in the real world.

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Negative effects of polluted air apparent in cognition high levels of industry and traffic (some London districts reach similarly high levels, but only on certain days of the year). By contrast, Polotitlan enjoys relatively clean air. There were no differences in the educational backgrounds of the mothers of the children from the two cities and all of the households had kitchens separate from living and sleeping areas. Crucially, the researchers found that after adjusting for age differences, the children in Mexico City demonstrated significantly poorer cognitive test performance compared with the sociodemographically matched children in Polotitlan. Fluid cognition, memory, and executive functions were particularly affected, with city of origin accounting for between two to six per cent of the variance in performance.

From Kosovo to Luton The University of Bedfordshire has welcomed staff from the University of Pristina in Kosovo as part of a special EU project to train a new generation of psychologists. The project, part of the Tempus scheme (tinyurl.com/tempus), is designed to improve Kosovo’s postgraduate psychology curriculum in the wake of the genocide. It is being delivered by a European consortium led by Dr Ian Robertson, Head of Psychology at the University of Bedfordshire. During their visit, the lecturers and new graduates from Pristina attended Postgraduate Certificate in Academic Practice sessions, as well as workshops on identifying academic sources and clinical instruments that would be relevant in clinical psychology master’s teaching and research.

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Dr Robertson told The Psychologist that he has been ‘very impressed by the knowledge and dedication of the visitors. It’s dealing with the infrastructure that is harder: we’ve also equipped a new teaching laboratory in the University of Pristina with IT equipment and psychometric tests. But dealing with constant electricity cuts is quite a challenge!’ The project is also helping to establish a Kosovan Psychological Society and to publicise the role of psychologists in education and in dealing with trauma. Dr Robertson says that coordinating a Tempus project is a ‘big job. But there is much to be done to initiate the process of post-war recovery in Kosovo, and this project constitutes a good starting point.’ JS

JOHN NEUBAUER/LONELY PLANET IMAGES

A ground-breaking pilot study conducted in Mexico City suggests air pollution isn’t just a threat to pulmonary and cardiovascular health – it can also have serious effects on brain maturation, thereby putting at risk children’s future mental health (Brain and Cognition; http://tinyurl.com/6xm5qw). Psychologist and co-author on the study Professor Randall Engle (Georgia Institute of Technology) told The Psychologist that he’d like governments to pay more attention to the effects of environmental pollution on cognition and behaviour, not just disease states. However, he conceded that ‘the present paper is limited in what a careful scientist would conclude’. Engle, together with lead author Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas of the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría in Mexico City, and a team of over 20 other colleagues, tested the cognitive functioning and scanned the brains of 55 clinically healthy, nine-year-old, middle class children in Mexico City and 18 similarly healthy, ten-year-old middle class children in Polotitlan city. Mexico City has extremely high levels of particulate matter pollution in the air due to its local geography combined with

Engle told us that he expects these cognitive differences to be increased when a larger investigation is repeated and ‘once we use the right “microscope” of cognitive measures that reflect the components of cognition rather than the global measures used in this study.’ Together with the psychometric data, 20 of the 36 children from Mexico City also had their brains scanned, revealing signs of lesions to the front of their brains. By contrast, just one of the 13 children from Polotitlan who also underwent scanning had similar lesions. This evidence of brain damage in the pollution-exposed children was supported by neuropathological examination of healthy dogs exposed to the Mexico City air, who also showed signs of frontal brain damage when compared with dogs from the clean air city of Tlaxcala. The pollution-exposed dogs also showed signs of upregulation of two important inflammatory genes known to be associated with brain injury and neurodegeneration. The researchers propose that air pollution causes a sustained state of brain inflammation, in turn leading to widespread and diffuse vascular pathology. This could affect the development of the subcortical pathways that link the frontal and prefrontal cortex with areas crucial for cognition, including functions such as working memory. ‘The issue of air pollution causing cognitive deficits and brain structural changes in healthy children with all their

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Boost for child mental health services Child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) are to benefit from a package of government measures, including a National Advisory Council and extra support for children in schools. Children’s Secretary Ed Balls said: ‘The CAMHS review sets out a clear vision of how we can intervene early where signs of severe mental health issues such as selfharm indicate a mental health problem. Where there are early signs of severe behavioural problems, parents need to know who they can turn to and that everything will be done to support them.’ Health Secretary Alan Johnson said he has asked the Council for an update on progress in one year. ‘I want to hear that services for children with mental health problems have improved dramatically in that time.’ Key recommendations of the report were access to high-quality, timely and responsive mental health and psychological well-being services that span the full spectrum of needs; effective transitional arrangements for young adults who are approaching 18 and who are being supported by CAMHS; and for all local areas to set out a clear description of the services that are available. Professor Peter Kinderman, Chair of the British Psychological Society’s Standing Committee for Psychologists in Health and Social Care, said: ‘The Society has consistently called for this kind of

investment in our young people, and this announcement is excellent news. I’m sure that applied psychologists, who provide many of these services, will help in whatever ways we can.’ Dr Paul Wallis, Chair of the Society’s Faculty for Children and Young People, added: ‘Investment which signals a move towards more coherent, organised and nationally agreed standards for CAMHS is long overdue. There is an urgent need for greater education and skills training regarding the understanding and early identification of psychological difficulties for young people and their families. CAMHS services need to cover the age range of children and young people from early years, schools and transitional services. They also need to ensure delivery to children, young people and families/carers, who may have complex additional needs. I’m sure that our membership will continue working to promote these aims. ’ However, Simon Lawton Smith, Head of Policy at the Mental Health Foundation, said that the review ‘suggests no new policy, and makes no major suggestions for structural changes…it is primarily a plea to implement existing policy.’ He added that the Council ‘will only have an impact if it is given some teeth and can hold the government properly to account.’ JS

potential consequences ought to be of major public importance,’ the researchers wrote. They also warned that the effects of air pollution could have long-lasting consequences: ‘Alterations in measures of fluid intelligence and cognitive control predict school performance, complex learning, ability to control attention and avoid distraction, reading and listening comprehension, reasoning, and of key importance from the social point of view: the ability to block impulsive anti-social behaviour.’ Dr Brian Stollery, a psychologist and expert in neurotoxicology based at the University of Bristol, said that while the possible ‘neurodegenerative effects’ of air pollution remain under explored, there were some important methodological

flaws in the current study. One key issue not addressed by the paper is the fact that air pollution often correlates with noise pollution, with the latter known to affect children’s reading comprehension and digit span performance. Another issue was the paper’s failure to explain on what basis the subset of children who were brainscanned were selected. Stollery added, however, that ‘it is essential to achieve a balance between the never-ending search for confounders and the existing evidence of impaired function. The issues raised by the paper are clear and have a obvious public health significance – and like the issue with childhood lead exposure, small changes in the distribution of IQ have large consequences at a population level.’ CJ

I www.dcsf.gov.uk/camhsreview

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UNITED NATIONS BRIEFING Professor David Uzzell (University of Surrey) was invited to speak at the United Nations in November. An audience of Member States, United Nations officials and psychologists heard him talk on the subject of ‘Human Behavior and Climate Change: A Social Justice Issue’ as part of a half-day briefing on ‘Psychology and Social Justice Related to the UN Global Agenda’. Professor Uzzell said: ‘The purpose of the briefing session was to inform the UN about current applied psychological and social research on the mitigation of climate change, the adaptation to changing environments and the reduction of suffering especially in respect of physical and mental health. The meeting also identified priority areas for future research.’ Uzzell was invited to represent the international psychological community by the American Psychological Association and nine other international psychological associations. I Next month’s Psychologist will feature articles on environmental issues, by David Uzzell and others.

GENE SCANS AND HEALTH BEHAVIOUR The promise of genetic screening raises a pressing question for health psychology – just how much will knowledge of their dispositions to disease change people's behaviours? A new large-scale study, backed by a consortium involving Scripps Translational Science Institute (STSI: www.stsiweb.org), Navigenics Inc., Affymetrix and Microsoft, aims to find out. Up to 10,000 staff, family and friends of the Scripps Health Care system in San Diego will be offered the chance to have their genes scanned, after which their behaviours will be assessed for the next 20 years. ‘Our study will prospectively evaluate the effect that state-of-the-art gene scans have on people’s lifestyles, behaviours, diets and psyches,’ said Eric J. Topol, director of STSI and the study's principal investigator.

BUSINESS AWARD System Concepts, an independent usability, health, safety and ergonomics consultancy, was a finalist in the National Business Awards 2008 in the category Health, Work and Wellbeing Award for Small Business. System Concepts joint MD and Chartered Psychologist Tom Stewart explained: ‘We believe that organisations benefit from putting people first – in designing their products, software and websites, and looking after their employees. We practise what we preach and are delighted to have been short-listed for this award and have our efforts to improve the well-being of our staff recognised.’

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IN BRIEF

From the Society for Neuroscience, 15–19 November, Washington, DC I An afternoon nap could boost your associative memory skills. William Fishbein and Hiuyan Lau (City University of New York) tested participants’ ability to remember the English meanings of Chinese characters they’d learned earlier and to determine the meaning of unfamiliar characters that shared graphical elements called ‘radicals’ with the learned characters. Participants who took a nap between the learning and testing phase of the study were better able to identify the meaning of the unfamiliar characters. The findings suggest that a nap helps people connect separate and discrete pieces of information and to extract general concepts. I Brain imaging has revealed the neural power of enduring love. Bianca Acevedo (State University of New York) and colleagues found that the same brain regions associated with addictive reward were activated when either long-term lovers (still in love after an average of 21 years’ marriage) or short-term lovers (together for an average of seven months) viewed images of their partners. ‘Those who experience long-term romantic love continue to crave union with their spouses and remain highly motivated to maintain, enhance and protect their relationships, just like those in earlystage intense romantic love,’ said co-author Helen Fisher (Rutgers University). I A molecular mechanism has been identified that might explain the long-lasting effects of childhood maltreatment into adulthood. Tania Roth and David Sweatt (University of Alabama at Birmingham) found that newborn rats raised by a stressed caregiver rat subsequently showed signs of what’s called DNA methylation in their amygdala, right the way through into adulthood. Specifically, this ‘epigenetic’ chemical modification was found on the DNA associated with brainderived neurotrophic factor – a protein that is important for the development of new brain cells and the support of existing ones. ‘This now opens the door for future studies to explore the significance of these epigenetic changes on [human] adolescent and adult emotional well-being,’ Roth said, ‘and to explore the efficacy of drugs aimed at reversing such epigenetic marks and addressing the behavioural deficits resulting from early mistreatment.’ I The reward areas of cocaine addicts’ brains are activated by 33 millisecond, subliminal presentation of drug-related paraphernalia, such as crack pipes and chunks of cocaine. Moreover, those addicts whose brains responded more to the subliminal presentation subsequently reported the strongest craving when shown visible cues. Anna Childress (University of Pennsylvania) and colleagues who made the new findings, said the areas activated by drug cues overlapped with brain areas normally activated by sexual images. I Here’s a tip if you don’t want to gamble your money away – stay clear of online casinos and other betting opportunities when you haven’t had a decent night’s sleep. Vinod Venkatraman (Duke University) and colleagues found that after 24 hours without sleep, participants were drawn more to the possibility of large gains yet unfazed by the risk of heavy losses, compared with when they played the same gambling game after a good night’s sleep. Moreover, these differences were supported by brain-imaging data showing that sleep deprivation altered the participants’ neural responses to losses and gains. ‘The advent of online gambling and 24-hour casinos has given us unprecedented opportunities for gambling into the night,’ said Venkatraman. ‘We’re fighting more than just the unfavourable odds of the gambling machines.’ CJ

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Untoward effects of buggies The most popular style of baby buggies – those that face away from the pusher, could be impacting negatively on children’s development. According to a new study for the National Literacy Trust, children in such buggies are significantly less likely to talk, laugh and interact with their parents, than are those in buggies that face the pusher. The research, an observational study of 2722 parent–infant pairs across the country, was carried out for the ‘Talk To Your Baby’ early language campaign by developmental psychologist Dr Suzanne Zeedyk (Dundee University). She also carried out a smaller experimental study of 20 babies being wheeled in pushchairs across a one-mile stretch in the centre of Dundee. Half the journey was spent in an awayfacing buggy and half in a toward-facing buggy. Dr Zeedyk said: ‘These studies have highlighted a number of questions we could and should be asking, both in the literature and in society. For example, there’s a socioeconomic implication: toward-facing buggies are more expensive. The experimental work was done to see the extent to which changing the direction of a buggy really changes interaction. The results showed that, simply by turning the buggy into a toward-facing position, parents’ rate of talking to their baby doubled. Babies’ heart rates also fell, and they were twice as likely to fall asleep in this orientation, both of

which could be taken as possible indicators of reduced stress levels.’ The study was described as the first ever study on the psychological effects of buggies, and Dr Zeedyk said: ‘Even as a developmental psychologist, this was not an issue I had previously thought about, and I was surprised to find that no-one else seemed to have investigated it either. There were no reports we could find in the literature. Given everything we now know about the sophistication and lasting impact of early parent–infant interaction, it seems a great candidate for illustrating and even testing some of our developmental theories. Maybe we haven’t looked at it more closely because away-facing buggies have become so normal in our Western culture. It makes sense that if you can’t see the baby, you are going to talk to it less. The important point is that if babies spend a long time in buggies without parents interacting with them, this is likely to influence a number of areas of development – language, self-

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regulation, stress and neurology, among others.’ The research received extensive and global coverage. Although Dr Zeedyk reports that the response was largely positive, she also said: ‘The press turned this into a scarethe-parents story, which undermines one of the aims that the National Literacy Trust had in commissioning the work to give parents some information about how to choose amongst buggies on the market. I wasn’t surprised, but it was still frustrating. The findings become yet another thing for parents to worry about, when they have enough of that already. We have tried to stress in our interviews that the key message to be taken from this work is to talk to your baby – whatever kind of buggy you have at the moment. And also – if there is any chance at all that baby buggies do affect infant development, then don’t we want to know more about that, as a society and as researchers? I mean, the whole country is being raised in them.’ JS I For the full research report, see tinyurl.com/5js7yv

New guidelines for older people’s well-being The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has published new guidelines on promoting mental well-being in people aged 65 years and over. The guidance, which is aimed at health professionals and lay carers, recommends that older people are offered regular group or individual sessions encouraging them to ‘identify, construct, rehearse and carry out daily routines and activities that help to maintain or improve their health and wellbeing’. Other recommendations concern the development of tailored exercise regimes by physiotherapists and other professionals; community exercise programmes; local walking schemes; and training for a range of professionals in the principles and methods of occupational therapy and health and well-being

promotion, as well as effective communication skills to engage with older people and their carers. Professor Catherine Law, Chair of the Public Health Interventions Advisory Committee (PHIAC) at NICE and Professor of Public Health and Epidemiology, UCL Institute of Child Health, said there is evidence that many older people live with low levels of life satisfaction and well-being: 40 per cent of older people attending GP surgeries, and 60 per cent living in residential institutions are reported to have ‘poor’ mental health. ‘All

Forensic mental health research ‘at risk’ The ‘fragile’ forensic mental health research community is at risk following closure at the end of 2007 of the NHS Forensic Mental Health R&D Programme. That’s according to Keith Soothill of Lancaster University and colleagues who said researchers in this field in England will now have to compete with all other health sectors for funding, rather than having their own ring-fenced funds to apply for. The warning came as the group published their analysis of the relative success of the different professions in obtaining funding through the 12-year history of the NHS R&D Programme (Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology: tinyurl.com/5rjmoq).

Somewhat worryingly for psychology, psychologists were found proportionately to be the least successful grant bidders, despite being the most prolific – they had a 13 per cent success rate versus a 51 per cent success rate for psychiatrists. Psychiatry also tended to dominate in terms of named principal investigators, with psychiatrists filling 63 per cent of these roles compared with psychologists filling 14 per cent. ‘This may be because psychiatrists produced better proposals and focused on topics more welcome to the advisory committee,’ the authors wrote, ‘or it may be that the committee was, albeit unconsciously, biased towards accepting proposals from psychiatrists.’ CJ

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people coming into contact with older people, including health and social care professionals, have the potential to promote and maintain physical activity, health and independence, factors frequently mentioned by older people as important to their mental well-being,’ she said. CJ

COGNITIVE BENEFITS OF VIDEO GAMES Bad news for casual video-gamers – psychologists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have failed to replicate many of the previously reported cognitive benefits of short-term game playing (Acta Psychologica: tinyurl.com/68jw64). Walter Boot and colleagues found that 20 hours playing three genres of video game brought no benefits to non-gamers, with one exception: the puzzle game Tetris led to improvements in mental rotation ability. Meanwhile, a group of expert gamers outperformed the non-gamers on a number of mental tasks, including those involving object tracking and visual short-term memory. Together the findings suggest that cognitive benefits from video-game playing require far more extensive practice, or that people with superior cognitive skills are more likely to play video games – thus explaining the positive findings of some earlier studies. CJ

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FALLING SUICIDE RATES Rates of suicide among young people showed a sharp decline between 1997 and 2003, according to a new study (Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry: tinyurl.com/6ehw4z). The decline among 10- to 19-year-olds was 28 per cent compared with 8 per cent among adults. The most striking drop (35 per cent) was among young males, although they remain the most atrisk group. Of the 1722 suicides by young people during the study period, just 14 per cent had been in contact with mental health services – with young males the least likely to make contact of all. Kirsten Windfuhr of the Centre for Suicide Prevention, University of Manchester, and her colleagues who conducted the study, said they could only speculate about the reasons for the decline, with greater prosperity and increased use of anti-depressants as possible explanations. ‘In particular, [future] research should be focused on the barriers which prevent young males from seeking help,’ Windfuhr said.

DEBT DIFFICULTIES In response to the ongoing financial crisis, the Royal College of Psychiatrists is planning to send a special booklet Final Demand – Debt and Mental Health to 100,000 mental health professionals on how better to support people with debt and mental health problems. The Final Demand booklet doesn’t expect health workers to become debt experts, but describes the big differences workers can make by knowing and doing small things. Professor Dinesh Bhugra, President of the Royal College of Psychiatrists, said: ‘Research and clinical experience tells us that the more debts people have, the more likely they are to have a mental health problem. Health and social care professionals are well placed to help their patients during these difficult times.’ I The booklet, funded by the Financial Services Authority, is due to be mailed out early this year and is also available online at tinyurl.com/5wcgn3

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Not punching our weight Humanities and Social Science disciplines are not ‘punching their weight’ in contributing to public policy making, according to a new report from the British Academy. A working party, chaired by Professor Sir Alan Wilson, took extensive soundings from both policy makers and academics. Both sides were in agreement that a greater contribution was needed, especially as the challenges confronting policy makers are growing in complexity. Sustainability and well-being are cited as examples of these complex challenges, and the report says that ‘interdisciplinary research involving culture, economics and psychology has begun to uncover a complex and subtle picture of individual motivation. In so doing, it has pointed to ways in which the efficacy of government policy can be enhanced, sometimes by stepping in, say, to set default options, but often by stepping back and delegating power to significant figures and institutions capable of influencing individuals’ behaviour.’ The report makes 20 practical

recommendations designed to improve dialogue, innovation and knowledge transfer between leading academics and policy makers in Westminster, Whitehall, the devolved administrations and town halls and other public bodies. They include reducing the high proportion of Government research budgets which, contrary to the Government’s own guidelines, is allocated to short-term projects; strengthening Government departments’ peer review mechanisms to ensure they commission the highest quality research; and improving training for PhD students to meet the future needs of policy makers and other user communities. Universities are also called upon to take more account of public policy engagement in their criteria for academic promotion; and Government departments are advised to set and publish targets to increase two-way secondments with Universities and research organisations. JS I To download the report, see www.britac.ac.uk/reports/wilson/index.cfm

Social identity showcase The ESRC-funded research programme on Identities and Social Action, directed by Professor Margaret Wetherell (Open University) came to an end in December. The five-year programme consisted of 25 research projects, bringing together expertise across the social sciences. Clarifying relationships The programme was the most over-subscribed in the ESRC’s history, with over 330 applications. Nine of Professor Wetherell told the successful bids were led by us: ‘This research did much social psychologists, and the to clarify the relationship programme became a major between identity and social show case for the latest action, demonstrating, for research from social identity instance, how women’s theorists, conversation analysts identifications with their and discursive psychologists, mothers were acted out in psychoanalytically influenced relation to their own babies psychosocial researchers, and how more complex and experimental social multi-layered senses of identity psychologists and moderate group conflict. The ethnographers (see discursive research was able to www.identities.org.uk for show in detail how particular the key findings). social categorisations of

oneself and others impact on what can happen next in the interaction, with consequences for the identities people can carry forward. A number of studies focused on affect and the ways in which group-based emotions drive responses and, indeed, how whole communities construct affective environments for their members with implications for coping with collective trauma.’ Much of the research attracted a great deal of media and policy interest. The findings on mixing in Northern Ireland, and in England around young children’s integration patterns, were taken up by the Commission on Integration and Cohesion. Research on young people’s drinking patterns provided some key data and analysis confounding the usual tenor of alcohol advice. JS

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Perinatal depression carries severe consequences for mothers and their infants yet tends to go untreated in many developing countries. However, a new study found that rates of perinatal depression were more than halved simply by integrating a cognitive behaviour therapybased intervention into the routine work of communitybased primary health workers in rural Pakistan (The Lancet: tinyurl.com/6d3gkd). Professor Atif Rahman (University of Liverpool) and colleagues trained primary health workers attending to 463 mothers, while untrained health workers made an equal

number of visits to a control group of 440 mothers. At six months follow-up, 53 per cent of mothers in the control condition still had depression versus 23 per cent of mothers in the intervention group – an effect that was sustained at 12 months. Other benefits included greater uptake of immunisation and contraception. ‘This intervention has the potential of providing mental health care at the doorstep to a very high proportion of women with this highly prevalent and disabling mental disorder in Pakistan and other lowincome countries,’ the researchers said. CJ

Bullies’ brains When aggressive children with a history of bullying, thieving and lying see someone in pain, their brains respond differently from the way the brains of children without such a history do (Biological Psychology: tinyurl.com/ 6jjnrt). Lead researcher Jean Decety at the University of Chicago said this was the first brain-imaging study of its kind and that the work ‘will help us better understand ways to work with juveniles inclined to aggression and violence’. Decety and her co-workers scanned the brains of eight children diagnosed with conduct disorder (CD) aged between 16 and 18 years and eight healthy, age-matched controls while they viewed brief photographic animations of people experiencing painful situations that were either accidental (e.g. trapping their fingers in a car door) or intentional (e.g. a person stamping on someone’s foot). Contrary to theories that have suggested children who bully may have an empathy

deficit, children with CD actually showed a greater response to scenes of accidental pain than did control children. Specifically, there was greater activation in the amygdala, ventral striatum and temporal poles of the children with conduct disorder. The researchers said this may represent activity associated with sadistic pleasure, but other interpretations cannot be ruled out. In response to scenes of intentionally inflicted pain, the brains of the controls showed greater activity in several regions relative to the children with CD, including areas associated with moral reasoning, theory of mind and emotional regulation – for example, there was less coupling between the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala. One interpretation is that seeing someone in distress provokes negative affect in all children, but those with conduct disorder are unable to cognitively regulate this and so respond aggressively. CJ

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RESEARCH FUNDING NEWS The Department of Health has a call for the evaluation of the Healthy Community Challenge Fund, a key commitment within the Healthy Weight, Healthy Lives strategy. The evaluation will explore the implementation of the initiative at local level and scope possibilities for further studies to assess the impact of the interventions. The closing date for applications is 23 January 2009. I tinyurl.com/653zm5 The Medical Research Council is offering Collaborative Grants within Phase 2 of the Lifelong Health and Wellbeing initiative. The focus of this major cross-council initiative is to drive forward innovative, highquality, multidisciplinary research in the following areas: I mental capital, mental health and well-being; I markers for the ageing process; I interactions between determinants of healthy ageing; and I interventions that promote healthy ageing and independence in later life. Collaborative teams must be truly multidisciplinary and involve partnerships with practitioners, policy makers, industry and the public. Funding of up to £7 million is available over five years. The closing date for applications is 12 February 2009. I tinyurl.com/5h9d3 The British Council co-funds and administers a series of research partnership programmes linking UK-based scientists with countries across Europe. I The Partnership Programme in Science in the Netherlands offers funding for research visits, workshops and seminars for UK/NL participants. The next deadline for applications is 16 March 2009. www.britishcouncil.org/netherlands-pps-netherlands.htm I The Partnership Programme in Science in Belgium offers similar funding and the next deadline is 21 March 2009. www.britishcouncil.org/netherlands-pps-belgium.htm COST (European Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research) has an open call for new Actions (activities). COST’s main objective is to stimulate new, innovative and interdisciplinary scientific networks in Europe via meetings, conferences, short-term scientific exchanges and outreach activities (COST does not fund the research projects themselves). Domains of activity include Biomedical and Molecular Biosciences, and Individuals, Society, Culture and Health. The next closing date for preliminary proposals is 27 March 2009. I www.cost.esf.org/index.php?id=opencall ERAB, the independent European Research Advisory Board for alcohol research offer the following funding opportunities: I Research Grants to fund biomedical and psychosocial research into beer and alcohol. Funding of up to €60,000 is available. www.erab.org/asp/research_grants/l1.asp?doc_id=30 I Travel Awards to help young researchers (under the age of 35) attend and present at conferences, both inside (€750) and outside Europe (€1500); and Exchange Awards for exchange visits for young researchers. Funding of up to €2500 is available. www.erab.org/asp/awards/l1.asp?doc_id=32 The closing date for all the schemes is 30 March 2009.

info

CBT in Pakistan

For more, see www.bps.org.uk/funds Funding bodies should e-mail news to Elizabeth Beech on elibee@bps.org.uk for possible inclusion

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Therapy for therapists The majority of mental health professionals in America and Europe undergo therapy themselves. Moreover, most of those who do so report that it brings both professional and personal benefits. And yet a significant minority – between 20 and 25 per cent – consistently abstain from seeking therapy. In a new survey published in the Journal of Clinical Psychology (tinyurl.com/6xpe7n), John Norcross (University of Scranton) and colleagues found that 119 of 727

IMPORTANT WORK The evidence base for effective interventions for mental health problems is currently expanding at an impressive rate. In an attempt to ensure that clinical practice is guided by these findings, many government and professional bodies produce clinical guidelines for healthcare professionals. Now a special issue of Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice reviews the implementation of clinical guidelines across a range of key common mental health problems. Opening papers discuss the rationale and process for the development of clinical guidelines for mental health, along with the work of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. The remaining papers focus on the key implementation issues for some specific disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, selfharm, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Issues raised include the lack of evidence underlying recommendations, overgeneralised guidance, failure to make links to other guidelines in mental health, and the relative neglect of practice-based evidence that may have resulted in guidelines that lack substance in relation to important issues of service delivery. The editors say that the papers ‘indicate an important programme of work for clinical academic researchers across all areas of mental health provision’. JS

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psychotherapists had never undertaken therapy for themselves. The likelihood of having abstained did not vary with profession (psychologist, social worker, or counsellor) or with gender, but did vary with therapeutic orientation. Cognitive behavioural therapists were significantly more likely to have abstained from therapy than humanistic or psychodynamic therapists. Abstainers tended to rate therapy as less important for training and CPD and to say that they

dealt with stress in other ways, including having ample support from friends and co-workers. Just 31 per cent of the therapy abstainers said they would be somewhat or very likely to consider therapy in the future, with loss of a loved one or loss of personal function cited as the likely motivation for doing so. ‘These reasons are nearly identical to the presenting problems of psychotherapists actually receiving personal treatment,’ the researchers said. CJ

International self-harm data The CASE (Child and Adolescent Self-harm in Europe) Study, involving more than 30,000 teenagers has reported its results (tinyurl.com/3oywy4). The study was conducted in six European countries – Belgium, England, Hungary, Ireland, the Netherlands and Norway – and in Australia. Three in ten girls and one in ten boys said they had self-harmed over the last year, or thought about doing so. Overall, cutting was the most common form of self-harm. The most

frequently cited reason for engaging in self-harm was to ‘to get relief from a terrible state of mind’ followed by ‘to die’. Many teenagers said they

did not attend hospital or tell anyone what they’d done. Lead researcher, psychologist Nicola Madge of Brunel University, said the findings showed selfharm is ‘an international, widespread yet often hidden problem, particularly among young girls. What’s needed now is more research into the factors that prevent self-harm thoughts leading to action, and the distinctions between those who harm themselves with and without suicidal intent.’ CJ

Reviving hypnosis Overshadowed by its on-stage cousin, clinical hypnosis has struggled to be taken seriously. The British Medical Association published a favourable report on hypnosis in 1955, but somehow this failed to spark much of a revival. Now the clinical hypnotherapist Ursula James, a visiting fellow at Oxford University Medical School, has written a paper describing the Medical School Hypnosis Association (MSHA), which

she founded recently in the hope of reinvigorating quality research into the procedure (tinyurl.com/5v86gp). The MSHA is an entirely independent body with no affiliation to a profit-making training school. ‘The aim is not only to facilitate highquality research,’ James writes, ‘but to create an arena where medical and nonmedical practitioners of hypnotherapy can forge links at a local level, thus allowing doctors to have

access to skilled clinical hypnosis practitioners to whom they can also refer privately.’ James told us she’d welcome contact from any psychologists interested in research in the this area. ‘The more rigorous, multidisciplinary research takes place, the sooner this technique can be standardised and incorporated into mainstream therapeutic techniques,’ she said. CJ

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An inspirational day Jon Sutton reports from the British Psychological Society’s Annual Student Lectures, held at Manchester Town Hall on 25 November

A German market and a huge inflatable Father Christmas served as the gateway to Manchester Town Hall for this event; appropriately so, as inside the assembled audience was served some fascinating fare that tackled some popular myths. First up was Dr Mark Levine (Lancaster University), setting his sights on ‘one of the few things that social psychology considers as a fact given away to the world – the more bystanders present, the less likely an individual is to help’. The starter for the largely sixthform and undergraduate audience was one of their staples, the Kitty Genovese case (see also ‘Foundations of sand?’, September 2008). Levine showed that there is no evidence there were 38 witnesses, or that people watched. There is also evidence of bystander intervention – no mean feat in a rowdy area in the days before an emergency number to call. Levine argued that the power of the Kitty Genovese myth was that it ‘populates the psychological imagination’ – in other words, we spend our time worrying about the dangers of the group and fail to consider how groups can be used to promote helping. Moving on to his own studies, Levine showed how making group identity salient to people – for example, as a ‘football fan’ rather than a ‘Manchester United fan’ – can ‘extend the boundaries of helpfulness’. According to Levine, groups are an untapped resource for dealing with violence: his analysis of violent incidents in CCTV footage suggests they already tend to act to ‘deescalate’. What’s most important is the ‘collective choreography’ of the group, particularly the ‘third turn’ in the violence sequence: if the third person to intervene reinforces the ‘leave it’ message of the first two, it’s likely that violence will be avoided. As Professor Stephen Joseph (University of Nottingham) acknowledged, ‘It’s hard to follow clips of people being beaten up in the street.’ His message was a positive one, that sometimes people spring back from traumatic events with changes in perspective, self-perception and relationships. In his study of survivors of the Herald of Free Enterprise disaster, 43 per cent said their views of life had changed for the better. Such growth can

go hand in hand with post-traumatic stress, but it predicts less subsequent distress. It’s associated with personality factors (optimism, extraversion, hardiness, spirituality) and social factors (disclosure, emotional coping, relationships and social support). Joseph’s recent survey of cancer patients revealed high rates of positive growth, and he closed with the thought that trauma is like a snow dome: you get shaken up, but your life will resettle, often in an equally beautiful way. After lunch, Professor Angela Clow (University of Westminster) looked at stress, happiness and health – the cortisol connection. Kicking off with the famous nun study and the work of Sheldon

Cohen, Clow showed how stress – and higher overall levels of cortisol – is associated with poor physical health. People with higher levels of cortisol don’t show as much habituation to psychosocial threat, and the level of response could go right back to birth weight. Clow described cortisol as ‘like a 24-hour heartbeat’, and she ended with a case study of a teacher: high levels throughout the working day and during the following evening, but a full recovery to normative values at the weekend. Next up was Professor Johannes Zanker (Royal Holloway University of London: see www.pc.rhul.ac.uk/staff/ J.Zanker), who described himself as ‘not a conventional psychologist’. He has spent a lot of his life studying aerodynamics in flies, and is now putting this to use in investigations of motion vision. Consideration of how flies are such masters, despite having 1 mg to our 1.5 kg of ‘brain porridge’, has led Zanker

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to a simple computational model that encapsulates the fundamental operations of motion processing. Inspired by the paintings of Bridget Riley, Zanker has created his own ‘slowly growing illusions of incoherent motion’. He calls these ‘riloids’, and he has used them to demonstrate the importance of background luminance and the small saccades of the eyes in eliciting motion effects. He has also used the computational model as a design tool to generate new illusions to baffle and irritate. ‘The bottom line’, said Zanker, ‘is that you should never trust your eyes again.’ Gamely taking on the graveyard shift was Professor Charlie Lewis (University of Lancaster). We couldn’t have asked for more, as Lewis presented new data taking apart an established theory that addresses perhaps the biggest question of all – What makes us human? According to Lewis, hundreds of studies have supported the idea of a ‘magical transformation’ in a child’s ‘theory of mind’ skills at around the age of four. This evidence has influenced discussions on primatology, and clinical conditions such as autism. But, Lewis said, ‘the magical age can be undermined if you do your research well enough’. His view is that theory of mind is a reflection of gradually developing skills acquired in interactions. Immersing the child in this interaction through a narrative version of the false belief task, as his ex-PhD student Joanna Lunn has, can allow many children to pass the test one or two years before the expected date. Another PhD student, Jim Stack, is producing a developmental account of recent findings that 14-month-old infants show evidence of false belief understanding. ‘This toddler’, Lewis said after a video, ‘shows just what it is that makes us human – a biological imperative to engage in harmonious interactions, and a gradually developing understanding of these interactions.’ Describing the research, Lewis commented: ‘This is what gets me up at five in the morning.’ What a fitting end to an inspirational day for the future generation of psychologists.

