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Can humour make students love statistics? Andy Field on how his teaching uses eels, quails and lap dancers

Incorporating Psychologist Appointments £5 or free to members of The British Psychological Society

forum 186 news 194 careers 254 looking back 278

the golden section in stigma research 202 active body, healthy mind 206 the psychology of ‘O’ 216 methods: accessing expert cognition 218


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The British Psychological Society Contact The British Psychological Society St Andrews House 48 Princess Road East Leicester LE1 7DR Tel 0116 254 9568 Fax 0116 227 1314

Welcome to The Psychologist the official monthly publication of The British Psychological Society. It provides a forum for communication, discussion and controversy among all members of the Society, and aims to fulfil the main object of the Royal Charter, ‘to promote the advancement and diffusion of a knowledge of psychology pure and applied’. It is supported by a website, www.thepsychologist.org.uk, where you can view this month’s issue, search the archive, listen, debate and seek information, contribute, subscribe, advertise, and more.

Society website www.bps.org.uk The Psychologist e-mail psychologist@bps.org.uk General Society e-mail mail@bps.org.uk Advertising Reach 45,000 psychologists at very reasonable rates. For rates and deadlines, e-mail psyadvert@bps.org.uk or tel 0116 252 9552 For job advertising, in print or online at www.psychapp.co.uk, e-mail psychapp@bps.org.uk tel 0116 252 9550 February 2009 issue 46,440 dispatched Printed by Warners Midlands plc, Bourne, on 100 per cent recycled paper Please re-use or recycle See the online archive at www.thepsychologist.org.uk ISSN 0952-8229 © Copyright for all published material is held by The British Psychological Society, unless specifically stated otherwise. Authors, illustrators and photographers may use their own material elsewhere after publication without permission. The Society asks that the following note be included in any such use: ‘First published in The Psychologist, vol. no. and date. Published by The British Psychological Society – see www.thepsychologist.org.uk.’ As the Society is a party to the Copyright Licensing Agency (CLA) agreement, articles in The Psychologist may be photocopied by licensed institutional libraries for academic/teaching purposes. No permission is required. Permission is required and a reasonable fee charged for commercial use of articles by a third party. Please apply to the Society in writing. The publishers have endeavoured to trace the copyright holders of all illustrations in this publication. If we have unwittingly infringed copyright, we will be pleased, on being satisfied as to the owner’s title, to pay an appropriate fee.

Your publication needs you! You can shape the content in all parts of the publication – we rely on your submissions. In return we help you to get your message across to a large and diverse audience. ‘It's important for psychologists to develop ways of writing that really communicate: not just journal intricacy and not just glossy-magazine chat. The Psychologist offers a fine opportunity for this development. The editors are excellent, in their work with authors and in their production of this wonderful publication.’ Keith Oatley, University of Toronto

What are we looking for? Topics which will inform our wide audience, written in a style which will engage them. We aim to publish quality, accessible overviews of research and practice (but not ‘journal style’ reports of unpublished studies), along with a wide range of more personal formats. There are options to suit all areas and authors – contact the editor to discuss, on jon.sutton@bps.org.uk or via the Leicester office. We are also keen to receive news, letters, conference reports, pieces about careers, methods, teaching and learning, the history of psychology and more. Again, contact the editor.

How do I go about writing my piece? You may find it helps to contact the editor for advice on the approach you should take and

Editor Jon Sutton Assistant Editor Peter Dillon-Hooper Production Mike Thompson Staff journalist Christian Jarrett Advertising Sarah Stainton Kirsty Wright Editorial Assistants Fiona Chapman Debbie James

Associate Editors Articles Vaughan Bell, Kate Cavanagh, Elizabeth Gilchrist, Marc Jones, Rebecca Knibb, Amina Memon, Tom Stafford, Miles Thomas, Pete Walpole, Monica Whitty, Barry Winter

how long the piece should be. You can also see www.thepsychologist.org.uk for guidance, and examples of different formats in the archive of past issues. To allow anonymous review, authors’ names and full contact details should not appear on the typescript, but should be presented on a separate page. Send your work as an attachment to psychologist@bps.org.uk, or post three copies to The Psychologist at the Society’s office.

What happens next? After an initial assessment of suitability by the editor, our feature articles are blind peerreviewed to ensure scientific quality. The editor reserves the right to edit all copy accepted for publication. However, this is a collaborative process with the author, aiming for the best possible end product in terms of layout and accessibility. An author or the editor may feel that an article is suitable for web-only presentation due to considerations of time, length or breadth of interest. For full details of the policy and procedures of The Psychologist, see www.thepsychologist.org.uk. If you feel these policies and procedures have not been followed, contact the editor on jon.sutton@bps.org.uk, or the Chair of the Psychologist Policy Committee, Dr Paul Redford, on paul2.redford@uwe.ac.uk

Conferences Simon Bignell, Sandie Cleland International Nigel Foreman, Asifa Majid Interviews Nigel Hunt, Lance Workman History of Psychology Julie Perks

The Psychologist Policy Committee Paul Redford (Chair), Nik Chmiel, Olivia Craig, Jeremy Horwood, Alexa Ispas, James Jackson, David Lavallee, Fenella Quinn, Sheelagh Strawbridge, Henck van Bilsen, Peter Wright, and Associate Editors

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forum greening psychology; the forensic/clinical divide; guest columns; and more

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news 194 good childhood inquiry; autism traits; tackling reoffending; social brain project; Cochrane reviews; young people and the media; dementia; and more media autism and prenatal screening

DAVID MONTFORD/PHOTOFUSION

202 206

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Striking the golden section in stigma research Jonathan D. Raskin on how the way we organise information could be the key to reducing the negative labelling by others

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Active body, healthy mind Jadwiga Nazimek on whether exercise can delay – or even prevent – dementia

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The psychology of ‘O’ Sallie Baxendale looks at a psychological case study in literature

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Methods: Accessing expert cognition Julia Gore and Claire McAndrew explore advances in cognitive task analysis

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march 2009

THE ISSUE During my time in academia, I found that all I got from consorting with statistics experts was a lot of uninterpretable interactions. Introducing a ‘Methods’ section last year was partly my attempt to bring some practical stats guides to all the other baffled, non-statistically minded psychologists out there: those who know enough to get by, but not enough to get good. In this issue, Society Book Award winner and stats guru Andy Field investigates whether the use of humour can help lecturers to overcome the problems with motivation, anxiety and retention that seem to blight the teaching of statistics to undergraduates. Elsewhere we hear about the golden mean, the story of ‘O’, dementia, Alfred Binet, applied cognitive task analysis and much more. I hope there is a significant probability that you will enjoy it all. Dr Jon Sutton (Managing Editor)

book reviews 220 marking the mind: a history of memory; creativity, mental illness and crime; raising kids in the 21st century; adventures in popular psychology; and what is special about the human brain? society 226 President’s column; award for distinguished contributions to the teaching of psychology; West Midlands psychologist of the year; consultations; and more careers 254 an interview with Charles Bethell-Fox; moving from psychology to law; featured job and all the latest vacancies; and how to advertise looking back Alfred Binet, a truly applied psychologist

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one on one …with Carol Tavris

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Can humour make students love statistics? Andy Field on how he makes use of eels, quails and lap dancers in his teaching 210

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FORUM

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Greening our practice and research We were glad to see the February special issue of The Psychologist on how psychology can contribute towards dealing with environmental problems, and increasing ‘green’ (proenvironmental) behaviour. Anthropogenic climate change is generally accepted by climate change specialists internationally (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, as referred to by Alexa Spence et al. in the February issue). Yet some people still completely reject the evidence, and a much larger number are uncertain and do not start changing their behaviour. Psychologists could have a major role in addressing the second group by considering psychological phenomena relevant to acknowledgment of problems and taking responsibility. Confirmation bias, the tendency to selectively attend to information that confirms our opinion or preconceptions, mean that people may primarily attend to minority views, even those not from climate change specialists, and will reject or deny evidence from specialist bodies.

Psychologists can also be green-minded in their work, and psychology practitioners could incorporate a green approach directly with clients. Interactions with other professions can also be important (Patrick Devine-Wright made an excellent case in the February interview). For

example, caring for the natural environment in adulthood is often a result of early experience. Educational psychologists could influence the extension of school-based provision of such experiences through classes or suitable play areas. Lecturers and teachers of psychology can address older groups by incorporating material on sustainability throughout the curriculum (e.g. see www.teachgreenpsych.com). Health, clinical, and counselling psychologists can also contribute. For example, the restorative effect of nature for physical and psychological well-being, explained by Rosemary Wright (February issue) in connection with her work with people with learning disabilities, can be applied more widely. As regards occupational and business psychologists, Matthew Davis and Rose Challenger (February issue) made an excellent case for them to encourage green

contribute

Getting the message across

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I recently received an e-mail alert from the London & Home Counties Branch of the BPS concerning what it describes as a ‘major event called Psychology for All’ on 14 March. It transpires that this ‘major event’ features a keynote address by Ruby Wax, who it transpires is apparently completing ‘an MSc in Psychotherapy’. As this is the

first time to my awareness in the 100-year plus history of psychology that a keynote address has been given by an MSc student, I can’t help feeling that this has more to do with Ms Wax being a celebrity than a learned student of psychotherapy. A new low point in psychology’s obsession with the trivial perhaps.

Can we sink any lower? As some psychologists somewhere are probably actively supporting the attack on Gaza, the answer is probably yes. Sincerely not interested in celebrity psychology.

These pages are central to The Psychologist’s role as a forum for discussion and debate, and we welcome your contributions.

Send e-mails marked ‘Letter for publication’ to psychologist@bps.org.uk; or write to the Leicester office.

Letters over 500 words are less likely to be published. The editor reserves the right to edit or publish extracts from letters. Letters to the editor are not normally acknowledged, and space does

Ron Roberts Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences Kingston University Surrey

Response from Gene Johnson and Karen Powell-Williams from the London & Home Counties Branch organising team for the event: We are grateful to Ron Roberts for giving us the opportunity to tell readers about our Psychology for All event in London on 14 March (wwww.bps.org.uk/psychology 4all), featuring Ruby Wax and

not permit the publication of every letter received. However, see www.thepsychologist.org.uk to contribute to our discussion forum (members only).

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behaviour in the workplace. The Appreciating Change website (www.appreciatingchange.co.uk/blog.html) gives guidance on how organisations can encourage green behaviour in the workplace. In addition to practitioners, researchers in various areas of psychology can join in, by researching into underlying constructs, such as environmental concern (e.g. Snelgar, 2006). But a particular research challenge now is the psychological phenomena relevant to the problem of achieving behaviour change towards proenvironmental behaviours. Funding exists (e.g. ESRC). Finally, the role of psychologists in the important crisis of climate change requires a central lead. As Alexa Spence et al. point out, other national psychological societies are much further ahead in engaging with it – will the British Psychological Society take up this role in the UK? Rosemary Snelgar Department of Psychology University of Westminster Sarah Lewis Appreciating Change Reference Snelgar, R.S. (2006). Egoistic, altruistic, and biospheric environmental concerns: Measurement and structure. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 26, 87–99.

Integrating psychology, from all perspectives Professor Lynne Segal (‘One on one’, January 2009) makes an important point, ‘It would be useful for psychosocial studies…to incorporate the biological more successfully’; but, in her piece, a few lines before, she gave us her view of ‘One great thing that psychology has achieved’ by saying, ‘Shown us, by its own multiple mistakes, the folly of dealing only with individual behaviour which is strictly quantifiable. Eysenck is no longer in fashion, and spent the last 20 years of his life pondering the merits of astrology.’ Hans Eysenck did much during the last 20 years of his life; ‘pondering the merits of astrology’ was only a very small part (see Corr, 2000). Eysenck is famous primarily for studying individual differences, not ‘individual behaviour’; and he was one of the first to argue that psychology needs a truly biosocial approach – linking biological variables with social ones, which is the very approach seemingly favoured by Professor Segal. The inclusion of personality and individual differences in this biosocial model strengthens this approach – people do differ, and these differences have important consequences. At this time, when the conceptual and

philosophical bases of psychology are being debated (e.g. see John Campion’s letter in the January issue), a balanced perspective is needed on the contributions of Hans Eysenck, as well as others, who far from being ‘no longer in fashion’ continues to be recognised as one of the pioneers of psychological research from a multifaceted perspective. Indeed, Eysenck’s perspective is enjoying a resurgence at present – for instance, the genetics and neuropsychological bases of personality and mental illness (e.g. as studied via cognitive neuroscience) is thriving – although this perspective was often met with strong opposition (e.g. from psychoanalysis). Psychosocial studies would be all the stronger by appreciating these lasting contributions. Philip Corr Swansea University Reference Corr, P.J. (2000). Reflections on the scientific life of Hans Eysenck. History and Philosophy of Psychology, 2, 18–35.

Dyslexia ��� coping with the reality psychologist Richard Wiseman. The whole point of this event is to make serious psychology available to a wide audience. Ruby Wax is billed not as an MSc student, but as a ‘comedienne’ with connections and interest in psychotherapy; and while she is the ‘attention-getter’, giving a talk on ‘How Ruby Found Psychology’, the event also includes 40+ other sessions of a serious academic and practical bent. Using celebrities to generate interest in and publicity for an event is a time-honoured practice, hardly a low point for psychology.

I was scandalised this morning to see on BBC television Professor Julian Elliott, described as a professor of educational psychology at Durham University, associate himself with the proposition advanced by an MP that ‘Dyslexia does not exist. It is only a defence for poor teaching.’ This extreme environmentalist view is tantamount to asserting that teaching can achieve anything, which is blatantly untrue. I accept his right to harbour this delusion; what horrified me was his criticism of the British

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Psychological Society for having such a wide definition of dyslexia as to render it meaningless. I consider this criticism unjustified. In my 50 years as an occupational psychologist I have had as clients a number of highly successful senior executives who were dyslexic.

Of its genetic origin there was absolutely no doubt. That they became millionaires was due to their developing effective coping strategies independently and in spite of the educational system. These coping strategies can be taught. Rather than criticising the Society, Professor Elliott should address himself to the problems of accurate early diagnosis of a genetic condition that definitely exists and ensuring that the remedial action it necessitates is provided. David C Duncan Ruislip, Middlesex

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Undemocratic, unjustifiable and uneconomic?

FORUM POLL For more discussion, and to participate in this month’s online poll, see www.psychforum.org.uk. January’s question: Will the current proposals for the statutory regulation of psychologists succeed in increasing public protection? Result: Yes: 2 votes No: 1 vote This month’s question: Are you at all bothered about having online polls on The Psychologist’s discussion forum?

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the Membership and Professional Training Board. This has been a totally undemocratic process. We understand that there are currently about 120 psychologists enrolled on the SoE. In terms of numbers

the 150 applicants to the BPS each year require some further training.) For overseas-qualified clinical psychologists who come from European Economic Area (EEA) countries, the HPC will have a legal requirement to set and assess adaptation requirements as the route to registration. However, the majority of SoE psychologists come from countries outside the EEA. Although these psychologists, together with those wanting to make a lateral transfer, may be set an adaptation period by the HPC, it is not clear that it will be subject to any detailed quality assurance mechanisms. If the Society, aided by national SoE programmes, were to continue to provide a SoE process (albeit under a different name), then overseas and lateral transfer applicants could undertake any further training required by HPC within a system that is tried and tested. This would give them confidence in the training and experience that they were receiving, and would give their future employers some confidence that their employees were gaining the required further training in a way that was subject to established quality assurance procedures. The role of the SoE in enabling clinical psychologists trained abroad and psychologists qualified in other areas of applied psychology to undertake further training to develop competencies in the field of clinical psychology seems absolutely consonant with the stated aim of the BPS to develop a ‘learning centre’ within the Society. Other professional bodies representing professions regulated by the HPC do undertake this role. At a purely business level, this also hardly seems to be an apposite time for the BPS to reduce the number of its subscriptions. The costs of running the SoE to the BPS TIM SANDERS

We have recently become aware that, at their meeting on 5 December 2008, the BPS Board of Trustees decided that they would no longer be providing the Statement of Equivalence (SoE) in clinical psychology. The SoE is the BPS qualification issued to clinical psychologists trained abroad, or to UK-trained non-clinical applied psychologists seeking to work as chartered clinical psychologists in the UK (who make a ‘lateral transfer’). This decision was taken by the Board of Trustees without any consultation whatsoever with any of the stakeholders involved in SoE, and in many cases, without even any direct communication of this decision. None of the seven national SoE courses was consulted, nor the Strategic Health Authorities (SHAs) who commission places on those courses, nor the relevant BPS subsystems – not the Board of Assessors who assess the work of SoE candidates, not the Committee for the Scrutiny of Individual Clinical Qualifications, who process and assess applications, not the Committee on the Training of Clinical Psychology, not the Division of Clinical Psychology, not

of trainees, this is equivalent to several doctoral clinical psychology programmes. In recent years, between 15 and 20 per cent of all new entrants to the profession of clinical psychology have come via the SoE, many of whom have become distinguished members of the profession and the BPS. The vast majority of places on national SoE courses are commissioned by SHAs, who fund these places because they see the SoE as delivering a cost-effective way of introducing greater numbers of often highly skilled and experienced clinical psychologists into the NHS. Later this year, the Health Professions Council (HPC) will take on the statutory registration of all applied psychologists. However, since the Standards of Proficiency that have been developed by the HPC for registration are virtually identical to the current BPS core competencies in clinical psychology, we see no reason to believe that the numbers of overseas applicants requiring further academic, clinical and research measures would be any different to current levels. (We understand that over 90 per cent of

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have consistently been well within the revenue generated, and it is one of the most easily economically justifiable of all the BPS qualifications. The Board of Trustees needs to hear the voice of their constituents and think again. Robert Marsh Salomons, Canterbury Christ Church University Malcolm Adams University of East Anglia Jan Burns Salomons, Canterbury Christ Church University Sue Watson University College, London Nigel King University of Oxford David Green University of Leeds Nan Holmes University of Surrey

Peter Banister, Chair of the Membership and Professional Training Board, replies: As you know the Statement of Equivalence was introduced to provide a mechanism for clinical psychologists trained overseas to achieve registration as a Chartered Clinical Psychologist. Once HPC becomes the regulator only that body will be able to formally and legally recognise equivalence across all the seven applied areas for EEA and non-EEA applicants. The Society will no longer have a Register of Chartered Psychologists and, although chartered membership will continue, it will not have specialist titles attached to it. Our accreditation of postgraduate programmes will be for the membership grade of Chartered Psychologist, not for any specialist titles. The Society therefore is unable to offer any Statement of Equivalence in Clinical

Psychology since we will no longer be the ‘competent authority’ in law when this function moves to the HPC. It has been clear since the first Department of Health consultation on regulation by the HPC in 2005 that this change of authority would be an inevitable consequence of statutory regulation. Those HEIs who have a route for overseas candidates to qualify will need to consider how such training will fit with the HPC processes and may wish to seek advice from the HPC on this issue. Of course, there are a number of unknowns in relation to statutory regulation. At the moment we do not know the threshold level for entry to the HPC register or the Standards of Proficiency they will publish. This means that we cannot predict how many international applicants might be rejected by HPC in the future. However, this is something which could be considered further when examining potential new services that the Society might provide to its members. Obviously, we would need to be sure that any activity in this area was sustainable, as well as being of benefit to members and the discipline and contributing to the development of the Society. All of these considerations would need to be addressed if new services in this area were proposed. Over the next few months we expect to consult with members on various matters relating to the future of the Society, and as part of this process will welcome suggestions for services that we might offer.