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MEDIA

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All aboard the brain train Chris Moulin (brain age 35) on a recent fad

here has been an excess of brain-training adverts on television in the run up to Christmas. It seems that what ageing celebrities such as Kidman, Keating et al. want for Christmas is a mental age below their actual years. These adverts seem ageist: it’s all about the numbers. I think psychologists have more-or-less abandoned this retarded mental age approach. What’s the point in having a brain age of 40 when the reading age of our most popular newspaper is said to be between 9 and 12? Perhaps we could index any improvement in terms of mental age – and use this offensive shorthand for all our

T

achievements and declines? Up until you’re 18 you could work hard to have a mental age in advance of your chronological age. When you got to your peak (Lehman found this was between 30 and 40 for psychologists) you’d start to want a mental age less than your chronological age. Imagine we had conversational brain training – parents could hope for their adolescents to have a conversational brain age of 30; older people could learn about Facebook and get back to their early twenties. The varieties of the training franchise seem ridiculous. Now there’s vision training – who’d have thought

that staring at a tiny computer screen and poking it with a plastic stick would lead to good eyesight? Is it fair to let people think that merely becoming practised on a task results in lowering their mental age and swelling their grey matter? Does being practised at one thing help you do other things? I haven’t heard anyone clamouring for these products to be properly tested – although there is some tangential evidence for useit-or-lose-it as a general principle and of computer gamers having faster reaction times on all kinds of things. I would welcome some Bad Science furore over the brain-training movement. It has all the usual hallmarks of these exploitative alternative therapies – a lack of a solid evidence base or specific trials and a prominent ‘Dr’ figure, in this case, Kawashima (if you Google him, he does seem to be a principled and well-qualified proponent). Plus, it is now the

Election fever rom the personality of political F persuasion to post-election comedown, journalists covering the 2008 US

contribute

election looked to psychologists for explanation and insight. The Irish Times cited a study that found certain personality traits can predict liberal or conservative views, and that these are reflected in voters’ choice of dog! For those voting on more than just their political persuasion, the media satisfied the public’s need for information by dissecting the appearance, clothes, age and family circumstances of every candidate. In this vein, the York Daily Record reported on a study by Princeton

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The Media page is co-ordinated by the Society’s Press Committee, with the aim of promoting

psychologist Alexander Todorov that asked students to make judgements of candidates’ competence based on splitsecond glances at their faces. Psychologists were also asked to comment on the impact that the current economic crisis could have, with several claiming that a lack of confidence in financial markets had created a need for hope, optimism and change. Many commentators predicted that low turnout of key voters would have a major effect, and so journalists asked psychologists to explain why people do or do not turn out to vote. The Chicago Tribune featured input from the APA.

and discussing psychology in the media. If you would like to contribute, please contact the ‘Media’ page

coordinating editor, Ceri Parsons (Acting Chair, Press Committee), on C.Parsons@staffs.ac.uk

topic of a few documentaries and newspaper features. It was because of my previous cynical comments about brain training in such outlets that I was asked to help ITV’s Tonight programme. This presented me with something of a quandary – I wanted to voice my cynicism to the largest audience possible, but I also felt I didn’t want to design a rubbishy twofamily trial of brain training for the telly. In the end, I let them put their money where their mouth was – I asked them to pay the going University of Leeds consultancy rate for my involvement. I haven’t heard from them since. I turned my attention to a decent piece on Stroop for the BBC1 One Show, for free.

In the last few weeks of the election, many publications reported on the ‘Bradley effect’. This claims that people lie to pollsters to hide their inherent racist attitudes – attitudes that subsequently inform their vote – and pre-election polls might be flawed as a result. As round-the-clock coverage began on 4 November, CNN reported on scenes of camaraderie amongst voters. One psychologist commented: ‘Everyone is all one here, united under the common identity… Inside the boundaries of “we”, people treat each other well.’ As polls and predictions became state wins and house majorities, Sky News could not have been alone in ‘Psychoanalysing a new president’: Society member Professor Binna Kandola with an analysis of Obama’s personality, strengths and weaknesses. The coverage illustrated the public’s appetite for explanations of human behaviour. Events like this provide psychologists with a great opportunity to promote understanding to a vast and engaged audience. JOANNA COLBURN

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CHARTERED STATUS & STATUTORY REGULATION

20 MAY 2009

The HPC Register is due to open to psychologists in July 2009 (subject to final legislation). The deadline for applications for Chartered Status and Full Membership of a practitioner Division is midday on 20 May 2009. If elected, you will be transferred automatically to the HPC Register.

For full details visit www.bps.org.uk/membership

www.spc.ac.uk

Course details and application forms can be downloaded from our website. For a prospectus call 020 7487 7406 or email spc@regents.ac.uk

The School of Psychotherapy and Counselling Psychology is a centre of excellence, offering a range of academic and professional training in the fields of psychotherapy, counselling and counselling psychology from introductory to PhD level.

Courses starting in 2008/9 DCounsPsy (Professional Doctorate in Counselling Psychology) - VALIDATED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF WALES, BPS ACCREDITED A full-time training which can be completed in a minimum of 3 years. The programme enables trainees to fulfil the requirements for BPS Chartered Counselling Psychologist Status. It also fulfils an essential part of the route to professional registration with UKCP.

MA/Post-Graduate Diploma in Psychotherapy and Counselling - VALIDATED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF WALES The two-year course provides the second stage in professional and academic training for those working towards becoming registered psychotherapists. The course emphasises theoretical knowledge and practice-based clinical work, fulfilling an essential part of the route to professional registration with UKCP.

Advanced Diplomas in Existential or Integrative Psychotherapy These two-year courses lead to UKCP registration. They consist of academic, practical and experiential components providing a solid grounding in existential or integrative psychotherapy. These specialist trainings prepare participants for advanced professional work in private practice or institutional settings.

MPhil/PhD in Psychotherapy & Counselling Studies - VALIDATED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF WALES An opportunity to research in depth a topic of relevance to psychotherapy, psychology and/or counselling under the guidance of an expert academic supervisor. Research topics can be of a clinical, conceptual, philosophical or historical nature and may draw on any of the theoretical traditions of psychotherapy, psychology and counselling. Informal Advisory Meetings You are invited to attend one of our regular meetings which provide an opportunity to hear more about our training and to ask questions. Please call to reserve a place.

New Courses planned for 2008 Doctorate in Psychotherapy and Counselling; Short Courses; Advanced Diploma in Relational Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy; Diploma in CBT (Cognitive Behavioural Therapy)

School of Psychotherapy & Counselling Psychology Regent’s College, Inner Circle, Regent’s Park, London, NW1 4NS

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The School is a member of and registering organisation with The United Kingdom Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP)

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ARTICLE

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Stigma and help-seeking David L. Vogel and Nathaniel G. Wade explain that it’s not just about what others think

ne of the most common reasons for people to not seek treatment is concern about stigma. In the psychotherapy literature, stigma has generally referred to the public stigma of having a mental illness, with the clearest example being schizophrenia. Public stigma is society’s rejection of a person due to certain behaviours or physical appearances that are deemed unacceptable, dangerous or frightening. Although in most industrialised societies today the mentally ill are no longer overtly persecuted, there are clear indications of the presence of public stigma towards individuals with a mental illness. These perceptions of the mentally ill are not lost on those needing treatment and can lead to the hiding of mental health concerns and avoidance of treatment in an attempt to reduce the negative consequences associated with stigma (Corrigan, 2004). But what other forms of stigma might prevent people from seeking psychological services, and what can be done about them?

questions

The fear of being stigmatised by others often leads people to avoid professional help. This stigma can also be internalised, further reducing the likelihood of seeking help. Understanding these different forms of stigma can help psychologists target interventions at different levels to help people overcome the barriers to seeking help.

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What happens when public stigma is internalised? Why do people choose to continue to suffer from psychological problems even if professional help is readily available?

resource

Corrigan, P. (2005). On the stigma of mental illness: Practical strategies for research and social change. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

references

What is the perceived impact of seeking psychological help on the potential client?

Addis, M.E. & Mahalik, J.R. (2003). Men, masculinity, and the contexts of helpseeking. American Psychologist, 58, 5–14. Angermeyer, M.C., Matschinger, H. & Corrigan, P.W. (2004). Familiarity with mental illness and social distance from people with schizophrenia and major depression. Schizophrenia Research, 69, 175–182. Ben-Porath, D.D. (2002). Stigmatization

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Public stigma over help-seeking The public stigma attached to having a mental illness is not the only type of stigma that inhibits the decision to seek therapy. There is also a public stigma associated with seeking professional services, separate from the public stigma associated with mental illness. With this stigma, what one suffers from is less important than the simple behaviour of seeking psychological help, whether that

of individuals who receive psychotherapy. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 21, 400–413. Corrigan, P.W. (1994). How stigma interferes with mental health care. American Psychologist, 59, 614–625. Corrigan, P.W. & Calabrese, J.D. (2005). Strategies for assessing and diminishing self-stigma. In P.W. Corrigan (Ed.) On the stigma of mental illness. Practical strategies for

is for a chronic, diagnosable mental disorder or for processing the death of a loved one. Simply seeking professional psychological help appears to carry its own mark of disgrace. Research indicates that people tend to stigmatise clients more than they stigmatise non-clients. In scenario-based research, individuals described as depressed and having sought help were rated more emotionally unstable, less interesting, and less confident than those described as depressed and not seeking help (BenPorath, 2002). In addition, those who have sought help are more likely to report being stigmatised by others than those who have not (Jorm & Wright, 2008).

Self-stigma These are compelling findings. Public stigma regarding mental illness and seeking profession help has a significant impact on those who suffer from problems that could be treated. However, there is a growing awareness of a potent stigma that might be more directly related to negative experiences with mental illness and help-seeking. In contrast to the outward, otheroriented focus of public stigma, self-stigma has been described as an internal form of stigma, wherein one labels oneself as unacceptable because of having a mental health concern (Corrigan, 2004; Vogel et al., 2006). We originally conceived of selfstigma as the specific threat to one’s sense of self, including esteem, regard and confidence, that seeking psychological help might pose. We hypothesised that the more a person saw psychological help as a threat to their sense of worth, confidence or self-regard, the less likely they would be to seek out that help. The distinction between the public and self-stigma associated with seeking professional help allows for a more nuanced assessment of what people feel about their own psychological concerns and their treatment. Although perception of public stigma is likely to be related to self-stigma for many individuals, this does

research and social change (pp.239–256). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Corrigan, P.W. & Penn, D.L. (1999). Lessons from social psychology on discrediting psychiatric stigma. American Psychologist, 54, 765–776. Griffiths, K.M., Christensen, H., Jorm, A.F. et al. (2004). Effects of webbased depression literacy and cognitive-behavioral therapy

interventions on stigmatizing attitudes to depression. British Journal of Psychiatry, 185, 342–349. Hayward, P. & Bright, J.A. (1997). Stigma and mental illness: A review and critique. Journal of Mental Health, 6, 345–354. Jorm, A.F. & Wright, A. (2008). Influences on young people’s stigmatizing attitudes towards peers with mental disorders: National survey of young

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not have to be the case for everyone. Individuals might perceive the possibility of public stigma for seeking help (perhaps accurately), and yet have little or no internalisation of that stigma. For example, people might have less self-stigma due to previous experiences with therapy or knowing someone who benefited from therapy. Thus, they might perceive a general public stigma toward help-seeking, but know from personal experience that seeking help is beneficial and have less concern about it personally. This distinction is important, as it allows psychologists to intervene at either individual (i.e. self-stigma) or more global levels (i.e. public stigma). Most of the focus by researchers has been on the self-stigma associated with having a mental illness. Findings indicate that negative interactions from others, along with largely negative portrayals of mental illness in the media, lower an individual’s self-esteem and self-efficacy (Corrigan, 2004). Internalised negative perceptions of mental health issues also appear have a negative impact on mental

ANNA HEATH

health and ‘adjustment and growth’ (Mak Vogel et al., 2006). Based on Corrigan’s et al., 2007). (2004) discussion of self-stigma, the items However, we believe that for many assess concerns about the loss in selfpeople a separate self-stigmatisation esteem a person would feel if they decided process exists, specifically associated with to seek help from a psychologist or other seeking help. One reason for this is that in mental health professional. We have found the case of the self-stigma associated with that self-stigma is conceptually different a mental illness, the label of mental illness from other potentially related constructs to which the stigma is attached is often such as self-esteem and public stigma, and externally given and then the person that self-stigma uniquely predicts attitudes decides whether to accept it. In contrast, towards seeking psychological help and seeking therapy, which is often a voluntary willingness to seek counselling over and activity, may result above previously in an internally identified factors, such as driven label (or gender or the perceived “self-stigma uniquely predicts self-label). This risk of counselling (Vogel attitudes towards seeking may be particularly et al., 2006). Furthermore, psychological help” true in situations supporting our notion where the that self-stigma is symptoms are particularly important in the troubling yet not so severe that the help-seeking process, in a second study counselling is perceived as mandatory. we found that the self-stigma of seeking In this case, we argue that the role of selftherapy fully mediated the relationship stigma in the decision to seek help might between the public stigma associated with be even more pronounced because it is mental illness and attitudes towards difficult for many to both acknowledge seeking help as well as willingness to seek the need for professional help and not feel help (Vogel et al., 2007). In other words, a sense of perceptions of public stigma initially failure or contributed to the experience of selfloss as our stigma, but then self-stigma and not public society stigma influenced help-seeking attitudes portrays and eventually help-seeking willingness. needing We argue from these results that public help as a stigma’s effect on help-seeking is indirect, weakness. by influencing the tendency to internalise In an stigma. The flip-side of this finding is that attempt to lower self-stigma (i.e. less internalisation further of public stigma) might act to buffer the explore the effects of public stigma on help-seeking. self-stigma Our research, as well as others’, is associated starting to identify how self-stigma may be with related to cultural and gender-role norms seeking (i.e. external expectations about how we professional should behave). Among many other help, we prescriptions and proscriptions, these have norms teach us who is an appropriate recently person to ask for assistance. For example, developed scholars in the area of psychotherapy for the Selfmen have written of the personal risks Stigma of (e.g. sense of failure, loss of control, If psychological help is seen as a threat to someone’s self-regard, they Seeking Help perception of weakness) experienced by may avoid seeking that help Scale (SSOSH: men when admitting the need for and

Australians and their parents. British Journal of Psychiatry, 192, 144–149. Mak, W.W.S., Poon, C.Y.M., Pun, L.Y.K. & Cheung, S.F. (2007). Meta-analysis of stigma and mental health. Social Science and Medicine, 65, 245–261. Orchowski, L.M., Spickard, B.A. & McNamara, J.A. (2006). Cinema and the valuing of psychotherapy: Implications for clinical practice. Professional Psychology: Research and

Practice, 37, 506–514. Pederson, E.L. & Vogel, D.L. (2007). Men’s gender role conflict and their willingness to seek counseling: A mediation model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54, 373–384. Pinfold, V., Toulmin, H., Thornicroft, G. et al. (2003). Reducing psychiatric stigma and discrimination: Evaluation of educational interventions in UK secondary

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schools. British Journal of Psychiatry, 182, 342–346. Rosen, A. (2003). What developed countries can learn from developing countries in challenging psychiatric stigma. Australian Psychiatry, 11, Supplement. Vogel, D.L., Gentile, D. & Kaplan, S. (2008). The influence of television on willingness to seek therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63, 1–20.

Vogel, D.L., Wade, N.G. & Haake, S. (2006). Measuring the self-stigma associated with seeking psychological help. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53, 325–337. Vogel, D.L., Wade, N.G. & Hackler, A.H. (2007). Perceived public stigma and the willingness to seek counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54, 40–50.

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seeking mental health services (Addis & Mahalik, 2003). Self-stigma may be particularly salient for men because the traditional male gender role’s prescription that men should be independent, controlled and self-sufficient may lead to increased concerns about seeking help, as seeking help may mean admitting an inability to handle things on one’s own. Therefore, a man who believed that he needed counselling may feel a strong sense of failure, which could make the act of asking for help particularly difficult. Consistent with this, Pederson and Vogel (2007) found that men who endorsed more traditionally masculine gender roles were more likely to self-stigmatise for seeking professional help. Specifically, they found that although the relationship between perceived public stigma and selfstigma is present for both women and men, the relationship was stronger for men than for women.

Interventions A number of efforts have been implemented to try to reduce public and self-stigma, though most of these have been directed towards reducing the

stigma associated with having a mental illness – less attention has been spent on reducing the stigma surrounding seeking treatment. Although efforts to reduce the stigma associated with a mental illness are clearly important, ignoring the stigma associated with seeking professional help does nothing to reduce the difficulty for many individuals who might consider therapy as an option, particularly if they are not exhibiting severe symptoms. Next, borrowing from the literature on stigma reduction for mental illness, we will discuss some strategies to potentially reduce the public and self-stigmas associated with seeking professional help. Reducing public stigma Corrigan and Penn (1999) have suggested three approaches to reducing public stigma: protest, education and contact. Firstly, protest. Psychologists and other mental health providers should be vocal in their objection to inaccurate portrayals of psychotherapy and clients in popular media and other sources. Psychologists have a right to object. The media’s portrayals of therapy are often negative, which is particularly problematic because most people have little contact with actual

therapists (Orchowski et al., 2006). Recent research supports this media effect; the more people watch comedy and drama shows on television the more stigmatisation they perceive for seeking therapy (Vogel et al., 2008). Thus, psychologists have a responsibility to protest the stereotyped and often inaccurate portrayals of therapy. If those of us who know therapy and its effectiveness do not speak out, who will? In terms of education, there is a need for accurate information about psychotherapy to help reduce public stigma. Education efforts can take many forms including books, videos, audiotapes, posters, advertisements and even commercials. Even brief educational programmes have been shown to have at least short-term effects on people’s attitudes (Pinfold et al., 2003). A number of larger-scale public education campaigns have been implemented around the globe. One current example is the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) ‘Real Men, Real Depression’ campaign, which uses broad-based advertisements (print, radio and television) to educate the public about men and depression. This campaign is attempting to reach men who might not

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seek help for depression by reducing the public and self-stigma related to psychological treatment. Finally, contact. This is one of the most effective ways to change individuals’ endorsement of stigma towards others. Those who have more contact with people who have experienced a mental illness tend to stigmatise them less (Angermeyer et al., 2004). Personal contact can also be incorporated into educational efforts by having individuals not only learn about counselling but also interact with individuals who have sought treatment (Pinfold et al., 2003). Contact with people who have been in counseling can also be elicited through reading stories about individuals who have sought treatment and through public service announcements. In general, contact seems to have the most effect when the person is (a) of at least equal status, (b) perceived as an in-group member, and (c) likeable (Corrigan & Penn, 1999). Thus, having famous individuals such as sports or movie stars come out as having sought counselling is one way that help seeking can be normalised. Reducing self-stigma In trying to change the self-stigma associated with seeking professional help a number of lessons can also be learned from the studies on mental illness stigma. Specifically, a number of researchers have suggested cognitive-behavioural (C-B) strategies to build the necessary skills to manage stigma. Hayward and Bright (1997) for example, suggested C-B strategies focusing on changing inaccurate beliefs, providing accurate information, describing health and illness as a continuum with no clear cutoff, and fostering self-acceptance. Corrigan and Calabrese (2005) also suggested that C-B interventions including desensitisation of feared stimulus and cognitive reframing of negative beliefs could have a positive impact on self-stigmatisation. Cognitivebehavioural interventions to reduce selfstigma can be implemented through a number of modalities including in person and via computer or web-based programmes (e.g. see tinyurl.com/6abeqo; Griffiths et al., 2004). Some evidence also suggests that people may feel less self-stigma (i.e. less shame and guilt) if their symptoms are normalised and if they are given an explanation for their symptoms that suggests that their problems are not their fault and are reversible (Rosen, 2003). This normalising of the therapeutic process may be a key component. Recently, Addis and Mahalik (2003) noted how ‘any strategy that increases the normativeness for

seeking help do not vanish after the initial visit, and that for some these concerns may intensify after seeking treatment. Therapists may need to acknowledge and address the stigmas some clients perceive about therapy in order to increase service utilisation and decrease premature termination.

Conclusion The decision to seek professional help is typically not an easy one. Understanding this difficult and complex process can help facilitate the use of mental health services by those who can Cognitive-behavioural strategies focus on changing truly benefit. inaccurate beliefs Understanding the unique roles of public and selfstigma associated with professional help will allow psychologists to develop interventions particular problems should be effective designed to overcome these stigmas. in facilitating help seeking’ (p.12). Thus, Importantly, the discussion offers different help-seeking is increased when people see possible routes of intervention, rather the problem they are dealing with as than restricting intervention only to those common. Normalising issues may make individuals who actually sit in our offices. seeking treatment less threatening and We can intervene at the individual, more typical. Outreach interventions and community, family, and societal levels to public marketing could, therefore, discuss help people make the most informed and the commonness of mental illness and healthy choices for themselves. We believe therapy. that psychologists will be more effective at Empowerment may also help reduce helping people overcome the barriers to self-stigmatisation (Corrigan, 2004). seeking professional help if they are able Framing therapy as a type of to focus their efforts at these different empowerment (‘it takes courage to face levels. Although reducing the hesitancy one’s problems’), rather than something to seek professional help is a large task, that is perceived as a weakness (‘I could psychologists can help by using not handle this on my own’), may increase interventions that focus specifically on service use. The depression campaign in the stigmas associated with seeking help. the US noted above, for example, describes seeking treatment as taking courage (‘It takes courage to ask for help: These men did’). NIMH has a website where this I David L. Vogel statement is followed by pictures of men is at Iowa State University who sought treatment and links to their dvogel@iastate.edu stories as well as information about depression (see tinyurl.com/6ben7o). Another major implication for mental health professionals is the awareness that clients are evaluating their decisions to seek professional help even after they have made the initial decision to seek help. I Nathaniel G. Wade Although outreach programmes may be is at Iowa State University able to acknowledge this, a major benefit nwade@iastate.edu may come from examining with actual clients how stigma affects them even after they enter therapy (Vogel et al., 2007). The number of clients who drop out of treatment suggests that concerns about

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Gossip – tales of the human condition Toni Brennan on the socio-psychological functions of a quintessentially social activity

Gossip – only ‘others’ do it, right? This article attempts to shed light on this ubiquitous and often frowned upon human activity. In recent times, social psychology and allied disciplines have seen a surge of interest in gossip. What is its function in human interaction? A quick overview of theories and empirical investigations of gossip shows that there is far more to this activity than ‘idle talk’…

questions resources

www.apa.org/science/psa/ apr05gossip.html McAndrew, F.T. (2008), Can gossip be good? Scientific American Mind,19(5), 26–33.

references

A

Is there a positive side to gossip?

Baumeister, R.F., Zhang, L. & Vohs, K.D. (2004). Gossip as cultural learning. Review of General Psychology, 8, 111–121. Ben-Ze’ev, A. (1994). The vindication of gossip. In R.F. Goodman & A. BenZe’ev (Eds.) Good gossip (pp.11–24). Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. Buunk, B.P. & Gibbons, F.X. (2000). Toward an enlightenment in social

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very famous, married Hollywood actor is, apparently, ‘seeing someone else’; rumour has it, they are about to go on an ‘exotic’ holiday. Should I care? The media frenzy over this piece of gossip, in newspapers (tabloids and broadsheets alike), magazines, blogs and websites screams that I should. There is clearly great interest in celebrity gossip, but everyday evidence also suggests that if the couple in question had lived two doors down, the resulting gossip would have enlivened his neighbours’ exchanges over the garden fence for at least a few days. As Emler (1990) has argued, gossip falls under the umbrella of ‘reputation management’, and it is deployed in settings as diverse as Hollywood, prisons and the workplace. Gossip always involves people, not just as originators or recipients of communication, but as its ‘subject’. Indeed this distinguishes gossip from rumour, which can also be about events, like ‘collective speculation’ that the stock market is about to crash (cf. Rosnow & Fine, 1976). Given that gossip is such a ubiquitous and quintessentially ‘social’ activity, it is surprising that it has been quite a neglected area in psychology – until recently. Foster (2004) reports that a PsycINFO search for articles with the single keyword ‘gossip’ in the abstract yielded just over 30 items for the period between 1970 and 1990, and just over 70 up to the year 2000. In the 2000s there has been a buzz in psychology (as well as in sociology and cultural anthropology) around gossip and its possible functions,

Are there non-essentialist explanations of the apparent sex differences in interest in gossip?

comparison theory: Moving beyond classic and Renaissance approaches. In J. Suls & L. Wheeler (Eds.) Handbook of social comparison: Theory and research (pp.487–499). New York: Kluwer Academic. De Backer, C., Nelissen, M., Vyncke, P. et al (2007). Celebrities: From teachers to friends. Human Nature, 18(4), 334–354. Dunbar, R.I.M. (1996). Grooming, gossip,

with the Review of General Psychology publishing a special issue in 2004. So, why do people engage in this activity that is ostensibly frowned upon (only ‘others’ do it) in present times, just as it was proscribed in times of yore, with the Book of Leviticus (19:16) thundering that ‘thou shalt not go up and down as a talebearer among thy people’? And what about the contrast between this condemnation and the origin of the word ‘gossip’, meaning ‘God’s sibling/someone close to God’? Is there a positive side to gossip? Dunbar (1996, 2004) argues, from an evolutionary perspective, that humans as a species represent the culmination of the remarkable sociality observed in other primates that ultimately contributed to the development of language. Sociality is contingent upon reading (and predicting) patterns of behaviour, and upon certain individual (mostly short-term) sacrifices being made for the (long-term) common good of avoiding predators as a group. Both these features constitute the basis of forming alliances, with attendant advantages and obligations. Primates initiate, foster and maintain their alliances through social grooming – experienced as rewarding because it releases endorphins. Interestingly, a ‘junior’ member of the group will spend more time grooming others than being groomed, so the activity also helps to reinforce the social position of group members. Gossip serves a similar function to social grooming, but more efficiently. It takes up less time, given that communication (unlike social grooming) can be achieved while engaged in other activities; and it is not necessarily a one-toone exchange, thereby allowing larger social networks to form and thus confer more strength to the group. Through gossiping, humans keep au fait with what is going on in their social networks, enjoy the opportunity to promote themselves and to manipulate information and other people’s reactions for their own advantage, as well as policing those who fail to abide by the explicit and implicit rules of the

and the evolution of language. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Dunbar, R.I.M. (2004). Gossip in evolutionary perspective. Review of General Psychology, 8, 100–110. Emler, N. (1990). A social psychology of reputation. European Review of Social Psychology, 1, 171–193. Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human

Relations, 7, 117–140. Foster, E.K. (2004). Research on gossip: Taxonomy, methods, and future directions. Review of General Psychology, 8, 78–99. Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. Hogg, M.A. (2000). Social identity and social comparison. In J.M. Suls & L. Wheeler (Eds.) Handbook of social

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group. If things seem to get a bit 27 per cent were negative, Machiavellian here, there is a positive wholly positive gossip side to this policing: especially in small accounted for the same communities, the person who spreads percentage, with the rest malicious gossip (like a liar or a thief) (almost half of the sample) would be soon ‘found out’, and ostracism containing a mixture of positive in such circumstances would have such and negative elements. We Medini and Rosenberg (1976) used the term ‘same boat a high price that it serves as a deterrent. enjoy hearing about positive phenomenon’ to reflect that both psychotherapy and Wilson et al. (2000) showed in the gossip because, ultimately, gossip confirm our membership in the ‘human club’ laboratory that when individuals are called hearing about people’s upon to judge the behaviour of ‘gossipers’ behaviour helps us understand Psychotherapy – in many ways, ‘the sharing of the in different gossip scenarios, ‘gossipers’ and perhaps adjust or ‘model’ personal-forbidden with another person’ (p.455) or in who used their tales to undermine our own (Ben-Ze’ev, 1994) – a group. The individual undergoing psychotherapy gains someone and to serve selfish purposes and this includes how to reassurance that no matter how distressed or even were judged very negatively, while gossip achieve positive outcomes as with the aim of reinforcing the group’s well as how to avoid pitfalls ashamed they might feel about a problematic situation rules and policing deviance was seen in and embarrassment. Some they are experiencing, it is simply ‘human’. a neutral light. This evidence is consistent positive gossip, like the story Psychotherapy fosters an atmosphere of openness and both with an evolutionary perspective and that our boss is to be awarded intimacy and breaks down inhibitions. a more culture-oriented view. Here gossip a prize, gives us an opportunity is seen as a form of cultural learning to learn and a chance to feel Gossip – ‘part of its power lies in this repetition of the (Baumeister et al., 2004), a composite of good ‘by association’. message that others have private lives like our own’ cautionary tales, everyday ‘adventures’ and In other words, social (p.455). Hearing about other people’s actions, especially anecdotes to help comparison about behaviour that is frowned upon or that causes us people become theory (Buunk conflict and guilt makes us feel that, unlike what we competent & Gibbons, might feel sometimes, we are not the only person on the members of their 2000; Festinger, planet engaging in this behaviour and/or experiencing culture and to 1954) seems to the conflict. Gossip, as unrestrained, informal talk, negotiate the maze be central to the breaks down inhibitions, lifts the ‘public’ mask and of explicit and function of ‘illuminates the private face…[to find that] the private unspoken rules of gossip. As Wert face is not that bad, after all’ (p.459). social behaviour, and Salovey as well as to (2004) argue, cement the bond several types of between those social comparison involved in the can be mobilised by gossip. through misery ourselves can lend support communication Comparison with peers to the saying that ‘trouble shared is trouble of the stories. is mostly deployed to seek halved’. Upward comparison can spur This emphasis validation, and perhaps to someone to achieve more, but more on cultural impart on one’s audience commonly it can give rise to envy-laced learning is some kind of ‘first among gossip. The more popular downward particularly equals’ self-presentation comparison, to put it plainly, makes us feel evident in the case impression. In the realm of better at the expense of those we perceive of ‘positive gossip’, emotion, as first found by as less fortunate, by distancing ourselves which, contrary to Schachter (1959) in the case from the ‘other’. At group level, this Does ‘reputation management’ popular belief, is of uncertainty and threat, distancing translates into defining who is enliven border discussions? not a contradiction comparison with people with ‘us’ and who is with ‘them’, thereby in terms: Levin and in the same situation can reinforcing the group’s social identity Arluke (1985) alleviate the sense of threat, (Hogg, 2000). This kind of gossip usually analysed the or have a ‘therapeutic’ draws on prototypes and stereotypes of recording of 194 instances of gossip in function, so special attention to gossip ingroup and outgroup behaviour. Such naturalistic settings and found that, while pertaining to ‘misery’ when we are going abstractions are also elicited in the case of ‘constructed social comparison’, when individuals compare themselves and others with Wert, S.R. & Salovey, P. (2004). A social Construct and concurrent validation comparison: Theory and research. an imaginary person or comparison account of gossip. Review for a sample of Israeli college (pp.401–421). New York: Kluwer social type. So, for example, of General Psychology, 8, 122–137. students. Educational and Psychological Academic. given the stereotype ‘out Wilson, D.S., Wilczynski, C., Wells, A. & Measurement, 53, 973–981. Levin, J. & Arluke, A. (1985). Gossip: The there’ of the student or Weiser, L. (2000). Gossip and other Rosnow, R.L. & Fine, G.A. (1976). Rumor inside scoop. New York: Plenum. aspects of language as group-level and gossip: The social psychology of Medini, G. & Rosenberg, E.H. (1976). teenager who drinks too adaptations. In C. Heyes & L. Huber hearsay. New York: Elsevier. Gossip and psychotherapy. American much, a fair amount of (Eds.) The evolution of cognition Schachter, S. (1959). The psychology of Journal of Psychotherapy, 30, 452–462. gossip (whether positive, (pp.347–365). Cambridge, MA: MIT affiliation: Experimental studies of the Nevo, O., Nevo, B. & Derech Zehavi, A. negative or neutral) will Press. sources of gregariousness. Stanford, (1993). The development of the have as a starting point CA: Stanford University Press. Tendency to Gossip Questionnaire: the extent to which one

The ‘same boat’ phenomenon

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particular individual’s behaviour (including oneself) is aligned with this widespread construction (Wert & Salovey, 2004). Social comparison theory is also useful when we consider the popularity of ‘celebrity gossip’. Goffman (1959) used the analogy of theatre to describe selfpresentation strategies: we are on stage, we present a front to the world, and we endeavour to keep to ourselves the ‘backstage’ self. Celebrities are by definition ‘on stage’ and elicit people’s curiosity as to what their ‘backstage self’ may be. This may also entail the idea of cutting them down to size (a form of gossip stemming from an upward comparison), sometimes even in a sympathetic way, like a plain-looking person who may consider that they are no traffic stopper themselves, but… ‘look at poor supermodel X, who was dumped by e-mail by a man twice her age’. Gossip on celebrities’ misadventures, to the delight of publicists and the ‘consolation’ of celebrities, can also make celebrities appear more ‘human’, down-toearth, earning them the ‘sympathy’ vote. A notable recent example of sympathy for a celebrity was the outpouring of support for Kylie Sample items from the Tendency to Gossip Questionnaire (Nevo et al.,1993), with many thanks Minogue as she battled breast to Professor Ofra Nevo of Haifa University. cancer. Sometimes, the extent of I like analyzing with a friend the compatibility of various couples information available for social comparison – the ubiquity of I like talking with a friend about the personal appearance of other people information on celebrities’ lives, their habits, likes and dislikes – I tend to talk with friends about the educational level of people we know in important positions offers the illusion that they are like friends. The ‘parasocial hypothesis’ I enjoy analyzing with my friends the motives and reasons for other people's behaviour predicts not only that constant exposure to celebrities turns them I tend to talk with friends about the love affairs of people we know into ‘people next door’ but also that individuals who are socially isolated I like reading biographies of famous people will be more interested in gossip about celebrities, who then fulfil Mostly agree? No reason to worry – think of the therapeutic function of gossip the role of ‘ersatz friends’, than in (see ‘The “same boat” phenomenon’, p.25). individuals with a stronger real-life social network. In a recent study by De Backer et al. (2007) the ‘gender’ is also ‘done’ through language, ‘parasocial hypothesis’ received only partial positive effects – if nothing else, for the rather than being an inherent characteristic support, in that it was found that ‘media therapeutic and enriching exchange of a particular embodiment. exposure, but not social isolation, was a of ‘tales of the human condition’. So what should you think if others strong predictor of interest in celebrities’ have called you a gossip? Well, you could (p.334). I Toni Brennan check on a standardised questionnaire Another common view of gossip is is in the Department of which purports to tap into a ‘tendency to that women engage in it more than men Psychology, University of gossip’ (see above box). Thus, even this do. However, research has failed to show Surrey gender differences in frequency of gossip, short overview of the role of gossip in tlb_zeitgeist@hotmail.com but gossip communicated by males is often human interaction and of theories and recast as ‘shop talk’ or ‘shooting the empirical investigations of the topic, has breeze’, quite apart from the issue that arguably shown that gossip has many

Do you have a tendency to gossip?

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state; the presence of the TDF protein (Testis Determining Factor) on the Y chromosome in male offspring triggers the developing testes to secrete massive doses of testosterone. This then sculpts the body and the brain in a male-typical direction, and at the same time suppresses femaletypical development. In the absence of this Nick Neave and Daryl B. O’Connor describe their research into the complex protein in the female fetus, development of effects of this hormone the body and the central nervous system proceeds along nature’s default setting (female). Later on, during puberty and The steroid hormone testosterone hink of testosterone and you beyond, the second ‘activational’ effect has long been associated with probably think of lust, violence and becomes apparent: those cells and various male-typical behaviours. machismo. Indeed, testosterone is structures in the body that have been This review first highlights key often labelled ‘the aggression hormone’ initially ‘organised’ along male or female issues in behavioural due to its presumed relationships with lines, are then ‘activated’ by the sex endocrinology, and then provides such negative, antisocial and principally steroids (Nelson, 2000). a brief summary of the authors’ male qualities. Animal models can be used to compare research into various associations Over the past decade or organisational between testosterone and male so our principal research versus behaviours. Some evidence in activities have investigated activational support of the assumption is found, the extent to which levels of effects, for but some critical issues regarding testosterone can be associated example by testosterone-behaviour with certain male-typical castrating a relationships are also raised. behaviours. As you might male before expect, the answer is by no or after fetal means straightforward. For sexual one thing, hormones do not differentiation directly change behaviour; has taken place, they influence the expression or castrating of a behaviour within him before or To what extent does testosterone appropriate environmental/ after pubertal influence aspects of male-typical social contexts. When differentiation behaviours? studying human behaviours, has taken place. identifying which Such males can How useful is the 2D:4D ratio in environmental/social contexts be compared determining links between prenatal Testosterone influences the might be important remains physically and steroid exposure and subsequent expression of many behaviours behaviourally with a significant challenge to physical/behavioural characteristics? researchers trying to identify other males who What role do social/environmental hormone–behaviour have been left factors play in hormone–behaviour relationships. gonadally intact; in interactions? In behavioural endocrinology animal addition these castrated males can then of Is testosterone related to variations models are routinely used to address such course have their testosterone levels in aspects of cognition? questions. The effects of any hormones on returned to normal (or even higher than behaviour are normally described in terms normal) via replacement therapy, and once of ‘organisational’ versus ‘activational’ again alterations in their Neave, N. (2008). Hormones and effects. In the former, it is known that physiology/behaviour noted. Such studies behaviour: A psychological approach. during early fetal development, levels of have provided significant information Cambridge: Cambridge University the sex steroids (principally testosterone) concerning the role of sex steroids in Press. play a pivotal role in sexual differentiation. certain animal behaviours. The sexes begin life in an undifferentiated In terms of organisational effects,

Testosterone and male behaviours

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Alexander, G.M., Swerdloff, R.S., Wang, C. et al. (1997). Androgen-behavior correlations in hypogonadal men and eugonadal men. Hormones and Behavior, 31, 110–119. Archer, J. (1991). The influence of testosterone on human aggression. British Journal of Psychology, 82, 1–28. Bagatell, C.J., Heiman, J.R., Rivier, J.E. & Bremner, W.J. (1994). Effects of endogenous testosterone and

estradiol on sexual behavior in normal young men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 78, 711–716. Bailey, A.A. & Hurd, P.L. (2005). Finger length ratio (2D:4D) correlates with physical aggression in men but not in women. Biological Psychology, 68, 215–222. Berenbaum, S.A. & Hines, M. (1992). Early androgens are related to

childhood sex-typed toy preferences. Psychological Science, 3, 203–206. Brookes, H., Neave, N., Hamilton, C. & Fink, B. (2007). Digit ratio (2D:4D) and lateralization for basic numerical quantification. Journal of Individual Differences, 28, 55–63. Brosnan, M.J. (2008). Digit ratio as an indicator of numeracy relative to literacy in 7-year-old British schoolchildren. British Journal of

Psychology, 99, 75–85. Cherrier, M.M., Matsumoto, A.M., Amory, J.K. et al. (2007). Characterization of verbal and spatial memory changes from moderate to supraphysiological increases in serum testosterone in healthy older men. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32, 72–79. Collaer, M.L. & Hines, M. (1995). Human behavioral sex differences: A role for gonadal hormones during early

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assessing the hormonal environment associated with fetal development and then comparing that environment to subsequent behaviour in humans is rather more difficult. Castration and replacement studies are of course ethically impossible, but some clinical conditions in which the fetus has been exposed to abnormal levels of certain hormones can shed some light on this issue. In a condition called congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), the female fetus is exposed to very high levels of testosterone, which acts to physically masculinise her external genitalia. More interestingly to psychologists, girls with CAH are reported to show more maletypical behaviours, such as increases in rough-and-tumble play and aggression, and more male-typical toy preferences (e.g. Berenbaum & Hines, 1992).

2D: 4D ratio Determining the organising effects of sex steroids in non-clinical groups appeared to be beyond the reach of psychologists. However, some anatomical observations made on the hand over a century ago have provided a possible window into prenatal steroid exposure. Several researchers noted that the differences between the second (index) and fourth (ring) fingers are sexually dimorphic; in males it is often the case that the fourth finger is longer than the second, while in females the second and fourth fingers are typically around the same length. At the time, this difference could not be readily explained, and so remained an interesting scientific footnote until the publication of John Manning’s 2002 book Digit Ratio. Here, Manning proposed that prenatal testosterone and estrogen differentially influence the growth of the fingers. The second and fourth fingers appear to be particularly sensitive to the early hormonal environment (we still don’t know why) and as the male fetus is normally exposed to higher levels of testosterone, their fourth finger grows relative to their second finger. This difference between second (2D) and fourth

development? Psychological Bulletin, 118, 55–107. Fink, B., Manning, J.T. & Neave, N. (2004a). Second to fourth digit ratio and the ‘big five’ personality factors. Personality and Individual Differences, 37, 495–503. Fink, B., Manning, J.T., Neave, N. & Tan, U. (2004b). Second to fourth digit ratio and hand skill in Austrian children. Biological Psychology, 67, 375–384.

(4D) fingers can easily be measured using calipers, and the resulting 2D:4D ratio (lower in males, higher in females) correlated with various physical/ behavioural traits. Along with various collaborators we have explored such relationships and have found intriguing associations between the 2D:4D ratio and numerical processing (Brookes et al., 2007), certain aspects of personality (Fink et al., 2004a; 2006); body morphology (Fink et al., 2003; Manning et al., 2006); hand skill (Fink et al., 2004b), and perceptions of dominance and masculinity (Neave et al., 2003). Other researchers have reported significant associations between 2D:4D and measures of aggression (Bailey & Hurd, 2005), sex role identity in males (Rammsayer & Troche, 2007), sexual orientation (Rahman, 2005); sporting achievement (Tester & Campbell, 2007); and performance in SAT tests (Brosnan, 2008). Of course, any observed relationships remain circumstantial; evidence is based upon associations between characteristics that are themselves dependent upon sex steroids; and correlations of course do not guarantee causality. Nevertheless, measuring a couple of fingers might form our best available estimate of prenatal steroid exposure (McIntyre, 2006), even though it may only shed light upon a fairly narrow window of early prenatal development (Putz et al., 2004). Many researchers are now using this simple technique, and many papers reporting associations between 2D:4D and various behaviours/characteristics have now been published; large-scale meta-analytic studies will hopefully inform us as to the reliability and validity of these many reported associations.

Activational effects Research questions concerning the activational effects of testosterone can now be more easily addressed because it is simple and relatively cheap to measure levels of circulating testosterone, and compare levels with observed behaviours.

Fink, B., Neave, N., Laughton, K. & Manning, J.T. (2006). Second to fourth digit ratio and sensation seeking. Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 1253–1262. Fink, B., Neave, N. & Manning, J.T. (2003). Second to fourth digit ratio, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-chest ratio. Annals of Human Biology, 30, 728–738. Halpern, D.F. (2000). Sex differences in

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Bioavailable (or ‘free’) testosterone can be measured in saliva (as well as in blood), and such testing can be conducted outside of a laboratory setting in various groups (e.g. children, athletes, etc.) with basic training and equipment. Several research paradigms can be adopted. The most commonly used is correlational – associating the level of testosterone with a certain behavioural characteristic. More experimental designs can also be adopted, whereby testosterone levels can be (a) compared between different groups, (b) compared within the same individuals in different situations, or (c) directly manipulated via hormone therapy. Our research has used all of these methods; some examples follow. The home advantage in sport A robust phenomenon is found in numerous sports: teams win more games, and score more goals/points when playing at their home venue. Traditional explanations for home advantage have considered referee bias, home crowd support, greater venue familiarity by the home team, and travel/fatigue /disruption experienced by the away team (Neave & Wolfson, 2004). An additional factor might be physiological, and related to perceptions of territoriality. In animals, territorial behaviours are common, and it has been established that the acquisition and defence of territories (especially by males) is at least partly mediated by surges in testosterone (Wingfield et al., 1990). As humans also display territoriality, could home advantage be partly explained by a surge in testosterone before defending one’s home territory? Two studies (Neave & Wolfson, 2003) found that footballers do indeed demonstrate a testosterone surge before a home game compared with before a training session or an away game; this home surge being particularly apparent when playing a team perceived as being a ‘bitter’ rival. As yet, we can only guess at how testosterone is able to improve home player performance, but likely explanations relate to increases in

cognitive abilities. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Hier, D.B. & Crowley, W.F. (1982). Spatial ability in androgen-deficient men. New England Journal of Medicine, 306, 1202–1205. Manning, J.T. (2002). Digit ratio. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Manning, J.T., Fink, B., Neave, N. & Szwed, A. (2006). The second to fourth digit ratio and asymmetry.

Annals of Human Biology, 33, 480–492. McIntyre, M.H. (2006). The use of digit ratios as markers for perinatal androgen action. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 4, 1–9. Neave, N., Laing, S., Fink, B. & Manning, J.T. (2003). Second to fourth digit ratio, testosterone and perceived male dominance. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B, 270, 2167–2172. Neave, N. & Wolfson, S. (2003).

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motivation, confidence, reaction times, information processing, and physiological potential. In addition, we need to determine how individual differences in testosterone might relate to performance during a game; and whether it is possible to (legally) manipulate testosterone to improve team performance when playing away. Our research into such questions continues. Aggression and mood The association between testosterone, aggression and mood has been the focus of considerable research attention for some time now (e.g. Archer, 1991; O’Connor et al., 2004; Pagonis et al., 2006). This has been prompted by several developments. Firstly, the high-profile media coverage of incidents of ‘roid rage’ seemingly associated with the abuse by strength athletes of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). Secondly, the use of exogenous testosterone clinically as part of the development of a reversible, hormonal contraceptive for men, its use for replacement therapy in HIV illness and for treating the psychological and physiological effects of ageing in men. Anecdotal and early correlational evidence suggests that higher levels of circulating testosterone in men are associated with increases in male-typical behaviours, such as physical aggression and anger. However, much of this research has been observational, retrospective and/or cross-sectional in nature, making it difficult to render conclusions about the causal relations between testosterone and male behaviour (Archer, 1991; O’Connor et al., 2002). More recently, researchers have turned their attention to conducting experimental studies where testosterone levels can be manipulated. However, of the existing studies, different doses of testosterone have been administered for different purposes. For example, in order to mimic levels used by AAS users, some studies have administered high, supraphysiological doses of testosterone. Others, as part of hormonal male contraceptive studies or

Testosterone, territoriality and the ‘home advantage’. Physiology and Behavior, 78, 269–275. Neave, N. & Wolfson, S. (2004). The home advantage. In D. Lavallee et al. (Eds.) Coping and emotion in sport. New York: Nova Science. Nelson, R.J. (2000). An introduction to behavioral endocrinology. Sunderland MA: Sinauer Associates. O’Connor, D.B. (2007). Effects of

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testosterone replacement therapy, use a lower therapeutic dose (see below). These methodological differences further complicate conclusions about the extent to which testosterone influences important aspects of male behaviour. To this end, a recent review compared the effects of administering supraphysiological doses with therapeutic doses of testosterone on aggression, anger and mood outcomes in men (O’Connor, 2007). The results showed that there was some evidence that supraphysiological doses were associated with increases in measures of direct aggression, anger and mood. In particular, studies that administered the very highest doses reported a small, but significant number of participants experiencing psychiatric episodes such as mania following treatment (Su et al., 1993). In contrast, the therapeutic dose studies using a wide range of self- and partner-reported measures provided little or no evidence of changes in aggression or mood outcomes (e.g. O’Connor et al., 2004). Taken together, the evidence suggests that the relatively modest doses of testosterone required for clinical purposes are not associated with changes in aggressive or angry behaviour. Moreover, reports of AAS abusers exhibiting high levels of aggressiveness and experiencing episodes of mania or hypomania after taking huge doses of AAS should not be compared with or extrapolated to the effects of therapeutic doses of testosterone. In terms of helping us understand the relationship between testosterone and aggressive behaviour, the current evidence suggests that the relationship is nonlinear. Instead, there seems to be a threshold level after which exogenous administration of very high doses of testosterone may lead to

testosterone on aggression, anger and mood in men. In E.I. Clausen (Ed.) Psychology of anger (pp.257–270). New York: Nova Science. O’Connor, D.B., Archer, J., Hair, W.H. & Wu, F.C.W. (2002). Exogenous testosterone, aggression, and mood in eugonadal and hypogonadal men. Physiology and Behavior, 75, 557–566. O’Connor, D.B., Archer, J., Hair, W.M. & Wu, F.C.W. (2001a) Activational

negative behavioural changes in particular people under certain circumstances. Individual differences in personality traits such as impulsivity are also likely to play an important role in moderating these effects (see O’Connor et al., 2002). Therefore, further studies using more sophisticated designs and employing more sensitive measures and partner reports are required to uncover important vulnerability factors (O’Connor et al., 2001b). Moreover, there is a need to establish whether the relatively modest incidence of psychiatric symptoms observed in illicit AAS abusers is a true estimate or whether the findings from a relatively small number of studies represent the tip of the iceberg. Sexual behaviour It is well established that testosterone plays a vital role in governing sexual behaviour in humans. Early behavioural evidence comes from studies of hypogonadal men who, due to abnormal gonadal function have low or no circulating testosterone, and as a result exhibit impaired sexual functioning. Once these men receive testosterone replacement therapy, their sexual function is restored to normal (Wang et al., 2000). So, can increases in circulating

effects of testosterone on cognitive function in men. Neuropsychologia. 39, 1385-1394. O’Connor, D.B., Archer, J. & Wu, F.C.W. (2001b). Measuring aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 27, 79-101. O’Connor, D.B., Archer, J. & Wu, F.C.W. (2004). Effects of testosterone on mood, aggression and sexual behavior in young men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and

Metabolism, 89, 2837–2845. O’Connor, D.B. Corona, G., Forti, G. et al. (2008). Assessment of sexual health in ageing men in Europe. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 5, 1374–1385. Pagonis, T.A., Angelopoulos, N.V., Koukoulis, G.N. & Hadjichristodoulou, C.S. (2006). Psychiatric side effects induced by supraphysiological doses of combinations of anabolic steroids correlate to the severity of abuse.

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testosterone activate changes in aspects of sexual functioning, such as frequency of sexual behaviour and libido? This is a pertinent question in light of the likelihood in the future of a substantial uptake of hormonal male contraceptive methods in sexually active men. A number of previous studies have failed to find any ‘negative’ effects of exogenous testosterone on sexual behaviour, although it has been suggested that suitably sensitive or detailed measures were not employed (e.g. Bagatell et al., 1994). In a comprehensive, doubleblind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study (O’Connor et al., 2004), increasing testosterone levels in healthy young men did not significantly increase either the interactional (i.e. the frequency of sexual intercourse) or non-interactional (i.e. libido) components of sexual behaviour. Part of the explanation for these findings may be that relationship and other social factors have an overriding influence on sexual activity. There are some data that show therapeutic doses of testosterone can enhance sexual arousal when measured under carefully monitored laboratory conditions using a dichotic listening task (Alexander et al., 1997). Nevertheless, the weight of evidence suggests that testosterone administration reliably restores sexual functioning in young and middle-aged men with lower than normal testosterone levels, but has no influence on interactional or non-interactional components of sexual behaviour when hormone levels are raised above normal. We have now turned our attention to exploring the role of declining hormone levels in relation to a myriad of behavioural outcomes in ageing men as part of the European Male Ageing Study (see O’Connor et al., 2008).

average, men generally outperform women on visuospatial tasks and women outperform men on verbal fluency and perceptual speed tasks (Halpern, 2000). Of course, it is important to note that the overlap in performance between men and women on each of these tasks is much greater than the mean differences between the sexes. Nonetheless, several biologically plausible mechanisms have been proposed to account for these differences. Evidence suggests that endogenous sex hormones affect cognitive functioning through their pre- and perinatal effects on sexually dimorphic brain structures (Collaer & Hines, 1995). For example, in a seminal study Hier and Crowley (1982) showed that androgen deficient (hypogonadal) men exhibited a marked deficit in visuospatial ability compared with matched controls and hypogonadal men who acquired the condition postpubertally. These findings indicate that testosterone has an organisational effect on the normal expression of spatial ability. More recently, we found testosterone to also have activational effects on cognitive functioning in healthy men: improvements in verbal ability were found to accompany a reduction in spatial ability following testosterone treatment (O’Connor et al., 2001a). These findings suggest that the relationship between testosterone and cognitive functioning is not straightforward, and that an optimum level of hormone is required for the normal expression of spatial ability. Age-related reductions in testosterone have been found to be associated with a progressive decline in cognitive abilities.

Cognition Hormone administration studies have also provided useful insights into the factors associated with variations in cognitive performance, particularly in relation to the established gender differences that exist in cognitive functioning. It is well known that on

European Psychiatry, 21, 551–562. Putz, D.A., Gaulin, S.J.C., Sporter, R.J. & McBurney, D.H. (2004). Sex hormones and finger length. Evolution and Human Behavior, 25, 182–199. Rahman, Q. (2005). Fluctuating asymmetry, second to fourth finger length ratios and human sexual orientation. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30, 382–391. Rammsayer, T.H. & Troche, S.J. (2007).

Entering an exciting period It is clear that an enormous amount of work remains to completely understand the relationships between testosterone and human behaviour. Traditional research questions have focused on the role of testosterone in male behaviours, but we are becoming increasingly aware that this is not a simple linear relationship; the social context and individual behaviours might also play a significant role in determining hormone levels (van Anders & Watson, 2006). This ‘chicken and egg’ problem remains a key issue, and there are many questions that remain to be addressed and many variables that need to be considered. We are currently in an exciting period where hormone analyses are becoming cheaper and easier to conduct, so that more psychologists can begin to get involved in attempting to address these important questions.

I Nick Neave is at Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne nick.neave@northumbria. ac.uk

Sexual dimorphism in second-tofourth digit ratio and its relation to gender-role orientation in males and females. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 911–920. Su, T-P., Pagliaro, M., Schmidt, P.J. et al. (1993). Neuropsychiatric effects of anabolic steroids in male normal volunteers. Journal of the American Medical Association, 269, 2760–2764. Tester, N. & Campbell, A. (2007). Sporting

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In fact, several studies have examined whether testosterone supplementation in older men can benefit cognition. Exciting recent developments in this area have shown that hormone replacement therapy in men can have beneficial effects on aspects of cognitive functioning. Cherrier and colleagues (2007) found that moderate-to-high increases in testosterone were associated with significant improvements in verbal and spatial memory. This could be a promising avenue for future research, with implications for treating older men with existing cognitive difficulties such as mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer’s disease.

achievement: What is the contribution of digit ratio? Journal of Personality, 75, 663–678. van Anders, S.M. & Watson, N.V. (2006). Social neuroendocrinology. Effects of social contexts and behaviors on sex steroids in humans. Human Nature, 17, 212–237. Wang, C., Swerdloff, R.S., Iranmanesh, A. et al. (2000). Transdermal testosterone gel improves sexual

I Daryl O’Connor is at the Institute of Psychological Sciences, University of Leeds d.b.o’connor@leeds.ac.uk

function, mood, muscle strength, and body composition in hypogonadal men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 85, 2839–2853. Wingfield, J.C., Hegner, R.E., Dufty, A.M. & Ball, G.F. (1990). The ‘challenge hypothesis’: Theoretical implications for patterns of testosterone secretion, mating systems, and breeding strategies. The American Naturalist, 136, 829–846.

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DEBATE

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Obesity – Is physical activity the key? Stuart Biddle thinks so, but Terry Dovey disagrees

Terry Dovey

references

Rates of obesity are rising fast, and have now reached pandemic proportions (WHO, 2000) with bleak projections concerning rates over the next few years (NAO, 2001). Attempts to reverse the rising trend have been unsuccessful: clearly the emphasis and/or targeting have been ineffective or inappropriate. The principles behind successful weight loss are obvious; consume less energy than you expend on a daily basis. The mechanisms and means of how this is achieved are much more complex, with many academic fields claiming to have a successful method for achieving shortterm negative energy balance. This robust and multidisciplinary approach to investigate the potential causes and consequences of excessive weight gain and obesity is unquestionably a worthwhile pursuit. However, the relative efficacy and importance of the various disciplines at solving obesity crisis, I believe, is debatable. All discipline-specific interventions can to some degree influence both sides of the energy balance equation; although most would be considered to predominantly affect one side or the other. For example, the two currently licensed drugs for the treatment of obesity, sibutramine and orlistat, both target the energy intake side of the energy balance equation by artificially terminating a person’s meal or specifically prohibiting their absorption of dietary fat. In contrast, the exercise scientists

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Arterburn, D.E., Crane, P.K. & Veenstra, D.L. (2004). The efficacy and safety of sibutramine for weight loss. Archives of Internal Medicine, 164, 994–1003. Bargh, J.A. & Chartrand, T.L. (1999). The unbearable automaticity of being. American Psychologist, 54(7), 462–479. Bassett, D.R., Tremblay, M.S., Eslinger, D.W. et al. (2007). Physical activity and body mass index of children in an

target the energy output side of the equation by encouraging the participant to increase their energy expenditure. Recent systematic reviews or metaanalyses of drug treatment (Arterburn et al., 2004) and exercise (Curioni & Lourenço, 2005) place the potential additional weight loss at only between 3.6kg to 5.3kg for drug interventions and 0.4kg to 2.6kg for exercise compared to 6.4kg to 12.1kg for short-term dietary interventions (Curioni & Lourenço, 2005). This evidence would suggest that the efficacy of physical activity as a potential instrument is way below that of other readily available interventions and therefore has, at best, a relatively small impact on any potential weight reduction intervention. Getting overweight individuals to lose weight is only half the battle, as it is equally important that weight regain does not occur post-intervention. Evidence on weight regain following various interventions suggests that, in the longterm, people will invariably put on a proportion of the weight they previously lost (see, for example, Borg et al., 2002; Skender et al., 1996). Therefore, understanding the motivational and psychological underpinnings of why this regain occurs is essential to solving the obesity crisis. Habitual over-consumption (portion distortion: Hill & Peters, 1998), psychological (self-efficacy, vigilance, coping strategies, cognitive restraint, disinhibited eating, emotional eating or external eating) or psychopathological

old order Amish community. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39, 410–415. Bell, A.C., Ge, K. & Popkin, B.M. (2002). The road to obesity or the path to prevention: Motorised transportation and obesity in China. Obesity Research, 10, 277–283. Biddle, S.J.H. & Mutrie, N. (2008). Psychology of physical activity: Determinants, well-being and

(binge eating) factors are all candidates for why this weight regain occurs. The lack of physical activity may delay weight regain; however, the additional calories burnt via increased physical activity cannot overcome the amount of calories that the average person habitually overconsumes every day (Schwartz & ByrdBredbenner, 2006; Young & Nestle, 2002). Essentially, I am proposing that the inability to halt the rise in obesity incidence rates is most likely due to poor understanding or inappropriate emphasis on biological or physical activity, rather than psychological, reasons (Byrne, 2002).

Stuart Biddle

We agree that the understanding and changing of obesity-related behaviours is complex, despite the irrefutable law of physics regarding the energy balance equation. However, I propose that it is low rates of physical activity rather than over-nutrition that is causing obesity. The change in lifestyles we have experienced, particularly through and beyond the latter part of the 20th century, has brought its own health problems. Some have referred to a selection of these as ‘hypokinetic diseases’, or health problems caused by, or related to, a lack of physical activity, and this issue is not new (Kraus & Raab, 1961). The UK government’s Chief Medical Officer states that ‘there are few public health initiatives that have a greater potential for improving health and well-being than increasing the activity levels of the population’ (Department of Health, 2004). Many researchers (e.g. Hill et al., 1994) conclude that physical activity helps prevents moderate obesity, and inactivity contributes to the development of obesity. However, it may be wrong to say that physical inactivity is the sole cause of obesity; it may be most important in weight maintenance. Prentice and Jebb (2000) state that ‘there

interventions (2nd edn). London: Routledge. Blundell, J.E. (1993). Dietary fat and control of energy intake: Evaluating the effects of fat on meal size and post-meal satiety. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 57, S772–S778. Blundell, J.E., Lawton, C.L., Cotton, J.R. & Macdiarmid, J.I. (1996). Control of human appetite: Implications for the intake of dietary fat. Annual Reviews in

Nutrition, 16, 285–319. Borg, P., Kukkonen-Harjula, K., Fogelholm, M. & Pasanen, M. (2002). Effects of walking or resistance training on weight loss maintenance in obese, middle-aged men: A randomised trail. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 26, 676–683. Bouchard, C. (2000). Introduction. In C. Bouchard (Ed.) Physical activity and

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is still an overwhelming case in favour of the conclusion that physical activity (especially discretionary leisure-time and recreational physical activity) is strongly related to successful weight maintenance’ (p.259). Contrary to popular belief, there is little or no evidence to suggest that rising rates of obesity are due to significant changes in dietary intake. Indeed, with a decline in energy consumption between 1970 and 1990 (Prentice & Jebb, 1995), the obesity figures suggest that physical inactivity is the primary cause. Increase in overweight and obesity is a worldwide problem for developed countries. However, even countries not noted previously for their overweight, similar changes are taking place. For example, China has shown that recent increases in car ownership are clearly associated with increases in obesity (Bell et al., 2002). Many researchers have shown that young people are getting fatter and that a change in physical activity levels is a major cause of this trend. For example, a recent study of ‘Old Order Amish’ children in Canada (Bassett et al., 2007), where lifestyles resemble those of Europe over 150 years ago (such as no motorised transport or electronic labour-saving devices, and subsistence farming), showed both children and adolescents to have very high step counts compared with data in other studies investigating youth in settings akin to current society. Moreover, only 7.2 per cent of these Amish youth were overweight (in comparison with 31 to 35 per cent in England) and 1.4 per cent were obese (17 to 21 per cent in England). Overall, the majority of recent evidence appears to support a role for physical activity in overweight and obesity prevention in youth. There remain research challenges, of course, and difficulties may be due to measurement problems, as well as the potential influence of diverse factors, such as socio-economic status. Increasing physical activity and

obesity (pp.3–19). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Braam, L.A.J.L.M., Ocké, M.C., Bas Bueno-do-Mesquita, H. & Seidell, J.C. (1998). Determinants of obesityrelated under-reporting of energy intake. American Journal of Epidemiology, 147, 1081–1086. Byrne, S.M. (2002). Psychological aspects of weight maintenance and relapse in obesity. Journal of Psychosomatic

decreasing a range of sedentary behaviours may be an effective strategy in the management of overweight and obesity, alongside appropriate nutritional intake (see the NICE obesity guidelines at tinyurl.com/55rl6t). The key issue, of course, is how we might change levels of obesity. Reference to the ecological framework should help. In this model it is recognised that health behaviours are the product of four key influences: intrapersonal (psychological), interpersonal (social), environmental, and policy. The place of psychology is important and may well be the proximal ‘portal’ for individuals to translate perceptions and other environmental influences into personal action.

Terry Dovey

So physical activity acts as a preventative measure against the development of obesity. I agree, and I can foresee a role for physical activity interventions within groups at risk of developing obesity. What I cannot see is how it would help those who are already overweight or obese lose their excess weight. Let’s look closer at that Prentice and

Research, 53, 1029–1036. Curioni, C.C. & Lourenço, P.M. (2005). Long-term weight loss after diet and exercise: A systematic review. International Journal of Obesity, 29, 1168–1174. Department of Health (2004). At least five a week: Evidence on the impact of physical activity and its relationship to health. A report from the Chief Medical Officer. London: Author.