COMMUNITY NOTICEBOARD I I would like to find relevant literature, both published and unpublished, on ‘mental health needs of asylum seekers and refugees’ (articles, chapters, reports, etc.). I am a trainee clinical psychologist currently undertaking a literature review in this area and would be very grateful for your help! Dora Bernardes Dora.bernardes@plymouth.ac.uk I We are two clinical psychologists working in assertive outreach teams looking to form a bi-monthly supervision group in the Yorkshire and Humber region. We would like to share structured discussion regarding common clinical issues (e.g. boundaries, endings, comorbidity, aiming to overcome blocks in therapy). Please contact either of us. Kate Gendle Kate.gendle@humber.nhs.uk Claire Ackroyd Claire.ackroyd@humber.nhs.uk I I am currently seeking an external expert to comment on the viability of my proposed PhD research. My research looks into the relationship between psychopathic personality traits and career choice. I require an external expert to read a 750-word proposal and compose comments. I am not necessarily seeking someone who has researched psychopathy in an occupational context: the expert could comment from a careers, clinical or forensic perspective. Holly Andrews h.andrews@worc.ac.uk

The forensic/clinical divide, continued I write in response to Moira Potier de la Morandière’s comment that she has ‘been shocked by the lack of any sense, from some forensic psychologists I have encountered, that there might be important gaps in their knowledge and skills base and that they ought to be very concerned about how they represent themselves to patients’ (Forum, February 2009). Would it be fair to suggest that she has experienced a

similar sense of shock in response to some clinical psychologists? As Carol Ireland and Jenny Taylor point out (Forum, February 2009), clinical psychology training does not necessarily equip one with the knowledge and skills base to work in forensic settings, just as forensic training does not necessarily equip one with the knowledge and skills base to work in clinical settings. For both aspects of the profession it surely is about developing

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expertise and we will do this far better if we collaborate rather than set up straw divides that become stone walls. Perhaps Adrian West’s suggestion would be a suitable roadmap to peace. Simon Duff University of Liverpool

In the February issue of The Psychologist, Carol Ireland and Jenny Taylor, Chairs of the Division of Forensic Psychology and the Division of Clinical Psychology

respectively, provided a joint response to a recent query about the enmeshing of clinical and forensic psychology. In concluding their letter, they expressed the hope that their response addressed satisfactorily the concerns raised (initially, by Denis McVey, published in the November issue). As a member of both Divisions and holding Chartership in both areas – and sharing many of the concerns expressed by Mr McVey – I must inform them

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that I am not satisfied with their response. Dr Ireland and Dr Taylor sought to dismiss Mr McVey’s concerns on the basis that they revealed his lack of awareness about the training undergone by both clinical and forensic practitioners. He did not reveal any such ignorance. He did, however, pose very specific

questions about the competencies of forensic and clinical psychologists to do the various tasks for which they are increasingly being held equally responsible, as if there was no difference in their professional backgrounds. His questions remain unanswered. Caroline Logan Liverpool

FORUM BEYOND BOUNDARIES Cultural sensitivity is an important part of any psychologist’s toolkit, but it may not be enough: madness does not speak a universal language. We assume that words are but tools to express the inner turbulence of mental illness, but a growing literature documents the fact that hallucinations and delusions can be language-specific. In a landmark study, psychiatrist R.E. Hempill reported on 30 multilingual South African patients, all diagnosed with schizophrenia, who heard auditory hallucinations in only one or some of their languages. More surprising was a case where the patient had extensive delusions when speaking one language but was insightful and non-psychotic when speaking another. Although pioneering, the 1971 study now makes for uncomfortable reading. As a self-described study of ‘White and Coloured schizophrenic patients’, it is dusted with the language of apartheid South Africa and clearly demonstrates that cultural and linguistic sensitivity are not nearly the same. In more enlightened times, a 2004 case series by De Zulueta and colleagues reported on three bilingual patients who were formally assessed in both languages by the same researcher. All three were found to report language-specific psychotic symptoms, two seemed emotionally more insightful in one language rather than the other, and one patient was a higher suicide risk – but only when speaking Portuguese rather than English. Contrary to what we might expect, the native language was not always the tongue in which powerful experiences were more readily apparent. In a wide-ranging review published in 2008, psychologist Michel Paradis quotes studies suggesting that there may be a linguistic effect across the range of neuropsychiatric disorders, although curiously, psychosis seems the most likely to be differentially expressed. The implications of these studies are clearly spelt out by the authors. Cultural sensitivity is necessary but not sufficient to address the mental health needs of people who regularly speak more than one language and who make up the majority of the world’s population. In multicultural Britain these studies also question our reliance on interpreters as ‘universal translators’ through which we assume we can do our work adequately, even if it is not as well as we would like. It is clear that translators are still an essential service, but for bilingual clients we really need bilingual psychologists, because we may be missing and misunderstanding the experiences of the people we meet if we rely on only one channel of communication. We assume psychologists will be gifted communicators but it may be time to include the appreciation of another language as part of our development. Vaughan Bell is visiting professor at the University of Antioquia, Colombia. This column aims to prompt discussion surrounding crosscultural and interdisciplinary issues.

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IAPT and our skills Is it not the time for chartered applied psychologists who specialise in cognitive behavior therapy to be recognised for our training, work experience and CPD? Under the new Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) framework we are increasingly being pressurised to apply for British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies (BABCP) accreditation and are being told (by the BABCP and IAPT) that our skill base is inadequate. Our practising certificates are becoming increasingly redundant, particularly within the NHS. Isn’t it time that the BPS stood up for the fee-paying members? How about creating a subdivision of CBT specialists that are recognised

by IAPT as psychologists who are sufficiently trained and experienced to be highintensity therapists in the new framework? Let’s not allow our skill and expertise to be dismissed and for highly qualified, respected psychologists to be marginalised purely because the BABCP has appointed itself as the only organisation equipped to judge whether a therapist can apply CBT in the therapeutic arena. Valerie Halbinger Jo Gresham-Ord Thetford Community Healthy Living Centre Thetford Norfolk

Proposed new programmes in Behavioural Sleep Medicine *From October 2009 subject to approval of Senate

VË MSc Behavioural Sleep Medicine* VË PgDip Behavioural Sleep Medicine* VË CPD Behavioural Sleep Medicine modules* VË Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia Master Class (7–8 May 2009)

We are proposing a flexible modular postgraduate programme in Behavioural Sleep Medicine, mixing V˝™‰™jːj?Á™‰™~Ç VËÍ?Ö~†Íːj?Á™‰™~Ç VËW?ÄjˆM?Äjaːj?Á™‰™~±

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obituary

Laurie Worsley (1925–2008)

A blooming mistake As a keen gardener as well as a neuropsychologist, I enjoyed the picture of spring snowflakes (Leucojum vernum) on the cover of the February issue. I was a bit disappointed to see the implied reference to these as snowdrops (Galanthus spp.) overleaf. While this distinction is not, I imagine, a majority concern, aspirations for scientific accuracy should extend beyond the boundaries of psychology. Richard Warburg Stourport on Severn

Editor Jon Sutton responds: I quite agree, so apologies for the error. On this occasion our in-house botanical expertise was not up to spotting the mistake made by the commercial picture library that supplied us with the photograph, which they had catalogued as of snowdrops.

Biophilia – who was first? In her interesting article ‘Conservation work – a therapeutic intervention?’ (February 2009), Rosemary Wright claims that the word biophilia ‘was first used by zoologist Edward Wilson in 1984’. Not so, though Rosemary can hardly be blamed for repeating a myth contained in authoritative sources that she cites. When Wilson’s book, Biophilia, was published in 1984, the word was already decades old. It is not in the Oxford English Dictionary, but it is in the third edition of the Oxford Dictionary of

Psychology (published in February 2009). According to my researches for that entry, the German psychoanalyst and Holocaust refugee Erich Fromm used it first in The Saturday Review (4 January, 1964): ‘There is an orientation which we may call love of life (biophilia); it is the normal orientation among healthy persons’ (p.22); and he goes on to contrast it with necrophilia. I think we should give the credit back to Fromm. Andrew M. Colman School of Psychology University of Leicester

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James Lawrence Worsley, known as Laurie, previously Head of Clinical Psychology Services at the North Wales Psychiatric Hospital, died on Saturday 6 December aged 83 years. Laurie was one of the pioneer generation of psychologists who started his professional life at the very beginning of the emergence of a truly independent profession of clinical psychology. He started his adult life in the RAF training to fly fighter planes. This was in the latter stages of the war, which ended before he could fly for long on active service. After the war he enrolled at Manchester University to study psychology. There he met his wife-to-be Jean, and thus started a loving relationship which lasted the rest of his life. Following qualifying as a clinical psychologist, he worked for a time in London before moving back to Manchester. Then a position became available as ‘Principal Psychologist’ at the then North Wales Psychiatric Service. Many colleagues were baffled as to why he would want to leave the energy of Manchester to go the backwoods of Wales with a non-existent service, but Laurie could see fertile ground when it was there for the taking. By the time he retired a large department of clinical psychologists had been established, covering all the major clinical specialisms, and he was instrumental in setting up the North Wales Training Course in Clinical Psychology. Laurie’s particular interest in clinical problems was that of obsessionality. Reared in the days of frank behaviourism, he anticipated much of contemporary cognitive psychology with his counselling about the fruitlessness of obsessional worry, or, adopting his wife’s Lancashire, ‘worriting’, and the

need instead for effective action and thought. There was an earthy nononsense character to his dealings with both patients and colleagues, leavened with a twinkle in his eye. To use an old-fashioned term of endearment he was in the best senses of the word a gentleman. A man who raised his hat to his secretary when passing her in the street. A patient I inherited from him remarked with some astonishment how he had stopped and chatted to her when chancing upon her in a supermarket when all other professional staff she had contact with seemed to need to look straight through her in such a context. Fearful about how he would cope with retirement, his wife Jean bought him some flying lessons, and with his previous RAF experience he quickly secured his pilot’s licence and treated all and sundry to joyrides over the Welsh landscape. Many psychologists leave a legacy of multiple books and publication papers; Laurie wrote one slim volume but left countless grateful patients who remember him with warm affectionate regard and a generation of psychologists enriched by his teaching and management. At his funeral, Laurie teased us with his lack of any particular religious faith when a poem by James Leigh Hunt was read out. In this, a man is visited by an angel ‘writing in a book of gold’ the names of all those who love the Lord. Abou Ben Adhem cannot count himself among them, but asks to be recorded as ‘one who loves his fellow man’. It was enough for God, and a fitting epitaph for Laurie. Richard Corney Royal Alexandra Hospital Rhyl

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Help-seeking and stigma – a broader view We read David Vogel and Nathaniel Wade’s article on the impact of stigma on seeking psychological help with great interest (‘Stigma and help-seeking’, January 2009) and would like to contribute some reflections to broaden the discussion. Our current research focuses on access to mental health care more generally and on how stigma and discrimination may act as barriers to access. Concerns about the self-stigma relating to seeking psychological help are certainly part of the picture, and receiving psychological help can usefully be viewed as stigma marker. There are a number of other potent stigma markers

including seeing a GP for a Vogel and Wade’s article mental health problem, being focused on common mental on psychoactive mediation, illness and limited itself to receiving a discussion of the mental illness individual as helpdiagnosis, seeker. When seeing a considering access psychiatrist, to mental health care being more generally it is hospitalised, useful to expand the and being focus to include the treated under role of the family as the Mental help-seekers. In Health Act. psychotic disorders Individuals and other severe may vary mental illnesses the in their nature of the Stigma may contribute sensitivity symptoms can deter to drop-out from to stigma the affected individual treatment markers, and from seeking help and we need to family members may understand more about how seek help on their behalf. this impacts on help-seeking. However, family members

prize crossword The winner will receive a £50 BPS Blackwell Book Token. If it’s you, perhaps you’ll spend it on something like this... Evidence-based Clinical Supervision: Principles and Practice critiques and summarises the best available psychological evidence relating to clinical supervision, clarifying the key principles, setting out the related practice guidelines and specifying the research and practice implications. Price £24.99 ISBN 978 1 4051 5849 7 Visit www.bpsblackwell.co.uk

may anticipate stigma against themselves (sometimes known as courtesy stigma or stigma by association) or may have concerns about the stigma or discrimination their family member is likely to face (which may be termed vicarious stigma). We therefore need to learn more about the complex ways in which family stigma and helpseeking interact. Vogel and Wade briefly mention how stigma may contribute to drop out from treatment. We believe that it is helpful to conceptualise helpseeking and engagement (with services and treatment) as two key components of access to mental health care. The relationship between stigma

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Send your entry (photocopies accepted) marked ‘prize crossword’, to the Leicester office (see inside front cover) deadline 6 april 2009. Winner of prize crossword no 43 Kate Roberts, Birmingham no 43 solution Across 1 Negative valence, 9 Routine, 10 Reserve, 11 Omen, 12 Yoga, 13 Loom, 16 Emerald, 17 Taste, 19 Super, 21 Needles, 24 Palm, 25 Idle, 26 Ammo, 29 Eternal, 30 Tangent, 31 Neuropsychiatry. Down 1 Narcolepsy, 2 Gruyere, 3 Tail, 4 Vierordt, 5 Verbal, 6 Lost-letter, 7 Nervous, 8 Eyes, 14 Sacramento, 15 Newsworthy, 18 Analytic, 20 Plateau, 22 Lambert, 23 Fields, 27 Rein, 28 Anti.

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and engagement is underresearched and is as a vital area for further exploration. Also, it was clear from our previous work that both anticipated and experienced discrimination have a negative impact on many areas of life (Thornicroft et al., in press), and our current research will explore how these two processes affect access to mental heath care. We conjecture that experiencing discrimination after seeking help is likely to negatively influence future help-seeking behaviour. Lastly, we would like to draw readers’ attention to the literature in health psychology, medical sociology and anthropology about how many different health problems, from cancer to heart disease, may threaten or compromise an individual’s self-identity, which may deter help-seeking

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Our compass cull damaged link between hemispheres (6,8) Averted hoax when still in bed (3,2) Extensive natural talent of English experimental psychologist (9) Journeyed, say, needing toll initially for bypass (4,4) Difficult question for a sitter (5) Set down face backwards (4) Genuine description of neurosis used by Freud and Reich? (6) Month for hawthorn (3) Signal what can be learnt through Pavlovian conditioning? (3) Recoil from psychiatrist (6) Impulse evident with the male (4) Steal books for automaton (5) Designs systems of behaviour (8) Confection that may be concealed in program? (6,3) Transgress again for myrrh, say? (5) Movie recollections which have filtered through the ego’s attempts at repression? (6,8)

and engagement. Self-identity and self-stigma are overlapping concepts, and we may have much to learn about help-seeking for mental health problems from this wider vantage point. Our research will begin later this year, and we would be very pleased to hear from others working in this important area (sarah.clement@iop.kcl.ac.uk). Sarah Clement Elaine Brohan Graham Thornicroft Health Service and Population Research Department Institute of Psychiatry King’s College London Reference Thornicroft, G., Brohan, E., Rose, D. et al. (in press). Global pattern of experienced and anticipated discrimination against people with schizophrenia: A cross-sectional survey. The Lancet.

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Main trait is thus in Asch’s theory (7) Keeping description of anal type? (9) Stimulants – one will be short of money on them (6) Snake needs firm support (5) Study air (4) Dictionary with one friend’s description of complex (7) Manipulative types and drug takers (5) Variable character seen on shop floor (6) Go – round the twist? (4) Stress caution (4) Ashram I converted on greeting Hindu spiritual leader (9) Layer of grey matter said to be caught by partner, once (6) Drunkard given present – like it or lump it! (2,5) Fools take offence in thoughts (7) Sound system given scope for viewer? (6) Bachelor so simple (5) Fish measured by degrees (5) Observed tantrum according to audience (4)

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FORUM LIGHTER SIDE A recent paper in Physics Reports has 2512 co-authors. What I wonder did they all do? I remember asking a friend of mine about a paper he published. There were two authors. I asked him what the second author had contributed to the paper. ‘Oh,’ he replied, ‘he checked the spelling.’ An extreme case, I know, but it makes you wonder. Still, at least the spell-checker was the second author. But what happens when there are three authors? There seems to be an unwritten assumption that the first author writes it, the second author, probably the junior partner, did the boring work and the third author is the money. So first and last is probably better than the middle, but once you get four or five authors, is there a preference for the middle positions? Is it better to be second or fourth author in a five-author paper? What about being 2511th in the Physics Reports paper? Frankly, once you get beyond three authors, you wonder if there really is enough work to go round, unless like film credits you start listing the assistant clapper-loader’s hairdresser. However, surely this can’t be the reason the Physics Reports paper has so many authors – after all have you ever looked at a physicist’s hair? We can probably eliminate hairdressers, wardrobe and even dialogue coaches. The truth must be that lots of people get their names on papers when they haven’t really done any of the work; they are small cogs in some Big Science enterprise. If you turn on the CERN Hadron collider in the morning, you probably get your name on the papers, albeit somewhere in the middle of the pack, about 1379th. Should psychologists move in the direction of Big Science and Hollywood? Consider the consequences. I write two papers a year, apply for a new job and my CV shows 10 papers in the past five years. Fine. But if I gang up with some like-minded colleagues, draw up a pact whereby, say, four of us (let’s not go mad here) agree to put all our names on all our papers, I now have 40 publications in the past five years. And the job’s mine… Clearly if we’re all going to move in the direction of multiauthored papers we should lay down some ground rules for where your name goes in the list. We’ve already seen that up to three authors is reasonable and we all have an idea of who did what. Now what about when someone who we chatted to and made a few suggestions gets added, when do they fit in? Obviously not first or last, but should they be second or third? Maybe psychology can come to our aid here; consider the ‘serial position’ curve. Given a list of names to remember we tend to recall the first names in the list quite well (the ‘primacy effect’) and the last names well (the ‘recency effect’). The stuff in the middle we’re not so good at. So could we put the serial position curve to use in pursuit of academic stardom? I asked Professor Alan Baddeley this down the pub last night, and if anyone knows he should. I’m sure he said primacy was more robust and then qualified that with some stuff about recency that I now can’t remember. Thus proving the point. So if you didn’t write the paper and didn’t have the money, get your name as near to the front as possible. Sometimes we might benefit from extra authors in other ways. Several years ago there was a researcher at Nottingham University called Wooster. The story goes that he wanted to establish a research collaboration with the distinguished head of the Psychology Department at St Andrews University, whose name was, you’ve guessed it, Jeeves… I like to believe that the story is true, even though I don’t think any Jeeves and Wooster papers were ever published. Peter Thompson is at the University of York. This column aims to prompt discussion and debate, and the odd wry smile.

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Good childhood inquiry A psychologist-led inquiry into childhood, published by the Children’s Society, has made a series of wide-ranging recommendations to parents, the government and society at large, provoking intense media interest in the process. Chaired by developmental psychologist Professor Judy Dunn and with educational psychologist Professor Kathy Sylva also on its panel, the Good Childhood Inquiry was 18 months in the making and is published in book form, with key findings and recommendations also appearing online: www.childrenssociety.org.uk. The Children’s Society, which has a close partnership with the Church of England, stresses that the experts who conducted the inquiry were given full independence. Among the report’s recommendations are a call for parents to make a long-term commitment to each other when they have a child; for schools to teach sex education from a social and emotional perspective; for government to introduce a civil birth ceremony and to provide parenting classes; for the media to reflect on the violence in their output; and for society at large to adopt an ethic in which people care more for each other. ‘It is a world like this, built on the law of love, that we should create with our children,’ the report concludes. A further specific recommendation relevant to psychologists is for specialist psychological services for children and adolescents to be radically improved over the next five years. ‘[S]ome 1000 professional child therapists need to be trained in the skills of evidence-based assessment and therapy,’ the report says. Newspaper headlines prompted by the report’s publication tended to focus on the idea that ‘selfish parents’ were being blamed for children’s modern-day woes. However, the report itself, while describing our culture as increasingly individualistic, doesn’t label parents as selfish. It seems the ‘selfish parent’ headlines were inspired by the report’s observations on the increasing number of women in work and the rise of family breakup, combined with a quote from the Children’s Society chief executive that the

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report shows ‘the aggressive pursuit of individual success by adults today is the greatest threat to our children.’ ‘At no point in the report do we use that [selfish parent] term, and we do not use the language of blame,’ Professor Dunn told The Psychologist. ‘Our plea is for more support for parents, not for blame.’ Dunn told us that at least two further issues have been misreported in the media: ‘At no point do we suggest that mothers ought not to go out to work. We

stress the importance of genuine choice for parents of young children. If they decide to work, high-quality childcare should be available. If they decide to work less, more extended parental leave should be available for either parent (even if unpaid), with no loss of seniority. We argue that flexibility of working hours for both mothers and fathers is key.’ ‘The third issue concerns the suggestion that the report is critical of single mothers. No criticism of single mothers is made or intended. Rather, we propose far better support for all parents: support to help parents stay together if they want that, and support for mothers who are alone. We also show how important it is, if parents split, that harmonious relations between them continue, and that the children go on

seeing and communicating with their father.’ This last point in relation to paternal contact, is just one of many of the report’s recommendations that are based on research findings, drawn either from evidence gathered as part of the inquiry, or from previously published journal articles. Indeed, 30,000 people contributed evidence to the inquiry, including 20,000 children. The evidence is gathered under seven themes: family, friends, lifestyle, values, schooling, mental health and inequality. Further highlights include the claim that today, fewer children have best friends who they can trust; that children are targeted more often by advertising; that they are raised in an increasingly individualistic, materialistic culture; that the British schooling system, while largely excellent, is blighted by inequalities; that more children have mental health problems for which they are not receiving expert help; and that Britain has more inequality than any rich nation bar America. The point about lack of paternal contact leading to increased risk of mental health difficulties was one of a handful of specific claims that prompted media attention. This claim was based on findings from a pair of studies led by Tamsin Ford at the Peninsular Medical School, which looked at the correlates of mental health difficulties in thousands of British Children (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/15205734 and www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/17960315). Importantly, the second of the two papers was a prospective study that allowed some causal inferences to be made. Another controversial claim was that more time spent by children on the internet or watching television is associated with a raft of negative outcomes including worse mental health and poorer relationships with parents. The reference cited by the report in support of this claim is a book written by Juliet Schor published in 2004 entitled Born to Buy. A footnote to the citation cautions: ‘This suggests rather than demonstrates causality.’ ‘We are hopeful that the report will contribute to the discussion of the central issue of how we can help children and their parents, and to real policy change,’ Professor Dunn said. ‘This can happen only if the report itself is read, rather than inaccurate media comments, so we urge the public to read the report itself.’ CJ