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Jebb evidence. It is compelling, but it is not without its dissenters (Morris, 1995), especially in data obtained from obese children (e.g. Gillis et al., 2002). There is also evidence that underreporting of energy intake is positively associated with BMI (Braam et al., 1998), which would further detract from their conclusions. Yes, Prentice and Jebb did uncover a decline in energy intake; however, I believe the more important finding of this study was the increase in dietary fat consumption, as a percentage of overall diet, during the same period. Taking this finding in conjunction with the research into the satiating properties of differing macronutrients suggests that the consumption of a high-fat diet will inevitably lead to increased feelings of hunger (and, therefore, consumption) compared to diets higher in protein or carbohydrates (e.g. Blundell et al., 1996). Indeed, many authors (including Prentice & Jebb themselves – McGloin et al., 2002) have suggested that the increased intake of fat, in terms of a percentage of overall diet, is responsible for the development and maintenance of obesity (Blundell, 1993; Flatt et al., 1985; Hill et al., 2000). Considering physical activity as an intervention for obesity, it would appear that success is reliant on the participant’s confidence (Riebe et al., 2005). The essential requirement of confidence for this type of intervention would undoubtedly be inhibited by the comorbidities of obesity (e.g. poor self-esteem, poor perceived quality of life, depression, etc.). Therefore, the efficacy of this intervention is inhibited by the condition itself. Other types of interventions (e.g. pharmacological, nutritional and psychological) actively engage with these comorbidities in addition to the symptoms of obesity, rather

Flatt, J.P., Ravussin, E., Acheson, K.J. & Jequier, E. (1985). Effects of dietary fat on post-prandial substrate oxidation and on carbohydrate and fat balances. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 76, 1019–1024. Fox, K.R. (1999). Treatment of obesity III: Physical activity and exercise. In British Nutrition Foundation (Ed.) Obesity (pp.165–175). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.

Gillis, L.J., Kennedy, L.C., Gillis, A.M. & Bar-Or, O. (2002). Relationship between juvenile obesity, dietary energy and fat intake and physical activity. International Journal of Obesity, 26, 458–463. Harnack, L.J. & Schmitz, K.H. (2005). The role of nutrition and physical activity in the obesity epidemic. In D. Crawford & R.W. Jeffery (Eds.) Obesity prevention and public health

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than being inhibited by them. I would not argue against the belief that physical activity has benefits for elevating the comorbidities of obesity postintervention; however, I would suggest that the likelihood of these individuals engaging with physical activity is diminished by the very symptoms that characterise it. It is undeniable that physical activity could be a strong preventative measure; however, it is unlikely that it will help those who are already overweight. A caveat to this conclusion would be the very small proportion of obese individuals who are highly motivated, confident and have an absence of any of the psychopathological comorbidities that often accompany high levels of adiposity. Essentially, physical activity may be used in conjunction with other types of interventions, for its physical well-being benefits, but not as a weight-loss strategy. So physical activity cannot be the answer to the current obesity crisis, and it would be bottom of my list of possible interventions.

Stuart Biddle

It appears that we have two key areas of debate. Regarding the first, over-nutrition versus under-activity, my understanding is that nutrition experts cannot agree on the extent to which changes in population levels of obesity are coupled with nutritional trends. For example, Bouchard (2000) does not support the proposition that obesity is caused solely by a rise in energy intake, but does support the idea that ‘caloric intake per capita has actually declined compared to previous generations, but daily energy expenditure has, on average, decreased even more’ (p.11). Similarly, Rolland-Cachera and Bellisle (2002) state quite clearly that ‘in industrialised countries, the prevalence of obesity is rising, in spite of falling energy intakes’ (p.85). Conversely, Harnack and Schmitz (2005) suggest that energy intake has risen in the US alongside rates of obesity, although they caution this

(pp.21–36). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hill, J.O., Drougas, H.J. & Peters, J.C. (1994). Physical activity, fitness, and moderate obesity. In C. Bouchard, R.J. Shephard & T. Stephens (Eds.) Physical activity, fitness and health (pp.684–695). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Hill, J.O., Melanson, E.L. & Wyatt, H.T. (2000). Dietary fat intake and

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conclusion by saying that results are not entirely consistent. The picture, at best, is unclear. The second issue concerns the role of physical activity in obesity treatment. Although the barriers many non-overweight people face for physical activity may be exaggerated for obese individuals, there is evidence that while very low calorie diets can be effected in treating obesity, physical activity appears to have a positive influence on weight maintenance (Fox, 1999). However, it does raise the key issue you have discussed – that of psychological influences and the possibility that the condition itself (i.e. obesity) will simply inhibit movement and physical activity. There is much truth in this, and psychology has a key role to play. Of course, we must see psychological influences within the wider social-ecological model that also accounts for social, environmental and policy influences on behaviour. For example, restricting some behaviours, such as car use, may have just as much effect through environmental than personal factors, although I would never dismiss some role for the latter. In fact, given the ease with which food can be obtained, and the loweffort, high-frequency nature of eating, physical activity may be an easier behaviour to change for everyone than eating. Time will tell!

Terry Dovey

It is now clear that we could continue to debate the relative merits of nutrition, physical activity and psychology

regulation of energy balance: Implications for obesity. Journal of Nutrition, 130, S284–S288. Hill, J. & Peters J. (1998). Environmental contributors to the obesity epidemic. Science, 280, 1371–1374. Kraus, H. & Raab, W. (1961). Hypokinetic disease. Springfield, IL: C.C. Thomas. McGloin, A.F., Livingstone, M.B.E., Greene, L.C. et al. (2002). Energy and

indefinitely without satisfactory conclusions. Despite this, I would like to offer one last piece of research. Wardle et al. (2007) showed that physical activity in adolescents is a potent weight maintenance intervention, especially in boys. This paper suggests that increasing physical activity in adolescents by just two episodes a week will lower incidence rates of overweight and obesity. However, the data also shows incidents of obesity will increase even with higher levels of physical activity. Physical activity, in essence, tempers the rate of increase within a population of children rather than stopping it altogether. I agree that psychological explanations to obesity cannot be the whole answer; however, government bodies and the media are currently portraying obesity as a biological, socioeconomic and physical activity issue. Psychology, I believe, is not given the same attention or considerations as other disciplines. Although the destination of obesity is the same, there are many possible paths to reaching it. Without understanding this diversity in how an

fat intake in obese and lean children at varying risk of obesity. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 26, 200–207. Morris, J.N. (1995). Obesity in Britain. British Medical Journal, 311, 1568. National Audit Office (2001). Tackling obesity in England. Norwich: HMSO. Prentice, A.M. & Jebb, S.A. (1995). Obesity in Britain: Gluttony or sloth? British Medical Journal, 311, 437–439.

Prentice, A.M. & Jebb, S.A. (2000). Physical activity level and weight control in adults. In C. Bouchard (Ed.) Physical activity and obesity (pp.247–261). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Riebe, D., Blissmer, B., Greene, G. et al. (2005). Long-term maintenance of exercise and healthy eating behaviours in overweight adults. Preventive Medicine, 40(6), 769–778.

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activity should be made for all children to curb the increasing rates in obesity. This would be its rightful place; rather than as a tool for helping those currently obese. Furthermore, additional infrastructure should be provided for children who require weight-loss interventions before we target specific individuals. Finally, irrespective of whether the obese person is an adult or child, individually tailored interventions informed by psychological assessment (beyond the psychopathology of depression and binge eating) should be offered to understand how the person reached their current state of adiposity. Only then will we be able to give these people the confidence and motivation to change their weight status irrespective of the intervention adopted.

Stuart Biddle individual became obese, it is extremely difficult to offer a successful weight-loss or maintenance strategy. The last point I would like to offer is the importance of timeliness over any field-specific intervention. It is becoming increasingly apparent that the earlier one intervenes, in terms of obesity, the greater the chance of success. Currently, interventions are focused on those who are already obese. More importantly, it is also focused on adult interventions. A plethora of options are available to the obese adult to aid in the loss of excess weight, while the responsibility for dealing with overweight and obese children is given to parents. Little structured and dedicated support is available for children who need to lose weight compared with adults. Without this infrastructure, the targeting of specific individuals who require intervention will be unsuccessful. In conclusion, I agree with your supposition that physical activity would be an easier behaviour to both understand and change. Perhaps that is its appeal. Therefore, adequate provision for physical

Rolland-Cachera, M.F. & Bellisle, F. (2002). Nutrition. In W. Burniat, T. Cole, I. Lissau & E. Poskitt (Eds.) Child and adolescent obesity: Causes and consequences, prevention and management (pp.69–92). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Sallis, J.F. & Owen, N. (1999). Physical activity and behavioural medicine. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

I am not entirely in agreement with your comment that ‘interventions are focused on those who are already obese’. There are many interventions that focus on prevention as well, although whether you consider them to be successful is another matter. So where does all this leave the role of psychology? I am a psychologist myself, although I have recently been attempting to locate my work in a wider behavioural health context. Nevertheless, I agree that psychology is important, and even have a second edition of my book out to prove it (Biddle & Mutrie, 2008)! However, I do think that some of the issues we are addressing, and in particular physical activity and nutrition, have psychological and non-psychological elements. I don’t think psychology has all of the answers and, perhaps in some cases I don’t think psychology has many answers! Regarding the last comment, we need to make a distinction between consciously planned behaviours and those that are more automatic. Of course, it is not always clear which are which, but I do think that sometimes we assume too much conscious planning, hence the relatively low behavioural variance

Schwartz, J. & Byrd-Bredbenner, C. (2006). Portion distortion: Typical portion sizes selected by young adults. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 106, 1412–1418. Skender, M.L., Goodrick, G.K., Del Junco, D.J. et al (1996). Comparison of twoyear weight loss trends in behavioural treatments of obesity: Diet, exercise, and combination interventions.

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explained in many studies. On the other hand, we do not operate on automatic pilot either. So, I question the extent that some behaviours require the degree of psychological assessment you suggest. For example, if parents refused to drive their children to school, the same kids would walk more, yet the children themselves have little psychological input or change. It has been a socialenvironmental context that has changed. Equally, if I ban chocolate from my house, and offer plenty of fruit instead, the consumption of fruit will increase by my family. Of course, some psychological issues will interplay, such as likes, dislikes, and so on, but I think the point is clear about a lack of (or reduced need for) conscious processing for some behaviours by the participants (Bargh & Chartrand, 1999). To this end, I subscribe to a multifaceted model of human behaviour, such as that proposed in the socialecological model (Sallis & Owen, 1999), with intrapersonal, interpersonal (social), and environmental influences combining in different ways to influence behaviour. Editor’s note: This is an edited version of a debate that originally appeared in Sport and Exercise Psychology Review.

Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 96, 342–346. Wardle, J., Brodersen, N.H. & Boniface, D. (2007). School-based physical activity and changes in adiposity. International Journal of Obesity, 31, 1464–1468. World Health Organization (2000). Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic. Final report of a WHO consultation. WHO Technical

I Stuart Biddle is Professor of Exercise and Sport Psychology at Loughborough University s.j.h.biddle@lboro.ac.uk

I Terry Dovey is a Lecturer in Psychology at Loughborough University T.M.Dovey@lboro.ac.uk

Report Series, No. 894. Geneva: Author. Young, L. & Nestle, M. (2002). The contribution of expanding portion sizes to the US obesity epidemic. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 246–249.

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THE INTERVIEW

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The most important living psychologist? …That’s according to Steven Pinker. Lance Workman interviews Daniel Kahneman, Nobel laureate and co-creator of behavioural economics

ou’ve had a very eventful life and you’ve witnessed both extreme kindness and cruelty that most people have only read about – I’m wondering what got you interested in psychology, in people. Was it the positive events you witnessed or the negative ones? I don’t think it was either the positive or the negative. I trace my interest in psychology back to my mother and her interest in gossip. There was always a lot of talk about people in my childhood and I resonated to it. I think that’s where my interest in other people, started – really from a very early age I realised that people are complex and not always easy to predict.

Y

You did your doctoral work at Berkeley in the 1950s – there must have been some very prestigious academics at Berkeley to rub shoulders with back then? Yes, there were some very interesting people at Berkeley back then, but I wouldn’t say I was particularly influenced by any of the greats. Tolman had already left, and I studied with people whose names are well-known like Jack Block who taught me a fair bit about personality testing. But basically I wasn’t anybody’s student when I was at Berkley. So no great influences in my life at that point. You’ve worked on an astonishingly large number of psychological areas – from memory to vision, from pain to well-being – but you are probably most associated in people’s minds with the discovery that

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judgement heuristics can lead to errors. Why did you decide to study this? It was in part an accident for which life had prepared me. The accident was that I was teaching a graduate seminar on real-world problems and as a part of this the person I ended up collaborating with, Amos

Tversky, happened to give a talk about what was going on in his field of judgement and decision-making. I didn’t actually agree with what he said in his talk, and afterwards we started discussing it. I think I shook his view that we are all ‘conservative Bayesians’ – that is that when people make false judgements, after feedback, they adjust their confidence intervals in the right direction but not far enough. To me this just wasn’t how people made judgement heuristics. What occurred to me was that a number of things were coming together. I had always

been curious about my own errors of judgement, and as I was teaching statistics I was very curious about what the students found intuitive and non-intuitive in the statistics I taught them. Also I was studying perception. So what we did was to put all this together with Amos’ interest in the area and began working together. You mention Amos Tversky. Your names are like Lennon and McCartney – you seem to be somehow more than the sum of your individual parts. Is that a fair assumption? Yes, I think it certainly is true for both of us that the work we did together was better than the work we did separately. I think both of us did decent work separately but the work we did together had something special that came from the combination of our talents and the way we worked together. Tversky is sadly no longer with us. What sort of a man was he? Well to paraphrase my eulogy, Amos was a man who made a great deal of difference to many people’s lives. My first memory of him was as a thin and handsome young lieutenant back in 1957. He had recently received the highest citation available from the Israeli army for saving a man’s life and injuring himself in doing so. So he was certainly a man of courage. He was intelligent and witty and was always able to move things on as a collaborator. In terms of working with him, almost everything we wrote together went through dozens of drafts. That was how we worked, and what kept me going in this way was Amos’ ‘let’s do it right’ attitude. And he was right – they always did improve through reworking. The article we wrote on heuristics and biases for Science in 1974 took literally a year to write. Sometimes we would write only one or two sentences in a day – but we knew it was right by the time we submitted it, and I think we brought out the best in each other. Amos was not a man you could coerce or embarrass into chores or empty rituals. This gave him a great sense of freedom that many people would envy. I think it was this sense of freedom and a sharp intellect that gave him the ability to adapt creatively to problems. I think it’s also worth mentioning in terms of his standing in psychology that he published more articles in Psychological Review than any other psychologist – and has yet to be surpassed. You’ve probably been asked this many times, but how did you hear you’d won the Nobel Prize and how did you feel? Well, they call you. Often people know in advance if they think they are candidates – there are lots of people waiting for that

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Did people start to treat you differently? Yes I think they did. There is an aura that surrounds the Nobel Prize that comes from its history. The funny thing is… and I won’t say it’s not a great honour, it is… but it is not the most selective honour. It’s not? No, it really isn’t – you know in economics they get three a year. In psychology, the American Psychological Association award is actually more difficult. The Nobel is definitely not the most selective – but it does carry a certain cachet that the others can’t quite match. The thing is, there are no Nobel prizes for psychology. If there were, you would have 50 people alive today with them. That’s interesting, because you won it for economics. You had to publish in economic journals to get it? That’s not the reason. One gets the Nobel Prize for economics if your work has been influential enough in economics – it’s not so much they judge the quality of the work so much as they value its influence. I didn’t mean that you targeted for the Nobel prize, by publishing in economic journals, but that it happened to work that way around. No I realise that – I’m just saying that the reason we got it was because behavioural economics, which brought psychology and economics together, happened at that time and we were heavily involved in developing it. Were economists happy about a pair of psychologists coming into their field, publishing in it and winning the big prize? Maybe some were unhappy that we got it as we weren’t economists – but as I was involved in the development of behavioural economics and this has taken off since and helped to add a dimension to economics, I think most were OK about it. In the 1980s there was a feeling that psychology was influencing economic thought – so they could see that we were bringing something new into the field. You’ve demonstrated that people are rather poor at making decisions that involve some degree of uncertainty – and

yet you don’t see people as irrational? Well, I think the whole issue of whether people are rational or irrational depends on your definition of rationality. What you find is that there is a definition of rationality that is accepted in economics and if you stick to that definition then people are definitely not rational – it’s all about economic decision-making. Of course that does not mean that they are crazy, as this is quite different to what being rational means in everyday language. One way out of this ‘why do we make bad decisions under some circumstances?’ debate is by introducing a dual-process model. This is based on work I did with Shane Frederick, and the model assumes that there are two ways in which decisions are produced. System 1 is very rapid, automatic, effortless and intuitive. System 2 is slower, rule-governed, deliberate and effortful. System 2 sometimes intervenes on behalf of System 1 as it ‘knows’ the latter is prone to violate certain rules. This means that we are likely to make errors when System 2 fails to correct System 1. That’s when we appear to act irrationally at times. We have a very rational system available – but it isn’t always engaged. You have done a lot of work on cognitive illusions. One of the terms you coined in this area is the ‘illusion of validity’. How did you come up with this concept? I coined the term ‘the illusion of validity’ when I was 20, but it didn’t make it into the literature until 1973 when we published a paper on the psychology of prediction. It’s really about the fact that when we are making predictions often there is no real connection between statistical information and our experiences of insight. We think there should be a close connection between these two forms of evidence – but often there isn’t. One of your more recent areas of interest is something you call adversarial collaboration – it sounds intriguing. What does it involve? I think that there is a lot of controversy in psychology – perhaps not as much as in some other fields – but in general by the time you get into the cycle of ‘critique’ followed by ‘replies’ and ‘rejoinders’ in journals, you are really wasting your time and energy. People get intensely involved in them. They become emotionally wound up – but usually you find it yields absolutely nothing, with nether side changing their minds about anything or agreeing that they got anything wrong. And so I would very much like to see the reply and rejoinder way of dealing with debates disappear. I think that it could happen.

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So people that disagree might write a paper together where they write different parts – is that how it works? Yes, that’s right, and I have participated in several efforts of this kind. In one of them we had a mediator, Barbara Mellers, and we proposed rules for adversarial collaboration. Perhaps the most successful one was a collaboration with two authors who had criticised my work, Dan Ariely and George Loewenstein. We started by seeing what we agreed on and then explained what we disagreed on, in successive paragraphs that we wrote separately. The paper came out in two voices. I think it worked quite well, and it certainly led us to listen to each other more carefully and calmed the anger that is normal under such circumstances. I think academia would be a better place and with a little less ego if we all followed your lead on this! Finally, you’re working on well-being now. What can we do to boost our well-being? I can think of three things. First, change the way you use your time. Time is the ultimate finite resource – we should use it as if it is. Second, try to pay attention to the things that make your life better rather than concentrating on the things that make your life worse. And the third I think is to invest your time on activities that you will continue to pay attention to. For example when people buy a car they imagine themselves driving the car and enjoying it. But most of the time when you actually own the car and are driving it you’re not attending to it. However, when you are socialising with friends you are attending to that activity. So there are activities that are attention-rich intrinsically. If there are good activities that are attention rich you should work on them – you should try to have a lot of them in your life. I think people don’t do that enough.

reading

phone call. It’s a closely kept secret, but some people know that they are being ‘activated’ soon. It’s funny… the person who called me said something to reassure me that this was not a prank. I forget exactly how he managed to convince me that it wasn’t a prank, but the Swedish accent certainly helped!

Links to some publications are available at www.princeton.edu/~kahneman Dolan, P. & Kahneman, D. (2008). Interpretations of utility and their implications for the valuation of health. The Economic Journal, 118, 215–234. Gilovich, T., Griffin, D. & Kahneman, D. (Eds.) (2002). Heuristics and biases. New York: Cambridge University Press. Kahneman, D. & Krueger, A.B. (2006). Developments in the measurement of subjective well-being. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 20, 3–24. Kahneman, D., Slovic, P. & Tversky, A. (Eds.) (1982). Judgment under uncertainty. New York: Cambridge University Press. Tversky, A. & Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science, 185, 1124–1131.

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BOOK REVIEWS

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The brain neuroplastic ‘I sing the brain neuroplastic’ should perhaps be the title of this somehow very American book. For Doidge, Walt Whitman's ‘all-baffling brain’ is entirely comprehensible in terms of neuroplasticity, which he uses to explain behaviours as diverse as obsessive compulsive disorder, love, chronic pain, internet pornography, recovery from stroke and autism. Doidge wants to make radical claims about the brain, and in part uses the old trick of attacking a straw man, which was described well in a review in the New York Times: ‘In classical neuroscience, the adult brain was considered an immutable machine, as wonderfully precise as a clock in a locked case. Every part had a specific purpose, none could be replaced or repaired, and the machine was destined to tick in unchanging rhythm until its gears corroded with age.’ If anyone ever truly thought that, how did they explain learning and memory? And even if the clockwise brain is ridiculous, equally absurd is its overly liberal converse of an infinitely plastic brain, ‘as malleable as a lump of wet clay’ as that same review said. Neuroplasticity is everywhere now, and this book is a good guide to its gurus, its logic and its jargon. Children, for instance, no longer learn arithmetic but instead undergo ‘brain training’ (as a recent newspaper advert put it), a training that seems merely to mean playing with a hand-held gadget that provides feedback while doing arithmetic problems. Much of neuroplasticity, brain remapping or whatever seems to be using a new metaphor to redescribe, for the age of MRI, the old psychological truths of learning depending on its consequences, depth of processing helping memory, attention underpinning perception, and ten thousand hours of practice improving skill. The underlying mechanisms may fascinate neuroscientists, but need not necessarily interest psychologists, any more than computer hardware necessarily interests those using software. Even if brains are a necessary precondition for such processes, The Brain that Changes Itself: psychologists probably don't need to buy into the Stories of Personal Triumph from neurobabble unless they are sexing up grant applications, the Frontiers of Brain Science or persuading sceptical university administrators that Norman Doidge psychology is actually serious science. Intriguingly, Doidge is a psychoanalyst, and for him Freud was the first to describe psychotherapy as ‘neuroplastic therapy’. Should your behaviour change from reading this review, then perhaps I also am a ‘neuroplastician’… Overall this book is intriguing, infuriating, fascinating, absurd, credulous, wrong and misleading in parts, mainly by trying to satisfy different audiences. Scientific readers won't like the cutesy, intimate stories of ‘personal triumph from the frontiers of brain science’, replete with sweeping over-generalisations and little critical assessment. The triumphs are of the patients (whose rare diseases are undiagnosed by dismissive doctors but have miraculous recoveries) and the scientists (who are derided geniuses, rejecting conventional academia, whose ideas are both attacked and neglected until vindication results from the miraculous recoveries of those same patients). Neither will the book satisfy the halt, the lame and those suffering a myriad of neural afflictions, who will gain little from the technical diversions, and may be sadly misled with false hope of new dawns. When cures fail to appear, the interpretation may well be that the patients' brains simply didn't sufficiently want to change. The cover quotes the New York Times as saying, ‘the power of positive thinking finally gains scientific credibility’. The reference to Norman Vincent Peale's 1950s evangelical best-seller runs the risk that lack of improvement may be attributed to a failure of attitude, of not having sufficient of what, at Peale's death, Bill Clinton called, ‘the wondrously American value of optimism’. Not to recover would be un-American, and the patient once more the problem. I Penguin; 2008; Pb £9.99 Reviewed by Chris McManus who is Professor of Psychology and Medical Education, University College London

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More than a dictionary Dictionary of Forensic Psychology Graham J. Towl, David P. Farrington, David A. Crighton & Gareth Hughes (Eds.) The book starts with an introduction to the Division of Forensic Psychology, monitoring its launch in 1977 to its current status within the British Psychological Society. Written by leading academic and practising forensic psychologists, it provides accessible descriptions of everyday terminology, including over 300 terms relating to forensic psychology, such as offending behaviour interventions and recidivism prediction. The book also provides an array of key texts and sources for each term for the interested reader as well as listing related entries from within the dictionary and providing details about other professional bodies such as the probation service and the Ministry of Justice. Particularly useful was the format of the definition – each entry had both a brief punchy definition, followed by a longer explanation (500–1500 words). These factors make the book more than just a dictionary, they make it a useful mapping or reference document for anyone interested or working in the area of forensic psychology. Overall, a really interesting read. I Willan; 2008; Pb £22.99 Reviewed by Samantha L. Heaton who is an assistant psychologist at Rampton Hospital

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book reviews

Importance of process

An intriguing area

A breath of fresh air

Cognition and Sex Differences Colin Hamilton

Evolutionary Psychology: An Introduction (2nd edn) Lance Workman & Will Reader

Drugs and Crime Richard Hammersley

I Palgrave Macmillan; 2008; Pb £19.99 Reviewed by Leanne Gregory who is an assistant psychologist, NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde

Although an area of psychology I enjoyed a great deal during my undergraduate degree, evolutionary psychology was not one I’d explored further. Like many students, I found learning about sexual selection and mate choice fascinating, even if I did not agree with the reduction of human beings to simply a product of natural selection, or what seemed to be convenient excuses for less than favourable sexual behaviour. I knew little about evolutionary psychology’s arguments in other areas of human behaviour. This easy-to-read textbook provides an excellent introduction to evolutionary explanations for many psychological phenomena. With coverage of topics not usually featuring on the undergraduate degree syllabus (e.g. arguments around psychopathology and culture), Workman and Reader manage to engage the Darwinian novice and make an intriguing area of psychology even more compelling. I’m sure that anyone new to the area would find this book both accessible and wideranging. I Cambridge University Press; 2008; Pb £27.99 Reviewed by Vicki Bradshaw who is with City & Hackney Primary Care Trust

read discuss contribute at www.thepsychologist.org.uk

With this book, Hammersley ferociously dispels any longstanding notions of a straightforward causal relationship between drugs and crime, whereby it is often taken for granted that drugs are the root of all evil, and crime ultimately results from and feeds such habits. Instead, he offers a reassessment of the nature of these two issues with evidence from a vast range of research spanning the last century, to bring about an understanding not only of the nature of drugs and crime, but also of the social constructions of these concepts and of the nature of the perceived links between the two. Key topics include drug classification and the reasons for such classifications in society, the life course of drug problems and offending behaviour, regulation of illicit drugs, and use prevention. Perhaps most importantly,

just in

Understanding differences in cognition is useful across many domains of psychological practice. Here Colin Hamilton considers individual differences in cognition from various perspectives (evolutionary, hormonal, socio-cultural, etc.). From the outset Hamilton argues the benefit of taking a process orientation when considering cognitive functioning, proposing that this will lead to far greater understanding of the sources individual difference. He demonstrates this argument well throughout, considering research findings not just in terms of what they indicate about task performance, but what they might mean in relation to underlying processes. Several chapters are finished with a ‘Research to do’ section, making for an interesting and thought-provoking read. This objective and comprehensive book considers differences both between and within the sexes, preventing the reader from feeling that the point of research in this area is to polarise men and women. It also acknowledges the interaction of cognition with other areas of psychological and social functioning, highlighting the importance of taking the big picture into account when considering cognitive functioning.

Hammersley devotes a chapter to addressing poverty and social exclusion, which he argues are the key drivers of both drugs and crime. Hammersley questions what we as readers ‘know’ about drugs and crime, allowing a re-examination of some of the well-established preconceptions, and a consideration of alternative explanations for such links, including complex social and psychological contexts. He argues that a link between these issues cannot be as straightforward as we may be led to believe. With an innovative combination of scientific and phenomenological approaches this text is a breath of fresh air for students and academics alike, providing a neutral basis from which to develop thinking and research within this highly influential area of study. I Polity Press; 2008; Pb £17.99 Reviewed by Helen Henshaw who is a PhD student at the University of Leicester

Sample titles just in: Maternal Encounters: The Ethics of Interruption Lisa Baraitser Splendours and Miseries of the Brain Semir Zeki Cyberpsychology Kent Norman The Pleasure Center Morten Kringelbach Counselling in Health Care Settings Robert Bor, Sheila Gill, Riva Miller and Amanda Evans Management and Leadership Development Mabey and Finch-Lees Inside Psychology Pat Rabbitt (Ed.) For a full list of books available for review and information on reviewing for The Psychologist, see www.bps.org.uk/books Send books for potential review to The Psychologist, 48 Princess Road East, Leicester LE1 7DR

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New titles from Wiley-Blackwell… THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY EDITED BY SHANE J. LOPEZ, Research Director of the Clifton Strengths Institute, US Positive psychology, the pursuit of understanding optimal human functioning, is reshaping the scholarly and public views of how we see the science of psychology. The Encyclopedia of Positive Psychology provides a comprehensive and accessible summary of this growing area of scholarship and practice. January 2009 1160pp 2 Volumes 978-1-4051-6125-1 Hardback

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Children’s Reading and Spelling draws upon internationally renowned research to extend models of early literacy. While most psychologists have concentrated on the ways in which very young children begin to read and spell, here the focus shifts to how these skills are developed beyond the initial stages. January 2009 320 pages 978-0-6312-3403-6 Paperback RRP £19.99 978-0-6312-3402-9 Hardback RRP £55.00

DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF LANGUAGE, LEARNING, AND COGNITION CHARLES HULME, Professor of Psychology at the University of York;

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This important new text provides an up-todate review of our knowledge of a wide range of developmental disorders of language, learning and cognition. Explanations for each disorder are considered in relation to our understanding of typical development. The book focuses on cognitive theories of each disorder but also considers their biological bases and methods of treatment. December 2008 448pp 978-0-6312-0612-5 Paperback RRP £24.99 978-0-6312-0611-8 Hardback RRP £55.00

SPLENDOURS AND MISERIES OF THE BRAIN Love, Creativity and the Quest for Human Happiness SEMIR ZEKI, University College London Splendours and Miseries of the Brain examines the elegant and efficient machinery of the brain, showing that by studying music, art, literature, and love, we can reach important conclusions about how the brain functions. December 2008 256pp 978-1-4051-8557-8 Paperback RRP £16.99 978-1-4051-8558-5 Hardback RRP £50.00

ASSESSMENT AND TREATMENT OF SEX OFFENDERS A Handbook ANTHONY R. BEECH, University of Birmingham LEAM A. CRAIG, Forensic Psychology Practice Ltd KEVIN D. BROWNE, University of Liverpool This is an edited book, which is divided into six sections: Risk Assessment; Offender Assessment; Interventions; Assessments for Special Populations (including offenders with developmental disabilities and those with Dangerous and Severe Personality Disorder); Interventions for Special Populations; and Policy and Practice. January 2009 632 pages 978-0-4700-1900-9 Paperback RRP£34.99 978-0-4700-1899-6 Hardback RRP £95.00

Available from all good booksellers, or order online at www.wiley.com

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NEW BPS TEXTBOOKS IN PSYCHOLOGY BPS Textbooks in Psychology deliver everything a student needs in order to complete an undergraduate degree in psychology. Refreshingly written to consider more than just American perspectives, titles cover everything from introductory to final year modules and are fully compliant with BPS syllabi. Each book is supported by a website featuring material for instructors and students. No other series bears the BPS seal of approval!