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Autism traits widespread The social and communicative difficulties experienced by children with autism are also exhibited in milder form among many children without autism. That’s according to an investigation of 8094 eight-year-olds by David Skuse and colleagues at the Institute of Child Health, who say their finding supports a dimensional approach to autism (Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry: http://tinyurl.com/93ryks). Rather than autism being a qualitatively distinct category, Skuse’s research suggests that autistic-like traits are distributed normally throughout the population, and that the point at which a diagnosis of autism is made is somewhat arbitrary. The researchers asked the mothers of children in the Avon area to rate their agreement with 12 statements about their children’s social and communication abilities – this was the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist. Examples items included: ‘Not aware of other people’s feelings’ and ‘Does not pick up on body language’. As well as finding that scores on the checklist were distributed normally through the sample, the researchers also found that

a higher score was associated with slightly increased behavioural and emotional difficulties at school, as indicated by teacher reports, even for children without a diagnosis of autism. ‘Our study suggests that even subthreshold autistic-like traits are associated with a small elevated risk of teacher-reported problems with socialisation, hyperactivity, and conduct problems,’ the researchers said. ‘This suggests the value of clinicians assessing autistic traits dimensionally and acknowledging the potential impact on function and well-being of even mild autistic difficulties.’ Another key finding was that for girls, but not boys, high verbal IQ appeared to provide protection from the consequences of social and communicative difficulties. This is consistent with the far higher prevalence of Asperger’s syndrome – a mild form of autism associated with normal or above-average verbal ability – among boys compared with girls. Boys also scored 30 per cent higher on the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist, on average, which is consistent with the higher prevalence of autism among boys compared with girls. CJ

Tackling reoffending Reoffending in London remains a massive problem – with both regional and national implications. But the problem will continue to worsen unless better use is made of psychological and criminological research. These points are made in a British Psychological Society response to a recently published Ministry of Justice (MoJ) consultation document Reducing Re-offending in London. Speaking on behalf of a BPS team that reviewed the document, Professor James McGuire welcomed ‘a wideranging and thorough document which addresses a complex and challenging task’. However, he added that unless the MoJ takes full advantage of available research on the reduction of criminal

recidivism and on offender rehabilitation, an opportunity to have an impact on crime will be wasted and communities may continue to suffer as a result. One main issue was shortterm sentencing. ‘Although it is official government policy to reduce the usage of short-term imprisonment,’ Professor McGuire said, ‘the report reveals that over 60 per cent of those in London’s prisons are serving less than 12 months. This achieves little if anything by way of public protection or reduced offending, and may indeed have the reverse effect. Yet the strategies proposed here will continue the same “revolving door” process and even bolster and expand it. This goes against research evidence,

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is costly in human terms for prisoners, their families and children, and in financial terms for the public. It does not serve the community well.’ The response instead calls for a net ‘re-investment’ of resources in community rather than custody; reserving prison for those who need to be restrained, and extending community supervision elsewhere. ‘Increasing resources for community supervision and improving its quality would enable better monitoring of psychological changes linked to risk of reoffending, as well as providing better opportunities for rehabilitative work,’ the report advises. JS I For other recent Society responses, see ‘Society’ or visit www.bps.org.uk/consult.

CAFFEINE AND HALLUCINATIONS Students who consume more coffee also tend to report experiencing more hallucinationlike experiences, according to a new study by Simon Jones and Charles Fernyhough at Durham University (Personality and Individual Differences; http://tinyurl.com/cpcsqd). For example, high caffeine-using students were three times more likely to say they’d heard a voice when no one was there, than were students who drank less than one coffee a day. One possibility is that caffeine facilitates the pathway from stress to psychosis by increasing cortisol levels. However, this particular explanation is undermined by the fact that no link was found between caffeine intake and persecutory beliefs.

BE A MEDIA FELLOW The British Science Association Media Fellowships scheme is now open, to allow UK social scientists (with a minimum of two years’ postgraduate experience) to spend a summer placement within the media. The aim is to equip fellows with the skills to communicate research to the public and colleagues, and to work within the constraints of the media to produce accurate, well-informed pieces about developments in science. I See http://tinyurl.com/bj9af4. Deadline: 10 March 2009

WORK–LIFE AWARD Society member Professor Cary Cooper (Lancaster University Management School) has been honoured by the charity Working Families for his ‘longstanding contribution to work–life research and new thinking and his tireless advocacy’. He is one of 30 pioneers honoured in a House of Lords ceremony to mark the 30th anniversary of the charity, which supports working parents and carers and helps employers create workplaces that encourage work–life balance.

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Social brain project launched themselves – a restaurant packed with patrons is probably enjoying that success because it serves good food, while a restaurant that serves bad food will lose customers and end up closing down. This is true in some circumstances but research now shows that people are far from rational in many of the decisions they make, and that we’re particularly prone to making mistakes when it comes to massively consequential, oneoff decisions for which there is little opportunity for trial and error – educational choices, career choices, whether to get married, which house to buy, whether or not to start a family. A new movement, referred to by some as Libertarian Paternalism, and popularised by books like Nudge, targets the systematic flaws in our thinking and seeks to put

ANGELA TOOTHILL/RSA

The Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufacturing and Commerce (RSA) launched its Social Brain project in February with a talk given by leading behavioural economist Professor Colin Camerer of the California Institute of Technology. The Social Brain project recognises the significance of new findings in behavioural economics showing that traditional economic theories of human choice have profound shortcomings. The project aims to harness these new findings to guide social policy, such as in health and welfare. Professor Camerer described how the traditional economic assumption was that consumers generally know what is good for them. A simple example would be the idea that regulation isn’t needed to keep restaurant quality in check because consumers will do this for

policies in place that will help people avoid making big mistakes, yet will not interfere with those people who aren’t vulnerable. Taken to its extreme, Camerer foresees a situation in which people have their brains scanned prior to an important decision, with the activation patterns revealing whether they have fully engaged with the issue at hand. Those people who weren’t fully engaged would be warned that they’re likely to make a bad decision. The inspiration for this scenario comes from a recent study Camerer conducted in which brain

activity was compared when people made real versus hypothetical decisions. Examples of less radical policies in the mould of Libertarian Paternalism include introducing cooling-off periods for the purchase of expensive products or investments (thus protecting consumers from rash decisions and hard-selling), and setting up employee investment plans that take a default cut from salary rises, so that the investment feels less like a loss. Camerer said neuroscience findings too are beginning to feed into our understanding of

KINSHIP CARE, AND BODY DYSMORPHIA There’s been a policy shift in recent times towards placing children whose parents can’t look after them into care with family or friends, where possible, rather than into care with unknown foster parents. This so-called ‘kinship care’ makes intuitive sense but until recently there’s been little research into whether it really is beneficial. Now a Cochrane Review has combined the results from 62 quasi-experimental studies into this question and concluded that placing vulnerable children into kinship rather than foster care is beneficial across a range of outcomes, including reduced behavioural problems, improved well-being and fewer psychiatric disorders (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; http://tinyurl.com/bo2s3k). In contrast, there was some evidence that children in foster care may benefit from greater access to the services they need, perhaps because of the training foster parents receive and their connections with community services.

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Lead researcher Marc Winokur, at the Social Work Research Center at Colorado State University, said that care was needed in interpreting these results given the low quality of research in the area and the fact that nearly all research to date has been conducted in the US. He also said the value of traditional foster care should not be forgotten. ‘Foster care should continue to be an essential out-of-home care option, as children in these placements also experience positive outcomes and appropriate kinship placements are not always available,’ he said. A second recent Cochrane Review has found preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and antidepressants in the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) – a condition in which people become disabled by what they believe is a defect in their appearance (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: http://tinyurl.com/cwv5y7). However, the

authors of the review warn that their conclusions are founded on a thin evidence base. Jonathan Ipser at the University of Stellenbosch in South Africa, together with Candice Sander and Dan Stein at the University of Cape Town, identified two trials testing the efficacy of antidepressants, and three that investigated CBT. Two of the three CBT trials found therapy to be superior to a waiting list control and one showed evidence that CBT might help prevent relapse. Drug treatments too were found to be effective. There wasn’t enough evidence available to compare the efficacy of psychological treatments against drugs, and many forms of psychotherapy remain untested. ‘Given the number of people suffering from BDD and the level of distress caused, it is surprising that so little data is available on treatments,’ said Ipser. ‘This is certainly a field that deserves additional attention and funding.’ CJ

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decision making. For example, he cited a recent study showing that ‘loss aversion’ – our tendency to react disproportionately to losses relative to gains of equal size – is also apparent in the behaviour of Capuchin monkeys. The monkeys were trained to use plastic tokens to buy bananas from two sellers, one of which gave one banana per token, but occasionally threw in an extra freebie; the other gave two bananas per token, but occasionally stole one back. The net outcome for the monkeys was the same at each seller, yet the monkeys chose to shop from the first seller on 70 per cent of occasions, thus suggesting the monkeys were loss averse. Findings like these raise intriguing questions about the cross-species universality of many of our decision-making biases. After the talk, RSA chief executive Matthew Taylor, put it to Camerer that an alternative approach could be to inform people of the flaws in their decision making, rather than establishing government policies to protect people from those same flaws. Camerer retorted, however, that attempts at ‘debiasing’

people have generally proven to be unsuccessful. For example, you can inform people about many of the self-serving biases that affect decision-making and yet, ironically, most people will simply conclude that others may be prone to such foibles, while they themselves are not. In the audience, psychologist Professor Theresa Marteau of King’s College raised some doubts about behavioural economic approaches. For example, Libertarian Paternalism advocates clearer labelling of fat content on foods, yet Marteau said lab research had shown people tend to eat more of low fat versions of products, relative to standard versions, with the consequence that they actually end up consuming more calories. ‘I think there are some very interesting ideas but when one starts to look at trying to shift people’s behaviour, actually we’ve got to think about other factors,’ she said. CJ I MP3 file of Camerer talk: http://tinyurl.com/bqaj2x More on the RSA Social Brain project: www.thersa.org/ projects/pro-socialbehaviour/social-brain

Vitamin link to cognitive decline A study has found that levels of vitamin D are lower in older people with cognitive impairment, thus raising the tantalising possibility that vitamin supplements may afford a degree of protection against age-related cognitive decline (Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology: http://tinyurl.com/dbrklo). Using data collected as part of Health Survey England, David Llewellyn at Cambridge University and colleagues found that 212 people in a sample of 1766 over-65-year-olds were cognitively impaired. Crucially, those participants who had the very lowest levels of vitamin D (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D) in their blood were over twice as likely to be cognitively impaired, even after controlling for a raft of possible confounding factors including age, season of testing and medical history. However, the cross-sectional design of the study means the causal role of vitamin D has not been proven. It’s possible, for example, that some other factor(s), such as diet, may affect both blood levels of the vitamin and cognitive functioning. CJ

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OUT NOW IN BPS JOURNALS A variety of peer-support schemes are now widely used in schools, notably to reduce bullying. However, there has been little systematic investigation of the impact and effectiveness of these approaches. Now a detailed one-year longitudinal study by Catherine Houlston and Peter K. Smith (Goldsmiths, University of London) has assessed the impact of such a scheme in a north London all-girls state secondary school. Peer counsellors benefited in terms of transferable communication, interpersonal skills and increased social selfesteem, but there were no reductions in self-reported bullying and victimisation (although in general pupils believed that there was less bullying in school). The authors point to problems with the acceptance and use of such programmes by older students. (BJEP) The stereotype content model (SCM) proposes potentially universal principles of societal stereotypes and their relation to social structure. In a study of 10 non-US nations, led by Amy Cuddy of Northwestern University, Illinois, societal group stereotypes were found to be reliably differentiated by the dimensions of warmth and competence, and many outgroups received mixed stereotypes (high on one dimension; low on the other; for example, Germans might be seen as low in warmth and high in competence, and the Irish as high in warmth and low in competence). More collective cultures showed evidence of outgroup derogation without obvious favouritism for their own reference groups. (BJSP) Some lottery syndicates analyse members’ gambling wins and losses in order to pick the ‘luckiest’ person to pick the numbers for that particular week. In three experiments designed to assess this kind of illusion of control by proxy, Michael Wohl (Carleton University, Ontario) and Michael Enzle (University of Alberta) demonstrated that participants were more likely to allow a confederate to pick their lottery ticket or spin a roulette wheel if they perceived the confederate to be personally lucky. (BJSP) In a paper based on her Elizabeth Warrington Prize Lecture given at the British Neuropsychological Society last year, Dana Samson (University of Nottingham) argues that cognitive neuropsychology has a fundamental role to play in unravelling the architecture of our social mind and brain. Taking the case of theory of mind, she presents evidence that this is not a unitary function. The study of patterns of association/dissociation of deficits in patients with acquired brain damage as well as the analysis of the patients’ errors offer a privileged tool to highlight the processes that are functionally and neurally distinct. Samson makes a first distinction between ‘having’ and ‘using’ one’s ToM, illustrating with the case of two patients that brain damage can spare patients’ ToM knowledge but impair the processes required to use that knowledge. (JNP) How does privatisation affect employees? A study led by Helena Falkenberg (Stockholm University) collected questionnaire data at a Swedish hospital one year before and two years after privatisation. Employees at a high level (physicians) and low level (assistant nurses) reported only marginal differences over time in work attitudes and strain, similar to those in a comparison hospital. However, work attitudes of registered nurses at the intermediate level – who may experience pressure from above and below – deteriorated after privatisation. The authors say the results ‘emphasise the importance of taking hierarchic level into account when a privatisation is implemented and analysed’. (JOOP)

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Young people and the media The accelerating evolution and reach of the mass media means that they play ever more important roles in the lives of young people. Now a special issue of the British Journal of Developmental Psychology has brought together a variety of current perspectives on the ways in which media can form the backdrop to cognitive, linguistic, social and civic development. Television remains the preeminent medium of choice for young people and their caregivers. The special issue contains several papers on the conditions under which children learn and do not learn from television/video; studies led by Elizabeth Zack, Michael

Robb, and Sook-Jung Lee show that television viewing and reading habits are formed early in life and reinforced over time, and that infants as young as 15 months old can learn new actions from TV displays. A large-scale field study conducted by Deborah Linebarger and Jessica Piotrowski shows that television story programmes

can support preschoolers’ narrative skills. Part of the price we pay for media is extensive exposure to

advertisements. Avril Nash and colleagues reveal that schoolage children turn out to be quite knowledgeable and rather fond of the humour in TV alcohol commercials, perceiving them as effective. Moondore Ali and colleagues report that children in the same age range are less adept at distinguishing what is an advertisement on the internet – only 10-year-olds recognise readily that price tags provide clues. Those interested in counteracting

A memory clinic in every town The government has revealed plans for a ‘memory clinic in every town’ in England, to provide early diagnosis and treatment for dementia. The five-year strategy has earmarked £150 million to set up the clinics, give extra training for GPs to spot dementia warning signs, to provide specialised advisers to help people with dementia and their families navigate the care and support systems, and to improve public awareness and reduce stigma. Care Services Minister Phil Hope said early diagnosis was key. ‘It takes on average three years after the disease begins for people to be diagnosed, partly because of the stigma and also a lot of GPs are not trained to spot the early signs. If you get early diagnosis and early intervention it improves the patient's quality of life, so we are talking about a major roll out of memory clinics.’ The clinics could be housed in hospitals, GP surgeries or in the high street, and patients could refer themselves for expert assessment, support, information and advice. Much more news online this month, at www.thepsychologist.org.uk

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Dr Sinclair Lough, chair of the Psychology Specialists Working with Older People – part of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the British Psychological Society – felt that the strategy ‘fails to bite the bullet and recognise that major service redesign is required. It advocates setting up new memory services in addition to all the existing services. This will simply add to the confusion as to who looks after whom. Our group believes that to improve care, all the existing services should be amalgamated into a single memory service that caters for people from the diagnosis of dementia to their death.’ The group cautioned over an overreliance on memory clinics, arguing that innovative services that address people’s changing needs as dementia progresses are equally important. However, the strategy does refer to wider provision of older people’s community mental health teams, to assess patients in care homes and to help minimise the use of antipsychotic medication. Bob Woods, Professor of Clinical Psychology of the Elderly at Bangor University, welcomed the ‘person-centred’ nature of the document, and the opportunities for psychologists. He told

us: ‘Clinical psychologists will welcome the way in which the need for timely diagnosis is to be tackled; it would have been tempting to place more emphasis on diagnosis by general practitioners, rather than by specialist memory clinics. However, the assessment of suspected dementia, when any impairment is mild, is complex and requires specialist input. The NICE-SCIE Guideline on dementia recommends that all cases of suspected dementia should receive a neuropsychological assessment, and the Strategy misses the opportunity to address the workforce implications of this specific issue; there will be a need for further development of psychological services for older people to provide this specialist input to the new clinics.’ Professor Woods also said that ‘When the research agenda arising from the strategy does emerge at a “summit” to be called by the MRC, it is to be hoped that some attention will be given to developing the evidence base on the benefits of early identification and diagnosis, which have been insufficiently documented to date.’ Wales is also developing a national dementia plan, and Scotland already has national targets for dementia diagnosis and care. JS

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identifying an important group at risk of missing out. Kaveri Subrahmanyam and her team present an account of the interconnections between young people’s online and offline worlds, demonstrating what adolescent blogs reveal about development. The editors of the special issue, Kevin Durkin and Mark Blades, told The Psychologist: ‘Contrary to popular mythology that media use is pervasively harmful or wasteful, findings reported here show that the media are part of active, diverse and inquisitive young lives, serving many important functions in terms of the acquisition of skills, maintenance of peer contact, expression of identity and emotional needs. Parents, policy makers, educators, clinicians and young people themselves have regularly to make decisions about how best to use the opportunities that the media offer and how to deal with the hazards they present. Careful research by developmental psychologists can help inform decisions and debate, and this issue provides a rich body of evidence on the ways in which young people and their caregivers are dealing with the opportunities and hazards of a mediated world.’ JS

New CBT register The British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies (BABCP) and the Association for Rational and Emotive Behaviour Therapy (AREBT) have joined forces to develop a web-based register of all accredited cognitive behavioural therapy practitioners in the UK, available at http://www.cbtregisteruk.com/. The registered includes over 1400 therapists, many of whom are psychologists. BABCP President, Professor John Taylor, said ‘This is the first and only definitive and complete register of accredited CBT and AREBT therapists in the country.’ The new register went live not long before Health Secretary Alan Johnson made a commitment in a speech at the end of November to increase access to other evidence-based psychological therapies, besides CBT. ‘While cognitive behavioural therapy, which has an established evidence base, will remain at the core of the psychological therapies programme, it will not do so at the exclusion of other equally valid forms of therapy,’ he said (full text at http://tinyurl.com/5h5qn3). CJ

read discuss contribute at www.thepsychologist.org.uk

RESEARCH FUNDING NEWS The Health Foundation is seeking applications for its Closing the Gap Through Clinical Communities initiative. This aims to improve the quality of health care delivered to patients by bridging the gap between evidence-based practice and the current delivery of care. Applicants should be clinicians working in multidisciplinary teams and projects should involve cross-organisational working. The closing date for applications is 27 March 2009. I http://tinyurl.com/dawfkq The British Federation of Women Graduates is offering Scholarship awards. Women in the third and final year of their doctoral studies can apply. Awards are given on the basis of evidence of academic excellence, not financial need. Approximately six awards are made annually. For further details of the eligibility criteria see the website. Deadline for applications 27 March 2009. I http://tinyurl.com/dh22e4 The Food Standards Agency has postgraduate scholarships (either doctoral or master’s level) in the social science of food, e.g. food and behaviour change in a changing economic climate. Institutions can apply for the scholarships that will start in October 2009. The deadline for applications is 31 March 2009. I http://tinyurl.com/advmcs The ESRC has the following funding opportunities available: I New International Activities for Early Career Researchers: to provide international mobility, exchange and network opportunities for doctoral students and researchers within five years of completing their PhD. The deadline for applications 24 March 2009. http://tinyurl.com/dmly2p I 1+3/+3 Proposal (Open) PhD Studentships: To support full- or part-time postgraduate courses. The submission deadline for students and supervisors is 5 May 2009. http://tinyurl.com/bg8wd4 I CASE Studentships: to support research collaborations between industry and academia. Institutions may submit a nomination at any time, however for a start date of 1 October 2009 applications must be submitted by 30 July 2009. http://tinyurl.com/y88hfv The Leverhulme Trust is offering Major Research Fellowships in the Humanities and Social Sciences to enable well-established and distinguished researchers to devote themselves to a single research project of outstanding originality and significance. The award provides for a replacement staff member to cover the period of the Fellowship – two to three years. The closing date for applications is 1 May 2009. I http://tinyurl.com/yolcx7 The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Public Health Research programme has launched a second call for proposals to evaluate public health interventions. The cut-off date for submission of outline proposals is 3 June 2009. I http://tinyurl.com/cwqsoq

info

advertisers’ ploys will find reassurance from an ambitious study of parental mediation of food ads by Moniek Buijzen, identifying strategies that can be effective. Pre-teens and adolescents are particularly fond of the media and the special issue contains new studies of their uses of computers and mobile phones for interpersonal, educational, and selfexpressive purposes. Does the use of text language, in mobiles or e-mails, render young people at risk of communicative degeneracy? Are teenagers falling into solipsistic electronic existences, increasingly detached from families and friends? Beverly Plester and colleagues provide surprising findings about the association between text language and literacy in late childhood. Olga Volckaert-Legrier and colleagues investigate the development of text language as a distinct register in 12- to 15-year-olds. Rivka Ribak analyses the complex ways in which mobile phones reflect and affect intergenerational communications. Kevin Durkin and colleagues examine the impact of language ability on adolescents’ uses of new media for educational purposes,

For more funding opportunities and links to providers, see www.bps.org.uk/funds Funding bodies should e-mail news to Elizabeth Beech on elibee@bps.org.uk for possible inclusion

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screening and the spectre of eugenics and from the British Medical Association on the ethical issues concerning prenatal tests Harriet Gross on the misrepresentation of Simon and termination. Baron-Cohen’s research in The Guardian The coverage also rolled out into other newspapers. The ccording to US News on 21 January, Daily Mail (15 January) ran a story on the one of President Obama’s priorities on ‘hormone clue to prenatal screening for his medical ‘to do’ list is to get earlier and autism’; The Independent (13 January) better universal screening for autism in asked ‘The Big Question: should mothers the United States. Endorsing this goal, be offered screening for autism and what the journalist says that ‘early screening is issues would it raise?’; and the Daily a terrific idea’ and ‘a huge challenge’. Telegraph (12 January) had ‘Study finds In the UK, screening for autism hit autism link to womb’ and links to their the headlines on 12 January when the coverage of the original presentation at main item on the front page of The the British Association in 2007. Guardian proclaimed ‘New research brings Dismayed by the alarmist autism screening closer to reality’ (see and inaccurate nature of the http://tinyurl.com/8xjsd4). The article coverage and the link to was accompanied by an ultrasound scan screening, Simon Baron-Cohen picture of a baby, with the caption ‘The wrote a response, which discovery of a high level of testosterone appeared in The Guardian on in prenatal tests is an indicator of autism’. 20 January (see The coverage continued on page 6, under http://tinyurl.com/a7lgp9). the headline ‘Disorder linked to high I then spoke with Simon about levels of testosterone in womb’ (see what had happened. http://tinyurl.com/7qzscd). All this was As his Guardian response almost certainly the result of a press suggested, Simon was ‘shocked’ release by the BPS for a paper by Simon by the coverage. Valuable Baron-Cohen and colleagues published though the research might be, in the British Journal of Psychology. he felt that world events were It is very unusual for a single perhaps of greater import in psychology story to get such a major that week. But he also felt that place in the news pages of a daily the information was wrong, misleading newspaper, even a broadsheet like and irresponsible. It appears that the issue The Guardian, and undoubtedly reflects of screening became conflated with the significant public interest in autism. latest research findings into a more For this reason, it is perhaps even more ‘newsworthy’ story through something disappointing that the headlines and Simon had written for the BBC’s ‘scrubbed captions appear to misrepresent the up’ page, that had by chance appeared on research findings. While the details of the their health website earlier in January. actual research are reported reasonably This had briefly mentioned prenatal faithfully within the articles, a significant screening, but it is hardly surprising that misleading aspect concerns the possibility a major researcher in autism would have of using the findings – which link fetal views about screening and its potential testosterone and later autistic features in value and unlikely that he would be naive typically developing children – to create about its possible misuse. The point was, a prenatal test for autism. The suggestion for him, that the coverage did not reflect is expanded through reported comments the published research, the press release, from the National Autistic Society about or the conversation he had with the the negative implications of prenatal Guardian journalist. Screening for autism

Womb with a view

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This is the page of the Society’s Press Committee, which aims to promote and discuss psychology in the media.

If you would like to comment on a recent newspaper article, TV or radio programme involving psychology, if you have tips for

(or other conditions) is a sensitive topic; it needs airing, but probably not like this. The story raises questions about the risks and benefits of disseminating scientific research through the media and the public understanding of science. Perhaps it is disingenuous to assume that broadsheets would be concerned to ascertain the accuracy of headlines or content. After all, people who speak to the media often report that they didn’t actually say what eventually appears; why should it be different for a science story? Furthermore, the journalist who writes the content is not the subeditor who provides the headlines or captions and of course, the web makes it easy to link one story with another, from different times and different contexts. Does such coverage affect research? On this occasion Baron-Cohen was fairly sanguine. Though a number of parents wrote in worried about the implications of a screening test, he is on record opposing the use of biomedical research into autism in any eugenic way. Indeed he has emphasised that many autistic features may be positive and certainly not in need of treatment. On other occasions, however, such coverage may impact not only on researchers but on public perceptions and willingness to engage with research. It is incumbent on scientists to put their work into the public domain, and the risk of misrepresentation must be balanced against this responsibility. Do such headlines and inaccuracies increase wariness amongst those approached for media comment? I hope not. It is possible that psychology is more vulnerable to distortion because it seems more accessible than some natural sciences, but we must ensure that we are diligent in publicising our research and that we keep politicians and policy makers in our sights. Whether headline writers will assist in that endeavour remains to be seen.

others based on experiences, or if you know of a forthcoming programme or broadcast, please contact the ‘Media’ page

coordinating editor, Fiona Jones (Chair of the Society’s Press Committee), on f.a.jones@leeds.ac.uk

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Striking the golden section in stigma research Jonathan D. Raskin on how the way we organise information could be the key to reducing the negative labelling of others

questions

Can the golden section, an odd but repeatedly confirmed hypothesis about how humans organise information, help us understand the powerful impact of stigma? Recent research suggests it might.

obody likes to see others unfairly A brief history of stigma stigmatised, but it happens more research often than we wish to admit. It is probably reasonable to consider Calling someone homeless, mentally ill, e 1960s and early 1970s the heyday disabled or elderly – even when of stigma research. The anti-psychiatry descriptively on the mark – can have movement peaked during the 1960s when serious consequences for those so psychiatry was under assault from all labelled. Of course, sometimes people directions. From the right came Thomas benefit by stigmatising others. In the Szasz, whose libertarian-inspired politics 2008 US presidential election, John led him to argue that mental illness was a McCain worked hard to label Barack nonsensical concept because minds could Obama as inexperienced, while Obama in not be physically sick. For Szasz (1963, turn tried to cast McCain as out of touch. 1974), labelling people as mentally ill Politicians know that half the electoral justified the nefarious purpose of battle is successfully pinning a negative silencing the socially disagreeable. From tag on one’s opponent. the left came the likes of R.D. Laing But does stigma primarily stem from (1965), who – with chaotic results, by slapping harmful monikers on others? most accounts – tried to Surely how encourage more egalitarian people behave mental institutions where the plays a major distinction between patient role in whether and doctor was blurred and or not they the stigma of mental illness become diminished. Both Szasz and stigmatised. Laing challenged the medical That is, it is model. For them, diagnosing also important people as mentally ill was to consider harmful, stigmatising and how much a inappropriate. stigmatising Around the same time, label seems to other prominent thinkers were fit the bill. echoing similar ideas. Erving Stigma Goffman (1961) wrote about researchers mental hospitals as ‘total have studied – institutions’. His contention and argued was that such places help about – these Half the electoral battle is produce and sustain the very questions for successfully pinning a negative tag behaviours they are supposed to over 40 years. on one’s opponent remedy. Somewhat later, David Yet recent

N

The golden section hypothesis predicts that people will rate others positively 62 per cent of the time and negatively 38 per cent of the time. Does this pattern reverse when evaluating stigmatised people?

resources

Corrigan, P.W. (Ed.) (2005). On the stigma of mental illness. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Raskin, J.D., Harasym, M.T., Mercuri, M.A. & Widrick, R.M. (2008). Construing stigmatized identities: A golden section study. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 81, 285–296. The Fib-Phi Link Page: www.goldenratio.org/info/index.html

references

If people do use a reverse golden section pattern when rating stigmatised others, what are the implications for research and practice?

Adams-Webber, J. (1977). The golden section and structure of selfconcepts. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 45, 703–706. Alexander, L.A. & Link, B.G. (2003). The impact of contact on stigmatizing attitudes toward people with mental illness. Journal of Mental Health, 12(3), 271–289. Badesha, J. & Horley, J. (2000). Selfconstrual among psychiatric

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research on an obscure and rather strange hypothesis known as the golden section adds a new twist to the discussion. The golden section hypothesis suggests that stigma occurs when the typical way people evaluate others – using a ratio of 62 per cent positive ratings to 38 per cent negative – gets inverted. Such a hypothesis has interesting implications for thinking about stigma and how to effectively combat it.

outpatients: A test of the golden section. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 73, 547–551. Benjafield, J. & Adams-Webber, J. (1976). The golden section hypothesis. British Journal of Psychology, 67, 11–15. Benjafield, J. & Pomeroy, E. (1978). A possible ideal underlying interpersonal descriptions. British Journal of Social and Clinical

Psychology, 17, 339–340. Corrigan, P.W. & O’Shaughnessy, J.R. (2007). Changing mental illness stigma as it exists in the real world. Australian Psychologist, 42(2), 90–97. Goffman, E. (1961). Asylums: Essays on the social situations of mental patients and other inmates. Oxford: Doubleday (Anchor). Huntley, H.E. (1970). The divine proportion: A study in mathematical beauty. New

York: Dover Publications. Kahgee, S.L., Pomeroy, E. & Miller, H.R. (1982). Interpersonal judgements of schizophrenics: A golden section study. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 55, 319–325. Kahng, S.K. & Mowbray, C.T. (2005). What affects self-esteem of persons with psychiatric disabilities: The role of causal attributions of mental illnesses. Psychiatric Rehabilitation

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Rosenhan (1973) conducted his famous model of psychiatric diagnosis was study on being sane in insane places, in reasserting itself. Interest in labelling which he and a group of his students diminished, and research studies on its presented themselves for admission at local impact became rare. The consensus was hospitals in order to see whether the staff that folks like Scheff, Goffman, Szasz, and could distinguish ‘sane’ from ‘insane’. All Laing had overstated the impact of labels. of them were admitted for observation and Diagnostic systems seemed better and assigned a psychiatric diagnosis. Even more reliable, distinctions between when released, none of these pseudo deviance and disorder blurred, and – patients was correctly identified as an rather than not assigning labels in the impostor. Instead, they were labelled as first place – mental health professionals ‘in remission’. It was a testament to the stressed educating people about their potentially long-lasting nature of arbitrarily labels as the best way to reduce stigma. assigned labels and it The authors of the confirmed a lot of the Diagnostic and scepticism popular at the Statistical Manual of “In recent years there time about psychiatric Mental Disorders even has been a resurgence diagnosis. (As a historical chimed in, arguing of interest in labelling side note, one of Rosenhan’s that labelling people research” pseudo patients was his ‘with’ schizophrenia student Martin Seligman. is less stigmatising than Seligman went on to labelling them develop positive psychology, an approach ‘schizophrenics’ because it distinguishes that downplays labelling people as between people and the disorders with disordered and instead focuses on the which they are diagnosed. Regardless, it positive aspects of psychological seemed clear that the concerns of the antifunctioning.) psychiatrists had been overstated. People In light of the era’s scepticism about got labelled because they engaged in mental disorder labels, it is not surprising deviancy, not vice versa. that sociologist Thomas Scheff (1999) But the story does not end there proposed his famous labelling theory, because just as it seemed silly to assume which in its original form held that the labelling alone leads to deviance, it also assignment of labels actually produces, seemed ridiculous to insist that labels play rather than describes, deviant behaviour. no role in stigma. In recent years there has Scheff’s theory proposed a very provocative been a resurgence of interest in labelling and testable hypothesis, one which research, led by social work researcher generated a great deal of research. Bruce Link. Link’s research challenges the However, the strong form of Scheff’s idea that labels are irrelevant (Link et al., hypothesis did not hold up to empirical 1989). Yes, behaviour is central, but it is scrutiny. Researchers repeatedly found not the whole story. Labels also matter. that labels are not assigned completely For example, Link and his colleagues arbitrarily. That is, how one behaves have conducted many studies showing that matters a great deal. The research people diagnosed with mental illnesses are discredited the notion that deviant evaluated quite negatively by others – and behaviour springs almost exclusively not just by others unfamiliar with the from being labelled. Deviant behaviour, mental health field. They have found that not pernicious labelling, re-emerged as laypersons, the media and even mental the primary rationale for labelling people. health professionals respond negatively Such findings muted enthusiasm for to those diagnosed with mental disorders Scheff’s theory, but also fitted with the (Alexander & Link, 2003; Link & Phelan, shifting political winds. By the late 1970s 2006; Servais & Saunders, 2007; Stuart, and throughout the 1980s, the medical 2006). Combined with other studies

Journal, 28(4), 354–361. Laing, R.D. (1965). The divided self. Baltimore: Penguin. Lee, C. & Adams-Webber, J. (1987). A ‘projective’ test of the golden section hypothesis. Social Behavior and Personality, 15, 169–175. Lee, C.J. (2006). Affective balance in the construal of activities. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 19, 343–349.

Lefebvre, V.A., Lefebvre, V.D. & AdamsWebber, J. (1986). Modeling an experiment on construing self and others. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 30, 317–330. Link, B.G., Cullen, F.T., Struening, E.L. et al (1989). A modified labeling theory approach to mental disorders: An empirical assessment. American Sociological Review, 54(3), 400–423. Link, B.G. & Phelan, J.C. (2006). Stigma

read discuss contribute at www.thepsychologist.org.uk

suggesting that those diagnosed as mentally ill experience lower self-esteem (Corrigan & O’Shaughnessy, 2007; Kahng & Mowbray, 2005), Link’s work makes clear that both behaviour and labels are important in producing stigma. Link and colleagues’ research sheds light on how the amount and kind of exposure to stigmatised people impacts responses to them. Interestingly, even without having ever encountered stigmatised people, others evaluate them negatively – as if people have a default way to organise information about others in the absence of direct exposure to them. It is here that the golden section hypothesis might prove useful in understanding how people organise their perceptions of stigmatised, as well as non-stigmatised, others.

Stigma and the golden section Fascination with the golden section, or golden mean, can be traced all the way back to the Pythagoreans. What is the golden section? Most simply, it is a mathematical ratio – represented by the equation X/Y = Y/(X + Y) – that, for reasons unknown, people find most aesthetically pleasing. Evidence of the golden mean’s aesthetic desirability abound. Scholars have long debated its influence, with many arguing (sometimes controversially) that art, architecture and people consistently judged most beautiful incorporate dimensions consistent with the golden mean (Huntley, 1970; Livio, 2002). Intrigued by the golden section’s prevalence, psychologists like Jack AdamsWebber and John Benjafield began studying in the 1970s whether people use it to organise their perceptions of others. In psychological research, the golden section is the assignment of evaluations to phenomena in a manner consistent with the X/Y = Y/(X + Y) equation, which mathematically results in a ratio of 38.2 per cent negative ratings to 61.8 per cent positive. ‘Positive’ and ‘negative’ should not be confused with ‘good’ and ‘bad’. Instead,

and its public health implications. Lancet, 367, 528–529. Livio, M. (2002). The golden ratio: The story of phi, the world’s most astonishing number. New York: Broadway Books. Osgood, C.E. (1979). From yang and yin to and or but in cross cultural perspective. International Journal of Psychology, 14, 1–35. Raskin, J.D., Harasym, M.T., Mercuri,

M.A. & Widrick, R.M. (2008). Construing stigmatized identities: A golden section study. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 81, 285–296. Rosenhan, D.L. (1973). On being sane in insane places. Science, 179(4070), 250–258. Scheff, T.J. (1999). Being mentally ill: A sociological theory (3rd edn). New York: Aldine.

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they correspond to the ancient Chinese notions of Yin and Yang (Adams-Webber, 1977). In language, positive adjectives usually developed first. They also occur more often and are easier for children to master. The idea is that human cognition is organised in a ‘tension of opposites’ (Benjafield & Adams-Webber, 1976), with one pole developing first and generally being seen as ‘positive’ – that is, rated more positively than negatively along dimensions of evaluation, potency and activity (Osgood, 1979). Knowing which terms are positive and negative tends to be intuitive, though people generally agree about it (Osgood, 1979). For example, the word ‘champion’ has positive connotations along all three dimensions, while the word ‘beggar’ has negative connotations across all three dimensions; other terms may only have positive or neutral connotations across one or two of the dimensions, but as long as the overall ratio remains positive, the term is experienced positively (Osgood, 1979). Another way to think about the golden section is in terms of background and foreground, with positive attributes constituting the foreground against which negative attributes stand out. The positive constitutes the original whole against which the negative is distinguished. This possibly explains why people pay more attention to negative news than positive news. Positive goings-on blend into the background, while negative occurrences stand out against the otherwise humdrum positive backdrop. This is why television news channels get better ratings when things don’t go as planned. The usual and expected simply isn’t as newsworthy. Though nobody is sure why, the golden section hypothesis has proved itself

Servais, L.M. & Saunders, S.M. (2007). Clinical psychologists’ perceptions of persons with mental illness. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 38(2), 214–219. Stuart, H. (2006). Media portrayal of mental illness and its treatments: What effect does it have on people with mental illness? CNS Drugs, 20(2), 99-106. Szasz, T. (1963). Law, liberty and

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to be incredibly robust. Research repeatedly finds that when people rate others using adjective pairs with clear positive and negative ends, they do so according to the golden section ratio. The golden section hypothesis holds when people rate acquaintances, activities, unfamiliar faces, imaginary people with nonsense syllables for names, and even cartoon characters (Adams-Webber, 1977; Benjafield & Pomeroy, 1978; Lee & Adams-Webber, 1987; Lee, 2006). Why the golden section ratio is so robust remains unresolved, but it seems reasonable to speculate that it provides a default way to organise information when lacking prior experience. Psychologists coming from a constructivist perspective have speculated that golden section research lends support to the central tenet of constructivist psychology, namely that how we organise experience is as important as, or more important than, events themselves. Some have even psychiatry: An inquiry into the social suggested that uses of mental health practices. New the human York: Macmillan. mind contains Szasz, T. (1974). The myth of mental an ‘algebraic illness: Foundations of a theory of personal conduct (rev. edn). New York: processor’ for Harper & Row. ordering and Widrick, R.M. (2008). Age-related stigma arranging and the golden section hypothesis. information Unpublished master’s thesis. (Lefebvre et al., 1986). If so,

then golden section research potentially provides indirect empirical evidence of this processor at work. A few studies have examined whether the golden section holds for people diagnosed with mental disorders. For example, one study found that people with thought-disordered and non-thoughtdisordered schizophrenia diagnoses evaluated both acquaintances and objects using the golden section ratio (Kahgee et al., 1982). Another study showed, with some minor variations across diagnostic categories, that psychiatric outpatients used the golden section ratio when rating themselves (Badesha & Horley, 2000). However, several students and I carried out a recent study that took things in a new direction, one relevant for labelling research. We examined whether or not a ‘reverse’ golden section ratio serves as a default way to organise positive and negative information when evaluating stigmatised people (Raskin et al., 2008). The basic idea behind the study was simple. Typically, the golden section consists of negative information in the foreground against a background of positive assumptions. But what if foreground and background get reversed? What if negative information is the baseline against which positive information stands out? Isn’t it possible that people become stigmatised when the ratio of positive to negative information is inverted? It doesn’t matter whether this ratio gets reversed based on how someone

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behaves or how someone is labelled. Either way, it was hypothesised that once positive attributes stand out against a solid backdrop of negative assumptions, stigma is the result. So our basic research question was this: Is it possible that stigmatised people are rated according to the golden section hypothesis, but in reverse? We asked undergraduates to rate nine different identities using 12 adjective pairs, each with a clearly distinguished positive and negative pole. What we found confirmed our expectations. When rating ‘stigmatised others’ – in this case people labelled ‘mental patient’ and ‘homeless person’ – participants did so using a reverse golden section pattern. That is, students assigned positive adjectives to stigmatised people roughly 38 per cent of the time and negative adjectives roughly 62 per cent of the time. This was the first empirical evidence for a reverse golden section. What are the implications of this finding for stigma research? It suggests that people attribute both positive and negative attributes to stigmatised individuals, but in a manner where negative qualities are assumed and positive ones stand out as striking and unique. This implies that attributing a positive characteristic to a person labelled as mentally ill or homeless may not suffice as evidence of a nonstigmatised perception. To the contrary, the very reason a positive quality may warrant comment is because it comes as a surprise. In observing that ‘Jimmy is very neat’, one may simply be noticing something that stands out. After all, if Jimmy is diagnosed with a psychotic disorder and assumed to be low-functioning in most domains, his clean room may indeed seem striking. That is, his neatness emerges as the figure against a background of negative assumptions. In evaluating people’s responses to stigma, it is not enough for them simply to express positive sentiments about labelled individuals. It is the ratio of positive to negative attributions that matters. Reducing stigma may not be about eliminating all negative perceptions and replacing them with positive ones. From the perspective of golden section researchers, it is about altering the ratio of positive to negative evaluations so that they shift towards a traditional, not reverse, golden section pattern. In some respects, the reverse golden section finding is counterintuitive because it says that positive aspects of stigmatised people actually stand out, while negative