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JUDGMENT AND DECISION MAKING David Hardman, London Metropolitan University •

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read discuss contribute at www.thepsychologist.org.uk

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SOCIETY

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The British Psychological Society

Liz Campbell Contact Liz Campbell via the Society’s Leicester office, or e-mail: president@bps.org.uk

President Elect Sue Gardner

Honorary Treasurer Dr Richard Mallows Chair, Membership and Professional Training Board Dr Peter Banister Chair, Psychology Education Board Dr Richard Latto Chair, Research Board Professor Martin Conway Chair, Publications and Communications Board Professor Graham Powell Chair, Professional Practice Board Dr Martin Crawshaw Chair, Professional Conduct Board Joop Tanis The Society has offices in Belfast, Cardiff, Glasgow and London, as well as the main office in Leicester. All enquiries should be addressed to the Leicester office (see inside front cover for address). The British Psychological Society was founded in 1901, and incorporated by Royal Charter in 1965. Its object is ‘to promote the advancement and diffusion of a knowledge of psychology pure and applied and especially to promote the efficiency and usefulness of Members of the Society by setting up a high standard of professional education and knowledge’. Extract from The Charter

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President’s column

President Dr Elizabeth Campbell

Vice President and Acting Honorary General Secretary Professor Pam Maras

14:02

s we start the New Year, it seems a summer, there were psychologists pertinent time to reflect on our overall demonstrating and leafleting outside the strategic direction. We have had a Strategic convention centre because of their concern Plan for the Society, which now needs updating about this issue. and revision. The issue went to a vote of the APA We want to articulate through the Strategic membership in the latter half of 2008. APA Plan where the Society wants to position itself members approved a resolution which prohibits in the next five years. We also in the Strategic psychologists from working in settings where Plan want to pick out those areas of activity people are detained in violation of international where we would wish to see growth and law. The APA President, Alan Kazdin, wrote to development. In addition we want to articulate President Bush to inform him that: ‘…the effect our values that we would hope to embody in of this new policy is to prohibit psychologists both our objectives and our operating processes. from any involvement in interrogations or any The Strategic Plan will then inform specific other operational procedures at detention sites targets and business planning for the next few that are in violation of the US Constitution or years. One of the ways in which we want to international law… The roles of psychologists involve all the at such sites would now be limited members in the to working directly for the persons process of being detained or for an “we want to articulate our contributing to the independent third party working to values that we would hope to Strategic Plan is protect human rights, or providing embody in both our objectives through a treatment to military personnel.’ and operating processes” membership survey. The letter goes on to say : ‘…the We had a American Psychological Association comprehensive strongly calls on you and your membership survey conducted by Dr Lisa administration to safeguard the physical and Morrison Coulthard about four years ago. We psychological welfare and human rights of also had a survey of graduate members last year. individuals incarcerated by the US government We are planning to have the membership survey in such detention centers and to investigate their early in 2009 and to structure the questions treatment to ensure the highest ethical standards around the main themes in the draft Strategic are being upheld.’ Plan. Members will be notified of the survey Our Society agreed a statement condemning through an announcement in The Psychologist, torture in 2005: ‘The British Psychological on the homepage of the website, and via an eSociety condemns torture wherever it occurs, mail invitation. and supports the United Nations Declaration Our membership department has been very and Convention Against Torture and Other busy in recent months with an influx of Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or members prior to statutory regulation. If any Punishment. We further condemn the misuse of practitioner members who are not currently full psychological knowledge and techniques in the members of their relevant Division wish to be design and enactment of torture. For the part of the automatic transfer to the Health purpose of this Declaration, torture is defined Professions Council’s list of registered as the deliberate, systematic or wanton infliction psychologists when it opens, then we would of physical or mental suffering by one or more ask that they apply as soon as possible to the persons acting alone or on the orders of any Society for full membership of their relevant authority, to force another person to yield Division. We need to receive such applications information, to make a confession, or for any before 20 May 2009 in order to process them in other reason. This definition includes the use time before the opening of the HPC register. of threats, insults, sexual, religious or cultural Members may be aware that there has degradation or degrading treatment of any kind.’ been considerable debate in the American Psychological Association about the role Please contribute to the membership survey of psychologists working with detainees in and to the development of the new strategic Guantanamo Bay and CIA ‘black sites’. When plan by responding to the survey invitation. I was at the APA conference in Boston last Your views matter!

A

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Award for Distinguished Contributions to Professional Practice Paul Chadwick The profession of clinical psychology is grounded in the concept of the scientistpractitioner, yet there are very few clinical psychologists who have achieved international recognition for sustained clinically relevant research from a base as a practising clinical psychologist employed within the NHS. Professor Paul Chadwick is one such individual, and this has been recognised in the Society’s Award for Distinguished Contributions to Professional Psychology 2008. Professor Chadwick has been at the cutting edge of developments in the psychological understanding and treatment of distressing psychosis for 20 years, consistently publishing original quantitative and qualitative clinical research that has shaped clinical practice in the UK and beyond. His research with Professor Fergus Lowe in the late 1980s on cognitive

therapy for delusions spearheaded the emergence in the UK and abroad of cognitive therapy for psychosis, showing that dimensions of delusional experience were both understandable and, contrary to the prevailing wisdom enshrined in DSM III, sensitive to psychological intervention. His research with Professor Max Birchwood on the development of the cognitive ABC model of voices (auditory hallucinations) was ground-breaking both in terms of understanding the maintenance of distress and disturbance associated with voices and in their development of a conceptually and empirically grounded cognitive therapy. Their research established how levels of distress and disturbance reflect the meaning people give to their voices, including the crucially important concepts of malevolence/benevolence and

omnipotence, and the therapeutic benefit of supporting people to find new ways of making sense of the experience of hearing voices. With colleagues in Southampton he published in 2000 only the second paper on group-based cognitive therapy for voices, showing the clinical benefits of using group processes to promote a sense of universality (knowing that others have similar experiences) and empowerment (weakening the perceived omnipotence of voices). With Dr Peter Trower in 1995 he originated a clinically important distinction between two types of paranoia; so called persecution or ‘Poor Me’ paranoia, where mistreatment by others is viewed as undeserved, and punishment or ‘Bad Me’ paranoia, where the mistreatment is viewed as a deserved punishment. They have subsequently explored implications of this for therapy. In 2005 he published the first article using mindfulness for people with distressing psychosis. Through mindfulness practice and reflective learning people with distressing psychosis learn to let go of habitual distressing reactions to psychotic experience, and instead to accept psychotic experience

Division of Counselling Psychology Annual Conference 9–11 July 2009 University of Warwick Call for submissions now open

Student Members Group Annual Conference 3 April 2009, Holiday Inn Brighton Seafront Call for posters is now open

www.bps.org.uk/dcop2009

www.bps.org.uk/smg2009

Division of Health Psychology Annual Conference 9–11 September 2009 Aston University, Birmingham www.bps.org.uk/dhp2009

Cognitive Psychology Section Annual Conference 1-3 September 2009, University of Hertfordshire

PSIGE Annual Conference 1–3 July 2009 Swansea University Call for submissions now open www.bps.org.uk/psige2009

Faculty of Addictions Developments in the Psychology of Addictions 19–20 February 2009 Tabernacle Street, London www.bps.org.uk/foa2009

Paediatric Psychology Network Event 19 June 2009 Leeds Marriott Hotel www.bps.org.uk/ppn2009 Division of Occupational Psychology Annual Conference 14-16 January 2009 Hilton Hotel, Blackpool www.bps.org.uk/dop2009

Psychology of Women Section Annual Conference 15–19 July 2009 Cumberland Lodge, Windsor www.bps.org.uk/pows2009

read discuss contribute at www.thepsychologist.org.uk

www.bps.org.uk/cognitive2009 Faculty for Learning Disabilities Annual CPD event 27-29 April 2009, Ramada Hotel, Belfast www.bps.org.uk/fld2009

South Thames Branch of the DCP Annual Conference and AGM 23 January 2009, Tabernacle Street, London www.bps.org.uk/souththames2009

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and themselves. This work again empirically challenged clinical wisdom; on this occasion, that meditation is harmful to people with psychosis. In 2006 he published Person-based Cognitive Therapy for Distressing Psychosis, synthesising a decade of work that goes beyond working with symptoms of psychosis to working with the person. The book establishes a Rogerian therapeutic relationship as the basis for a unique integration of mindfulness practice, innovative two-chair methods and traditional cognitive therapy. The integration is underpinned by an original approach to formulation, derived from Vygotsky, of the process of therapeutic change as a collaborative exploration of proximal development.

All this breakthrough work has emerged from his active clinical work, as a practising clinical psychologist since 1991. Since 1997 he has been head of clinical psychology services for adults with mental health problems in Southampton, overseeing a period of growth and development, with new clinical psychology posts being established in community mental health teams, assertive outreach and home treatment teams, and within rehabilitation and inpatient services. Nominating him, Professor Dave Dagnan (Cumbria Partnership NHS Trust and University of Lancaster) said: ‘What stands out in his work over a 20-year period is a sustained commitment to the scientist-practitioner ideal, with all that

entails, in a manner that embodies the essence of clinical psychology as scientific, creative, collaborative and compassionate.’ Professor Chadwick said: ‘I feel deeply honoured to receive this award. I would like to thank my nominator and referees, the British Psychological Society, the many excellent colleagues who have supported me over the years and the clients I have worked with and learned from. For me, professional psychology is about intention to help, creative intelligence and real collaboration with those who use services. I remain, even in mid-career, struck by how much more there is to discover. This is a source of commitment and inspiration for ongoing exploration of the interface between psychological theory and practice.’

Competencies in psychological therapy As all readers will know, applied psychologists are soon to be regulated by the Health Professions Council. A key element of the process of

regulation is the development of clear statements of the competencies associated with each profession. In the field of psychology, in particular, this

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is a complex task, because the competencies of one profession overlap with those of other professions. Thus, as well as developing statements of proficiency for applied psychologists, we also have an interest in the development of statements of competency in related disciplines. Skills for Health, in collaboration with the Society and other key stakeholders, has been developing National Occupational Standards (NOS) for Psychological Therapies including: cognitive behavioural therapy; psychodynamic psychotherapy; systemic therapy; and humanistic, process/experiential psychotherapy. Skills for Health has initiated a consultation process for all four sets of NOS as they become available. The first of these consultations has been for the National Occupational Standards for Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, which closed on 1 December 2008. These standards have been derived from the work of Roth and Pilling (2007), who extracted key competences in CBT from the treatment manuals used to guide therapist adherence and competence in the delivery

of randomised controlled trials of CBT for anxiety disorders and depression. The Society welcomed this development but noted that the architecture underpinning these competences (as specified by Roth and Pilling, 2007) had been omitted from the NOS. This architecture is important in considering the relationship between the competences of psychological therapists or CBT therapists and other professionals delivering psychological therapies, particularly clinical psychologists, nurses and psychiatrists. CBT metacompetences enable the CBT therapist to be aware of

EVENTS DIARY To search an online database of forthcoming events organised by the Society and other organisations, visit www.bps.org.uk/diary. To advertise your event, contact psyadvert@bps.org.uk or +44 116 252 9552.

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when and why to apply (and appropriately omit) particular cognitive and behavioural techniques. Without metacompetences there is a risk that psychotherapeutic procedures are reduced to a set of reductionist procedures without explicit reference to the higher order knowledge to link theory and practice and to adapt CBT to the individual person. In addition, the Society noted that not all professions practising CBT have the same metacompetences (by definition, not all CBT therapists have the same background knowledge in psychological science as clinical psychologists, a clearly non-trivial issue). Therefore a clear definition must be offered of those metacompetences that are (a) essential to all CBT therapists, (b) essential if CBT is to be extended beyond anxiety and depression and (c) beneficial, additional and specific to particular professions. These discussions of the shared and specific competencies of a number of professions (established and new) are of crucial importance in defining the remit and practice of the several

professions delivering psychosocial care. These issues are of importance to clients (who must be protected from incompetent practitioners) and the professions themselves. Skills for Health and the Health Professions Council are proceeding with the definition and regulation of counsellors, psychotherapists and psychological therapists as well as applied psychologists. Senior members of the Society will continue to ensure that the views of applied psychologists are central to these debates. I Professor Peter Kinderman Chair, Standing Committee for Psychologists in Health and Social Care, and member (along with Malcolm Adams) of the HPC’s Professional Liaison Group for Applied Psychologists I Professor Andrew Gumley Division of Clinical Psychology and the Society’s representative on the Skills for Health Psychological Therapies National Reference Group Reference Roth, A. & Pilling, S. (2007). The competences required to deliver effective cognitive and behavioural therapy for people with depression and anxiety disorders. London: Department of Health.

Society vacancies Representative Council

Elected members Members are invited to submit nominations for Society Members to serve as Elected Members of the Representative Council for a three-year term from the 2009 Annual General Meeting. There are four vacancies. Contact Nichola Whitmore-Cooper nicwhi@bps.org.uk, 0116 252 9521 Closing date Friday 30 January Board of Assessors in Clinical Psychology

Chair Practitioner Full Member of the Division of Neuropsychology (at least five years) with experience of examining at postgraduate level in clinical neuropsychology and detailed knowledge and understanding of the process of examinations. See www.bps.org.uk/careers/society_qual/vacancies.cfm Contact Bethan Carley bethan.carley@bps.org.uk, 0116 252 9933 Closing date 31 March 2009

read discuss contribute at www.thepsychologist.org.uk

CONSULTATIONS ON PUBLIC POLICY After the considerable consultations activity that took place throughout September and October, November was a much quieter month. At the time of going to press, four responses, summarised below, had been submitted. For full details of these, please see our website at www.bps.org.uk/consult. Confidentiality: A draft for consultation (response to the General Medical Council) This draft guidance on confidentiality was found to be comprehensive, well thought-out and reasonable. Emphasis on the provision for patients to opt out of information sharing without compromising their care was recommended. Consultation on Revised Standards of Education and Training and Revised Standards of Education and Training Guidance (response to the Health Professions Council; HPC) The Society’s response to this consultation mirrored earlier submissions on HPC standards of education and training (SETs) which had been drafted following wide consultation among relevant member groups. Key points were as follows:

I I I

I

The alterations proposed to the SETs were felt to be appropriate and no additional SETs were considered. The commitment to allowing providers to use the same documentation for a number of approvals/accreditation processes was welcomed. It was recommended that extension of the guidance be considered to ensure appropriate interpretation of the SETs in relation to the contexts relevant to professions that the HPC may regulate in future, including to training provision that falls outside that provided by higher education institutions. It was again recommended that nationally agreed qualification frameworks in higher education be used to describe standards in place of the current reliance on degree titles.

Schizophrenia (update): Guideline consultation (response to the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence) This update was warmly welcomed by the Society, in particular for its allowance of a more phenomenological appreciation of psychosis and its greater emphasis on person-centred care, psychosocial factors/social inclusion and a balance between pharmacological and psychological interventions in optimal care. Video Games Classification: A consultation (response to the Department for Culture, Media and Sport) The Society welcomed this review and endorsed the option for video games classification proposed by Society member Dr Tanya Byron (who conducted a thorough review in this area in 2007), which included both an extension of the statutory powers of the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) to cover all games suitable only for players over the age of 12 and a closer liaison between the BBFC and the voluntary rating and labelling system set up by the video games industry. The preparation and submission of the Society’s responses to consultations on public policy is coordinated by the Policy Support Unit (PSU). All members are eligible to contribute to responses and all interest is warmly welcomed. Please contact the PSU for further information (psu@bps.org.uk; 0116 252 9926/9577). Details of active and completed consultations are available at: www.bps.org.uk/consult.

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Graduate Diploma in Psychology The University of Greenwich welcomes applications from talented and enthusiastic graduates wishing to upgrade their expertise in Psychology. The Graduate Diploma is a one year full-time or two year part-time programme, and is designed for graduates who did not specialise in Psychology but gained at least 60 credits (or equivalent), at honours level, in the subject during their first degree. It is accredited by the British Psychological Society as conferring eligibility for the Graduate Basis for Registration. This is the first step towards becoming a Chartered Psychologist. Graduates from non-accredited psychology programmes are also encouraged to apply. For further information about this programme and the Department, visit our website or come to our open evening on

Wednesday 12 November 2008, 4–8pm University of Greenwich, Mary Seacole Building, Southwood Site, Avery Hill Campus, Eltham, London SE9 2UG.

For more information:

Freephone: 0800 005 006 E-mail: courseinfo@gre.ac.uk Web: www.gre.ac.uk/health

Your route to becoming a professional psychologist

Faculty of Arts and Human Sciences

Practitioner Doctorate (PsychD) in Psychotherapeutic & Counselling Psychology The first of its kind to be accredited by the British Psychological Society, this doctoral course offers training over three years for full-time trainees and up to five years for part-time trainees. Successful completion of the course also confers eligibility for Chartered Counselling Psychologist status. Trainees are exposed to a range of theoretical traditions, including the psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioural. They are given the opportunity to apply these perspectives under supervision in three, year-long practice placements in NHS, student counselling, occupational, voluntary and other settings, identified, supported and monitored by the course team. The course has a strong research tradition and an outstanding trainee publication record, especially in qualitative and critical psychology.

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Only 14 trainees are accepted each year to ensure a high staff-trainee ratio. s Entry requirements: Graduate Basis for Registration from the British Psychological Society; normally at least an upper second class degree in psychology; sufficient personal maturity, stability and robustness to cope with the demands of the course. s Closing date for September entry: 2 February 2009.

For further information and application forms, call 0800 980 3200 or +44 (0)1483 683076 Email: pg-enquiries@surrey.ac.uk University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH Please quote reference PSY12/08 www.surrey.ac.uk/psychology

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London Psychology Consultants Ltd



Psychological Services We are a growing independent psychological service of Chartered Psychologists specialising in Child & Family Law, Criminal & Education Law We are now looking for a number of Consultants to carry out assessments within our specialist areas across the UK. If you are a Chartered Psychologist looking to gain experience in these ďŹ elds please register your interest by emailing us your CV. Email: info@londonpsychologyconsultants.co.uk WE LOOK FORWARD TO HEARING FROM YOU SOON!

   

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Post Qualification Doctoral Programmes Joint Programmes with Middlesex University

Doctorate in Psychotherapy by Professional Studies Since the launch of the DPsych (Prof) in 1998, the programme has gained a reputation for innovation and quality in practice-based research. Graduates have contributed in major ways to the improvement of services, to interdisciplinary dialogue and to the enhancement of professional knowledge in the field of psychological therapies. The Programme is aimed at re-vitalising and nourishing senior practitioners and offers an alternative to a traditional research based PhD or to academic, taught doctoral programme. Candidates may complete the programme in a minimum of three years. During the first year of the programme taught modules take place approximately once a month. Candidates develop a research submission which is project - rather than thesis - based.

Doctorate in Psychotherapy by Public Works This award will appeal to senior and accomplished practitioners who have already made a substantial contribution to the field of psychological therapy through a range of publications and/or public works. These may include: the development of innovative therapy services; the facilitation of major organisational change; and the establishment of successful training programmes which have been pivotal in the field and commended, reviewed and respected by peers. For further details about the application process, please contact Mandy Kersey, our Academic Coordinator. 13 North Common Road, Ealing, London, W5 2QB T: 020 8579 2505 W: www.metanoia.ac.uk E: mandy.kersey@metanoia.ac.uk Registered Charity No. 1050175

read discuss contribute at www.thepsychologist.org.uk

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DOCTORATE IN COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHOTHERAPY BY PROFESSIONAL STUDIES (DCPSYCH) A Joint Programme with Middlesex University This 5-year part-time programme is accredited by the British Psychological Society (BPS) for the training of Chartered Counselling Psychologists. The programme is based on a practitioner research philosophy and comprises an innovative design which seeks to integrate research and practice at doctoral level. It is open to psychology graduates who possess the Graduate Basis for Registration (GBR) as specified by the BPS, and who believe that they have the capabilities to make a significant contribution to practice based knowledge in the psychological therapies. The course offers an integrative programme of study in the theory and practice of psychological therapy, and covers both clinical and research training. It is offered over 3-day weekend modules during each academic year, thus allowing students to combine their broader life commitments with the demands of further study. Successful graduates will also be eligible to apply for registration with the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Applications are invited for the 2009/10 academic session. The application process includes attendance at an Introductory Workshop and at a Group Assessment Interview. For further information please contact our Academic Co-ordinator, Cathy Simeon, on 020 8579 2505 or on 020 8832 3072 (direct) or email her at cathy.simeon@metanoia.ac.uk. Metanoia Institute, 13 North Common Road, Ealing, London, W5 2QB T: 020 8579 2505 F: 020 8832 3070 W: www.metanoia.ac.uk Registered Charity No. 1050175

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Centre for

Stress Management promoting the cognitive behavioural approach for over 20 years

Primary Certificate Courses 2009 10–11 Feb; 15–16 June Stress Management 30–31 Mar Occupational Stress Management Cognitive Behaviour Therapy 15–16 Jan; 12–13 Feb; 12–13 Mar; 16–17 Apr and Training 6–7 Apr Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy 28–29 Jan; 10-11 June Problem Focused Counselling, Coaching & Training 4–5 Mar Assertion and Communication Skills Training 1–2 Apr Relaxation Skills Training 10–11 Mar Multimodal Therapy & Counselling 28–29 Apr Trauma and PTSD (3 days) 25–27 Mar; 2–4 June Advanced CBT (3 days) 17–19 June Advanced REBT 23–24 Feb Mediation Skills Centre for Postgraduate Studies and Research Ltd

In association with Centre for Stress Management

Other Courses Advanced Certificate in Cognitive Behavioural Approaches to Counselling and Psychotherapy Advanced Certificate in Rational Emotive and Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy Diploma in Stress Management: A Cognitive Behavioural Approach Cert in Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Cert in Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy Courses held in London unless stated otherwise. Trainers include: Professor Stephen Palmer, Michael Neenan, Kasia Szymanska, Liz Doggart, Irene Tubbs and Nick Edgerton

Training centre and consultancy providing Continuing Professional Development programmes for health professionals

Certificate in Cognitive Behaviour Therapies & Hypnosis/Certificate A two-part modular programme in Cognitive Hypnotherapy 6–7 Apr Part 1: either Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy 15–16 Jan; 12–13 Feb; 12–13 Mar; 16–17 Apr or Cognitive Behavioural Therapy & Training 13–15 May Part 2: Primary Certificate in Cognitive Hypnotherapy

Venue London Course validated by General Hypnotherapy Standards Council www.studiesandresearch.com Tel 01582 712161 Email admin@studiesandresearch.com

Centre for Coaching promoting the cognitive behavioural approach

Diplomas†

Coaching Psychological Coaching (postgraduate level)

Diploma in Coaching Psychology†

Advanced Certificates

Modular programmes in coaching, psychological coaching & coaching psychology

Postgraduate programme for psychologists with GBR and graduate members of the Society for Coaching Psychology

Certificate Courses*

19–23 Jan; 16–20 Feb; 16–20 Mar; 20–24 Apr; 18–22 May Coaching†‡ 20–24 Jul Coaching – counsellors/psychotherapists 29 June–3 Jul Psychological Coaching†‡ 29 June–3 Jul Coaching Psychology modular Stress Management and Performance Coaching† modular Stress Management and Health Coaching

Primary Certificate Courses Performance Coaching Health Coaching Stress Management Assertion & Communication Skills Mediation Skills

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4–5 Feb; 27–28 May 23–24 Mar 10–11 Feb; 15–16 Jun 4–5 Mar 23–24 Feb

Correspondence Courses Life Coaching – a CBC approach The Director of the Centre is Professor Stephen Palmer PhD CPsychol.

Trainers include: Professor Stephen Palmer, Nick Edgerton, Gladeana McMahon, Kasia Szymanska, Irene Tubbs, Dr Alison Whybrow and Dr Siobhain O’Riordan.

Recognised Course

* Courses recognised by the Association for Coaching † Courses accredited by Middlesex University ‡ Society for Coaching Psychology Recognised Course

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The Future of Learning Conference 19 – 21 August 2009 Focusing on the future of adult learning, the conference will examine the implications for education providers, facilitators and academics. The organisers work in the field of executive development, but are keen to facilitate the bringing together of creative thinking about the future of learning from a broad range of disciplines.

Hosted by Ashridge Business School in partnership with the University of Cape Town Graduate School of Business Executive Education Unit and Mt Eliza Executive Education

www.ashridge.org.uk/futureoflearning We invite the submission of papers, which may take one of two perspectives, either practical and innovative or theoretical. Submission deadline: 1 March 2009 Ashridge Berkhamsted Hertfordshire HP4 1NS United Kingdom

www.ashridge.org.uk

Zero in

ON EI ACCREDITATION

MHS has been developing the very best in Emotional Intelligence assessments for over a decade. Our tests are flexible and reliable, which appeals to the thousands of organisations around the world that use MHS tests to predict, gauge and improve performance. To enable our clients to use these powerful tools, we offer full accreditation courses for our assessments. We will be hosting an accreditation for one of our most popular tests, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT™) this January. Details follow: MSCEIT Accreditation 27th to 29th January 2009 Venue to be determined Contact 0845 601 7603 to register or for more information

Contact: shirine.voller@ashridge.org.uk vicki.culpin@ashridge.org.uk

+44 (0)1442 841170 +44 (0)1442 841498

Registered as Ashridge (Bonar Law Memorial) Trust. Charity number 311096.

RICHMAN EMDR-TRAINING Fully accredited EMDR trainings for Psychologists EMDR International Association (EMDRIA) and EMDR-Europe Association (EMDR-E) accredited trainings conducted by Alexandra (Sandi) Richman, Chartered Clinical Psychologist. Learn how to integrate this evidence-based therapy into your existing clinical skills. EMDR is a very effective treatment for PTSD and anxiety disorders. Richman EMDR Training offer small interactive EMDR trainings (maximum 20 participants), incorporating the complete ‘standard’ EMDR training accredited and approved by EMDRIA/EMDR-Europe plus an Intermediate workshop between the Level I and Level II training. After Level I participants are able to practice EMDR. The Intermediate day revises the protocol and offers supervision of case material. The Level II training teaches EMDR with more complex cases. 2008/09 EMDR Trainings are as follows (London unless otherwise indicated): Level I (Part I) 26–28 November 2008; 22–24 January 2009; 12–14 February 2009 (Leicester); 5–7 March 2009 (Glasgow); 24–26 April 2009 Intermediate (Part 2) 31 October 2008; 4 December 2008; 5 February 2009 (Leicester); 6 February 2009; 18 June 2009 (Glasgow) Level II (Part 3) 6–8 November 2008; 25–27 February 2009; 7–9 May 2009; 15–17 June 2009 (Glasgow)

Emotional Intelligence Assessments customerservice-uk@mhs.com • 0845 601 7603 Levels A and B qualified Occupational Psychologists can use MHS tools without additional training.

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For more information contact: Mary Cullinane, Training Co-ordinator tel: 020 7372 3572 email: mary@alexandrarichman.com www.emdr-training.com

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Forthcoming Division Events

Convenor: Dr Tracey Ryan-Morgan This is a CPD event organised jointly between the Wales Neuropsychology Special Interest Group and BPS Division of Neuropsychology. It is aimed at Clinical Neuropsychologists and Clinical Psychologists but may be of relevance to other professional groups interested in epilepsy. This training event brings together leading Neuropsychologists and Neurologists, both national and international and will focus on how to assess the impact of epilepsy on various service-user groups, presenting the latest clinical and research evidence. This event will benefit those already practicing in the clinical field of epilepsy as well as those who have less exposure but retain a clinical interest in this topic.

Date: Friday 27 February 2009 Venue: All Nations Centre, Sachville Avenue, Heath, Cardiff CF14 3NY Topics to include: The neuropsychology of childhood epilepsy (Liam Dorris) Gains and losses of anti-epileptic treatment in children (Albert Aldenkamp, Netherlands) Assessing behavioural change in patients with epilepsy and learning disability (Mike Kerr) Epilepsy and its impact on psychological and neuropsychological functioning (Gus Baker) Managing difficult consultations (Phil Smith) Epilepsy and memory (Adam Zeman) Psychological interventions for adults with epilepsy: Targeting seizure control and psychological wellbeing (Laura Goldstein) Register on-line for this event at: www.kc-jones.co.uk/epilepsy For all registration enquiries: Tel: 01332-227773 Email: bps@kc-jones.co.uk For further general information about this and other PQT events contact: Stuart Anderson (DoN PQT Coordinator), Tel: 01273-455622 (Ext 6832) Email: stuart.anderson@southdowns.nhs.uk

read discuss contribute at www.thepsychologist.org.uk

CO

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HIGHGATE

BY

‘Understanding and Treating Epilepsy’

BP S

BPS Division of Neuropsychology Post-qualification Training Day (in association with the Wales Neuropsychology Special Interest Group)

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BPS Conferences Organisers of a wide range of workshops, seminars, conferences and events.

ROOMS F

Purpose-built for psychotherapy

F

Architect designed and elegantly furnished

F

Sound-proofed

F

Fully ventilated

F

Entryphone system to all rooms

F

Waiting areas

F

Support staff

F

Sessions to suit individual requirements

For full details of our service and the events we organise visit www.bps.org.uk/ conferences

Contact Sally for further details: West Hill House, 6 Swains Lane, London N6 6QS

Tel: 0116 252 9555 Email: conferences@bps.org.uk

Tel no: 020 7482 4212. Fax no: 020 7485 7957 E-mail: sally@westhillhouse.biz

MSc Clinical Forensic Psychology Accredited by the BPS Division of Forensic Psychology Closing date for applications for entry in September: 20 March 2009 Full-time one year programme Designed for psychologists with a minimum of one year’s clinical or forensic experience and Graduate Basis for Registration with the British Psychological Society. Minimum 2.1 degree classification (or equivalent) in Psychology. The programme has a special focus on the assessment and treatment of persons in forensic settings, in particular those with mental disorders who engage in antisocial and/or criminal behaviour. Students complete six modules, including a year-long clinical forensic placement (working two days a week), risk assessment training and a research project. Programme leader: Dr Susan Young For further details, please contact us quoting PSY. Tel: +44 (0)20 7848 0624 Email: forensicteachingunit@iop.kcl.ac.uk Apply online: http://www.kcl.ac.uk/pg/apply/

Equality of opportunity is College policy

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MINDf IELDS

Are you still fascinated by human behaviour? Does your natural urge to help people still motivate you? Is your mind hungry for new knowledge? You are not alone. MindFields College is at the forefront of demystifying emotional disorders and behavioural problems, revealing why they are increasing and teaching the best, proven ways to deal with them effectively. By absorbing the latest bio-psycho-social “The impact on my knowledge and practical skills taught at our work practice has been one-day seminars and workshops you will unbelieveable – positive and deepen your understanding and learn new quick results which enable skills that will enable you to help people take distressed people to engage in back control of their lives – often surprisingly quality of life once again.” quickly. Imagine what exciting possibilities psychologist/army welfare officer could open up, personally and professionally.

How much could great training enhance your career? Make the most of your training budget. MindFields College delivers meaningful CPD in a psychobabble-free zone! Packed full of essential information and practical tips, our training days address key “Fantastic, I’ve learnt problem areas – see the wide range of topics more in this one day than on the right. Every skill we teach is based on I did on my eight-week a solid understanding of why it works, counselling course.” backed up by practice-based evidence and the psychotherapist enormous range of our tutors’ experience. “Refreshing, interesting and Ideal if you sincerely wish to help distressed above all, useful!” gp adults or children. Each of our training days stands alone, but they can also count towards a university-accredited qualification in Human Givens Psychotherapy (visit: www.mindfields.org.uk/HGDip for more details).

Eavesdrop on the quality of training at: www.vimeo.com/754995 For dates and further information about all of our courses, visit our website at:

www.mindfields.org.uk Or call our friendly team on

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to request a copy of our prospectus (quote code: PYMA)

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PSYCHOLOGY • PSYCHOTHERAPY • EDUCATION

ONE-DAY SEMINARS • How to break the cycle of depression • Addiction: understanding and stopping addictive behaviour • How to lift low self-esteem • Understanding anxiety and managing it without drugs • How to communicate more effectively • Brief psychotherapy strategies • Male and female differences • From stress to psychosis – a new look at the mental health continuum • Effective anger management • How to deal with difficult people • How to do effective counselling

ONE-DAY WORKSHOPS • The fast trauma and phobia cure • From self-harm ... to self-belief • Demystifying autism and Asperger’s syndrome – practical solutions • Guided imagery and visualisation for therapeutic change • How to lift depression • Dealing with conflict, confrontation and disputes • Working effectively with troubled and troublesome teenagers • How to tell stories that heal • Brief therapy skills for stopping addictions • Manage pain and accelerate healing • Understanding and treating psychotic disorders • The essential brief therapy strategies • How to use your creativity to help disturbed children • Supporting parents of troubled teenagers • ‘Every child DOES matter’

University-accredited post-graduate qualifications in Human Givens Psychotherapy

Workshops and seminars held nationwide and in Ireland... BIRMINGHAM • BRISTOL • CAMBRIDGE • COLCHESTER • DUBLIN EDINBURGH • GLASGOW • HARROGATE • LIVERPOOL • LONDON • MANCHESTER

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COLLEGE

Seminars:

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vol 22 no 1

GROUP DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE

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British Psychoanalytic Association

HARLEY STREET

A NEW TRAINING IN PSYCHOANALYSIS September 2009

OCCASIONAL AND SESSIONAL ROOMS

Open Evening

Open Monday–Friday 9.00am–9.00pm Saturday and Sunday 9.00am–5.30pm

FLEXIBLE, COST EFFECTIVE CONSULTING ROOM SOLUTIONS.

A newly constituted society within the British Association of Psychotherapists has gained approval from the International Psychoanalytical Association (IPA) to train psychoanalysts. Successful completion of the training leads to membership of the IPA and registration with the British Psychoanalytic Council.