Research should continue to explore aspects fade into the background. whether the golden section is relevant to However, when something stands out, understanding stigma. To wit, one of my that means it is seen as the exception graduate students recently completed a rather than the rule. Stigma may best be thesis in which she explored whether conceptualised as occurring when negative people use the reverse golden section to assumptions form the baseline against judge the ageing, a population that youthwhich positive ones seem conspicuous. oriented Western culture often stigmatises Only when positive attributes are taken (Widrick, 2008). Participants in her study for granted does stigma recede. did use a reverse golden section when The golden section hypothesis may rating labels for ‘elderly person’ and ‘senior also be able to shed some new light on the citizen’. However, ‘retired person’ and old-time debate about whether it is labels ‘grandparent’ did not produce a reverse or behaviour that matters most when it golden section. This suggests that different comes to generating stigma. Recent stigma labels evoke different evaluations. This research, exemplified in the work of Link, student also tried to replicate the finding has upheld the importance of both that ‘mental illness’ and ‘homeless person’ behaviour and labels. The golden section evoke a reverse golden section rating hypothesis adds theoretical weight to these pattern; although these labels did receive findings because it implies two things. a majority of negative ratings, they did not Firstly, when lacking previous experience produce a golden section pattern. Given with something, people evaluate it using that participants in her study were rating the golden section ratio. The golden other labels that did evoke a reverse golden section provides a basic framework for section pattern, perhaps whether a reverse organising information in lieu of much else golden section occurs or not depends on to go on. Whether a traditional or reverse what other labels are also being rated? golden section pattern occurs depends on Either that or the reverse golden section whether negative or positive attributes is not as robust as initially thought. form the background against which other Future research should explore information is contrasted. Secondly, as precisely under what conditions reverse people have direct experiences with others, golden section ratings are likely they no longer to occur. Such research should need to rely on the also examine whether the golden section “Only when positive reverse golden section reflects ratio and instead attributes are taken for stigma or mere dislike – and often base their granted does stigma whether there is even much evaluations on the recede” difference between these lessons of their concepts! For example, disliking experience. a rival football team might evoke a Therefore, stigma reverse golden section (this is research that may be reduced by helping shift the ratio hasn’t been done, so we don’t know). of negative to positive evaluations from However, the cleavage line between a reverse golden section pattern towards disliking and stigma may not be so a traditional golden section pattern. It may distinct. After all, people often do also be reduced by increasing positive stigmatise those they really dislike, which exposure to stigmatised people. After all, is why ethnic rivalries (as well as sports the more positive experience one has with rivalries) often lead to demeaning and someone, the more one’s evaluations are dehumanising those seen as ‘other’. likely be based on that experience rather Researchers should also look at whether than on the reverse golden section’s default the reverse golden section can account for ratio for organising information. localised stigma unique to particular social groups. Refining the hypothesis Given that studies on stigma and the The reverse golden section hypothesis reverse golden section are so new, there are may prove of great interest to future many fascinating and important questions stigma researchers, as well as clinicians to be examined about the relationship working to reduce stigma in everyday between them. practice. It provides a new theoretical rationale for considering past stigma I Jonathan D. Raskin research findings, one that tries to is at the State University balance the impact of behaviour and of New York at New Paltz labels. It also offers the interesting idea raskinj@newpaltz.edu that reducing stigma is not about eliminating negative perceptions, but shifting them from the background to the foreground.

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Active body, healthy mind Jadwiga Nazimek on whether exercise can delay – or even prevent – dementia

Exercise is a good treatment for many health problems, both physical and mental. It reduces physical frailty and might prolong the lifespan, but (in synergy with other factors, such as lifestyle or genetics) it can improve the quality of later life by preserving healthy intellectual functioning and preventing – or at least delaying – dementia. This knowledge is exceedingly valuable in the face of the growing proportion of older adults in modern society and the growing burden of dementia. So how can exercise reduce the risk of dementia, and what can psychologists do to encourage people who fail to exercise?

questions resources

http://nihseniorhealth.gov/stories/ stories.html Kramer, A., Erickson, K.I. & Colcombe, S.J. (2006). Exercise, cognition, and the aging brain. Journal of Applied Physiology, 101, 1243–1251.

references

I

How would lack of exercise affect the cognitive development of children?

Barnes D.E., Jaffe, K., Satariano, W.A. & Tager, I.B. (2003). A longitudinal study of cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive function in healthy older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51, 459–465. Berchtold, N.C., Chinn, G., Chou, M. et al. (2005). Exercise primes a molecular memory for brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein induction in the brain hippocampus. Neuroscience, 133,

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t’s a normal part of ageing that many will be familiar with: as we get older, memory, visuospatial ability and executive function (planning, scheduling, working memory, inhibition and multitasking) tend to suffer. Indeed, their impairment is one of the first symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. But could a healthy lifestyle be the key to keeping a healthy mind? It appears that older adults who exercise regularly and enjoy higher level of physical fitness perform better on cognitive tasks involving these functions than do their sedentary peers (e.g. Kramer et al., 2006). What’s more, aerobic exercise seems to be considerably more beneficial than non-aerobic activity (Jedrziewski et al., 2007). Thus, aerobic exercise appears to help to counterbalance the effects of ageing on higher-order cognitive function. It is not only the normal effects of ageing that can be reduced by regular physical activity: some studies (e.g. Rockwood & Middleton, 2007) suggest the risk of mild cognitive impairment can be reduced, with others finding that the risk of Alzheimer’s disease can be lowered by up to 30 per cent (Jedrziewski et al., 2007). Evidence, however, is still inconsistent: in some studies physical activity has no effects on the risk of vascular dementia, where the blood flow to the brain is insufficient to maintain healthy cells (Rockwood & Middleton, 2007). In others, exercise is associated with a lower risk of vascular dementia, but not that of Alzheimer’s disease (Ravaglia et al., 2007). This might be related to definitions of vascular dementia (e.g. those relying on

Is there a difference in levels of exercise between men and women, and if so, does it translate into differences in the risk of dementia?

853–861. Bezzi, P., Domercq, M., Brambilla, L. et al. (2001). CXCR4-activated astrocyte glutamate release via TNF. Nature Neuroscience, 4, 702–710. Blood may help us think. (2007, 17 October). ScienceDaily. Retrieved 11 Dec 2008 from tinyurl.com/bqhg6c Brawley, L.R., Rejeski, W.J. & King, A.C. (2003). Promoting physical activity for older adults. American Journal of

the presence of stroke are less sensitive), or perhaps physical activity affects differently different types of dementia. Similarly, there is evidence that exercise can counteract genetic susceptibility to Alzheimer’s disease (Rovio et al., 2005), although this result is lacking replication. Overall, there is evidence showing that regular exercise reduces risk of dementia, but the area is plagued by methodological problems and incomplete knowledge about biological mechanisms of the effects of physical activity on cognitive functioning.

How does exercising improve thinking? One mechanism is the growth of new neurons (neurogenesis) and the plasticity of the connections between the neurons (synaptic plasticity). Mice who exercise are better at learning spatial and memory task than their sedentary counterparts (Cotman & Berchtold, 2007). This effect, however, takes place only if a signalling molecule called brain-derived neurotrophic factor is present. The neurotrophic factor supports survival and plasticity of existing neurons. ‘Long-term potentiation’, thought to be the cellular mechanism of learning, occurs when repetitive stimulation results in increased potentiation of the synapse – the synaptic response to the stimuli is stronger and lasts longer. This phenomenon is impaired in mice lacking the neurotrophic factor (Korte et al., 1995). Therefore, by supporting long-term potentiation, the neurotrophic factor appears to play a role in memory and learning (Cotman & Berchtold, 2007). The neurotrophic factor is also involved in the growth and survival of new neurons and synapses in the hippocampus (the seat of memory and learning) and cortex (responsible for thinking). The fact that levels of the neurotrophic factor are 30–80 per cent lower in people suffering from Alzheimer’s disease suggests its involvement in the pathology of the illness (Murray et al., 1994). In rodents,

Preventative Medicine, 25, 172–183. Broe, G.A., Creasey, H., Jorm, A.F. et al. (1998). Health habits and risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in old age. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 22, 621–623. Brookmeyer, R., Gray, S. & Kawas, C. (1998). Projections of Alzheimer’s in the US and the public health impact of delaying disease onset. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 1347–1342.

Cotman, C.W. & Berchtold, N.C. (2007). Physical activity and the maintenance of cognition. Alzheimer’s and Dementia, 3, 30–37. Dik, M.G., Deeg, D.J.H., Visser, M. & Jonker, C. (2003). Early life physical activity and cognition at old age. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 25, 643–653. Jedrziewski, M.K., Lee, V.M.Y. & Trojanowski, J.Q. (2007). Physical

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exercise increases the levels of the exercise significantly increases levels of neurotrophic factor (Berchtold et al., certain chemokines in the brain. These 2005), as well as the growth and flexibility chemokines protect neurons in the of neurons (van Praag et al., 1999). The hippocampus from death induced by the two processes – neurogenesis and synaptic plaques, as well as improve plasticity – might interact, so that the communication between brain cells (Bezzi growth of new cells contributes to the et al., 2001). However, the exact improved plasticity of the synapses (van mechanism of the effect of exercise on Praag et al., 1999), and learning supports inflammatory response in the brain the survival of the newborn cells (Tashiro remains unclear (Parachikova et al., 2008). et al., 2007). Exercise also improves blood flow in The effect of exercise on the birth the brain, therefore influencing the amount and survival of new neurons appears to and concentration of nutrients such as be related to the presence of a protein oxygen and glucose, as well as the hormone similar to insulin (the insulinexpanding and contracting movement of like growth factor 1 or IGF-I), which the cerebral vessels, which in turn affects regulates metabolism, as well as growth, brain cells. Blood delivers nutrients such multiplication and death of cells. Physical as oxygen and glucose, essential for the activity increases the uptake of IGF-I into neurons to function. In addition, blood to the brain, including the hippocampus carries factors that affect neural activity, (Trejo et al., 2001). Mice in whose brains and their concentration might depend on IGF-I is insufficient suffer from reduced neurogenesis and problems with spatial learning. In these animals moderate treadmill running exercise has no effect on the deficits, but they can be eliminated by the administration of the insulinlike growth factor (Trejo et al., 2007). The immune system is another party in the interaction between exercise and thinking. Increased level of inflammatory factors is highly associated with cognitive impairment in By exercising, young men can protect their future Alzheimer’s disease, where cognitive ability brain cells die as a result of the build-up of abnormal protein in plaques and tangles (Parachikova et al., 2007). Sedentary, aged the volume of the blood flow. Brain mice, in whose brains the Alzheimer’s cells might react to the expanding and disease pathology is already present, have contracting movement of the blood higher levels of inflammation compared to vessels. Finally, blood affects neurons by healthy mice the same age. After three regulating the temperature of the brain weeks of voluntary wheel running, tissue (‘Blood may help us think’, 2007). however, the diseased mice regain normal Thus, by improving the cerebral blood working and spatial memory (Parachikova flow, exercise is likely to improve the et al., 2008). This might be because function of the brain. Moreover, regular

activity and cognitive health. Alzheimer’s and Dementia, 3, 98–108. Korte, M., Carroll, P., Wolf, E. et al. (1995). Hippocampal long-term potentiation is impaired in mice lacking brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Proceedings of the Nat. Acad. of Sciences, 92, 8856–8860. Kramer, A., Erickson, K.I. & Colcombe, S.J. (2006). Exercise, cognition, and the aging brain. Journal of Applied Physiology, 101, 1243–1251.

Lange-Asschenfeldt, C. & Kojda, G. (2008). Alzheimer’s disease, cerebrovascular dysfunction and the benefits of exercise. Experimental Gerontology, 43, 499–504. Larson, E.B., Wang, L., Bowen, J.D. et al. (2006). Exercise is associated with reduced risk for incident dementia among persons 65 years of age and older. Annals of Internal Medicine, 144, 73–83. Murray, K.D., Gall, C.M., Jones, E.G. & Isackson, P.J. (1994). Differential

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physical activity lowers the risk of cerebrovascular disease and helps to fight the vascular risk factors (such as hypertension) which increase the risk of incidence and progression of Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. By increasing cerebral blood flow, exercise helps to reduce damage to the neurons resulting from oxidative stress (excess of toxic free radicals) present in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (LangeAsschenfeldt & Kojda, 2008). Finally, angiogenesis (the growth of new capillaries) as a result of exercise protects neurons via substances such as vascular endothelial growth factor. The latter is involved in production and release of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor from one of its sources, the brain microvascular endothelial cells. Therefore, neurogenesis interacts with angiogenesis, and by improving the health of the vascular system, exercise helps to protect neurons and might delay the occurrence of dementia.

How much and how often? As a guide, exercise appears to reduce the risk of dementia by 32 per cent provided it takes place three or more times a week (Rockwood & Middleton, 2007). Each session should last at least 20 minutes, be vigorous, and cause breathlessness and sweating (Jedrziewski et al., 2007). Some studies suggest there is a dose–response relationship, in the sense that the group with lowest levels of exercise is at the greatest risk, while the group with highest levels of exercise is at lowest risk (e.g. Rockwood & Middleton, 2007). Other studies suggest that the benefits from exercise, in terms of risk of dementia, increase in the dose–response manner up to the moderate level, and then the benefits cease (e.g. Larson et al., 2006). Finally, exercising at the age of 15–25 years can protect cognitive ability in later life, at least in men

regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and type II calcium/calmodulindependent protein kinase messenger RNA expression in Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroscience, 60(1), 37–48. O’Brien Cousins, S. & Gillis, M.M. (2005). ‘Just do it… before you talk yourself out of it’. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 6, 313–334. Parachikova, A., Agadjanyan, M.G., Cribbs, D.H. et al. (2007). Inflammatory

changes parallel the early stages of Alzheimer disease. Neurobiology of Aging, 28, 1821–1833. Parachikova, A., Nichol, K.E. & Cotman, C.W. (2008). Short-term exercise in aged Tg2576 mice alters neuroinflammation and improves cognition. Neurobiology of Disease, 30, 121–129. Payne, N., Jones, F. & Harris, P. (2002). The impact of working life on health behavior. Journal of Occupational Health

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(Dik et al., 2003), and exercising in midlife can be just as beneficial as that in later life (Rockwood & Middleton, 2007).

Preventing or delaying? Even though the evidence that physical activity has good effect on cognitive function is robust, there are some inconsistencies and methodological problems. Some studies find that physical activity is unrelated to cognitive function (e.g. Broe et al., 1998; Yamada et al., 2003). This might be due to using self-report data concerning exercise, not distinguishing aerobic from non-aerobic activity, lack of assessment of duration, intensity and frequency of activities and failure to eliminate participants with subclinical dementia (Kramer et al., 2006). Other common difficulties include lack of agreed definitions and criteria of physical fitness and dementia (e.g. single disease entity versus categories; Jedrziewski et al., 2007; Rockwood & Middleton, 2007). Finally, the lack of an accepted definition of ‘prevented dementia’ makes it difficult to determine whether a particular method is successful or not in this endeavour. It has been suggested that delaying dementia equals preventing it, since dementia occurs in late stages of life – delaying it by two years would reduce prevalence by 25 per cent (Brookmeyer et al., 1998). However, physical activity reduces physical frailty in older people and thus might prolong lifespan, therefore actually serving to increase the prevalence of dementia!

What can psychologists do? Neurocognitive knowledge of how exercise affects the brain can help work on techniques that would lower the

Psychology, 7(4), 342–353. Ravaglia, G., Forti, P., Lucicesare, A. et al. (2007). Physical activity and dementia in the elderly. Neurology, 70, 1786–1794. Rejeski, W.J., Ambrosius, W.T., Brubaker, P.H. et al (2003). Older adults with chronic disease. Health Psychology, 22, 414–423. Rockwood, K. & Middleton, L. (2007). Physical activity and the maintenance of cognitive function. Alzheimer’s and Dementia, 3, 38–44.

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threshold of exercise for the elderly, who can find it difficult to get the appropriate levels of activity (Cotman & Berchtold, 2007). Occupational psychologists investigate how high-strain work prevents exercise in even those employees who intend to be more physically active, by affecting their confidence and self-efficacy at motivational stage, as well putting their good intentions into practice (Payne et al., 2002). Suggested solutions include flexible working hours and convenient facilities, such as an onsite gym. In order to encourage exercise in the frame of health promotion (usually cardiovascular), exercise and health psychologists analyse factors that influence motivation and perseverance in keeping fit, as well as barriers and ways of promoting physical activity. Sometimes those younger adults who are willing to engage in physical activity might only need some simple encouraging triggering messages (‘Just do it’, ‘Don’t think about it’), others need help in getting started and reminders (O’Brien et al., 2005). However, the elderly should seek appropriate medical advice before undertaking exercise. More difficult to tackle can be barriers such as unsafe neighbourhood, perceived illness and physical disability and gender, but also cultural stereotypes of older adults as frail and dependent (Brawley et al., 2003). Gaining confidence and increasing self-efficacy via programmes such as the group-mediated cognitive-behavioural approach, can help older adults overcome these barriers (Rejeski et al., 2003). Other group strategies, described by Brawley and colleagues (2003), include lifestyle intervention, which involves stages of

Rovio, S., Kåreholt, E., Helkala, E. et al. (2005). Leisure-time physical activity at midlife and the risk of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. The Lancet Neurology, 4, 705–711. Trejo, J.L., Carro, E. & Torres-Alemàn, I. (2001). Circulating insulin-like growth factor I mediates exercise-induced increases in the number of new neurons in the adult hippocampus. Journal of Neuroscience, 21, 1628–1634.

change model and group teaching of cognitive and behavioural strategies. Participants, encouraged to spend less time on sedentary activities such as watching television, often choose to replace them with more intense activities, such as walking. Teaching the skill of selfmonitoring can also successfully increase physical activity. Combining individual interventions with those aimed at the community (e.g. via healthcare providers) and those directed by the state (tax incentives, constructing neighbourhood sidewalks) can create a social-ecologic, multiple-level approach. In fact, some exercise psychologists work as consultants for initiatives of the government and NHS in promoting exercise and providing training to those involved.

Challenges ahead It appears that regular physical activity can reduce the risk of dementia, provided that it takes the appropriate form and is undertaken with sufficient frequency and duration. At this stage of research, however, many issues are not clear; for example, inconsistencies of evidence concerning effects of exercise on different types of dementia might be due to methodological problems, but also lack of knowledge about the biological processes evoked by exercise in the brain. These processes might, again, depend on the type of exercise and affect individual brains differently. Psychologists investigate factors related to exercise and on the basis of these can suggest solutions. Challenges include linking the individual strategies to population-wide programmes that promote healthy lifestyle and to group programmes of social problem-solving.

Trejo, J.L., Llorens-Martín, M.V. & TorresAlemán, I. (2008). The effects of exercise on spatial learning and anxiety-like behavior are mediated by an IGF-Idependent mechanism related to hippocampal neurogenesis. Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences, 37, 402–411. Tashiro, A., Makino, H., Gage, F.H. (2007). Experience-specific functional modification of the dentate gyrus through adult neurogenesis. Journal of

I Jadwiga Nazimek

is a psychology graduate studying for an MSc in biomedicine at Lancaster University nazimek@care2.com

Neuroscience, 27(12), 3252–3259. van Praag, H., Christie, B.R., Sejnowski, T.J. & Gage, F.H. (1999). Running enhances neurogenesis, learning, and long-term potentiation in mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 96, 13427–13431. Yamada M., Kasagi, F., Sasaki, H. et al. (2003). Association between dementia and midlife risk factors. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51, 410–414.

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Can humour make students love statistics? Andy Field, winner of the Society’s Book Award, on how he makes use of eels, quails and lap dancers in his teaching

questions

Many psychology students find themselves riddled with fear, boredom and often both at the prospect of learning statistics. Statistics anxiety and a lack of motivation are often cited as major obstacles to learning statistics, but what can be done to overcome these difficulties? This article looks at some of the problems we face when teaching statistics to psychologists, and asks whether humour is a useful tool to engage students and reduce their anxiety. It turns out that there is little evidence for humour as an effective tool to assist learning at all, and that using humour can be a doubleedged sword!

I

What are the main obstacles in teaching statistics to psychologists? What effect does statistics anxiety have on course performance?

resources

Field, A.P. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd edn). London: Sage. www.statisticshell.com www.sagepub.co.uk/field3e/

references

What forms of humour work best in the classroom, and is this true for all tutors?

Benson, J. (1989). Structural components of statistical test anxiety in adults: An exploratory model. Journal of Experimental Education, 57, 247–261. Bessant, K.C. (1992). Instructional design and the development of statistical literacy. Teaching Sociology, 20, 143–149. Blalock, H.M. (1987). Some general goals in teaching statistics. Teaching Sociology, 15(2), 164–172.

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’ve just finished reading Chris Frith’s brilliant Making Up the Mind, the most recent winner of the British Psychological Society’s Book Award. In this book, Professor Frith distils a diverse collection of research from every corner of psychology into a coherent theory of the mind. It’s a book full of wonders for both the layman and the experienced psychologist and is everything an awardwinning book should be. In comparison, the previous year’s winner – my 800 page re-description of the t-test (Discovering Statistics Using SPSS) – seems, well, a little undeserving to say the least. To add insult to injury, no sooner had I won the award with a book that simply describes how to do statistics rather than distil all of science into a beautiful and elegant new theory, it was time to write a new edition. I spent most of last year writing this and, as with the previous two editions, I have simply done what comes naturally and hoped for the best. However, my bemusement at winning the award has made me question why the book has been so successful. Although I probably should have done this before embarking on a new edition, I recently decided that it was about time that I read some of the literature on good teaching practice to see whether I’m doing it right. So this article is my attempt to summarise what I have discovered about the use of humour in teaching. There is rather more written about sociology students, so I have unashamedly drawn upon the sociology teaching literature. However, there are similarities between sociology and psychology students: both

Bryant, J., Crane, J.S., Comisky, P.W. & Zillmann, D. (1980). Relationship between college-teachers use of humor in the classroom and students evaluations of their teachers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 72(4), 511–519. Caffrey, B. & Lile, S. (1976 ). Similarity of attitudes toward science on the part of psychology and physics students. Teaching of Psychology, 3(1), 24–26.

have similar interests (although psychology majors tend to have higher school grades, Lunneborg & Lunneborg, 1991) and have comparable views of the scientific model (Caffrey & Lile, 1976).

Numbers are the beast

Psychology students are enrolled on courses that, to the layperson, shouldn’t obviously involve a detailed knowledge of statistics. Teaching them poses a unique set of difficulties. Ask anyone who teaches statistics to undergraduate psychologists and they will regale you with tales of students who are anxious, bored, unmotivated and constantly wondering why they are being tortured with statistics when they hoped to spend three years analysing their friends on a leather couch. Conners et al. (1998) identified four main problems in teaching statistics to undergraduate psychologists: motivation, statistics anxiety, performance extremes (students tend to be either brilliant or hopeless at statistics so at what level do you pitch the material?), and making learning last. Arguably the latter two of these problems will be eased by addressing motivation and anxiety. Maths anxiety and motivation are frequently cited as major obstacles in teaching statistics to social scientists. Bessant (1992) wrote that anxiety was ‘one of the most significant barriers that instructors encounter while teaching statistics’ (p.143). Similarly, Blalock (1987) assumed that students arrive with a ‘considerable fear of anything with the slightest quantitative flavor to it’ (p.164) and proposed that overcoming fears should be a primary goal in teaching statistics. Remarkably though, data supporting this assumption about anxiety is hard to unearth. One recent study, suggests that 25.1 per cent of sociology students reported being ‘very anxious’ and 32.8 per cent ‘anxious’ about taking a statistics course (DeCesare, 2007). Another cites values of two thirds to four fifths of graduate students experiencing uncomfortable levels of statistics anxiety

Conners, F.A., McCown, S.M. & RoskosEwoldson, B. (1998). Unique challenges in teaching undergraduates statistics. Teaching of Psychology, 25(1), 40–42. DeCesare, M. (2007). ‘Statistics anxiety’ among sociology majors. Teaching Sociology, 35(4), 360–367. Elmore, P.B. & Vasu, E.S. (1980). Relationship between selected variables and statistics achievement.

Journal of Educational Psychology, 72(4), 457–467. Epting, L.K., Zinn, T.E., Buskist, C. & Buskist, W. (2004). Student perspectives on the distinction between ideal and typical teachers. Teaching of Psychology, 31(3), 181–183. Gruner, C.R. (1967). Effect of humor on speaker ethos and audience information gain. Journal of

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(Onwuegbuzie & Wilson, 2003). Significantly more women than men report being anxious, and lower expected course grades predicted higher levels of reported anxiety (DeCesare, 2007). Although this shows that the majority of students are anxious about statistics, it is not the case that they all are. The effects of statistics anxiety on course performance are clear. A positive attitude to statistics has been found to enhance performance on introductory statistics courses (Elmore & Vasu, 1980), whereas statistics anxiety causally decreases performance (Benson, 1989; Onwuegbuzie & Wilson, 2003). Statistics anxiety affects a student’s ability to understand research articles, and to analyse and interpret statistical data, and it reduces memory efficiency when trying to understand and learn new statistical material (Onwuegbuzie & Wilson, 2003). Motivation for learning statistics can be low because students perceive the topic as unconnected to their chosen degree, which leads them to believe it is unimportant (Paxton, 2006). This perception could be exacerbated if the link to research methods is not directly made in core psychology courses. Statistics anxiety is also intrinsically linked to motivation: It is likely to reduce students’ self-efficacy, which reduces their achievement expectancies, and make them likely to give up when confronted with challenging material (Paxton, 2006). In the wider context this anxiety and reduced motivation might prevent some very gifted students from pursuing careers in psychology because they feel that a lack of confidence with statistics might prevent them from doing their job effectively or lead colleagues to perceive them as ‘stupid’. Although the obvious examples are research or academic posts, a great many psychology careers make use of the fundamental research skills that are the backbone of the British Psychological Society’s core undergraduate curriculum. Although I have no desire to be a harbinger of despair, the problems we face with student motivation and anxiety are

Communication, 17(3), 228–233. Kaplan, R.M. & Pascoe, G.C. (1977). Humorous lectures and humorous examples. Journal of Educational Psychology, 69(1), 61–65. Klein, D.M., Bryant, J. & Zillmann, D. (1982). Relationship between humor in introductory textbooks and students evaluations of the texts appeal and effectiveness. Psychological Reports, 50(1), 235–241.

likely to be getting worse. Undergraduate psychology students’ core mathematical skills are on the decline: a 1992 cohort outperformed a 2002 cohort on measures of calculation, algebraic reasoning, graphical interpretation, proportionality and ratio, probability and sampling, and estimation (Mulhern & Wylie, 2004). In the same study there was evidence that the 1992 cohort underperformed compared with a 1984 cohort on a subset of these measures. If students have any insight into their abilities then they will be less confident and, consequently, more anxious about statistics courses than in the past. It is increasingly important, therefore, to strive to engage students in statistical material in a way that decreases anxiety and increases motivation.

Why was Spearman embarrassed?

In winning the award, my book Discovering Statistics Using SPSS was praised for its refreshing style that engages students in statistics. If you believe the publisher’s blurb for the new edition then its success is attributable to ‘Andy’s humorous and self-deprecating style and the book’s host of characters’ which apparently ‘make the journey entertaining as well as educational’. So the main cannons in my armoury appear to be humour and self-loathing. Certainly, humour was the hare that I pursued like a hungry greyhound in this new edition. In the past I have invented datasets around bizarre examples from my imagination, but always feared that this might sidetrack students from the research process. This time I tried to find real research that would entertain (some might say offend) as well as inform. I found myself accelerating uncontrollably down an icy slope of ejaculating quails, oriental men with eels up their anus,

Lunneborg, C.E. & Lunneborg, P.W. (1991). Who majors in psychology? Teaching of Psychology 18(3), 144–148. Miller, G., Tybur, J.M. & Jordan, B.D. (2007). Ovulatory cycle effects on tip earnings by lap dancers: Economic evidence for human estrus? Evolution and Human Behavior, 28, 375–381. Mulhern, G. & Wylie, J. (2004). Changing levels of numeracy and other core mathematical skills among

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ovulating lap dancers (see box) and fake vaginas filled with fake sperm. Much as this passion for the bizarre keeps me motivated and calm when writing the book, does humour keep students motivated and calm about statistics? There is a remarkably small literature about using humour in teaching and textbooks. It is, to be fair, difficult to study. Apart from anything else, one person’s hilarious joke is another person’s tumbleweed rolling across the lecture theatre (or worse still, complaint to the vice chancellor about levels of decency). There is a long-held belief that humour in public speaking is a good thing, and that the information gained by an audience is enhanced by humour. The assumption is that humour increases attention and, therefore, learning. However, when comparing humorous and non-humorous speeches there is conflicting evidence about whether humour improves information retention (Gruner, 1967). There seems little doubt that students want humour: 96.6 per cent of students reported that they would want an ‘ideal’ teacher to use humour often or occasionally (Epting et al., 2004) and student evaluations of teachers’ effectiveness and appeal are positively related to their use of humour (Bryant et al., 1980). But does humour actually work, as an educational tool for reducing anxiety and improving learning? Schacht and Stewart (1990) evaluated a statistics course that used humorous cartoons as a means to reduce statistics anxiety. They found that not only did students perceive the cartoons as having reduced their anxiety, but scores on the maths anxiety rating scale significantly diminished from pre- to post-course. However, there was no control course that did not use cartoons, so it is unclear whether the use of cartoons was the causal agent in reducing anxiety. Astonishingly,

psychology undergraduates between 1992 and 2002. British Journal of Psychology, 95, 355–370. Onwuegbuzie, A.J. & Wilson, V.A. (2003). Statistics anxiety: Nature, etiology, antecedents, effects, and treatments. Teaching in Higher Education, 8(2), 195–209. Paxton, P. (2006). Dollars and sense: Convincing students that they can learn and want to learn statistics.

Teaching Sociology, 34(1), 65–70. Schacht, S. & Stewart, B.J. (1990). What’s funny about statistics – A technique for reducing student anxiety. Teaching Sociology, 18, 52–56. Zillmann, D., Williams, B.R., Bryant, J. et al. (1980). Acquisition of information from educational-television programs as a function of differently paced humorous inserts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 72, 170–180.

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this was the only study I managed to find that looked at the use of humour to reduce statistics anxiety. In terms of assisting learning, there are some studies (although not specific to statistics teaching) suggesting that humour can be a useful tool in facilitating learning. A study on children manipulated televised educational programmes so that they contained clips of humorous programmes (such as The Muppet Show) or nonhumorous inserts placed such that they didn’t interrupt an educational point. Results showed that children learnt more from educational films containing humorous inserts compared to films containing non-humorous inserts or no inserts (Zillmann et al., 1980). The authors concluded that the humorous inserts increased learning by improving attention. These humorous inserts were fairly randomly interspersed within the educational content and were unrelated to the material to be learned. Kaplan and Pascoe (1977) systematically manipulated whether humour in a lecture was related to the topic being taught, was un-related, or was a mix of the two. Compared to lectures with no humour, concepts presented humorously were not better remembered immediately after the lecture, but were at six-week follow up. This suggests that humour can be a useful tool

in making learning last (one of the four obstacles mentioned earlier). However, the effect that humour had was conceptspecific; unlike in Zillmann et al.’s study, humour did not improve overall learning, only recall of the specific concepts that were described using humour. One strategic approach to teaching statistics might, therefore, be to use humour selectively when explaining particularly difficult constructs. By the way, in case you’re wondering: Spearman’s mum caught him ranking.

The sad clown

If we assume, based on the limited evidence available, that humour can be a useful way to reduce statistics anxiety and improve learning then we need to also consider the pitfalls. The research so far conducted on the use of humour has, by necessity, been fairly limited. There are numerous styles of humour, and the extent to which humour can be a useful tool probably depends on the extent to which the teacher’s personality lends itself to being funny. There is very little research that has tried to pick apart the effects of different styles of humour. One exception is Bryant et al.’s (1980) study, in which humour characteristics of lecturers were

categorised. They found very interesting gender differences. For male tutors: I humour was overall associated with effectiveness; I funny stories were better than jokes, riddles or puns; I spontaneous humour was more effective than prepared humour; I humour related to the topic being taught was better than unrelated humour; I hostile/aggressive humour and nonsense humour correlated with effectiveness but sexual humour did not; and I effectiveness was correlated with humour that involved characters other than the tutor or students. For female tutors, however, the picture was very different. Overall, the use of humour was not associated with effectiveness, and the use of puns had a detrimental relationship with effectiveness. No other humour characteristics correlated with effectiveness for female tutors. The authors suggest that these gender differences may stem from students’ gender stereotypes of appropriate behaviour in the classroom; however, nearly 30 years on from the study this explanation probably has less credibility.

Bringing lap dancers to the lecture theatre One way to bring some humour into the lecture theatre is to find examples of real research that address important theoretical questions, but that are tested in an unusual way and can feed into lively discussions about methods and research design. A particular favourite of mine is a study by Miller et al. (2007) that used lap dancers as an ingenious method of testing an important evolutionary theory. Most female mammals experience a phase of ‘estrus’ during which they are more sexually receptive and attractive, the evolutionary benefit of which is believed to be to attract mates of superior genetic stock. Some people have argued that this important phase became uniquely lost in human females. Miller and his colleagues reasoned that if the ‘hiddenestrus’ theory is incorrect then men should find women most

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recording their menstrual cycle attractive during the fertile and tips. phase of their menstrual cycle The example is naturally compared to the pre-fertile attention-grabbing, memorable, (menstrual) and post-fertile and is easy to present in a light(luteal) phase. To measure how hearted way; however, it attractive men found women in an addresses an important research ecologically valid way, they came question, was well conducted, and up with the ingenious idea of enables you to make several collecting data from women educational points. First, the data working at lap-dancing clubs. There is a link between how much are quite representative of naturally collected data in that money a dancer earns and their different dancers attractiveness provided different to patrons amounts of data because “the more men a because of the varying men pay for dancer attracts, the nature of their shifts. dances: the bigger her tips” There are a lot of more men missing values. The data a dancer are a therefore a very useful way attracts, the bigger her tips. If to explore the problems of ‘real’ women do have an estrus phase data sets (in this case, I use it to then they will be more attractive show how multilevel models can during this phase and therefore be used to overcome the problem earn more money. To gather this of missing data in repeated information, the researchers got measures designs). It is also a the dancers to keep diaries

fabulous example of how diary methods can be used to collect data (Why might the researchers have used a diary method rather than visiting lap-dance clubs?). It can be used to prompt discussion about cause and effect in time series research (Can we conclude that the extra tips were caused by the estrus phase?). You can also discuss generalisation (Are men who attend lap-dancing clubs and give tips representative of the population of men as a whole?). Finally, it is a great example of how to address an important research question using a naturally occurring phenomenon. Students can consider whether it would be possible to test this theory experimentally, and they invariably have some entertaining speculations about the motives for using lap dancers – but then can they think of alternative ways to test the same theory?

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It would be interesting to see whether these gender differences hold up in a more contemporary setting. Moving away from face-to-face teaching, it is also important to ascertain whether humour is a useful tool in teaching materials and textbooks (and, of course, this is a pertinent personal issue on the eve of the release of my new tome). I was delighted to discover that chapters from humorous textbooks are rated by students as more enjoyable (Klein et al., 1982). This delight waned upon glancing at the table showing data that humorous book chapters did not significantly improve learning, interest, persuasiveness, and the desire to read more. The delight swung to horror as the article revealed that the credibility of the author was inversely related to the amount of humour used. Oh dear, I probably won the 2007 book award because the judges enjoyed it and not because they learnt anything from it.

Conclusions

I have tried to summarise what little evidence there is that humour can be a

useful teaching tool for reducing statistics anxiety and improving learning. The most glaring conclusion that stems from this review is that a lot more research is needed, and within contemporary settings. There is little research on the use of humour in teaching, and what little there is now relatively dated and does not fully explore the influences of different forms of humour, the placement of humour and how well the humour aligns to the concepts being taught. There is also a massive lacuna in research on the use of humour to reduce statistics anxiety, and whether reductions in statistics anxiety moderate improvements in performance that arise from the use of humour. Finally, we need to know more about how humour interacts with the personality of the lecturer. It seems naive to assume that humour is universally a good thing – it will work for some people and not for others. A prescription of how to deliver humorous examples can probably never be found and there is no substitute for

teachers and writers finding their own voice. There are also potential pitfalls in using humour. Two that we know of are that using humour doesn’t always improve your effectiveness or appeal (it seems to depend upon your gender), and that it reduces student perceptions of your genius. However, there is tentative evidence that humour might be a useful way to reduce statistics anxiety, and concept-related humour can probably be a useful way to enhance learning. If you’re going to try humour in your teaching, it is better to tell anecdotes about people other than you or your students, and avoid sexual themes (like ejaculating quails, ovulating lap dancers and eels). Finally, ignore me, because, apparently, I have no academic credibility.

I Andy Field

is in the Department of Psychology, University of Sussex andyf@sussex.ac.uk

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EYE ON FICTION

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The psychology of ‘O’ Sallie Baxendale looks at a psychological case study in literature

hen it was first published over 50 years ago, Story of O rapidly gained a notorious reputation for its remarkably frank portrayal of masochistic sexual fantasies and rituals. Banned throughout the world and written under a pseudonym, the character of O and her unknown creator became mythologised in acres of print that were subsequently devoted to the slim novel. It has been reinterpreted through the decades according to the zeitgeist, resulting in ritual burnings of book in the name of feminism in the 1970s to its relegation to classic but quaint status in today’s explicit world of dedicated sex channels and internet pornography. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the development of the character of O herself. This article examines the extraordinarily accurate portrayal of cognitive dissonance in the character of O, as she is subjected to increasingly humiliating experiences during the course of the novel. As a case study in cognitive dissonance, Story of O is all the more remarkable for being written four years before Festinger first published his theory.

W

Historical background

references

Although it has now obtained classic status as an erotic novel, Story of O was not originally written to be published. Nearly 50 and aware of her failing physical charms, the author Dominique Aury wrote the Story of O in an attempt to

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Aronson, E. & Mills, J. (1959). The effect of severity of initiation on liking for a group. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 59, 177–181. Bedell, G. (2004, 25 July). I wrote the story of O. The Observer. Cross, P.A. & Matheson, K. (2006). Understanding sadomasochism: An empirical examination of four perspectives. Journal of Homosexuality, 50, 2–3, 133–166.

keep her lover Jean Paulhan’s interest. The content was largely dictated by the gauntlet Paulhan threw down when he insisted that women were incapable of writing powerful erotica like the Marquis de Sade, whom he greatly admired (Bedell, 2004). Aury created a violent, gothic world of dungeons and masks; the interminable whippings relieved by orgies with bondage and sodomy. At the Chateaux Roissy, men are the supreme masters of the women who dress in saucy wench corset dresses, modified to allow unfettered access to their breasts and genitalia. Even eye contact with “Aury inadvertently the men is created a superb literary punished case study of cognitive with severe dissonance” beatings. We meet O in a taxi on the way to Roissy with her lover René, blissfully unaware of what awaits her. She is quickly initiated into the Roissy rituals and accepts, seemingly without question, all the pain and humiliation that come her way over the next weeks, including a prolonged spell strung up in a dungeon, before she is finally collected and taken home by her lover. Reunited with her true love again, she doesn’t question his demands, but simply knows that by acceding to his every whim she is proving her love for him. Back at home, O’s erotic adventures

Dworkin, A. (1974). Woman as victim: ‘Story of O’. Feminist Studies, 2 (1), 107–111. Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson & Co. Festinger, L., Riecken, W. & Schachter, S. (1956). When prophecy fails. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. Loumakou, M., Brouskeli, V. & Sarafidou,

are largely limited to lounging around her apartment naked and going to work without underwear, until she is introduced and ‘given’ to René’s half brother Sir Stephen, who proceeds to beat and sodomise her and eventually brands her buttocks with his initials and forges a heavy iron chain through her labia. Aury produced two endings for the floundering tale. In the first, O has lost all human identity. We leave her masked, scarred and naked on a leash at a party, as a free sexual resource for all the guests to use as they wish. In an alternative skeletal ending Aury writes that ‘seeing herself about to be left by Sir Stephen, she preferred to die. To which he gave his consent.’

Public reaction Histoire d’O and Story of O were published simultaneously in French and English in 1954 under the pseudonym Pauline Réage. The language of the novel is fairly tame by today’s standards, with the prose in translation veering more towards the gynaecological than the erotic (e.g. ‘One of the men gripped her buttocks and sank himself into her womb’). However, whilst the language may not have been shocking, the sadomasochistic acts themselves were enough to attract the interest of the censors. Although the novel was never officially banned in the UK, the censorship laws allowed the authorities to confiscate the novel and forbade its distribution. Sociologists may be able to explain why D.H. Lawrence’s vastly more pedestrian Lady Chatterley’s Lover caused such a furore seven years later; the British, apparently far more outraged by the depiction of a sexual relationship between adults of a different social class, than tales of gang rape, sodomy and violent subjugation in a French chateau. Whilst Story of O was by championed by such literary luminaries as Graham Greene (who described it as ‘a rare thing, a pornographic book without a trace of

J.O. (2006). Aiming at tobacco harm reduction. Harm Reduction Journal, 3, 13. McNally, A.M., Palfai, T.P. & Kahler, C.W. (2005). Motivational Interventions for heavy drinking college students. Psychology of Addictive Behaviour, 19, 79–87. Patterson, J.C., Holland, J. & Middleton, R. (2006). Neuropsychological performance, impulsivity, and

comorbid psychiatric illness in patients with pathological gambling undergoing treatment at the CORE Inpatient Treatment Center. South Medical Journal, 99, 36–43. Stice, E. et al. (2006). Dissonance and healthy weight eating disorder prevention programs. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 263–275.