PERSONALISED TELEPHONE ANSWERING

Come and join us for an Open Evening on Thursday 12th March 2009 8.00pm–10.00pm

AND VOICEMAIL

FULL SECRETARIAL SUPPORT

HIGH SPEED WIRELESS INTERNET FULLY AIR CONDITIONED Telephone: 0207 467 8301 Email: info@tenharleystreet.co.uk www.tenharleystreet.co.uk

Postgraduate study in Psychology

Information and application from: BPA/BAP, 37, Mapesbury Road, NW2. Email: admin@bap-psychotherapy.org Tel: 020 8452 9823 www.bap-psychotherapy.org We welcome applications from all sections of society and from a wide range of disciplines and working backgrounds

The Department of Psychology has built a strong research reputation in the areas of cognition and culture, social relationships, individual differences and psychopathology, neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience, neurodevelopmental disorders, and work psychology. Our research was rated 4(A) in RAE 2001, with over 95% of staff entered as research active. Our 100+ postgraduates are able to investigate diverse research questions, facilitated by our strong connections with schools, hospitals, businesses, voluntary organisations and other academic departments. They benefit from excellent research facilities, including a state of the art EEG suite and our interdisciplinary centre for cognition, computation and culture, plus skilled and dedicated technical support. We invite applications for the following: • MSc in Cognitive and Clinical Neuroscience • MSc in Music, Mind & Brain • MSc in Occupational Psychology (BPS accredited) • MSc in Research Methods in Psychology (ESRC recognised) • MPhil/PhD in Psychology by Research (ESRC recognised). For further information www.goldsmiths.ac.uk/psychology/ admissions@gold.ac.uk 020 7919 7060 Committed to equal opportunities

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Are you a Chartered Clinical, Counselling or Educational Psychologist or an Expert Witness? PSYCHOLOGY Direct is a leading national provider of independent psychological assessment and therapy services. Our clients include solicitors, insurers, local authorities, private companies and self-referring individuals across the UK.

RODNEY STREET LIVERPOOL Occasional and Sessional Consulting Rooms Monday–Friday 9am to 5pm

Due to continued growth we are interested in hearing from Chartered Psychologists looking to expand their private practice as self-employed associates. This could complement your existing work and offer a flexible working arrangement.

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Telephone: 0151 709 7066 or 020 7467 8301 (Head Office)

Contact us for more information: Tel: 01737 843461 email: enquiries@psychologydirect.co.uk

Email: info@eightyeightrodneystreet.co.uk

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The Institute of Work, Health & Organisations University of Nottingham The Institute of Work, Health and Organisations (IWHO) is an International Postgraduate Research Institute of Applied Psychology, committed to 'Healthy People, Healthy Work and Healthy Organisations'

IWHO offers a large portfolio of postgraduate courses including: MSc Occupational Psychology The course has been designed to provide students with knowledge of the main areas of occupational psychology, to provide students with good research skills, to cover the relevant social psychological and organisational issues and to introduce the skills required in practice.

MSc Management Psychology This course focuses on the contribution of applied psychology to our understanding and practice of management in organisational settings.

MSc Work & Organisational Psychology This will be of interest to those, in the UK and abroad, who wish to develop a career in organisational psychology or related areas such as human-resource management. For further information: Email: i-who@nottingham.ac.uk Telephone: +44 (0)115 8467523 http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/iwho (Please refer to our website for details of forthcoming Open Days)

Institute of Work, Health & Organisations A World Health Organisation Collaborating Centre in Occupational Health

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Looking for a better deal on your Professional Liability Insurance? After comparing several different suppliers, the British Psychological Society (BPS) now recommends Howden Professionals as one of its preferred brokers to arrange professional liability insurance for its members. Cut out now and compare our prices at renewal time… For members of the BPS who practise psychology (including training and supervision): £1.5m Premium Insurance premium tax (5%) Administration Fee Total amount payable

LIMIT OF INDEMNITY £ 3m £ 5m

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Reduced rates are available for trainee psychologists on a BPS approved post graduate professional training course. CONDITIONS You are an individual (or a sole trader Limited Company with a turnover of less than £100,000) practising from a UK base and appropriately qualified to practise (or on an approved training course leading to a recognised relevant qualification). You have not had previous insurance declined, not had any liability claims made against you and are not aware of any circumstances which may give rise to a claim against you. Prices correct at time of publication.

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Howden Insurance Brokers Limited is authorised and regulated by the Financial Services Authority (Firm Reference Number 312584) and is a subsidiary of the Howden Broking Group Limited, part of the Hyperion Insurance Group, winners of a Queen’s Award for Enterprise in 2007.

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The world’s most precise tool for neuropsychological research. CANTAB® – the leading cognitive test battery, available from just £550. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery – CANTAB – is without doubt the most respected neuropsychological research tool in the world today. Extensively validated over 25 years and with an unrivalled bibliography of over 600 leading peer-reviewed journal papers, CANTAB is used in every major UK university, as well as over 500 universities and research institutions worldwide. The CANTAB tests are extremely sensitive enabling

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THE COMPASSIONATE MIND FOUNDATION THREE DAY WORKSHOP: 4, 5, 6 March 2009 Promoting Well-Being through the Scientific Understanding and Application of Compassion

Coaching with Empowerment PsychologyTM Workshop & Empsy® Network Launch

An Introduction to the Theory & Practice of Compassionate Focused Therapy for Shame Based Difficulties

Highly informative & participative Friday 20/02/2009 The Community Space, Bankside 3, Great Guildford Street, London SE1 0TF

VENUE: University of Derby

Director: Dr Ho Law PhD CPsychol CSci MSCP(Accred) Learn more & earn more…

This workshop will help participants recognise the many forms and functions of shame and self-criticism. These difficulties will be explored in the context of safety strategies. This workshop will draw on new research on the nature of different types of positive affect (activating verses soothing). Using these insights with an evolutionary and attachment focus the workshop will explore the components of self-compassion and how the application for self-compassion can facilitate and promote wellbeing. The fears, blocks and resistances to self-compassion will be explored.

x Acquire powerful coaching tools. x Business, work & fellowship opportunities. x CPD Certificate: 3.5 hours To book online at http://www.empsy.com/training.htm quote reference: BPS 0901 or send cheque payable to ‘Empsy Ltd’ to PO Box 696 PETERBOROUGH PE2 9YQ Enquires: 07834868201 email: ho.law@empsy.com ---------------------------------------------------------------------------Free book (RRP £34.99) Psychology of Coaching, Mentoring & Learning. Wiley. 50 places. Quote: BPS0901

The workshop is for clinicians and will be lead by Professor Paul Gilbert and Dr Mary Welford.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Fees: Empsy® Network members: free Full fee: £89 + VAT = £102.35 *Professional members: 15% discount: £75.65 + VAT = £87.00 * Membership e.g. AC, BPS, CIPD, CMI, SCP ___________ Membership No. ___________ I am attending the workshop at 9:00 – 12:30 and the launch at 1 pm. I am attending the workshop at 2 pm – 5:30 and the launch at 6 pm.

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Doctoral Conversion Programme for Chartered Counselling Psychologists Validated by Middlesex University This 2-year programme links with the BPS accredited Doctorate in Counselling Psychology and Psychotherapy by Professional Studies (DCPsych). It is based on a practitioner research philosophy and offers Chartered Counselling Psychologists an opportunity to develop their work to doctoral level. Applicants need to have successfully completed Master’s level work and also have training and experience in working at relational depth with clients. Submission of a Recognition and Accreditation of Learning (RAL) application potentially confirms the Masters’ level credits required which are then ’topped up’ to doctoral level. Modules will run on a Monday over two calendar years. The programme will commence in early February 2009 and the application process starts at the beginning of November 2008. For further information, please contact our Academic Co-ordinator, Cathy Simeon, on 020 8579 2505 or 020 8832 3072 (direct) or email her at cathy.simeon@metanoia.ac.uk. Metanoia Institute, 13 North Common Road, Ealing, London, W5 2QB T: 020 8579 2505 F: 020 8832 3070 W: www.metanoia.ac.uk Registered Charity No. 1050175

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Second National Conference Introducing Dialectical Behaviour Therapy to a CAMHS Setting Oxford Thames Four Pillars Hotel, 25 February 2009 Co-sponsored by Oxfordshire & Buckinghamshire Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust and British Isles DBT Training

Pre-conference Workshop 23-24 February 2-day Specialty Adaptation : DBT for Adolescents This workshop is designed for all mental health practitioners working with teens and families in a wide range of treatment contexts. Participants will learn the basic principles of DBT as well as relevant adaptations for working with this population. Practitioners will learn specific principles and strategies relevant to individual therapy, family therapy, telephone consultation, and skills training with adolescents and families, including a new skills module called ’walking the middle path’.

International Guest Speaker 25 February Professor Lars Mehlum MD PhD Director, National Centre for Suicide Research & Prevention (Institute of Psychiatry, University of Oslo) • Conference Chairs : Dr Tony James (OBMH NHS Foundation Trust) & Alan Stein (Professor of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Oxford University) • Workshop Leaders : Michaela Swales PhD (Director, British Isles DBT Training & Consultant Clinical Psychologist, North Wales NHS Trust) & Shari Manning PhD (CEO, Behavioral Tech LLC).

2-day (3-day) group rate: £250*pp (£375) for groups of 4 Conference Registration 25 February only : £125 (lunch included) Pre-Conference Workshop Registration 23-24 February only : £325 (excl VAT) Combined Conference & Workshop £400 (excl VAT, student concessions)

http://www.dbt.uk.net

More about DBT for Adolescents: Dialectical Behaviour Therapy is an evidence-based therapy designed to treat individuals with complex, chronic, difficultto-treat disorders with a combination of Axis I and Axis II diagnoses. Over the past decade, Miller, Rathus and Linehan have researched and adapted this treatment with adolescents and families as described extensively in their recently published book Dialectical Behaviour Therapy with Suicidal Adolescents (2007). Mental health professionals working with multi-problem suicidal adolescents are often stymied by the complex clinical presentations and treatment challenges that arise. These adolescents are often difficult to engage and retain in outpatient treatment. DBT offers practitioners a comprehensive treatment approach that prioritises life-threatening and therapyinterfering behaviours to keep adolescents safe, stable and connected to treatment.

Faxback : If you would like help with registering please complete this section and faxback to us on +44 1865 226642 Name ____________________________________ Tel ___________________ email ____________________________

Register at www.dbt.uk.net by 15 December 2008 and save up to £50 !!! Telephone registration : +44 (0)1865 226647 between 10am and 4pm on Mondays to Fridays (BST) Email Kay.Bostock@obmh.nhs.uk ” British Isles DBT Training, Integral Business Support Ltd, Croesnewydd Hall, Wrexham Technology Park, WREXHAM LL13 7YP, Wales, UK Registration deadline 9 February 2009. The sponsors reserve the right to alter aspects of the conference programme. *Prices exclude VAT.

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The University of Birmingham

Centre for Forensic and Criminological Psychology FULL-TIME/PART-TIME DOCTORATE IN FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY (ForenPsyD) (Incorporating the Masters in Forensic Psychology Practice) Part-time Doctorate in Forensic Psychology Practice (ForenPsyD) (4 years part-time, Employee Sponsored) Leading to BPS Chartered Forensic Psychology Status The University has now approved the Doctorate in Forensic Psychology Practice (ForenPsyD) to run part-time over four years to be sponsored by employers (or self-funded) who are willing to supervise employees in the workplace throughout the course, conferring the award of Doctorate in Forensic Psychology Practice (ForenPsyD) and eligibility for BPS Chartered Forensic Psychologist status on successful completion. (See full-time details below for course outline). Full-time Doctorate in Forensic Psychology Practice (ForenPsyD) (3 years full-time or 2 years full-time plus 2 years part-time) Leading to BPS Chartered Forensic Psychology Status The three year full-time programme is the first Professional Doctorate in Forensic Psychology Practice to be accredited by the British Psychological Society (BPS). Successful completion of both academic and practice training

components of the Course confers eligibility for BPS Chartered Forensic Psychology status. The trainee will study and gain knowledge from the academic programme run by the Centre for Forensic and Criminological Psychology, within the School of Psychology at the University of Birmingham. The Course aims to develop skills such as assessment, management, intervention and treatment. This knowledge is applied to the traineesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; practice experience during parallel forensic placements typically in the West Midlands. The trainee is expected to develop skills and capacity relating to four key areas of work in forensic settings; (a) conducting psychological applications and interventions with clients, (b) research and evaluation, (c) communicating psychological knowledge and advice to other professionals and (d) training other professionals in psychological skills and knowledge. An evidence based approach is emphasised using case study, research and evaluation and the Course has an excellent trainee publication record. One day a week is spent at the University attending training workshops and tutorials. Three days a

week are spent in forensic practice/case study and a further day per week is for research. Typically, trainees will have the chance to work with victims and offenders from different client groups (i.e., adults, young people, individuals with learning disability and/or mental health problems), both in community and institutional placements. Each trainee (on the basis of successful performance) is offered the chance to progress sequentially from Masters to Doctorate study at the end of the second year. Depending on their preference, trainees may study for the Doctorate over two years part-time, once they have completed their first two years full-time. The BPS accredits the Masters as equivalent to Stage 1 and the full Professional Doctorate as equivalent to Stage 1 and 2 of training as a Chartered Forensic Psychologist. Only a maximum of ten trainees are accepted each year to maintain a high staff trainee ratio. The entry requirements are; a degree in psychology (2.1 or above), conferring Graduate Basis for Registration from the BPS, previous experience working in a forensic setting and personal maturity and stability to cope with the demands of the academic and placement components of the Course. Applications close at the end February 2009 with interviews held in March 2009, to begin late September 2009.

MASTERS COURSES IN FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY (2 Years Part-time for those already working in Forensic settings) Postgraduates will study and gain knowledge from a forty week academic programme run part time by the Centre for Forensic and Criminological Psychology, School of Psychology, University of Birmingham. Both courses are one day a week (Thursday), beginning late September each year and consisting of lecturers/seminars from invited speakers, practice assessment, case studies and research. MSc CRIMINOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY This modularised Diploma/Masters course is designed for graduate psychologists who work with offenders or their victims to develop skills such as assessment, management, intervention and treatment. The Masters course is accredited by the British Psychological Society (BPS) to be equivalent to Stage 1 of training as a Chartered Forensic Psychologist. Applicants must hold at least a good second class honours psychology degree (which confers Graduate

Basis for Registration with the BPS) and be working in a forensic setting. An evidence-based approach is emphasised using case study, research and evaluation and the Course has an excellent trainee publication record. Up to fifteen part time postgraduates are accepted each year to ensure a high stafftrainee ratio. MSc IN CLINICAL CRIMINOLOGY This modularised Diploma/Masters course is designed to help multidisciplinary professionals (non psychologists), develop skills such as assessment, management, intervention and treatment of offenders who commit serious crimes of a violent and/or sexual nature. Applicants must hold a relevant degree in the field (good second class honours or above) and be working with victims or offenders. Only a limited number of applicants are accepted each year.

Applications close at the end of February 2009 with interviews held in March 2009, to begin late September 2009. Learn more: Sue Hanson Centre for Forensic and Criminological Psychology (School of Psychology) The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT Tel: 0121 414 3319; Email: S.A.Hanson@bham.ac.uk

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EATING DISORDERS AND OBESITY A PRACTICAL, EXPERIENTIAL PROGRAMME

MASTER PRACTITIONER PROGRAMME EATING DISORDERS & OBESITY A comprehensive 3 course programme whose modules may be taken individually. However, when all 3 courses are booked together a substantial discount is available. The 3 modules of this programme are:

Excellence in Practitioner Skills for Eating Disorders

An 8 day diploma course teaching theory & effective integrative skills for the treatment of binge eating, bulimia & anorexia. Spring 2009: 19â&#x20AC;&#x201C;22 February plus 12â&#x20AC;&#x201C;15 March, London area Autumn 2009: 9â&#x20AC;&#x201C;11 October plus 5â&#x20AC;&#x201C;8 November, London area

Essential Obesity: Psychological Approaches

For all clinicians with a personal and professional interest in the psychology of obesity and its effective management 3 days: 4â&#x20AC;&#x201C;6 June 2009, London area

Nutritional Interventions for Eating Disorders

Practical and effective treatment of the nutrition-related aspects of eating disorders. 3 days: 2â&#x20AC;&#x201C;4 April 2009 and 23â&#x20AC;&#x201C;25 November 2009, London area

Additional courses scheduled for 2009: Binge Eating in Obesity: a 1 day Masterclass 1 day: 7 June 2009, London area

Emotional Freedom Technique for Eating Disorders 2 days: 13â&#x20AC;&#x201C;14 June 2009, London area

A prospectus for each course can be found online at: www.eating-disorders.org.uk (select â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Trainingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;) Alternatively please call 0845 838 2040 for further info

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CALLING ALL PSYCHOLOGISTS & MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL THERAPIES

THE BPS PSYCHOTHERAPY SECTION TRAINING CONFERENCE

Psychotherapy and empowerment in groups St Aidanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s College, Durham University 26th & 27th March 2009 Free and Subsidised Places for Section Members and Trainees BOOK NOW!! To join Section: http://www.bps.org.uk/ps/ps_home.cfm Conference Details/Registration www.dur.ac.uk/conference.booking Psychotherapeutic group work potentially enhances access, availability and personal empowerment in psychological therapies for service users. This faces therapists and users alike with professional and personal challenges. This conference will explore how the challenges are being faced in order to develop responsive, accessible, high quality psychotherapy services. The 2 day conference combines presentations from experts in their field with half day workshops focused on sharing, learning and developing approaches to group work within NHS, voluntary and private sectors. Durham provides an attractive and historic venue to explore outside of the conference and over the weekend.

read discuss contribute at www.thepsychologist.org.uk

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Graduate Opportunities in Psychology at the University of Wolverhampton Psychology at Wolverhampton is based in the Millennium City Building. These premises provide state-of-the-art facilities for Psychology research and taught postgraduate and graduate study. Taught programmes comprise:

Professional Training in Counselling Psychology Practitioner Doctorate in Counselling Psychology This programme is currently accredited by the British Psychological Society (BPS). Trainees wishing to become chartered counselling psychologists undertake three years of full-time study, with a practice placement in the NHS in the first year of training. The course provides an integration of theory, skills, research, personal development and practice work and is grounded in a humanistic philosophy emphasising the reflective-practitioner model.

MSc/PGDip in Cognitive Behaviour Therapy This new course aims to provide specialist post-qualification training in the practice of CBT. It provides an opportunity for students to develop competency in the clinical application of CBT in working with a range of mental health problems. Students will also develop critical knowledge and understanding of the theoretical and research issues relating to CBT. This course could be of interest to professionals new to CBT or to professionals wishing to update and expand in their existing CBT knowledge and skills.

Developing Reflective Practice This is a certificate level course designed for those with no previous experience or qualifications in counselling.

Professional Training in Work Psychology MSc in Occupational Psychology This programme is newly-accredited by the BPS and provides Stage 1 and some Stage 2 training in Occupation Psychology as well as Level A Occupational Testing. It is available for psychology graduates who have the Graduate Basis for Registration (GBR) and wish to study full or part-time. There is a September and January intake.

MSc Management Applications of Psychology This programme is designed for those with a degree in psychology or a related subject but who are not eligible for GBR. This programme is available full or part-time and is structured to accommodate those already in employment. There is a September and January intake.

Graduate Diploma in Psychology This course allows non-Psychology graduates to achieve Graduate Membership and the Graduate Basis for Registration with the BPS. It is intended for students who wish to pursue further study towards a career as a professional Psychologist. Open Evening â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Wednesday 28 January 2009 5.30 - 7 pm â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Millennium City Building (Rooms: MC123/124)

www.wlv.ac.uk For further information please contact the Postgraduate Psychology Secretary, The University of Wolverhampton, Wulfruna Street, Wolverhampton WV1 1LY. Tel: 01902 321376 Fax: 01902 321380 Email: P.J.Lees@wlv.ac.uk

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CAREERS

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The twin goals of psychology training Andrew Manley and Jason Codner outline postgraduate training issues you should consider when choosing between applied practice and academia

T

he links and barriers between applied and academic psychology are a constant theme on these pages. Here we identify routes to becoming an applied or academic psychologist and highlight the differences and common interests of the two career paths.

Applied psychology: Training, funding and practice

jobs online

Whether you’re navigating your way through your chosen area of psychological study, have already been accepted on a postgraduate degree programme, or are considering studying at postgraduate level, it’s important to think about one basic question: Where will it all lead? The term ‘applied psychologist’ is used in a variety of contexts. Our use

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draws on the eight Society practice areas and this paragraph from the ‘BPS Generic Professional Practice Guidelines’ (see www.bps.org.uk/prof): The professional practice of applied psychologists is underpinned by four key ethical values – Respect, Competence, Responsibility and Integrity – and five core competencies: Assessment; Formulation; Intervention or implementation; Evaluation and research; Communication.

To practise as a chartered applied psychologist usually requires one year’s relevant work experience in your area of choice, as well as an MSc or a Societyapproved postgraduate qualification and at least two years, often more, of supervised practice. In addition, except for neuropsychology (where you need to establish professional competence in a related field of applied psychology first) and occupational psychology (which requires an approved MSc and two years’ supervised experience), the other areas/ domains require either a doctorate or a BPS Stage 2 qualification. The BPS-approved postgraduate qualifications for applied psychologists are called Stage 1 and Stage 2. Stage 1 is equivalent to an MSc in terms of the theory in your chosen field and, like the MSc, may require a mix of coursework and exams as well as a research project. Stage 2 is usually the supervised practice part and is equivalent to a doctoral level

qualification, involving coursework, examinations, a thesis, a viva and, increasingly, an article of sufficient standard for peer-reviewed publication. Stage 2 requires meeting the competencies mentioned earlier. While both stages are usually selffunded, it is sometimes possible to secure a sponsorship or a studentship to cover the fees for Stage 2. A few research councils also offer this at Stage 1. Clinical, educational and counselling psychology are, at present, the only areas that offer specific accredited doctoral qualifications that lead to chartership. This route offers the BPS Stage 1 and 2 in one doctoral package complete with salary, rather than through self-funding, sponsorship or studentship. Competition for places and even interviews on these courses is extremely high. An applied psychologist’s work will encompass a combination of consultancy, teaching, research, direct client work and supervision. The location and client may differ but applied psychologists use common psychology theories and principles. Clients and other professionals can hold misconceptions about psychologists: that we are mind-readers, psychics or magicians! Thus, one of the big challenges for future applied psychologists is being more proactive in letting others know what psychology can and can’t achieve. Applied psychologists contribute to the public good, can have a flexible career, and contribute to projects with the potential for excellent personal and professional recognition.

Academic psychology In contrast to applied practitioners, academic psychologists often have very different professional priorities. The title

See www.psychapp.co.uk for the following jobs, to search by job type, area and more, and to sign up for suitable e-mail or RSS alerts.

Advertisers can reach this prime online audience for just £150 (NHS and academic) or £250 (commercial), and at no extra cost when placing a job ad in The Psychologist.

University of Queensland, Brisbane – Lecturer/Senior Lecturer in Applied Psychology Sellafield Ltd – Human Factors Specialist Priory Hospital – Clinical Team Leader

Print ads are available from just £315+VAT. The next deadline for job advertising is 14 January (for the February issue). For more information, see p.70. To book, e-mail Kirsty Wright on psychapp@bps.org.uk or call +44 116 252 9550.

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careers

encompasses a number of different roles, ranging from lecturer or teaching assistant, to postdoctorate researcher. Academics will often be required to fulfil a mixture of teaching and research, with the ratio depending on the strategies of the institution that employs them. A main consideration for a higher education psychologist is to successfully manage the balance between creating an effective learning environment for his or her students, whilst also meeting the institution’s requirements for publishing quality research and securing funding via research grants. Given the current climate in UK higher education, writing successful research grant proposals is rapidly becoming a prerequisite for many academic posts. Juggling teaching and research might sound like a struggle. But academic life can provide the kind of variety, job satisfaction, and personal and professional development opportunities that fits many aspirations. Most positions in academia (whether lectureships, research posts, or an amalgam of both) require the candidate to have completed (or be nearing completion of) a PhD. In addition, experience of teaching within higher education is expected, although many institutions offer nationally recognised teaching diplomas that can be achieved in parallel to completing a postgraduate degree or fulfilling an active teaching role.

FEATURED JOB Job Title: Principal Consultant and Senior Consultant Employer: ASK Europe SK is a behavioural change consultancy, providing customised management and leadership development solutions for middle and senior managers in large organisations around the world. They are hiring both a Principal Consultant and a Senior Consultant to join their Bedfordshire-based practice. Elaine Wilson (also a Principal Consultant) says: ‘We work with our clients to design customised solutions that meet the current and future needs of your organisation. Our approach and philosophy has developed and evolved over the last 13 years, informed by our practical work with clients and inspired by our thirst for new knowledge from the academic world.’ ASK have synthesised their learning and experience into a methodology they call Stage-based Behavioural Transformation, which facilitates change through an emotional engagement and awareness of the impact of ineffective behaviours. ‘All our full-time consultants develop client relationships and eventually act as Project Directors for projects that we deliver,’ Wilson says. ‘As a result, they have a proven record in establishing and “We work with our building effective client relationships clients to design with a range of people from main board customised solutions” directors to first line managers, technical specialists, HR and learning and development specialists.’ ASK consultants come from a wide range of backgrounds and have a mixture of academic qualifications and practical management experience. Some are attached to universities and hold doctorates, while others gained board-level experience before working as consultants. Most hold master’s degrees and professional qualifications from relevant bodies, such as the British Psychological Society or the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. ‘We’re looking for people who are comfortable working with ambiguity; energetic, responsive and enthusiastic; skilful in handling relationships; pragmatic and innovative; willing to share personal views, feelings and experiences; and commercially focused, balancing business needs and people needs.’

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The links Despite the differences between working in academia and applied settings, psychology professionals in both areas have much to offer one another. Academic psychologists supplement teaching and research with applied work. This enables them to apply theory to practice, and it is also a way of generating additional funding. Consultancy opportunities give academic psychologists the chance to conduct research within real-world settings in order to test specific hypotheses. The findings from such research inform the work of applied practitioners. Applied work equally benefits research and teaching. There’s nothing new about links between academics and consultants. Applied practitioners are frequently invited by academic institutions to act as visiting lecturers. Some universities offer sandwich courses, where students complete a period of work experience within the applied setting, thus providing them with an effective mix of traditional teaching and experiential learning.

You can find this job on p.78, and with many others on www.psychapp.co.uk.

Ostensibly, the priorities, training requirements, time constraints and available resources of academic psychologists and applied practitioners will often differ greatly from one another. However, psychologists in both areas increasingly acknowledge and embrace the complementary nature of each other’s work. Reciprocity between academia and applied practice can only enhance the contribution each makes to the advancement of psychological thought and application.

Searching and applying for jobs While it may be necessary to limit your search given the high level of competition for some positions, you should be flexible when looking for employment; for example by searching further afield in terms of both the geographical location

seek and advertise at www.psychapp.co.uk

and the explicit focus of the job, you are likely to vastly enhance your chances. If you are looking beyond the usual psychology graduate routes, keep in mind your transferable skills. These include experience in critical analysis, synthesis, and problem solving, as well as: I Communication – both oral and written (e.g. presentations, reports), exhibiting good listening skills; I Numeracy – statistical and data handling, interpretation; I Organisational – managing time effectively, working independently and as part of a team, using initiative; I Interpersonal – motivating others, being flexible and adaptable; I Research – design, implementation and evaluation as investigator, experience as participant; I IT – familiarity and use of a range of technologies and software.

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careers

When applying for a job tailor your CV, application form, and interview responses to the elements outlined in the job specification and describe how your ability and experiences fit within this framework. The successful interview candidate is invariably someone who exhibits such skills. Hopefully, by using some of the above tips and resources, that candidate will be you! I Andrew Manley is a lecturer in sport

correction

psychology at the University of Edinburgh and former PsyPAG representative to the Division of Sport & Exercise Psychology andrew.manley@ed.ac.uk I Jason Codner is an assistant psychologist at Lancashire Care NHS Foundation Trust and PsyPAG representative to the History and Philosophy of Psychology Section Jason.codner@lancashirecare.nhs.uk

The authors of December’s ‘The hitchhiker’s guide to the thesis’ were Gillian Smith (gillian.w.smith @gmail.com), Agnieszka Lech, Paul De Cock and Glenda Pennington. Apologies to all for not reflecting that in the presentation.

PsyPAG’s tips and tricks David Moore with some advice on postgraduate life The Psychology Postgraduate Affairs Group’s position within the BPS is unique. We are not actually a section of the Society but rather a closely affiliated body running in parallel. PsyPAG represents the views of, and provides services to, all students registered for a postgraduate UK psychology qualification, from academic master’s candidates to practitioners in training. We have no formal membership and our only entry requirement is to be a registered psychology postgraduate. PsyPAG represents individuals at a particular level of training rather than those working in a specific field so we have a rather different role to other committees. We: I produce and distribute a quarterly publication (PsyPAG Quarterly) free to all psychology departments; I organise an annual conference to allow postgraduates a friendly environment to exchange ideas about their research; I run postgraduate workshops on a

I

I

broad selection of topics; offer bursaries up to £100 for conferences in the UK and £300 for international conferences to help postgraduates disseminate their research; represent the views of postgraduates on each of the BPS’s committees.

The nature of research funding is never far from our minds and has been a particularly important issue in the past 12 months. We have recommended, among other things, that greater flexibility and transferable skills are built into funded master’s training so that psychologists can ensure the most appropriate preparation for their doctorate-level qualifications. PsyPAG has sought to improve the structure of doctoral training. Members are increasingly encouraged during training to develop transferable skills, publish research, teach, etc. Given this increased range of activities, we’ve asked

He’s a jolly good Fellow Ian Florance talks to Ceri Bowen, an International Fellow at the Royal Hospital for Neuro-disability, Putney

A

ccording to Ceri Bowen, ‘it’s been an interesting transition, from working as a clinical psychologist in the NHS to moving into a job where selfmotivation and organisation are so important, and where research and publishing are as important as applied work’. So how did Ceri reach his role in a charity that specialises in profound cases of disability, and what are the challenges and rewards of that area of work? Founded in 1854 as the Hospital for Incurables, the Royal Hospital for Neurodisability (RHN) offers assessment, treatment and ongoing care to adults who have profound disability as a result of neurological damage or disease. Ceri’s Fellowship sits within the

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Institute of Neuropalliative Rehabilitation (see www.rhn.org.uk/institute). ‘It’s a virtual, international network which attempts to bring together the best of international thinking. Since complex neurological disabilities are rare as a diagnostic group or as a stage in disease processes, a lot of good thinking and practice goes unnoticed and unexploited. The Institute seeks to apply research to practice and spread the word about good treatment ideas. It has a number of strands, from development of clinical practice to research, academic education and policy development. You could say the Institute drives evidence-based practice in the RHN and in

many other institutions internationally. The other international Fellowships reflect the incredible diverse nature of the area: they include Fellows in music therapy, recreation and leisure and nursing as well as specific clinical and research positions. A key skill for each Fellow is networking.’ Ceri’s own role mirrors the Institute’s range of activities. He spends a day a week supervising and overseeing research projects for the RHN and national bodies; another writing; he teaches, trains and is developing the TBIFAMILIES special interest group; and, of course, there is clinical work. His research looks at family processes using systemic therapy ideas in cases of advanced multiple sclerosis (MS). Other current highlights of the working week include

developing a new book series for Karnac on brain injury. Ceri marries a wide range of activities to a focused clinical area, and it’s illuminating to map the training route that got him where he is today. ‘I studied psychology at Newcastle University then, in timehonoured fashion, took assistant psychologist posts in both child and family work and clinical health psychology. I was able to research in neuropsychology, paediatric oncology and cardiac care at St James’s Hospital in Leeds. Assistant psychology roles give you deeper insights into different areas of practice and enable you to get to know inspiring practitioners. They’re a real opportunity for anyone seeking to train in clinical psychology.’ Ceri did his own clinical training at Leeds University. His

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whether three years is long enough for doctoral training. As a result we have lobbied to extend this deadline and reflect that extension in funding. Postgraduate study should be a lifechanging period, giving people the practical skills needed to perform their job – for instance research skills, CBT and psychometrics – but also the wider social and work skills that will allow them to be truly successful. PsyPAG is actively engaged with trying to assist with this issue by running conferences and workshops to develop these skills and by giving postgraduates the opportunity to publish their work and sit on committees relevant to their work. When you look ahead on your first day, three or more years of study can look daunting. The challenges faced early in a programme of PhD study are many and varied and can lead to severe doubts

doctoral research was titled ‘Understanding blaming within families’. This was a sign of things to come. ‘My first job as a clinical psychologist was in Bradford in the area of adult mental health, as well as in a drug-users’ clinic and the hospital staff counselling service. I moved into family work within neuro-rehabilitation in Wakefield’s Community Neuroabilities Team. I was interested in the area because it seemed more interesting, complex and engaging than general mental health work. I also got interested in peace studies and took an MPhil on the topic of trauma at Bradford University. More recently, I became a systemic therapy practitioner. All these experiences prepared me for my present role.’ The issue of why people choose a particular type of approach cropped up several times in our conversation. ‘I’ve recently read a paper on the subject and the overall finding

about what you’re doing and where you’re going. It’s important at an early stage, to take the time to look at different options and learn from your mistakes. This is the best time to make use of those around you, and I would particularly recommend forging strong links with other postgraduates as they are best placed to provide you with both practical and emotional support. They will know what you are going through and the best ways to manage this. Once you've begun to settle in, try to get yourself and your work out into the public domain. The sooner you get used to presenting, publishing and defending your work the easier this will become. Of course, this can be a stressful experience, and that is why PsyPAG provides a friendly environment in which to get an early experience of these key skills: you can publish pilot studies in PsyPAG Quarterly and present at our annual conference. By developing experience of presenting your research and networking,

seems to be that it’s often not an intellectual decision in which you evaluate the evidence and decide that a particular approach is right. Initially you chose something in line with your attitudes, personality and beliefs – your life view. The systemic therapy approach has always appealed to me. My father developed my interest in psychology – in fact he was a big influence on my life. He died of cancer and I suppose I’d been on the receiving end of family support at a time of a member’s illness. Thinking in terms of systems is something I continue to draw on, especially now I have a family of my own.’ Ceri also mentioned Dr Keith Andrews – a former director of the Institute – as a huge influence on him and the area of neuropsychological rehabilitation. ‘Complex disabilities can result from MS, cerebral palsy, Huntington’s and catastrophic accidents, among other things. Many patients exist

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it is much easier to demonstrate your abilities when trying to get jobs at the end of your studies. The other crucial ability you will need to have to survive a PhD is to maintain good relationships with supervisors. This can be tricky! However, if you set clear ground rules at the beginning of your studies about who is expected to do what and when, and take time to consider the best way for you to work together, this will hopefully make it easier. Keeping a research diary can also help you chart your progress, remember what is required of you and remind your supervisors of what they have promised. Postgraduate study is an emotional rollercoaster where the highs vastly outweigh the lows and the more you get involved the more you get back from it. For more details of what PsyPAG can do for you or what you can do for PsyPAG please go to our website (www.psypag.co.uk) or email our information officer (info@psypag.co.uk). I David Moore is the outgoing Chair of PsyPAG and a final-year PhD student at Sheffield Hallam University. He is also a research officer at the University of Bath D.Moore@bath.ac.uk

in what were known as persistent vegetative states. Professor Andrews published a paper in 1996 on misdiagnosis of this state. As many as 43 per cent of patients had been misdiagnosed and were in fact aware. This has huge implications for rehabilitation and the role of the family in such situations. Some of the best work in the area is now being done with fMRI scanners at Cambridge Neuroscience by Martin Coleman and Adrian Owen, in collaboration with the RHN. Because of this work, we’re even getting better at predicting who will ‘wake up’ from vegetative states’. The use of brain–computer interfaces to facilitate communication is another fascinating area. Despite these developments, it sounds like a challenging job for any professional working with patients and families in such a condition. ‘Often the issues relate to unresolved grief, which then

reverberates through the family system and social network. And yes, you must have a good professional support system around you. But the rewards are extraordinary. As in palliative care you have to avoid curative models. Generally, rehabilitation is concerned with maintaining health and giving choice and dignity to people. Imagine someone who’s dreamed of going home for two years and finally gets the chance. It’s also humbling to see families who visit their relation every day, even though there’s no obvious communication or reaction. It seems to me that love needs no reinforcement and that here we’re moving past simple behaviour models to something more profound.’ Asked about the future, Ceri comments: ‘I’m younger and less experienced than the other Fellows. I’m still feeling my way in a less structured environment, in which I can make more of the running. Ask me in a year or so.’

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CONTENTS Clinical Counselling Forensic Health Neuropsychology Occupational Psychology graduates Psychotherapy Teaching and research Overseas

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Ref: 08.329

Head of Older Adults, Neuropsychology & Stroke Psychological Services Band 8d £62,337 - £77,179, 37.5hpw, permanent As part of a reconfiguration of our local psychological services, a new Consultant Clinical Psychology post is being created to provide an enhanced provision to Older Adults, Neuropsychology and Stroke Services. The Department, which now has a complement of around 60 staff, directly managed psychologists in all major specialties and it is a friendly, supportive and lively place to work. We have strong links with Edinburgh and Glasgow Universities and take trainees from both Clinical courses. This post has dedicated CPD time with staff development being a priority. Informal enquiries/visits are welcome. To arrange a visit or for further information please contact Ian Hancock, Director, Department of Psychological Services & Research, Nithbank, Dumfries DG1 2SD, Tel 01387 244495. Closing date: 19th January 2009. Application packs are available from Human Resources, High East, Crichton Hall, Dumfries by emailing dg.recruitment@nhs.net by visiting www.show.scot.nhs.net and by telephoning 01387 272757 (voicemail service). NHS Dumfries & Galloway is committed to Equal Opportunities and operates a Tobacco Policy which does not permit smoking inside any of its buildings.

www.show.scot.nhs.uk

CONSULTANT CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGIST

CLINICAL

Department of Psychological Services

West Hertfordshire Primary Care Trust Adult Provider

PROFESSIONAL LEAD – CONSULTANT CLINICAL NEUROPSYCHOLOGIST Salary: Band 8d, £62,337–£77,179 p.a. Hours: 37.5 per week. Ref: 658-745PCA. Closing Date: 11 January 2009. Hertfordshire Neurological Rehabilitation Service offers patient-centred interdisciplinary interventions in rehabilitation centres and the community. As we develop and expand we are looking for a Professional Lead for the Clinical Psychology & Neuropsychology department of six and also to join the senior management team to contribute to the clinical and strategic development of the neuro rehabilitation service. The successful candidate will have considerable knowledge, skill and experience in neurorehabilitation across a variety of settings and clients including therapeutic work; the abilities to communicate, to work in teams and to promote a patientcentred approach are essential. Also, developed qualities for leadership and management are required. Clinical Psychologist link with Doctoral Programmes in Clinical Psychology in Hertfordshire and London for teaching, supervision and training. For further information please contact Sally Pollitt, Service Lead, Hertfordshire Neurological Service on 07900 680753 or 01923 299111/112. In order to streamline recruitment within our Trust we reserve the right to expire vacancies prior to the advertised closing date once sufficient applications have been received. Early application is, therefore, recommended. Please apply online at www.jobs.nhs.uk

View all vacancies online before you receive your print version at www.psychapp.co.uk The website also includes many online only vacancies. Set up a profile and receive e-mail alerts when matching vacancies are placed.

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UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN SYDNEY AUSTRALIA COLLEGE OF ARTS

SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY

PROFESSOR / ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR IN CLINICAL OR CLINICAL HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY Bankstown Campus, Sydney, Australia

Ref No. 122/08

Remuneration Package: Academic Level E AUD$158,678 p.a. or Academic Level D AUD$124,090 to AUD$136,295 p.a. (comprising Salary, 17% Superannuation, and Leave Loading) The School of Psychology resides within the College of Arts and is based on the Bankstown and Penrith campuses. Postgraduate programs and the UWS Psychology Clinics are located at Bankstown. The School wishes to establish a strategic direction in clinical or clinical health psychology that integrates teaching, research and practise in an environment that is contemporary, challenging and adapted to a rapidly evolving world. We seek an innovative scholar to provide academic leadership to the postgraduate program in Clinical Psychology, to lead significant research and to develop an applied research direction in clinical or clinical health psychology. A potential exists for research collaboration with the UWS Medical School and College of Health and Sciences and with the Sydney South Western Area Health Service. The successful applicant will hold a PhD in psychology with relevant tertiary qualifications in clinical or clinical health psychology and will be eligible for registration with the NSW Psychologists Registration Board and membership of the Clinical College of the Australian Psychological Society. The University reserves the right to appoint at Academic Level E or D, depending upon the qualifications, skills and experience of the successful applicant. Position Enquiries: Dr Adelma Hills, +61 2 9772 6593 or email am.hills@uws.edu.au Closing Date: 19 January 2008.

Please visit the UWS Website: http://www.uws.edu.au/vacancies/ for full details on this position and how to apply. UWS values workplace diversity

BE INSPIRED, BE PART OF A UNIVERSITY ON THE MOVE

1 CONSULTANT CLINICAL/FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGIST and 1 CLINICAL/FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGIST (BOTH WTE) If you are frustrated by limited opportunities and lack of recognition and reward, we can offer you the opportunity to work in an organisation which values and respects the unique contribution of clinical and forensic psychologists. Based in South Wales, Ludlow Street Healthcare Group Ltd is an innovative, rapidly expanding organisation that provides specialist care and treatment services for individuals with mental health problems and other specialist care needs. Currently our psychology department includes clinical, forensic and counselling psychologists. Ludlow Street Healthcare Group, due to our variety of specialist services including Mental Health, Learning Disabilities, ABI and Forensic Services, can facilitate professional development, research and opportunities to develop special interests including participation in robust clinical governance.

1 Consultant Clinical/Forensic Psychologist (Band 8C/8D) Learning Disability, and 1 Clinical/Forensic Psychologist Learning Disability (Band 7-8B). This is an exciting opportunity to provide clinical interventions within creative clinical care pathways. As a Consultant Clinical/Forensic Psychologist you will provide leadership within our expanding learning disability psychology team, take a pivotal role within our multi-disciplinary team within a specialist medium secure forensic service or on our new rehabilitation unit. As a qualified Clinical/Forensic Psychologist you will work closely with the Consultant Psychologist to further develop and enhance our service to people with learning disabilities. Candidates wishing to progress to consultant grade and who are eligible according to BPS requirements are encouraged to apply. The company takes a proactive approach to developing psychologists through career progression to fulfil their potential. Our services are based in South Wales, offering a high quality of life, good access to coast and countryside, affordable housing, excellent education for children and many cultural and sporting activities.

THE REWARDS

G Flexible hours with full and part-time available G Investment in Continuing Professional and Personal Development G Good links with the NHS and training courses G Opportunities for research G Clinical and Managerial Supervision G 25 Days Annual Leave (plus Bank Holidays) G Contributory Pension scheme G Life Assurance G Relocation Package For further information check our website www.lshealthcare.co.uk. To request a recruitment application pack, or to discuss the role prior to submitting your application, please contact our Human Resources Department on: 029 2039 4410. Alternatively, submit your CV with a covering letter to: careers@lshealthcare.co.uk. The closing date for the above position will be Friday 30 January 2009.

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CLINICAL/FORENSIC

Men’s Service – Mental Health and Learning Disabilities Services. Northampton

Clinical Psychologist

Ref: BPS 1866

Salary dependent on experience

PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES

Clinical Psychologist for Intermediate Care (Physical Health) Band 8a, £37,106 - £44,527 0.8 wte – 30 hours per week, Monday - Friday (to be arranged) Ref: 444-233-09 A new permanent post has been created for a Clinical Psychologist to work in our Intermediate Care Service – Physical Health (Gulson Hospital, Coventry). Intermediate Care Service provides support to up to 400 people at any one time providing nursing, residential and community services. Referrals include adults of all ages, but predominantly people over the age of 65 years. Intermediate Care is a multidisciplinary service, which can be accessed by individuals for up to six weeks. Being jointly funded and managed by health and social services it offers many unique opportunities to enhance the rehabilitation provision to the people of Coventry.

Full-time 37.50 hours per week, though flexible and part-time hours may be considered. We’d like to recruit a Clinical Psychologist who is committed to, and passionate about, working with clients whose problems are complex and challenging. We’d be really interested in hearing from you if you enjoy using your abilities, experience and qualities in flexible and creative ways when working with clients and teams. St Andrew’s Healthcare, Northampton, is an approximately

500

bedded hospital, with a reputation for providing specialist care and interventions for clients with mental health problems, developmental disabilities and acquired brain injury, whose difficulties provide a challenge for mainstream NHS services. It’s a not-for-profit independent organisation, and in fact the largest of its type in Britain. The Men’s Service provides for approximately 150 male clients, whose problems include personality, mental health, Autistic Spectrum difficulties and learning disability, alongside challenging (and/or offending) behaviour, across eleven units ranging from medium security to open rehabilitation. We have a permanent post available Psychology is highly valued within the service, and embedded within a multi-disciplinary approach. The post holder will be fully involved in the development, delivery and evaluation of a range of therapeutic

The post is banded at 8a but we encourage enquiries from less experienced applicants who might take on the post with less responsibility initially. The post joins and is managed by a Consultant Clinical Psychologist. It would suit applicants looking to develop their expertise in working with people who are recovering from an acute illness or an exacerbation of a chronic illness. Knowledge of neuropsychological assessment and experience of timelimited interventions is essential. There are a number of opportunities for service development and possible research projects to enable the development of this new and busy service.

assessments and formulation-led interventions: individual, group, direct,

For an informal discussion, or further details on this post contact Dr Jane Bailey on 02476 246226 jane.bailey@covwarkpt.nhs.uk

energy, enthusiasm, ideas, and an ability to work with clients whose

indirect and consultancy. There will also be opportunities for joint professional work, and involvement in support, supervision and training, and we actively support innovation and research. The successful applicant can look forward to receiving good support and supervision, to developing their role, and playing a vital part in the evolution of the psychology team. The continuous professional development of individuals is as important as the development of the psychology team. We would really like to hear from a Clinical Psychologist who has experience of working with those who have offended. However, if you don’t have specific forensic experience, but you do have needs are complex we would also like to hear from you. Why not call for a chat about what you could offer the service and the service could offer you?

If unable to apply on-line at www.jobs.uk/in/cwpt, contact the Partnership Trust Recruitment Team on 0845 6001363 or email recruitment@covwarkpt.nhs.uk quoting the reference number. Closing date: 15th January 2009.

For informal enquiries or to arrange a visit please contact Dr Maria Gennoy, Lead Consultant Psychologist on (01604) 616000 For an application form and job description, please telephone (01604) 616589 (24 hour answerphone), email recruitment@standrew.co.uk or apply online via our website www.stah.org Please quote the appropriate reference number in all correspondence.

• Family Care Co-ordinator Access • Excellent Contributory Pension Scheme

Closing date: 23 January 2009. Our benefits include: • Subsidised canteen • Subsidised childcare facilities • Sports facilities (gym, pool, squash courts) We are an equal opportunities employer. Registered Charity No. 1104951.

Committed to Equal Opportunities in Employment

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A charity leading innovation in mental health

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Psychological Services

Clinical Psychologist in Adult Learning Disability Band 8C £52,007 - £64,118 per annum 37.5 hours per week, permanent

NHS Foundation Trust

Ref: MHLD457

We are seeking a Clinical Psychologist with relevant experience to join a thriving, joint agency Learning Disability service in the beautiful Scottish Borders countryside. The service has strong multi-disciplinary and multi-agency relationships and good management support. There is currently an assistant psychologist and a flexible trainee psychologist within the adult learning disability service and close links with Clinical Psychologists in other specialties across the area, in particular the child learning disability service. As well as providing clinical services and contributing to multi-disciplinary, multi-agency team working, you will be expected to contribute to service management, planning, development, research and evaluation. The Psychology Service has a strong commitment to supervision, CPD, research and joint working, we also have close links with the University of Edinburgh/NHS (Scotland) Clinical Psychology Training Programme, with opportunities to contribute to teaching and providing clinical supervision to Trainee Clinical Psychologists on placement. For further information please contact Lynne Morgan-Hastie, Psychology and AHP Service Manager on 01896 824582 or John Ferguson, Area Head of Psychological Services on 01896 668821. Closing date for completed application forms: 5pm on Friday 30 January 2009. Application forms and job descriptions available from the Human Resources Department, NHS Borders, Borders General Hospital, Melrose, TD6 9BS, Tel: 01896 826151.

www.nhsborders.org.uk

Ref: 246-8412 King’s Lynn - Fermoy Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Salary: £29,091 - £38,352 pa Hours per week: 37.5 - Job Type: Fixed Term Temporary Norfolk and Waveney Mental Health Foundation NHS Trust Primary Mental Health Care Service (West Locality) is offering a fixed term contract position of one year for a qualified, registered mental health professional to deliver psychological assessment and treatment within a designated number of GP practices in the locality. This would give an opportunity to an existing practitioner to develop experience in the primary care sector and to further the development of psychological skills. Applicants would be considered from core disciplines working in mental health with secondary and or primary care experience; from Psychology, Nursing, Occupational Therapy or Social Work. The post is one of a small team of 7 practitioners working in Kings Lynn and surrounding rural areas. For further details contact Cindy Foley on (01553) 613077 or cindy.foley@nwmhp.nhs.uk Closing date: 12 January 2009. The Trust is working towards equal opportunities and welcomes applications irrespective of age, disability, ethnic origin, gender, sexuality or religious belief. A job share scheme operates-enquiries are invited. The Trust operates a no smoking policy.

For further information on the above post(s) and other job opportunities, please apply online at

www.jobs.nhs.uk 24hr answer phone (01603) 421519

Clinical Scotland Tayside Area Psychological Therapies Service

Consultant/Lead Clinical Psychologist

Over recent years NHS Tayside has committed to increased investment in the Area Psychological Therapies (TAPTS). NHS Tayside Area Psychological Therapies Service now has a complement of around 72 clinical and applied staff with an additional 22 trainees. The Department provides a friendly, supportive and stimulating environment in which to work. Opportunities exist for involvement in teaching and research, taking advantage of close links with Universities of Dundee, Abertay and Stirling. Members of the Department also contribute to the supervision and training of trainees on the Edinburgh/East and South of Scotland Clinical Teaching Course and the Universities of Stirling and Dundee MSc Course.

Clinical Health Psychology Band 8c (under review) (£52,007 - £64,118 per annum) 1.0wte

REF: D/CM/331

This established post based in Ninewells Hospital, Dundee has recently become vacant. The service comprises of 3.3 wte. The post requires considerable managerial, professional and clinical skills to meet the competing demands of a highly specialised service. Referrals are received from a variety of sources. There are excellent working relationships with medical colleagues. You would be expected to have a strategic vision for the service with an emphasis on active participation and contribution to multi-disciplinary working in an integrated and cohesive manner.

Consultant/Lead Clinical Psychologist

Consultant/Lead Clinical Psychologist

Older Peoples Service

Learning Disabilities Band 8c (under review) (£52,007 - £64,118 per annum) 1.0wte

PRIMARY MENTAL HEALTH CARE PRACTITIONER

REF: D/CM/330

This is a long established post that has recently become vacant. We are seeking an experienced, energetic and enthusiastic Clinical Psychologist with strategic vision who will be able to lead this specialty (9.7wte). The Learning Disabilities Clinical Psychology Service is established in Wedderburn House, Dundee. Individuals within the service have responsibilities to community teams in Perth and Kinross, Dundee East, Dundee West and the Resettlement Projects. The service also has responsibilities in relation to the Challenging Behaviour Services and Forensic Services for people with learning Disabilities in Tayside. A wide range of clinical and research interests are encouraged within a cognitive behavioural and scientific structure. Members of service apply for and attract research funds associated with their areas of work. Members of the service also make a large number of conference presentations both nationally and internationally.

Band 8c (under review) (£52,007 - £64,118 per annum) 1.0wte

REF: D/CM/332

This established post based at Sunnyside Royal Hospital, Montrose is due to become vacant in January 2009. The service comprises of 4.0 wte. The post requires considerable managerial, professional and clinical skills to meet the competing demands of a highly specialised service. You would be expected to lead a service at a time of change in the demographic age profile of the population with a subsequent need for service development and innovation. Informal enquiries considering any of the above posts may be made to Professor Kevin Power on (01382) 306156 or email kevin.power@nhs.net NHS Tayside is committed to equality and diversity and welcomes applicants from all sections of the community.

To request an application pack please email: recruitment.tayside@nhs.net (quoting the job reference number in the subject box) or Tel: 0845 270 0728 (24 Hour Recruitment Line) Closing date for receipt of completed application forms 12 January 2009. For further information on all our vacancies visit our website.

www.jobs.scot.nhs.uk

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Primary Care Trust

Head of Children & Young People’s Psychology Service Band 8b – 8d £43,221 - £53,432 dependent on skills and experience 37.5 hours Full Time Job Ref: CSPSY620

Due to the retirement of the current post holder, we are looking for a Clinical Psychologist with considerable experience to lead and shape the future direction of Children and Young People’s Psychology Services for Herefordshire. We are seeking someone with enthusiasm for multi disciplinary working, excellent communication skills, qualities of leadership and expertise in clinical work, consultation, research and service development, who is prepared to work flexibly around the need. You would be responsible for a team which consists of 4 Psychologists, a CBT Therapist, 2 Locality Workers and 2 Assistant Psychologists. Services are provided to a variety of Specialist Teams in Health, Social Care and Educational settings. The commissioning arm of Herefordshire PCT & Herefordshire Council are in the process of becoming a Public Service Trust which offers you a unique opportunity to contribute to the development of high quality integrated services with local partner agencies. The PCT Psychologists have a history of strong and harmonious working relationships and meet regularly for CPD and support. There are strong links with local Clinical Psychology training courses and regular training placements. This post offers excellent living and working prospects. Herefordshire is an unusually beautiful rural county with highly rated schools and good access to Birmingham, Bristol and Cardiff. For further information please contact Marcia Perry, Directorate Manager on 01432 378910 or Kevin Sullivan, Head of Children and Young Peoples Psychology Service on 01432 356438. To apply online please visit www.jobs.nhs.uk or email for an application pack to recruit.admin@herefordpct.nhs.uk or Tel (01432) 383803 quoting the reference number. Closing date for receipt of completed applications is 9 January 2009. The Trust is an employer committed to Equal Opportunities.

CLINICAL

Herefordshire

Clinical Psychologist Part–time (Flexible hours considered). Competitive salary based on experience. Location: Lindfield, West Sussex The Disabilities Trust Autism Services support people with autistic spectrum conditions by providing education for children and residential, community outreach and day services for adults. We are looking for an enthusiastic, committed individual who would like a challenge and an opportunity to specialise in the field of autism. Hollyrood, based in Lindfield, West Sussex, provides a day and residential service for 28 adults with autism, alongside two smaller residential homes for adults in the local community. You will join a multi-disciplinary team comprising of a Consultant Clinical Psychologist, Speech and Language Therapist, Psychiatrist and Music and Art Therapist providing assessments, interventions and staff training. You will also be responsible for supervising an Assistant Psychologist. We are developing our autism-specific and person-centred training programmes for support staff, clinicians and others working in the field and you will contribute to the development and delivery of these programmes. Research is actively encouraged and facilitated by the Trust, together with opportunities to develop innovative services. As such, you will contribute to the research programme across all our services. You will receive a full induction, regular supervision and opportunities for further training. So, if you are a qualified Clinical Psychologist (all grades considered) and would like to join our existing clinical team we would like to hear from you.

The Disabilities Trust is an Equal Opportunities Employer. This position is subject to a Criminal Records Bureau Disclosure/POVA Clearance For an application pack, informal discussion and/or to arrange a visit, please contact Dr Jenny Alvarez, Head of Autism Clinical Services, Consultant Clinical Psychologist. Tel: 07843 359864. Email: jenny.alvarez@thedtgroup.org - Closing date : 9th January 2009 The Disabilities Trust is a Registered Charity No 800797

www.thedtgroup.org.uk

Highly Specialist Clinical Psychologists (Looked After & Adopted Children)

Suffolk, Full (37.5 hours) and part-time (22.5 hours) Band 8a: £37,106 - £44,527 p.a. Ref: CAMHS19/08 These innovative posts are available at an interesting time for service developments regarding child and adolescent mental health services and the corporate management for Looked After and Adopted Children. Playing an evolving and varied clinical role, you will have the clinical ability in assessing and formulating the complex needs of a child or young person who have survived abuse, neglect and multiple loss experiences. In addition, you will understand and work with the system of carers and corporate parenting agencies and providers that care for a child or young person. For an informal discussion, please contact Julia Rock on 01473 329779 or e-mail julia.rock@smhp.nhs.uk For additional information, to view all of our current vacancies, and to apply on-line please visit the NHS Jobs website at www.jobs.nhs.uk. Please indicate your preference for either the F/T or P/T vacancy when applying. If for any reason you are unable to apply on-line, please contact The Recruitment Department, Suffolk Mental Health Partnership NHS Trust, St Clements Hospital, Ipswich IP3 8LS or telephone 01473 329712 (24hr answerphone) or by e-mail hr-ipswich@smhp.nhs.uk, quoting the reference number. The starting salary for non NHS employees is up to a maximum of the third incremental point up the band depending on skills and experience. Closing date: 5th January 2009.

www.herefordshire.nhs.uk

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CLINICAL/COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGIST

SALARY/BAND DEPENDENT ON EXPERIENCE > BASED AYR SOMETIMES, THE MOST FRIGHTENING ASPECT OF WAR IS COMING HOME FROM IT - AS THOUSANDS OF VETERANS WITH POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER KNOW ONLY TOO WELL. BACK IN CIVILIAN LIFE, EVERY DAY CAN BE A MINEFIELD OF FLASHBACKS, PANIC ATTACKS, SUICIDAL THOUGHTS AND VIOLENT RAGES - AS THE MENTAL AND EMOTIONAL DAMAGE THEY’VE SUSTAINED IN BATTLE FINALLY BEGINS TO TAKE OVER. JOIN US, AND YOU’LL BE THERE FOR EX-SERVICEPEOPLE WHEN THEY DESPERATELY NEED HELP AND SUPPORT. IN OVER 80 YEARS, WE’VE PROVIDED A UNIQUE LIFELINE TO 75,000 VETERANS OF ALL AGES – YOU’LL HEAD UP THE PSYCHOLOGY FUNCTION IN ONE OF OUR TREATMENT CENTRES, WITH EVERY OPPORTUNITY TO DEVELOP THE SERVICE. QUALIFIED TO DOCTORATE LEVEL IN PSYCHOLOGY, YOU MUST BE USED TO WORKING AS PART OF A MULTI-DISCIPLINARY TEAM AND HAVE EXPERIENCE OF TRAUMA-RELATED MENTAL HEALTH ISSUES. FOR AN INFORMAL DISCUSSION ABOUT THIS POST PLEASE CALL DR WALTER BUSUTTIL, DIRECTOR MEDICAL SERVICES ON 01372 841 607. FOR AN APPLICATION PACK PLEASE TELEPHONE SARAH BYRD, HR ASSISTANT ON 01372 841645 OR E-MAIL HR01@COMBATSTRESS.ORG.UK. CLOSING DATE 20TH JANUARY 2009 WWW.COMBATSTRESS.ORG.UK NO AGENCIES PLEASE

THE LAMBETH DIRECTORATE

SENIOR CLINICAL/COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGIST £43,044 - £50,465 pa inc We are looking for an experienced and enthusiastic Clinical/ Counselling Psychologist, to fill a half-time position within a Recovery and Support Team. The Lambeth Directorate has three Community Mental Health Teams, each of which has an Assessment and Brief Treatment Team and a Recovery and Support Team. You will be expected to work half-time in the South East Sector Team, based in West Norwood. The main focus of your clinical work will be CBT for psychosis and other forms of long-term mental illness. Specialist clinical supervision will be provided for this work. You will be joining an expanding and dynamic group of psychologists working in Adult Mental Health and Rehabilitation in Lambeth. We have close links with both clinical and counselling psychology doctorate courses and regularly have trainees on placement. To arrange an informal visit, please contact Dr. Peter Hayward, Consultant Clinical Psychologist, on 07971 710084. Closing date: 19th January 2009.

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For an application pack please either write to Recruitment Services Team, Lower Ground Floor, Main Admin Block, Maudsley Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 8AZ or telephone our 24 hour answering machine on 020 3228 5371 quoting ref: CAM 8747 or visit our website www.slam.nhs.uk to apply and view other vacancies. The successful candidates will be asked to apply for an Enhanced Disclosure. Further information about the Disclosure scheme can be found at www.disclosure.gov.uk Creating a world-leading Academic Health Sciences Centre. The Trust is committed to employing a workforce which reflects the diversity and meets the needs of the local population. We provide Mental Health services in adult, rehabilitation and forensic, MHOA, CAMHS, learning disabilities and addictions services, covering the London boroughs of Southwark, Lambeth, Lewisham, Croydon, Bexley, Bromley and Greenwich along with national specialist services.

vol 22 no 1

january 2009


COUNSELLING/HEALTH/OCCUPATIONAL

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Human & Organisational Factors Specialist Human Factors Group, Health & Safety Laboratory Attractive salary plus excellent benefits package including civil service pension The Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL), an agency of the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), is a centre of excellence for research, incident investigation and the promotion of improvements in health and safety in the workplace. The Human Factors Group carries out research, scientific support work, and incident investigations for HSE and external customers. We investigate human, social and organisational factors that affect health and safety at work. In this role, you will carry out research and support work in the following areas: human and organisational factors in risk assessment and accident causation; analysis of trends in accident statistics; safety management, safety culture and performance; and human reliability and human error. Whether you lead or contribute will depend on your experience, but you will be involved with the design of research methodology, data collection and analysis. Excellent communication skills will help in your preparation of reports/proposals, when negotiating work specifications/costs with customers and when presenting work at conferences.

Buxton, Derbyshire

Confident, with good interpersonal skills, you need a good honours degree (or equivalent) in a relevant human factors discipline as well as significant postgraduate experience in human factors research or consultancy. Organised, methodical and comfortable working as part of a team, you have demonstrable experience of applying your human factors expertise, ideally in a range of industries. This post is offered at band 3 or band 4. For a band 3 appointment, you need to have a greater depth and breadth of experience in human factors as well as some experience of leading projects. Some experience of bidding for and winning contracts would also be an advantage. A first class benefits package, generous leave allowances, opportunities for professional development and a pioneering working environment are waiting for the successful applicant. For further information and to apply, please visit www.hsl.gov.uk/recruitment or www.hse.gov.uk/careers and click on job profiles and current vacancies. Closing date: 29 January 2009.

HSL is an agency of the Health & Safety Executive HSL is an equal opportunities employer and values a diverse workforce

www.hsl.gov.uk

seek and advertise at www.psychapp.co.uk

)&"-5)4"'&5: -"#03"503:

77


NOT ALL JOBS ARE IN JEOPARDY

SOME ARE IN CRANFIELD During these challenging times we are working hard to deliver value to our customers across the globe, hence our Consultant team is a little over stretched (understatement!). In 2009 we are looking to take on both a Principal Consultant and a Senior Consultant to join our Bedfordshire-based practice. ASK provides customised management and leadership development solutions for middle and senior managers in large organisations around the world. We pride ourselves on being behaviourists rather than educators and our aim is to help leaders to identify and change the critical few behaviours that stand between them and exceptional performance. To find out more about ASK and the opportunities for learning and development consultants visit our website where you will find detailed job descriptions and information on how to apply.

www.askeurope.com unas ham edly busine ss

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passionately people

vol 22 no 1

january 2009


OCCUPATIONAL

Senior Work Psychologist Wales, location flexible within Wales £32,880 - £40,290 (April 2009 pay progression £1,860) Flexible starting pay may be considered within the bandwidths quoted depending on experience. 7KH'HSDUWPHQWIRU:RUNDQG3HQVLRQVLVUHVSRQVLEOHIRUWKH*RYHUQPHQW¶VZHOIDUHUHIRUPDJHQGD,WVDLPLVWRSURPRWHRSSRUWunity and independence for all and deliver support and advice through a modern network of services. We are part of and provide internal consultancy to Jobcentre Plus one of the businesses of the DWP. Our approach combines the application of Occupational Psychology with a commitment to public service in order to help people with disabilities and health conditions move closer to the labour market. Main tasks include: x Providing professional supervision and development to a team of 5 Work Psychologists (WPs) x Coaching WPs and Jobcentre Plus staff on a wide range of issues relating to health, disability and work x Developing the Work Psychology Service for priority customers x Working at a national level to ensure Occupational Psychology positively impacts on the Welfare to Work agenda x Initiating and co-ordinating the delivery of JCP initiatives x Developing and delivering national practitioner level training to WPs x Providing evidence-based input into DWP policy You must have: x an MSc in Occupational Psychology x Chartered Occupational Psychology status and be eligible to supervise others through this process x BPS Level A psychometric testing certificate It is desirable to have: x experience of working with people with disabilities and disadvantage in the employment area x proven success in a leadership role x outstanding consultancy skills To request an application pack please e-mail: ESSR.LandCteam@dwp.gsi.gov.uk. Please include reference IRC 55239 and your name in the subject box. We cannot accept requests for an application pack without this job reference number in the subject line of the e-mail. Closing date for th applications is 19 January 2008. For further job specific information please contact Rachel Kennedy on 07800 676321. The opportunity to discuss the role in more detail with members of Work Psychology Service will also be available at the BPS th DOP Annual Conference Recruitment Forum on 14 January 2008.