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obscenity’), Harold Pinter (‘a remarkable piece of work’) and J.G. Ballard (‘a deeply moral homily’), the novel was roundly condemned by the leaders of the early feminist movement (Dworkin, 1974), and copies were burnt along with bras in universities across the USA in the 1970s.

The psychology of O So, did Aury succeed in writing like the Marquis de Sade, as was her primary objective with Story of O? She was certainly able to recreate some of the gothic horror of de Sade’s writings and some of O’s misfortunes are similar to those suffered by de Sade’s Therese in Justine. Nevertheless, the sadomasochistic rituals and beatings at Roissy are a stroll in the park compared to the ultimately fatal horrors inflicted on the women and very young children in De Sade’s notorious 120 Days of Sodom. However, in an important sense, Aury was scuppered from the start in her endeavour. The Marquis de Sade wrote about his own fantasies, so he was easily able to convey the sexual pleasure his characters felt when they were inflicting pain, degradation and annihilation. In taking up the challenge to write ‘like’ him, Aury adopted someone else’s fantasy. Although her character O describes in great detail what is happening to her, she very rarely tells the reader how this makes her feel. It is as if Aury does not know how to articulate the sexual pleasure that O is getting from her repeated humiliations. Unable or unwilling to provide an insight into O’s motivations and feelings throughout most of the novel, Aury inadvertently created a superb literary case study of cognitive dissonance. The theory of cognitive dissonance was first proposed by Festinger (1957) to account for the observation that forced compliance in a situation often leads to an apparent change in opinion. He noted that whilst it was possible for an individual to hold two conflicting beliefs, this state was psychologically uncomfortable and that people strive to develop new thoughts or modify their existing beliefs to reduce the amount of dissonance or conflict between their cognitions. In his classic experiment, students who had been made to do a boring task for little reward rated it as more interesting than those who had been well compensated for their time. Festinger argued that the former group experienced dissonance, and so modified their beliefs about the task, rating it as more interesting in order to justify the

amount of time they had spent on it. Cognitive dissonance can be manipulated experimentally in the laboratory in studies like these, but is also seen in everyday situations. Examples of a mass shift in opinion have been reported in the members of doomsday cults, when the world hasn’t ended on the designated day. Rather than reject the original belief, new beliefs in cult members represent an attempt to accommodate both the original belief in the imminent demise of the universe and the fact that the world is still here. For example ‘the aliens had a sudden change of heart and decided to spare the world’ (Festinger et al., 1956). Aronson and Mills (1959) developed the cognitive dissonance theory further by introducing the concept of the effort justification paradigm. In a series of experiments they demonstrated that

cognitive dissonance is often reduced in social interactions by coming to like what you are suffering for. In effect, these laboratory studies demonstrated the scientific basis for the folk wisdom ‘treat ’em mean to keep ’em keen’. As a psychological case study, the character of O is a perfect example of this paradigm. At the beginning of the novel O is delivered to a chateau, blindfolded, bound, stripped, raped and sodomised by four men, tied to post and whipped. Through 30 pages of violence, humiliation and sexual torture O doesn’t utter a word of dialogue, until the round of torture is over and her lover declares his love for her and she replies ‘“I love you” and it was true, she did.’ These are the first words she says in the novel. Moments later she repeats the phrase again, twice no less, forcing the words out whilst gagging during an enforced act of fellatio. An impressive feat in its own right, this time she manages to say it with ‘such delight’. As the humiliations and

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degradations increase throughout the novel, almost the only words O can utter are ‘I love you’. Significantly, she almost always re-declares her love following the introduction of each new cruel and unusual punishment. The accuracy of the portrayal of cognitive dissonance and the process of the effort justification paradigm is remarkable on two counts. Firstly Aury wrote the novel at least four years before Festinger published his theory. Secondly, O’s experiences are imagined and fictitious, inspired by the fantasies of de Sade, a man who died 150 years before Aury began writing. It seems unlikely therefore that she was writing from her direct experience of cognitive dissonance in a physically sadomasochistic relationship. If she were, one might expect more details of O’s thoughts and feelings during the abuse. The theory of cognitive dissonance continues to be an active area of study within cognitive and clinical psychology domains. It has been used to explain and treat a number of selfdestructive behaviours including compulsive gambling (Patterson et al., 2006), eating disorders (e.g. Stice et al., 2006), smoking (Loumakou et al., 2006) and alcoholism (McNally et al., 2005). Whilst sadomasochistic practices have been the subject of extensive psychological study, to date the approaches taken have been almost exclusively psychodynamic in nature, with the occasional nod to sociological or forensic explanations. A recent review of the literature (Cross & Matheson, 2006) examined the empirical evidence for four models of sadomasochistic behaviour, including psychodynamic, medical, feminist and escapist theories. None of the explanations afforded by these models were well supported by their study. The authors conclude that it is the power play that lies at the heart of sadomasochistic sexual practices, rather than the giving or receiving of pain. This theory readily lends itself to exploration within a cognitive psychology framework, but as yet, sadomasochistic practices have received little serious attention from cognitive psychologists. Perhaps a fictional character, created over half a century ago to keep a lover’s interest alive, may now point the way to a new psychological evaluation of sadomasochistic practices today. I Dr Sallie Baxendale is with the Institute of Neurology, University College London sallieb@ion.ucl.ac.uk

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Accessing expert cognition Julie Gore and Claire McAndrew explore advances in cognitive task analysis

ssentially, cognitive task analysis (CTA) attempts to identify how individual experts perform a cognitive task. Such qualitative methods have received much research attention in cognitive psychology, particularly within the decision sciences and the field of cognitive ergonomics (see Crandall et al., 2006). They assume that language reflects thought – as Ormerod and Ball (2007) note, otherwise there is no ‘cognition’ to study – and also that cognition is required for the successful completion of an explicit task (Hoffman & Militello, 2008). There is no single, well-accepted definition of CTA. This is partly due to the fact that the knowledge elicitation techniques that lie at the heart of these methods vary greatly. The most frequently used include structured and semistructured one-to-one interviews, group interviews, real-time or retrospective ‘think-aloud’ protocols, analyses of previous incidents and observations of task performance. Each of these methods has had some success using realistic problem-solving and decision-making tasks, many experts and many tasks, or many different scenarios revolving around the same task (Klein & Militello, 2004). However, CTA methods have been criticised as being incredibly timeconsuming and difficult to use, sometimes resulting in problematic data analysis (see Hoffman & Woods, 2000; McAndrew & Gore, 2007). In this article we will review recent developments, providing an overview of one promising technique that

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Crandall, B., Klein, G. & Hoffman, R.H. (2006). Working minds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Drury, J.L. & Darling, E. (2008). A ‘thinslicing’ approach to understanding cognitive challenges in real-time command and control. Journal of Battlefield Technology, 11(1), 9-16. Gore, J. & Riley, M. (2004). Recruitment and selection in hotels. In H. Montgomery, R. Lipshitz & B.

begins to provide practical solutions to eliciting aspects of expert cognition.

The ACTA technique Like CTA, the applied cognitive task analysis (ACTA) technique is intended to assist in the identification of the key cognitive elements required to perform a task proficiently, albeit in a way useful to practitioners (Militello & Hutton, 1998). Empirical work has successfully used ACTA to understand expertise in a diverse range of areas including weather forecasting (Hoffman et al., 2006), clinical nursing (Militello & Lim, 1995), recruitment (Gore & Riley, 2004), financial markets (McAndrew & Gore, 2007), and military command and control operations (Drury & Darling, 2008). The refinement of ACTA for these purposes by Beth Crandall, Gary Klein, Robert Hoffman and Laura Militello has provided a significant development in available tools and techniques for the identification of training needs in knowledge-based work. Furthermore, these developments have

Brehmer (Eds.) How professionals make decisions (pp.343–350). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Hoffman, R.R. (1992). The psychology of expertise: Cognitive research and empirical AI. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Hoffman, R.R. & Militello, L.G. (2008). Perspectives on cognitive task analysis. Hove: Psychology Press. Hoffman, R.R., Trafton, G. & Roebber, P.

provided instructional designers with clearer guidelines when designing training for cognitively demanding tasks in domain specific areas. The cognitive requirements CTA and ACTA seek to address are: I difficult judgments and decisions; I attentional demands; I critical cues and patterns; and I problem-solving strategies/other related topics. What is unique about ACTA is that it employs a variety of knowledge-elicitation and -representation techniques that systematically build on one another, providing task-specific, high-quality knowledge. ACTA’s knowledge elicitation techniques involve interviews (and sometimes observation), whilst the knowledge-representation techniques provide a structured means of organising and comparing cognitive information (cognitive mapping). These techniques were developed to complement each other, each tapping into different aspects of cognition. We illustrate the methodological process with extracts taken from a study by one of us (McAndrew, 2008), which applied ACTA to the field of behavioural finance in order to understand the cognitive challenges day traders face. The insights elicited by ACTA enabled this study to document the social psychological aspects of financial markets and re-conceptualise day traders’ skill as an interactional expertise (i.e. one that occurs between cognition, social environment and technology). The first step in the process, the production of the task diagram, provides the interviewer with a broad overview of the task. This interview helps identify areas requiring complex cognitive skills, one of which is explored in greater detail

(2006). Minding the weather. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Hoffman, R.R. & Woods, D.D. (2000). Studying cognitive systems in context. Human Factors, 42(1), 1–7. Klein, G. & Hoffman, R.R. (1993). Seeing the invisible: Perceptual-cognitive aspects of expertise. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 19(3), 462–472. Klein, G. & Militello, L. (2004). The

knowledge audit as a method for cognitive task analysis. In H. Montgomery et al. (Eds.) How professionals make decisions (pp.335–342). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. McAndrew, C. (2008). Cross-fertilising methods in naturalistic-decision making and managerial cognition. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Surrey.

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methods

during steps two and three. For example, in McAndrew’s study of day traders, foreign exchange transactions were normally chunked into four important parts – deciding what currency pairs should be considered as a basis of the trade; what currency pair will perform; technical analysis of the size of trade and level to enter the market at; and exit levels. Participants are encouraged to break the complex task into three to six parts and then identify which aspect of the task is most cognitively challenging. Participants at this stage sometimes want to provide too much detail – at this stage of the process all that is required is a ‘big picture’ overview. By producing a simple diagram with the participant it is easy to check understanding. The second step, the knowledge audit, reviews the aspects of expertise required for the effective execution of a cognitive subtask from step one. The audit is theoretically grounded in the research literature on expert-novice differences (see Hoffman, 1992; Klein & Hoffman, 1993) and critical decision method studies (Militello & Lim, 1995). The knowledge audit has been developed with the joint aims of capturing key aspects of expertise and improving and ‘streamlining’ data collection and analysis. When aspects of expertise are elicited they are individually probed using a series of generic probes to elicit detail and identify concrete examples associated with the task. This technique also encourages the interviewee to identify why elements of the task may present a problem to inexperienced individuals. Returning to the trading example, the technical analysis subtask from step one was selected to be probed in more detail (see Militello & Hutton, 1998, for sample questions). For instance, by asking the question ‘Is there a time when you walked into the middle of a situation and knew exactly how things got there and where they were headed?’, the study identified: I Aspects of expertise: The example provided by the day trader focused upon a euro–dollar currency pair

McAndrew, C. & Gore, J. (2007). “Convince me…”: An interdisciplinary study of NDM and investment managers. Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making. Pacific Grove, CA. Militello, L.G. & Hutton, R.J.B. (1998). Applied cognitive task analysis (ACTA). Ergonomics, 41,

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trend, where the market was performing in line with expectations. Cues and strategies: As an expert, the day trader assesses the situation by looking for key cues and strategies based upon their expertise. In this example, the trader stresses the importance of technical analysis in monitoring the highs and lows of daily trends. Difficulties: The day trader suggests that this particular element of the task would be difficult for inexperienced traders, as novices may lack the conceptual understanding of trending and may have insufficient knowledge of technical analysis methods.

The knowledge audit can take up to two hours to complete and often elicits previously undocumented aspects of successful task completion. The third step, the simulation interview or scenario, obtains information on the contextualisation of the job or task that is not easy to acquire with the preceding steps. It allows the interviewer to explore and probe issues such as situation assessment, potential errors and biases and how a novice would be likely to respond to the same situation. Again this stage of the process can be adapted to the context of the task and its environment, taking the form of a paper-and-pencil task or computer simulation. Participants’ responses are recorded in a similar manner to the knowledge audit. In the final step, the production of a cognitive demands table is a means of merging and synthesising data. The cognitive demands table is the deliverable of the ACTA intended for practitioner use, therefore allowing a focus on the specific outcomes of the analysis that are pertinent to problem solving and decision making in areas such as training and job design. Again the study with day traders illustrates for the task of foreign exchange transactions how ACTA might usefully identify areas that require complex cognitive skills, for example: I Difficult cognitive element: Bucking the

1618–1641. Militello, L.G. & Lim, L. (1995). Early assessment of NEC in premature infants. Journal of Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing, 9, 1–11. Ormerod, T.C. & Ball, L.J. (2007). Qualitative methods in cognitive psychology. In C. Willig & W. Stainton Rogers (Eds.) Handbook of qualitative research

in psychology. London: Sage. Salas, E. & Cannon-Bowers, J.A. (2001). The science of training. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 471–499.

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market – identifying emerging trends e.g. bull markets and rallies. Why difficult? Distinguishing market rumour vs. real trend; dips do not always indicate rallies; difficult to pick exit levels due to uncertainty. Common errors: Unlikely to factor-in psychological element; confuse rally with reaction high; interfere with position once placed. Cues and strategies used: Technical analysis (channel of higher highs/lows, daily highs/lows); Fibonacci retracements do not work on reaction highs.

ACTA and training needs Adopting a training perspective, Salas and Cannon-Bowers (2001) argue that cognitive task analysis is a potentially useful tool. Specifically they draw attention to the need for a theoretically driven methodology that clearly outlines the steps of data analysis. They also note that whilst much of the rhetoric associated with the theory and practice of training argues that training needs analysis (including methods such as task analysis) is the most important phase, it remains largely ‘more art than science’. Determining the training needs of individuals and organisations, they argue, requires the development of a more systematic and conceptually rigorous methodology. This need is especially evident with regard to knowledge work and the development of knowledge assets and human capital. Our hope is that some readers will think that the ACTA techniques can assist in developing models of the problem space that practitioners face, and highlight how practitioners achieve expertise. Alongside Hoffman and Militello (2008) we hope that by breaking down barriers about how we think about studying cognitive work in context, this article will encourage those who may have dismissed CTA techniques as difficult to use and timeconsuming to try out the ACTA techniques in order to share experiences and document their qualitative analysis. I Julie Gore is a Chartered Psychologist and Senior Lecturer in Organisational Behaviour at the University of Surrey j.gore@surrey.ac.uk I Claire McAndrew is a postdoctoral researcher in the Research Unit for Information Environments, University of the Arts London c.mcandrew@lcc.arts.ac.uk

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BOOK REVIEWS

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A book to remember Few topics are more fascinating than memory, seemingly woven into the fabric of whatever makes us human, and what enthusiasm the thought of studying it at university level usually elicits in the psychology undergraduate! However, before you go all Proustian, you are told, ‘Hold the madeleine!’ – for the study of memory seems to become a game of word completion under experimental conditions, or a photographic negative, whereby we learn about memory from neurological patients who have lost different facets of the ability to remember. All this is fascinating, but it may still leave students (and lecturers) with the impression that memory is like a big box divided into smaller boxes (with different theories as to the criteria for this division) and, ultimately, with a sense that there is a ‘bigger picture’ that eludes us. Kurt Danziger’s latest book is set to change this state of affairs. Danziger considers that, although psychology is a relatively new discipline, the concept of memory pre-exists it by millennia, with different meanings in different historical and geographical contexts. He uncovers what has been there all along but a conspiracy of silence has kept hidden: that memory is far from an ahistorical, static concept. What shines through this book is the effort that has been spent by psychology to keep memory and its investigation isolated, eliding the sociality underlying any form of remembering, and the neglect of the role that socio-economic conditions and power have played in shaping understandings of memory through (mainly Western) history. One example is the rise of medical discourse (with the attendant separation of ‘expert’ and ‘lay’ knowledge), which produced a proliferation of terms and diagnoses around memory and forgetting in the second Marking the Mind: part of the 19th century, from ‘suggestion’ and A History of Memory ‘suggestibility’, to ‘paramnesia’ – ‘“remembering” things Kurt Danziger that were never there in the first place’ – to repressed memories. It is a fascinating and sometimes uphill journey – with Plato, Aristotle, Descartes and Locke used to illuminate the philosophical underpinnings of memory – but the book is relatively accessible to the reader who has no background in philosophy. It is a great read from cover to cover, which makes it difficult to single out a topic; my personal preference is for the pages that describe the transition between oral tradition and the consolidation of literacy, the time when the idea of memory as ‘inscription’ began to take shape. According to Danziger, Plato, with his ambivalence towards writing, which he saw as ‘the freezing of living memory’, highlights this shift: ‘placed in a transitional situation…Plato was able to discern complexities in the relation of literacy and memory that became increasingly invisible to subsequent generations’. Another favourite is the ‘reminder’ (lame pun intended) of how prescient Frederic Bartlett was in interrogating a ‘static’ view of memory, arguing that ‘remembering’ (an activity, and a continuous one at that) would be a more appropriate conceptualisation, and in his attention to the social aspects of remembering. ‘Social organization’, he stated, ‘gives a persistent framework into which all detailed recall must fit, and it very powerfully influences both the matter and the manner of recall’ (Bartlett, 1932/1995, p.296). As Danziger notes, these insights were neglected until the emergence of discursive psychology towards the end of the century. In conclusion, this is a book to remember! Reference Bartlett, F.C. (1995). Remembering: A study in experimental and social psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Original work published 1932)

I Cambridge University Press; 2008; Pb £23.99 Reviewed by Toni Brennan who is in the Department of Psychology, University of Surrey

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Thought-provoking Creativity, Mental Illness and Crime Russell Eisenman Eisenman begins by looking at the relationship between creativity and mental illness in prisoners. He uses data from his own research and experience, as well as from several different sources, to reflect upon other issues also, such as the desirability of the death penalty; availability of drugs in schools; characteristics of adolescent sex offenders; and mistreatment of mentally ill individuals in prison treatment programmes. Although these topics are interesting in their own right, Eisenman fails to provide a unified theme that links the issues mentioned in the title. Instead, he considers topics that could be viewed as largely unrelated, leaving the reader somewhat confused about the agenda of this work. Although it is difficult to grasp the aim and purpose of the book, each chapter is written in a direct and honest manner, which ultimately provides insight into Eisenman’s interests on what are arguably neglected areas of research. However, this book should not be treated as another academic book but considered simply as one that is thought-provoking and highlights avenues for further research. I Kendall/Hunt; 2008; Pb £25.00 Reviewed by Lisa Halley who is an assistant psychologist in the Forensic Directorate, NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde

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book reviews

Science of parenting

Full of juicy issues

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Raising Kids in the 21st Century Sharon Hall

This Book Has Issues: Adventures in Popular Psychology Christian Jarrett & Joannah Ginsburg

What Is Special about the Human Brain? Richard Passingham

I Wiley-Blackwell; 2008; Pb £14.99 Reviewed by Jasmin AquanAssee who is with St Mary’s Hospital/Imperial College NHS Trust

This book walks a line between the ‘pop’ psychology of newsstands and the published work of professional psychologists, and with Christian Jarrett as co-author, there was a guarantee it would be a good read. His fingerprints (so to speak) are all over the new-style Psychologist, and this book is full of the juicy research items he is adept at finding. The other author, Joannah Ginsburg, is likewise both psychologist (psychotherapist) and journalist, contributing three of the eight chapters including the ones on stress (how did the god Pan first sow panic?) and sleep (a way to better remember your dreams?). Jarrett contributes the other five chapters, such as memory and personality – you may have missed the sea slug’s critical contribution to memory research, or an answer to the important question of what makes an effective leader. Each chapter contains a handful of two-page articles, making a total of 61 short pieces, all based on valid research and attractively laid out; there is a compact reference section at the end (index of psychologists, subject index, background research references). I Continuum; 2008; Hb £12.99 Reviewed by Michael Reddy who is Director of MavEdu, a multilingual social and career network for psychologists