Chief Psychologist (Leadership and Talent Management) £43,474 to £52,521 (with potential to rise to £55,476 through performance related pay)

Westminster, London • Permanent Appointment Working at the centre of the Civil Service within the Leadership and Talent Management Directorate, your role will be to develop leading edge assessment methods and processes to identify the right talent for Civil Service wide talent programmes, primarily for the Fast Stream programme, but also at senior level. In addition you will advise on the use of assessment tools for other corporate level interventions as well as specific departmental initiatives. You must be able to provide authoritative advice to senior managers and others, drawing on your professional expertise, and be comfortable evaluating assessment data and processes. You will be a Chartered Occupational Psychologist with substantial expertise in the design and implementation of talent programmes including assessment and development centres. You will also have an in depth knowledge of occupational psychology and strong knowledge of contractors and products. In addition to this you

seek and advertise at www.psychapp.co.uk

must have the British Psychological Society certificate of competence in occupational testing at level B. Further information about the Civil Service Fast Stream is available at www.faststream.gov.uk and information about the Cabinet Office can be found at www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk For further information and details on how to apply email recruitment@cabinet-office.x.gsi.gov.uk quoting reference REC/08/178 or write to the Recruitment Team, 4th Floor, 22 Whitehall, London SW1A 2WH. Closing date for applications is 5pm on 14th January 2009. The Cabinet Office is committed to providing equal opportunities for all, irrespective of age, disability, ethnicity, gender, marital status, religion, sexuality, transgender and working patterns.

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YOUR SUPPORT WILL MAKE A DIFFERENCE The Psychologists within the Directorate of Army Personnel Strategy (DAPS) provide occupational psychology advice to the senior leaders across the Army and the MOD. We are committed to enhancing the working lives and effectiveness of the British Army. We do this by conducting and commissioning research, which provides the scientific foundation for Army personnel policy. This covers a wide remit and offers a varied and stimulating work environment. Our current research programme includes work on employee attitude surveys, selection and assessment research, human factors/air accident investigation, stress auditing and organisational development. You will be key members of the team providing psychologist support within DAPS. Your work will include contributing to the development, management and resourcing of the DAPS human science research programme. You will provide research and consultancy services in all occupational psychology areas. In addition, you will act as an intelligent customer for the army and other MOD stakeholders. You will need to engage effectively with these customers and members of the DAPS Science team. We are looking for personnel with good analytical, presentational and report writing skills. You will be required to conduct statistical analysis using SPSS; have a background in research methods/statistics and some experience in using SPSS is therefore desirable. There is an ongoing review of the Upavon site which will relocate to Andover in 2010.

SENIOR OCCUPATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST £32,441* pro rata Two days per week

Reference: 365075

OCCUPATIONAL PSYCHOLOGISTS

£25,977* plus up to £8,000 relocation package Reference: 364272

Upavon, Wiltshire

Upavon, Wiltshire

You should hold a BPS accredited honours degree in Psychology (or equivalent) and been awarded GBR; an accredited MSc or Postgraduate Certificate in Occupational Psychology (PCOP) with significant, relevant postgraduate experience and already achieved Chartered Occupational Psychologist Status of the BPS.

You should hold a BPS accredited honours degree in Psychology (or equivalent) and been awarded GBR; an accredited MSc in Occupational Psychology or PCOP with relevant postgraduate experience. It is desirable to be a Practitioner-in-Training of the Division of Occupational Psychology or have Chartered Occupational Psychologist Status of the BPS.

*Higher Starting Pay (HSP) may be negotiable depending on qualifications and experience. A review of salary scales for OccPsych posts within MOD is being undertaken at this time.

Closing date: 30 January 2009. Visit www.civilianjobs.mod.uk or call 0800 345 7772 to find out more.

A FORCE FOR GOOD The MOD is an Equal Opportunities employer and seeks to reflect the diverse community it serves. Applications are welcome from anyone who meets the stated requirements.

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MINISTRY OF DEFENCE

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OCCUPATIONAL/PSYCHOLOGY GRADUATES/PSYCHOTHERAPY

mi5careers.gov.uk Protective Security Behavioural Scientists Central London From £37,750 to £47,296 depending on skills and experience The Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI) provides integrated security advice (information, personnel and physical) to a range of businesses and organisations. It is an interdepartmental organisation with resources from a number of departments and agencies. Working in CPNI, you will be using your expertise to help protect key UK assets and critical infrastructure against terrorism and other threats. You will be responsible for researching the behavioural aspects of protective security problems and developing practical advice and techniques for their management. The advice and techniques that you produce will be used throughout the UK Critical National Infrastructure and you will have the opportunity to become a recognised expert in your field. Two roles are available. The first role involves designing and undertaking research on psychological screening techniques – from written tests to interviewing practices – that can be used in personnel security and the protection of public places. The second involves conducting research on the development of security cultures, the design of protective security measures and the effective communication of security messages. Although predominantly based in central London, you may on

occasion be required to travel overseas. You will also help deliver courses to security professionals from both the public and private sectors. You will have a proven track record of applied research in a relevant behavioural science (e.g. occupational psychology or applied anthropology). Relevant postgraduate qualifications would be an advantage, as would experience of working in the security or counter-terrorism field. You will also have some experience of managing research projects. It is essential that you can communicate effectively with a wide range of users in the Critical National Infrastructure and that you can work on your own initiative while part of a team To find out more and apply, please visit our website www.mi5careers.gov.uk/BehSci The closing date for submitting applications for this role is 12th January 2009. Please limit those you tell about your application to your partner and/or immediate family. The Security Service is committed to reflecting both equal opportunities and the society we protect.

Intelligence. We rely on yours. ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANTS COMPUTER & NETWORK SPECIALISTS DATA ANALYSTS INTELLIGENCE OFFICERS IT VACANCIES LANGUAGE UNIT MOBILE SURVEILLANCE OFFICERS SECURITY GUARDS

Our team of experts can help with any questions relating to conference or event management. GA

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BP S

• To complete reports detailing case studies drawn from a variety of resources. • To develop a compendium of partner organisations, campaigns and events relevant to lifelong learning delivery by programme makers. • To identify a range of methods appropriate for engaging lifelong learning audiences associated with older age groups.

To work in a low secure hospital for people with learning disabilities and challenging behaviours. Applicants must have a strong academic record and experience of people who have disabilities and/or mental health difficulties. We offer regular supervision from on-site Chartered Clinical Psychologists and excellent multi-disciplinary team experience. Located 15 minutes from J15 of M6. For more information please contact lorraine.mackinnon@ careprinciples.com Closing date: 16th January 2009.

BY

Applications are invited for a £12,000 funded studentship. The research will explore older age groups’ responses to lifelong learning during life-changing circumstances. The initial objectives are:

£17,010 pa

BPS Conferences Advisory Service

NC

Closing date for applications – 23rd January 2009

ASSISTANT PSYCHOLOGIST

OR

PhD studentship - Catalysts and Triggers in Lifelong Learning

NF E RE

This is a free service for all members of the Society.

Tel: 0116 252 9555 Email: advisoryservice@bps.org.uk

Later objectives form part of the further information. Bursary of £12,000 per annum plus payment of tuition fees to UK/EU nationals with an equivalent fee contribution for non UK/EU nationals. Fees for 2008/09 full-time award: home £3,300 or overseas £10,230 per academic year, pro rata.

ASSIST Trauma Care is one of the leading UK providers of therapy for the psychological effects of trauma. We currently have vacancies for:

For further information contact: Professor Danny Saunders, Centre for Lifelong Learning, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, CF37 1DL. Telephone: 01443 482327 E-mail: dmsaunde@glam.ac.uk Web: www.glam.ac.uk

15 hours per week. Salary dependent upon experience and qualifications.

University of Glamorgan Cardiff • Pontypridd • Caerdydd

seek and advertise at www.psychapp.co.uk

Part-time Child Psychologist/Therapist

Reg. Charity 1052219

Sessional Trauma Therapist Hours as required. Both posts are based in Rugby, Warks., and will suit experienced therapists with qualifications in CBT techniques and evidence-based methods of helping children and adults move on from traumatic experiences. For more information please telephone 01788 551919. Closing date: 5 January 2009.

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Missed the deadline for advertising? New reduced online only rates

Faculty of Medicine

Clinical Research Fellows (7 posts max available)

Advertise online only at any time from as little as £150 plus VAT

£30,231 – £52,346

Clinical Research Psychologist £31,513 – £25,469 (with the appropriate market supplement) Clinicians with GMC registration and completed qualifications in higher specialist training to an appropriate level (e.g. MRCP, MRCPCH, MRCOG Part 1, MRCPsych or DClinPsychol), NTN, good clinical and communication skills as well as an aptitude for research are invited to apply for clinical research training posts which are suitable for higher degrees. Posts will be for up to two years only. Salary will be set according to clinical experience, likely to be at ST1 to ST3 level (or ST4 for candidates post MRCPsych). These posts offer a wide range of research possibilities as listed below: Cancer Sciences & Molecular Pathology Division Professor Tessa Holyoake (T.Holyoake@clinmed.gla.ac.uk) Ref: 14767/DPO/A3. BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre Professor Anna Dominiczak (a.dominiczak@clinmed.gla.ac.uk) Ref: 14768/DPO/A3. Immunology, Infection and Inflammation Professor Iain McInnes (I.McInnes@clinmed.gla.ac.uk) Ref: 14769/DPO/A3. Clinical Neurosciences Professor Hugh Willison (H.Willison@clinmed.gla.ac.uk) Ref: 14770/DPO/A3. Child Health, Developmental Medicine Division Professor Lawrence Weaver (L.Weaver@clinmed.gla.ac.uk) Ref: 14771/DPO/A3. Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Developmental Medicine Division Professor Mary Ann Lumsden (M.Lumsden@clinmed.gla.ac.uk) Ref: 14772/DPO/A3. Mental Health/Learning Disabilities, Section of Psychological Medicine, Division of Community Based Sciences Professor Sally-Ann Cooper (S.Cooper@clinmed.gla.ac.uk) Ref: 14773/DPO/A3. Prior to applying for posts in the above areas please contact Ms Alice Gee (email: a.gee@clinmed.gla.ac.uk or tel: 0141 330 8637), Faculty Research Administrator for further information tailored to your chosen research theme.

Choose a Lifestyle AND Career Choose MidCentral DHB, New Zealand! MidCentral District Health Board, representatives are interviewing in the UK Join our strong and supportive team of Clinical Psychologists working in both the physical rehabilitation areas as well as Community / Mental Health Services. The team offer the opportunity to provide assessment and therapeutic interventions over a wide scope of clinical practice, working not only as part of the psychology team but as part of the wider multi-disciplinary teams within the services. Situated in the Manawatu, with services primarily provided at our 375 bed Palmerston North Hospital, MidCentral District Health Board provides health and disability services to a population of over 165,000. The lower North Island of New Zealand is the gateway to a wonderful family friendly, affordable and action packed lifestyle. Whether you enjoy mountain climbing, trout fishing and bush walking or immersing yourself in culture, heritage, food and entertainment, the Manawatu has it all. The region also boasts schools and educational institutions that are world leading. Take advantage of a $5,000NZ relocation allowance to help you get there.* MidCentral DHB also offers ongoing education, training and development and a friendly, supportive environment. To take advantage of this fantastic opportunity call Mindy on 0800 404 7591, forward your CV to mindym@genevahealth.com or register online to book your interview in February 2009. *conditions apply

www.genevahealth.co.nz

For an application pack and further details, please visit: www.glasgow.ac.uk/vacancies

NEW ZEALAND NEEDS CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGISTS!

Applications should be submitted to Alice M J Gee, Faculty Office, Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, Wolfson Medical School Building, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ.

Want a change? Want a new lifestyle? Want to work in green and sunny New Zealand? Then we want You!

Closing date: 9 January 2009. The University is committed to equality of opportunity in employment. The University of Glasgow is a registered Scottish charity, number SC004401.

www.glasgow.ac.uk

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www.psychapp.co.uk

Gains Psychology and Consulting Services is seeking clinical psychologists to join its practice in Hawke's Bay, Wellington and Palmerston North. We are looking especially for people with interests and skills in the area of Neuropsychology and Pain Management but also other areas of Clinical Psychology. For further information please contact Cath Hunter, e-mail: cath.hunter@gains.co.nz

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january 2009


TEACHING AND RESEARCH/FORENSIC

HMP & YOI SWINFEN HALL >

EXTRAORDINARY JOBS. EXTRAORDINARY WORKPLACE. Are you looking for a new challenge in a unique working environment? HMP & YOI Swinfen Hall is a Closed Young Offenders Institute and a Category C Prison. Our male population is aged between 18 and 25 serving long term sentences. A high performing Prison, we provide a safe and decent environment for young people and a constructive rehabilitation programme that supports our commitment to reducing re-offending. Swinfen Hall has one of the largest Psychology and Programmes departments in the Prison Service. As one of only two prisons in the country to provide specialist treatment services for young offenders convicted of sex offences, we’re also the only prison to offer this service to young offenders with learning difficulties. HMP & YOI Swinfen Hall currently has the following vacancies in the Psychology department:

SEX OFFENDER SERVICES MANAGER £29,184 - £44,894 Your role will be to ensure the efficient and effective delivery and development of sex offender assessment and intervention services. You will have overall responsibility for the services provided by the Sex Offender Treatment Team, including the management of two Chartered Psychologists; Sex Offender Treatment Programme (SOTP) Treatment Manager and Assessment Manager. You will also advise staff on the assessment, treatment and risk management of sexual offenders serving life/IPP sentences. Working to the Head of Programmes and Psychology, you will complete required assessment, intervention and report work. You will act as supervisor to Forensic Psychologists in training. You must be a Chartered Psychologist. Relevant post Chartership experience is desirable, as is experience of working with sex offenders, but not essential.

SEX OFFENDER TREATMENT MANAGER £26,280 - £38,082 Your role will be to maintain treatment integrity of the SOTP working with the Sex Offender Services Manager. You will facilitate treatment delivery, undertake video monitoring or live observation of sessions and contribute to the prisoner assessment and selection process of SOTP in conjunction with the Sex Offender Assessment Manager. You will act as a designated supervisor for Forensic Psychologists in Training. You must be a Chartered Psychologist or qualified Probation Officer. Experience of the groupwork and SOTP is desirable, but not essential.

LIFER/IPP PSYCHOLOGIST £26,280 - £38,082 Your role will be to manage an effective referral system for prisoners, to ensure appropriate advice and support is available to other staff regarding forensic psychological assessment and intervention, to manage a caseload of life sentence prisoners and complete required assessment, intervention and report work. You will act as a designated supervisor for Forensic Psychologists in Training. The Prison Service offers a range of benefits including 25 days’ annual leave plus 10.5 public/privilege days (pro rata for part-time employees). The Civil Service offers a choice of pension schemes, staff canteen, onsite wellbeing facilities and free car parking. All post holders will be supported in their Continuing Professional Development (CPD). For a discussion about the posts, please contact Jodie Butler, Head of Programmes and Psychology on 01543 484025. For an application pack, please contact James Truswell or Matthew Dolman, West Midlands Recruitment Team, c/o HMP Birmingham, Winson Green Road, Winson Green, Birmingham B18 4AS. Tel: 0121 345 2865. Fax: 0121 345 2870. E-mail: James.Truswell@hmps.gsi.gov.uk The closing date for receipt of completed applications is 15th January 2009. Applicants will be required to declare whether they are a member of a group or organisation, which the Prison Service considers to be racist. Part-time working or job sharing will be considered. The Prison Service is an equal opportunities employer. We welcome applications from candidates regardless of ethnic origin, religious belief, gender, age (subject to being within the normal retirement age for the grade), sexual orientation, disability or any other irrelevant factor.

seek and advertise at www.psychapp.co.uk

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LOOKING BACK

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Sex in psychological warfare Herbert A. Friedman on the why and how of an unusual form of propaganda

A

ll the major combatants involved in World War II used pornography as a small part of their psychological operations (PSYOP) strategy. Mostly this involved dropping propaganda leaflets using sexual themes from the air, in an attempt to demoralise enemy soldiers at the front. These materials are now collected avidly by historians, and they are also an important source for those of us interested in the role of psychology in crucial parts of human history. Why were they used? Did they work?

The leaflet should have, if possible, the picture of a beautiful woman, after the method used by the Germans in the First World War. This device would insure that the soldier would be attracted and would be unable to resist looking at the picture over and over again. This would rouse his passion, and his heart would be inclined for love and to hate fighting.

There is in fact some backing for the ploy from psychological research. For example,

Why were they used?

In his book Psychological Warfare (Infantry Journal Press, Washington, DC, 1948), Professor Paul Linebarger wrote: Young human beings, especially young males, are apt to give considerable attention to sex. In areas of military operations, they are removed from the stimuli of secondary sex references, which are (in America) an accepted part of everyone’s daily life: bathing beauty photos, magazine covers, semi-nudes in advertising, etc. Our enemies tried to use the resulting pin-up craze for propaganda purposes, hoping that a vain arousal of oestrum would diminish morale.

In German Psychological Warfare (Arno Press, New York, 1972) Ladislas Farago states ‘Since young soldiers are in a state of hyperactive bodily development, their immediate problems are related to appetite and sex.’ He adds that ‘sexual deprivation may be a motive for a soldier’s suicide attempt’. The Japanese attitude towards this subject is mentioned by Lieutenant Colonel Mahmood Kan Durrani in The Sixth Column (Cassell and Co., 1955). He was a prisoner of the Japanese and quotes a lecture given by a Japanese officer on how leaflets should be prepared. One of his six recommendations was:

84

Edward Donnerstein says in the Journal of Personality and Social Behavior (Vol. 39, 1980, pp.269–77): ‘…the present results suggest that highly arousing nonaggressive-erotic stimuli can be a mediator of aggressive behavior by males toward other males under certain conditions.’ As well as attempting to sap motivation, leaflets were often used to drive wedges between allies. The Germans loved ‘divide and conquer’ themes, attempting to sour relations between the

American and British troops, soldiers and civilian ‘slackers’ at home, Christians and Jews, and even African-Americans and Caucasians. Sefton Delmer, a reporter with the French Army who would later become an official of the British wartime propaganda agency, recalls his visit to the French front in 1939. He was shown a leaflet ‘which consisted of a small picture on a thin piece of paper showing a French soldier doing his duty at the front. However, if one held the picture to the light, the scene underwent a complete change. In place of the Brave poilu one now saw in minute salacious detail, a British Tommy fornicating with what the caption told us was the Frenchman’s fiancée.’ To the British forces, anti-American leaflets attempted to drive a wedge between the allied forces, playing on the ‘over-sexed, overpaid and over here’ reputation of the American troops. One example of this type of leaflet shows an American sergeant in bed with a British girl, and the words ‘You Americans are so different’. On the reverse is a brief message stating ‘The Yanks are putting up their tents in merry old England. They've got lots of money and loads of time to chase after your women’. The Germans also tried to take advantage of the alleged latent antiSemitic feelings of the Allies. One item dropped during the early stages of the war shows a nude blonde holding a copy of the Times. She is wearing a British Army helmet and looking into a fulllength mirror. Her image, as shown in the mirror, is that of a dark-haired, obviously Jewish woman. She is in an ape-like crouched position with a sinister smirk on her face. In her hand, the image of the newspaper is reversed and now reads Semit in the mirror. This is a very imaginative piece of propaganda. It has a sexual image and yet sends the message that the British are fighting the war for the Jews. Towards the end of the war in late 1944 and early 1945, the Germans became more desperate. The leaflets became more pornographic in a last-ditch attempt to somehow slow the Allied forces. Messages focus on what the troops are missing at home: At first she tried very hard to remain faithful but she lost this battle against herself as thousands of wives and girls back home did before her. It all started with an evening out, with going to the movies and to some bar, but soon it became real love. Only by the picture at her side she is occasionally reminded of her husband who is – for months now –

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looking back

somewhere in Western Europe, fighting a stubborn enemy, freezing and suffering in a muddy foxhole. But as time passes she thinks of him more and more seldom. Now she does not even turn his picture to the wall when another man is staying with her and holding her in his arms.

One Japanese leaflet used against the Americans in the Philippine Islands was simple and tasteful. It depicts a beautiful woman’s lips and the word ‘Remember?’ The back is in the form of a handwritten note, saying: ‘Darling, can’t you find a way to come back to me? I miss you so. I send all my love, and my kisses are on the other side of this card.’ The British government also authorised the manufacture of a very few pornographic leaflets during World War II. There are three different items known to have been printed, including one of Hitler holding his circumcised penis, probably designed to feed the rumour that Hitler was indeed a self-hating Jew. The British leaflets were discussed in some detail by one of the major British wartime propagandists, Sefton Delmer, in an article – ‘H.M.G.’s Secret Pornographer’ – published in the Times Literacy Supplement of 21 January 1972. Delmer reported that his cloak-and-dagger friends in the Special Operations Executive (SOE) were constantly clamoring for printed pornography. But I still took the same view of printing pornography as I had in France in 1939. Looking back, I do not think my unit produced more than three items of printed pornography during the whole of the war, not because I was squeamish, but simply because I did not think the effort involved on our part would be justified by the subversive effect on the Germans.

Did they work? So did soldiers finding the leaflets become emotionally crippled and unable to carry on their duties and responsibilities? No, in fact just the opposite occurred. The ‘pin-up’ pictures became collectors’ items sought after by the troops who greedily collected and swapped them. If anything, the leaflets raised morale. There is no doubt that they were the most heartily appreciated propaganda leaflets used in World War II. We can probably state that they were the most widely read and circulated enemy documents of any war. We know this from the letters troops sent home, and subsequent historical accounts. For example, in Beyond the

Beachhead: The 29th Infantry Division in Normandy, (Joseph Balkoski, Stackpole Books, Mechanicsburg, PA, 1989):

started trading the leaflets like baseball cards.

The enemy’s leaflets were nothing One American soldier assigned to the more than appeals to the American 35th Infantry Division in February 1945 soldier’s sexual instincts. A typical recalled receiving pornographic leaflets in leaflet featured a sketch of an an artillery barrage. He told me ‘we used attractive and scantily clad woman in the leaflets for toilet paper’. This seems to the arms of a happy male civilian. The bolster a comment once made by Sir caption asked what the G.I.’s thought Arthur Harris, Air Marshall of the Royal they would be doing if they were Air Force during World War II: ‘My home instead of in the army. The personal opinion is that the only thing 29ers chuckled and hoped the achieved (by dropping leaflets) was Germans would send more over the largely to supply the continent’s lines. The leaflets were a lot safer requirement of toilet paper for the five than real long years of the war.’ artillery It could be that the leaflets shells, and had other positive impacts. “The ‘pin-up’ pictures the I once interviewed the top British became collectors’ items sketches forger of the war, and he said that sought after by the were fairly the leaflets ‘did nothing to the interesting. enemy, but they were popular troops”

The same sort of things was happening on the Japanese front where sex leaflets were being dropped by the enemy on Allied troops. Some comments on the subject from Prisoners of the Japanese (Gavan Daws, William Morrow & Co., New York, 1994): The Japanese were dropping propaganda leaflets… And for the friendliest of friendly persuasion, pictures of a beautiful blonde stripper, private parts and all: ‘You too can enjoy this if you surrender.’ The propaganda bombers came droning over every day. It was like having the paper delivered. Some of the troops

read discuss contribute at www.thepsychologist.org.uk

among the “adolescents” working for me. They did not demoralise the enemy, but they were excellent for the morale of the British agents who handled and distributed them.’ An American propagandist once told me that he did not like to disapprove these strange and exotic concepts because it tended to stifle the creativity of his artists. It seems that on the Allied side at least, sex leaflets were produced mostly because the bosses thought it was a good way for their people to stretch their imaginations and remain creative. But perhaps these imaginations were not stretched far enough: some examples show how a lack of knowledge of the

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psychology and cultural values could hinder attempts to get inside the mind of the enemy. For example, in his thesis on the use of propaganda in the Vietnam War, Midshipman Jason Thomas Chaput says: Other messages such as those of the sex appeal leaflets acted to turn the reader off to entertaining the idea of the Chieu Hoi program because they were anchored in American values and not those of the Vietnamese. The sex appeal propaganda which depicted bikiniclad, over endowed Vietnamese women stated that the soldier could find true happiness and the satisfactions of life which every man was entitled if he chose to rally to one of the program’s centers. The individuals drafting the propaganda mistakenly believed that Vietnamese soldiers saw the world through the same masculine goggles as did American GI’s. The U.S. advisors failed to understand that the Confucian ideals held by a majority of the Vietnamese directed them to be in harmony with their environment by adopting a middle path in all areas of conduct. The effect of the sex appeal leaflets was to turn off the Vietnamese by solidifying their views that the corrupt outside Western influence present in their country had to be defeated.

Of course, the leaflets may also have succeeded in their negative intentions, particularly those not directly related to the pornographic message. Despite official denial that the United States of America ever engaged in sexual propaganda, some extremely explicit and pornographic items have been discovered in wartime files and scrapbooks of the Office of Strategic Services. They feature themes of homosexuality, bestiality, lesbianism and

86

child molestation. I spoke to the author of these leaflets many years after the war, and he was quite proud of them. He told me: ‘The six Bilder [pictures] were not just idle pornography. The “fun” part served, as you rightly observed, to achieve wide and rapid dissemination of the material, which was not designed simply to stimulate raging hormones. Its purpose was to stimulate second thoughts – a

nagging suspicion and discomfort as to the possibility of actual events, even though depicted in pornographic caricature. Could it be that my young son is being corrupted and violated by his Hitlerjugend fuehrer? Is my wife’s yearning for sexual fulfillment satisfied by a surrogate, perhaps a neighbour’s dog?’

A more direct approach So it appears that using sexual themes in an attempt to demoralise the enemy is a largely unsuccessful strategy. Instead of becoming emotionally crippled and

unable to carry out their duties, ‘pin-up’ pictures become collector’s items and often have the effect of raising morale. But there are examples of more direct effects of sexual propaganda on the enemy. John L. Plaster tells of an unauthorised ‘black’ use of sex by America’s secret soldiers in SOG: The Secret Wars of America’s Commandos in Vietnam (Simon & Schuster, New York, 1997). He says: But the most mindblowing dirty trick I ever saw was conceived by my good friend Floyd ‘Pigpen’ Ambrose. He went all the way to Bangkok to have a printed poster of his own design, showing a nude, large-breasted Asian woman, which he’d tack on trees beside major enemy trails. Imagine the shock of an NVA soldier, raised under a straitlaced Communist orthodoxy that prohibited pornography, who came upon Floyd’s poster – not to mention the provocative headline, which boldly asked in Vietnamese, ‘Who’s sleeping with your wife, and has she got jugs like these?’ As the message grew more inflammatory, the print became smaller, luring the engrossed soldier closer – and closer – and he’d forget caution and step on the small mine Floyd had planted and lose a foot.’

I For a much more comprehensive account, see www.psywarrior.com/sexandprop.html

I Herbert A. Friedman is a retired Sergeant Major now living on Long Island, NY, where he continues to research and write on psychological operations sgmbert@hotmail.com

vol 22 no 1

january 2009


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Annual Conference 2009

Brighton, 1–3 April, Holiday Inn Brighton Seafront

KEYNOTE SPEAKERS Wednesday 1 April Professor Richard Ryan University of Rochester, USA On the universal ingredients of self-motivation and wellness: Self-determination theory research across domains, cultures, gender and development

Thursday 2 April

Friday 3 April

Professor Kerry Chamberlain, Massey University, Auckland Reflections on the construction of knowledge in psychology: Some comments on how we do things around here

Spearman Medal Winner Dr Tom Manly, University of Cambridge How bad can it be? How good can it get? Symptom modulation and rehabilitation following brain injury

President’s Award Winner Professor Mark Johnson, Birkbeck, University of London Developing a social brain Professor Andy Ellis, University of York The birth, life and death of objects, words and faces

Professor Janet Treasure, King’s College London Eating disorders: New translations into therapy Fenella Lemonsky, Expert by Experience MBT, a growing evidence base, some research outcomes and a personal perspective of treatment for my eating and borderline personality disorder

www.bps.org.uk/ac2009 read discuss contribute at www.thepsychologist.org.uk

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ONE ON ONE

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…with Lynne Segal

complex all the accounts we have of how you grow up to become a sexed person.

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‘In my last book, Making Trouble: Life and Politics, I use my own and others’ reflections on intellectual and political life over the last 40 years to explore the making and breaking of individual identities and collective belongings. I suggest that, critically located within their own temporalities, personal narratives provide crucial resources for keeping cultural memory alive.’

One proud moment The founding of our School of Psychosocial Studies in August. One problem psychology should deal with Understand the cultural

A special issue about climate change, sustainability and other environmental topics, and more new columns in the ‘Forum’ section. I Send your comments about The Psychologist to the editor, Dr Jon Sutton, on jon.sutton@bps.org.uk, +44 116 252 9573 or to the Leicester office address I To advertise in The Psychologist: psyadvert@bps.org.uk, +44 116 252 9552 I For jobs in the Appointments section: psychapp@bps.org.uk, +44 116 252 9550

contribute

coming soon

resource

One thing you would change about Anniversary Professor of Psychology and Gender Studies, Birkbeck, psychology University of London The latest way in which psychology attempts to fortify its scientific credentials through its fascination with One person who inspired One cultural technological proficiency, you recommendation busily recording neurological From the beginning, and in I’ve been enjoying Daniel firings without any equivalent very different ways, it has Miller’s The Comfort of Things. interest in thinking through been scholars aware of the the shifting cultural One challenge you think rootedness of human frameworks underpinning psychology faces consciousness in culture and It would be useful for social relations who have psychosocial studies (my inspired me, as I sought out area of psychology) to connections and disjunctures incorporate the biological between the differing more successfully. This frameworks of psychology; means finding ways to psychoanalysis; philosophy; grapple with the infinitely feminism (Jerome Bruner, complex, environmentally Freud, Foucault, Judith Butler, triggered, aspects of human are simply the most prominent biology, which inhabits us of those who have influenced intertwined within – not in me). Stephen Frosh has been some way additional to – pretty good at suggesting ways social and cultural impacts. of thinking through and across For instance, we age such conflicting frameworks. culturally, quite as One great thing that significantly as we age psychology has achieved biologically. Shown us, by its own multiple One book psychologists mistakes, the folly of dealing only with individual behaviour Lynne Segal should read which is strictly quantifiable. Muriel Dimen’s Sexuality, l.segal@bbk.ac.uk Eysenck is no longer in Intimacy, Power, which fashion, and spent the last 20 offers one feminist’s journey years of his life pondering the from dualism to multiplicity, what sense we are able to merits of astrology. questioning and making more make of biological arousal/ activation, whatever its source.

embeddedness of science, enabling it to remain open, sceptical and interested in the range and fluidities of human knowledge. One nugget of advice for aspiring psychologists There is nothing so weird, perverse and irrational as normal human functioning. One thing that ‘organised psychology’ could do better Question all certainties. One hope for the future That modesty returns, and grandiosity lowers. One more question How can progressive psychologists help disseminate a more compassionate literacy for our times? It would be one that combats the defensive projection of resentment onto the multitude of asylum seekers forced to flee today’s expanding zones of war, one also refusing to overlook the consciousness and struggles of women and men, of all ages, reduced to precarious bondage servicing the new economic order. I’m looking out for those cunning linguists, insightful narrators of human lives, eager to join me – whether from the mainstream or the wilder shores of our discipline. More answers online at www.thepsychologist.org.uk

Think you can do better? Want to see your area of psychology represented more? See the inside front cover for how you can contribute and reach 45,000 colleagues into the bargain, or just e-mail your suggestions to jon.sutton@bps.org.uk

vol 22 no 1

january 2009


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Oxford Ox xford Cognitive Coogniti g ve Therapy Therapyy Centr Centre re

OCTC C speci special iaal eevents, vents tss, 20 2009 09 Willem mK Kuyken, uyken, 2 26 6 JJan an 2 2009 009 Collaborative bridging practice C ollaborrative CBT CBT ccase ase cconceptualization: on nceptualiizzation: br idg ging p ractice and a nd science sccience in CBT CBT This workshop This works o hop p presents resents a new app a approach roach to CBT CBT case case conceptualization. conceptualization. Delegates D elegates will will learn how to develop deve elop case case conceptualizations conceptualizattions sstarting tarting w with ith des descriptive crip ptive moving explanatory accounts proteclevels and a m oving to ex planatorry ac counts that incorporate incorporrate predisposing predisposing and p ro otective factors. ti ve fac ctors.

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