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This title attempts to tackle the current debate about the similarities between humans and primates. However, it does so by focusing instead on differences and by emphasising what makes humans unique. The first chapter makes a good job of expressing the intricacies of the debate. What follows is a series of chapters dedicated to a different skill or behaviour. Chapters include among other things language skills and decision-making activity. Each chapter focuses largely on experimental evidence to demonstrate such differences. The discussion concerning the actual level of language understanding possessed by primates when compared with humans was engaging. Although chimpanzees have been shown to hold a rudimentary understanding of language, it is not a patch on our abilities as

just in

The author’s aim is to ‘paint an overall picture of the skills children need to become functioning adults through translating the latest scientific research into workable guidelines’. In short, follow the guidelines dictated by research and a psychologically healthy adult is seemingly guaranteed. However, this book tries too hard to provide a synthesis of current child development literature and fails in its ambition to provide a straightforward guide for raising psychologically healthy children. It is also pitched at a US audience, which can be distracting. Despite these criticisms, it is worth picking up as long as you are not seeking a step-bystep guide to psychological/ social health. The author presents a cogent discussion on her specific concept of ‘psychological health’ and how early cognitive and social development is linked to issues such as resilience and to wider social issues like tolerance and racism. Parents and teachers interested in exploring children’s social development/ behaviour should find this easyto-read book interesting and informative and perhaps even a spur to delving further into the complex area of psychological health.

humans. Indeed, the hemispheric specialisation in humans is a great example of just how much we differ. Passingham ends by reflecting that neuroscience is a relatively new science. The majority of such studies use macaques as a comparison. This has major implications as it is possible that ‘the chimpanzee brain differs from the macaque brain in the same way as does the human brain’. This means that a full understanding of just how humans differ from chimpanzees in particular will not be possible until similar methodologies can be utilised in the study of both. Until then examination of differences can be, to a large extent, conjecture. As an introduction to this debate I would definitely recommend this title. I Oxford University Press; 2008; Hb £29.95 Reviewed by Gary Christopher who is a lecturer in cognitive psychology at the University of the West of England

Sample titles just in: Remembering Our Childhood Karl Sabbagh Women and Depression Michelle N. Lafrance Fundamentals of Psychology Michael W. Eysenck Bodies Susie Orbach Vygotsky at Work and Play Lois Holzman Ten Zen Questions Susan Blackmore The Child’s Voice in Family therapy Carole Gammer Political Psychology David Patrick Houghton The Nature of Sexual Desire James Giles For a full list of books available for review and information on reviewing for The Psychologist, see www.bps.org.uk/books Send books for potential review to The Psychologist, 48 Princess Road East, Leicester LE1 7DR

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&EWIHMRXLI[SVPHPIEHMRK7GLSSPSJ7SGMEP7GMIRGIWXLI (ITEVXQIRXSJ4W]GLSPSK]SJJIVWXLIJSPPS[MRK&47EGGVIHMXIH ERHSXLIVXEYKLXTSWXKVEHYEXIGSYVWIW +VEHYEXI'IVXM´GEXIMR'SYRWIPPMRK4W]GLSPSK] +VEHYEXI(MTPSQEMR7TIGMEPMWX)HYGEXMSREP-RXIVZIRXMSR 4VSJIWWMSREP(SGXSVEXI (4W]GL MR'SYRWIPPMRK4W]GLSPSK] 4VSJIWWMSREP(SGXSVEXI (4W]GL MR,IEPXL4W]GLSPSK] 17GMR,IEPXL4W]GLSPSK] 17GMR4W]GLSPSK]ERH,IEPXL 17GMR3VKERMWEXMSREP&ILEZMSYV 17GMR3VKERMWEXMSREP4W]GLSPSK] 17GMR6IWIEVGL1IXLSHWERH4W]GLSPSK]

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[[[GMX]EGYOWSGMEP read discuss contribute at www.thepsychologist.org.uk

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SOCIETY

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The British Psychological Society

Liz Campbell Contact Liz Campbell via the Society’s Leicester office, or e-mail: president@bps.org.uk

President Elect Sue Gardner

Honorary Treasurer Dr Richard Mallows Chair, Membership and Professional Training Board Dr Peter Banister Chair, Psychology Education Board Dr Richard Latto Chair, Research Board Professor Martin Conway Chair, Publications and Communications Board Professor Graham Powell Chair, Professional Practice Board Dr Martin Crawshaw Chair, Professional Conduct Board Joop Tanis The Society has offices in Belfast, Cardiff, Glasgow and London, as well as the main office in Leicester. All enquiries should be addressed to the Leicester office (see inside front cover for address). The British Psychological Society was founded in 1901, and incorporated by Royal Charter in 1965. Its object is ‘to promote the advancement and diffusion of a knowledge of psychology pure and applied and especially to promote the efficiency and usefulness of Members of the Society by setting up a high standard of professional education and knowledge’. Extract from The Charter

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President’s column

President Dr Elizabeth Campbell

Vice President and Acting Honorary General Secretary Professor Pam Maras

15:30

ur annual conference this year is in economic tightening, to be able to have their Brighton on 1–3 April. There is still time intellectual and professional development needs to book for the conference (see met at one annual conference event. www.bps.org.uk/ac2009). Brighton is a great An integrated conference also makes sense place for a conference, as far as I am concerned. in terms of the economics of the event for the The sea air, the range of restaurants and pubs, Society, and would allow us to host the the shopping and the ambience of the town conference in high-quality settings and invite provide all those elements of ‘secondary gain’ a range of prestigious and international that add up to an enticing package. contributors. A single, comprehensive The Annual Conference has had various conference is also better able to meet the needs incarnations over the years in an attempt to of our student members and our postgraduate make it a vehicle that serves the needs of our trainees, who need that kind of broad exposure members while also showcasing the best of to the whole range of psychology in order to psychological science and practice. help them make informed career choices. I have fond memories of the conference that Such a conference would also put the the Society held in Glasgow in 2001, which Society on the map of key international marked the conferences. As the Society seeks to raises centenary of the the profile of its international activities Society. With more and involvements, an annual conference “Brighton is a great place than 2000 with international pulling power would for a conference, as far delegates, this was be a very important vehicle. as I am concerned” a very lively and I must confess that I find it intellectually disappointing that some of our member stimulating event networks do not see the virtue of such an that allowed for great opportunities for annual mega-conference. They could still networking. One of the key differences between exercise the quality control over content as they that conference and those since was that all the do at present and host their various professional member networks (we used to call them meetings alongside. In the APA model, the subsystems) held their annual conferences at Divisions determine their own particular slice of the same time. It was possible to dip in and the conference while sharing some of the social out of all kinds of presentations that one might events and other communal activities. I can only never otherwise have had access to, and there imagine that Society members would all benefit was a chance to bump into people whom one from a much richer and diverse intellectual might not have seen for years. experience with such an arrangement. This model for an annual conference is On a different note, the new Strategic Plan, the one used by the American Psychological which will underpin our activities for the next Association, where all their 52 Divisions hold five-year period, is under development and we their annual meetings at the same time. This will be launching it for consultation within the makes for a conference of real critical mass and next few weeks. This is an opportunity for you momentum. My preference would be to have to think about and contribute to the future this as the model for the our annual conference. development of the Society. Please do take this I am a member of three Divisions and chance to let us know your views. a couple of Sections; I simply could not find the time or the money to attend each of those individual conferences. I am sure that there are many members like myself whose interests, research activities or professional practice are not circumscribed by any single Division or For a database of forthcoming events Section. Having access to the whole gamut of organised by the Society and other psychological science and practice at one organisations, see www.bps.org.uk/diary. conference would certainly make me feel like the proverbial kid in the sweety shop. It seems To advertise your event, contact to me that it would really make sense for the psyadvert@bps.org.uk or +44 116 252 9552. individual Society member, in these times of

O

EVENTS DIARY

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Psychology teaching award Dorothy Coombs The 2008 Award for Distinguished Contributions to the Teaching of Psychology has gone to Dorothy Coombs, a familiar face for many years amongst the community of pre-tertiary/pre-degree psychology teachers and lecturers in the UK. A lecturer at Prior Pursglove College, Guisborough, since 1976, Dorothy enjoys the respect of colleagues and students alike for her work both in and out of the classroom. Dorothy (formerly Dorothy ‘Dot’ Winn, and Dorothy Baynes) graduated with a degree in biology and education from York University. By 1993 she had become a convert to the discipline of psychology, largely through her interest in the evolution of behaviour. Student feedback testifies to her effectiveness as a classroom teacher: Dorothy applies her knowledge of learning processes to the business of motivating students, using innovative and diverse techniques to engage them in learning psychology. In nominating Dorothy, the committee of the Association for the Teaching of Psychology (ATP) wrote: ‘It is clear that she conveys high expectations of students, encouraging individuals to achieve, whatever their perceived ability. Her approach to learning and teaching has been judged “outstanding” in the college’s quality assurance procedures. It is a mark of Dorothy’s dedication to the cut-and-thrust of classroom teaching, that, having been Manager of Life Sciences for many years she decided in 2008 to relinquish the bureaucratic frustrations of that senior position in order to return full-time to the more rewarding challenges of the “chalkface”.’ A member of the ATP since the early 1990s, Dorothy served as vice-chair (2001/04) and chair (2004/07); in the latter role her expectations of committee members’ performance were just as demanding as those she applies to students and to herself, and as a result the Association became more effective in its various endeavours under her leadership. In the debate which followed the reclassification of psychology as a science by the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority in 2005, Dorothy wrote about the future of psychology education in The Psychologist and in the School Science Review, the journal of the Association for Science Education. From 1997 to 2006 the ATP Helpline was staffed entirely by Dorothy; she spent

many hours responding to phone calls or e-mailing teachers seeking advice and information. At conferences, whether ATP, ATP Scotland, or the European Federation of Psychology Teachers’ Associations (EFPTA), she has led many workshops on varied topics such as stress, academic writing skills, and student motivation. As representative of the ATP, she has liaised with other organisations including the Higher Education Academy Psychology Network, and the National Science Learning Centre, where she was invited to participate in the design and delivery of teacher-training courses to facilitate science teachers’ conversion to Dorothy Coombs psychology teaching. In March 2004 Dorothy was one of a small number of teachers who founded the European Federation of Psychology Teachers’ Associations at a meeting in Helsinki; since then she has been its vice-president, promoting growth of its membership to around a dozen countries. As well as contributing regularly to the twice-yearly seminars, Dorothy has pursued funding, set up collaborative projects amongst European colleagues, and hosted placements for German trainee psychology teachers in her workplace; this kind of European activity is rare for

teachers of subjects at pre-degree level. According to the ATP committee, ‘the evidence on paper tells a mere fraction of the story of Dorothy’s contributions to the teaching of psychology. Her energy and enthusiasm are immediately apparent, but beyond that people come to appreciate her readiness to listen, her hard work, insight and sound judgment. Whether empathising with a huddle of nervous young teachers at a conference coffee break, or going systematically through committee meeting minutes to check whether members have completed assigned tasks, Dorothy has shown unshakeable commitment. And one should bear in mind that all of her ATP and EFPTA work is unpaid. Dorothy Coombs is both an excellent teacher and a tireless champion of pre-degree psychology; her contribution to the advancement of psychology education is enormous, and without a doubt deserves recognition.’ On hearing she had been honoured with the award Dorothy said: ‘For once I am speechless! This award means a great deal to me, as it is about the job I have loved all my life and the students I have loved to work with. I am indebted to my colleagues in the ATP and EFPTA for their support and encouragement.’

Need help with the cost of attending a conference? PsyPAG might be able to help. All postgraduates registered on a course in the UK are eligible to apply to the Postgraduate Conference Bursary Fund and there are two types of award: I PsyPAG International Conference Award – up to £300 I PsyPAG Domestic Conference Award – up to £100 Next deadline: 10 May 2009. Full details at www.psypag.co.uk/bursaries.html

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West Midlands award Dr Joe Kiff, who works for Dudley Primary Care Trust, has been named as the West Midlands Branch ‘Psychologist of the Year’. Dr Kiff has been recognised following his work on the Psychology Wiki (see

http://psychology.wikia.com/wi ki/Main_Page). The site has been running for almost three years, and now carries more than 25,000 articles. Last year the site had over 1 million unique visitors, from almost every country in the world.

CONSULTATIONS ON PUBLIC POLICY Responses were submitted to seven consultations in January, as follows:

I I I I I I I

Alcohol Dependence: Scope consultation (National Institute for Health & Clinical Excellence) Improving the Value of Drug Treatment Systems: Draft assumptions (National Treatment Agency for Substance Abuse) Indicators of a School’s Contribution to Well-being (Office for Standards in Education [Ofsted] and the Department for Children, Schools & Families [DCSF]) Policy and Practice for Adults with a Learning Disability: Proposed action plan (Welsh Assembly Government) Reducing Reoffending in London1(Ministry of Justice) – see the News section (p.195) for details Safeguarding Adults: A consultation on the review of the ‘No Secrets’ guidance (Department of Health, Home Office and Ministry of Justice) ‘Talk to Me’ – A National Action Plan to Reduce Suicide and Self Harm in Wales 2008–2013 (Welsh Assembly Government)

While welcoming the overall intention of Ofsted and the DCSF in their proposals regarding the indicators of schools’ contributions to wellbeing, members were concerned that the proposed methods of measurement would not generate robust, consistent or meaningful data able to demonstrate whether or not a school is successful in improving well-being but would show only whether it is promoting it at all. The Welsh Assembly Government’s proposals for an action plan for adults with a learning disability identified the need for: clear outcome measures and quality indicators in service commissioning; service-user involvement in commissioning; and the need for evidence-based services. However, members expressed grave concerns that existing research on the cost-effectiveness of services might be misinterpreted as sanctioning the cutting of services without taking into account the needs of the individual. It was also felt that an opportunity had been missed to highlight the mental health needs of people with learning disabilities. In addition to the above responses, comments were also sent to the Royal Society for consideration in their response to the International Council for Science’s consultation on its strategic plan for 2012 to 2017. The preparation and submission of the Society’s responses to consultations on public policy is coordinated by the Policy Support Unit (PSU). All members are eligible to contribute to responses and all interest is warmly welcomed. Please contact the PSU for further information (psu@bps.org.uk; 0116 252 9926/9577). Details of active and completed consultations are available at: www.bps.org.uk/consult.

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‘This new knowledge structure now holds out the possibility of constructing a comprehensive narrative account of our science describing the concepts we use, what we know, what the evidence is, and what theories we have to explain our findings,’ Kiff said. ‘Using the collaborative editing model we can organise ourselves, if we choose, to provide updateable reviews of all areas of psychology in which there is a substantive literature, including all the main references.’ Expansion is very much on Kiff’s mind. ‘Now we have the technology we need the political will to organise a system for inviting contributions and managing the project to bring it to fruition. My own view is that this is best achieved via the

divisional structure and special interest groups of the BPS. If they can coordinate activity in their own areas of expertise and eventually facilitate an international collaboration of experts, we can make this a solid exercise in professional communication.’ According to Kiff, ‘this is just the beginning. The site is only 1 per cent of what it can be. We have laid the track of what could become a major road network of professional information. There will be accidents and disagreements in the running of the system, and it will need the systematic support of an organisation to maintain and police it. But once created I believe we will not be able to contemplate doing without the unimagined benefits it will bring to the discipline.’

Be aware We have had information of a fraudulent leaflet being posted to Chartered Psychologists, possibly via the addresses published on our online Directory. Med1web is a division of Novachannel AG and is currently under criminal investigation in Switzerland. If you receive any correspondence from this company, please disregard it and do not respond.

Online shop During 2009 we’re introducing the BPS Shop to make life a bit easier for our members. A single destination on our website to book conferences and events, and to download current Society publications. Look out for more details in next month’s Psychologist.

Society vacancies Board of Assessors in Clinical Neuropsychology

Ordinary Member Practitioner Full Member (for at least five years) of the Division of Neuropsychology. All travel and subsistence expenses met. Contact Bethan Carley bethan.carley@bps.org.uk, 0116 252 9933. Closing date 31 March 2009

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Cognitive Psychology Section Annual Conference 1-3 September 2009, University of Hertfordshire www.bps.org.uk/cognitive2009

Division of Counselling Psychology Annual Conference – registration now open 9–11 July 2009 University of Warwick www.bps.org.uk/dcop2009

PSIGE Annual Conference 1–3 July 2009 Swansea University Submissions and registration now open www.bps.org.uk/psige2009

DCP Faculty for Children & Young People Annual Conference 10–11 September 2009 Royal Holloway University of London Call for Submissions now open www.bps.org.uk/cyp2009

DCP Managers Faculty Conference NEW DATES 14-15 October 2009 Ramada Hotel, Leicester www.bps.org.uk/mf2009

Paediatric Psychology Network Event 19 June 2009 Leeds Marriott Hotel www.bps.org.uk/ppn2009 Division of Health Psychology Annual Conference 9–11 September 2009 Aston University, Birmingham www.bps.org.uk/dhp2009

Advice, mentoring and support for all your statistical analyses Use of, and advice on, a range of statistical and psychometric methods ranging from the more traditional analysis of variance and regression to more cutting edge techniques of multilevel modelling and latent class/latent structure modelling. Help/advice also given to students/postgrads. Appropriate methods always used/advocated Do phone to discuss on 0141-649-9354 or email me on russell@ecob-consulting.com. See also www.ecob-consulting.com

Student Members Group Annual Conference 3 April 2009, Holiday Inn Brighton Seafront Registration deadline: 13 March www.bps.org.uk/smg2009

Psychology of Women Section Annual Conference 15–19 July 2009 Cumberland Lodge, Windsor Registration and call for submission is open www.bps.org.uk/pows2009 Division of Counselling Psychology Professional Advancement Masterclass programme March – June 2009 www.bps.org.uk/dcopws2009

Division of Occupational Psychology Learning a living 2009 Developing Situational Judgement Tests: A practitioner’s approach www.bps.org.uk/learningaliving2009

Faculty for Learning Disabilities Annual CPD event – registration is open 27–29 April 2009, Ramada Hotel, Belfast www.bps.org.uk/fld2009

ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING 2009 The AGM of the Society will be held on Wednesday 1 April 2009 at 13:15 in the Ashdown Suite, Holiday Inn, Brighton Seafront, Brighton. The Open Meeting will commence immediately after the AGM. (Please see special notes below). Professor Pam Maras Honorary General Secretary Members are actively encouraged to attend the Open Meeting. This year it will be held on Wednesday 1 April immediately following the AGM (see above).

SPECIAL GENERAL MEETING 2009

The Open Meeting is one of the opportunities for members to ask questions, raise issues and stimulate topics for discussion with and for consideration by the Trustees. Informal notes of previous meetings are available from the Chief Executive's office.

A Special General Meeting will be held on Wednesday 1 April 2009 at 14:00 in the Ashdown Suite, Holiday Inn Brighton Seafront, Brighton to agree Resolutions ‘to enable the provision of alternative voting systems, including the provision of secure on-line electronic voting for Members alongside existing postal voting services’.

In order for the meeting to be structured, all questions must be submitted in advance. The deadline for questions to be received is noon on Monday 23 March 2009. Please send your questions to me by email: p.f.maras@gre.ac.uk, or in writing via the Chief Executive's office. I look forward to hearing from you and seeing you at the meeting.

Professor Pam Maras Honorary General Secretary

Professor Pam Maras Honorary General Secretary

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DOCTORATE IN COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHOTHERAPY BY PROFESSIONAL STUDIES (DCPSYCH) A Joint Programme with Middlesex University This 5-year part-time programme is accredited by the British Psychological Society (BPS) for the training of Chartered Counselling Psychologists. The programme is based on a practitioner research philosophy and comprises an innovative design which seeks to integrate research and practice at doctoral level. It is open to psychology graduates who possess the Graduate Basis for Registration (GBR) as specified by the BPS, and who believe that they have the capabilities to make a significant contribution to practice based knowledge in the psychological therapies. The course offers an integrative programme of study in the theory and practice of psychological therapy, and covers both clinical and research training. It is offered over 3-day weekend modules during each academic year, thus allowing students to combine their broader life commitments with the demands of further study. Successful graduates will also be eligible to apply for registration with the UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP). Applications are invited for the 2009/10 academic session. The application process includes attendance at an Introductory Workshop and at a Group Assessment Interview.

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Annual Conference 2009

Brighton, 1â&#x20AC;&#x201C;3 April, Holiday Inn Brighton Seafront

Registration is still open This is the last chance to register your attendance to the conference We have an interesting programme of presentations Visit the conference website to register and to view a full copy of the conference timetable We look forward to seeing you in Brighton

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Looking for a better deal on your Professional Liability Insurance? After comparing several different suppliers, the British Psychological Society (BPS) now recommends Howden Professionals as one of its preferred brokers to arrange professional liability insurance for its members. Cut out now and compare our prices at renewal time… For members of the BPS who practise psychology (including training and supervision): £1.5m Premium Insurance premium tax (5%) Administration Fee Total amount payable

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£ 76.43

£ 120.43

Reduced rates are available for trainee psychologists on a BPS approved post graduate professional training course. CONDITIONS You are an individual (or a sole trader Limited Company with a turnover of less than £100,000) practising from a UK base and appropriately qualified to practise (or on an approved training course leading to a recognised relevant qualification). You have not had previous insurance declined, not had any liability claims made against you and are not aware of any circumstances which may give rise to a claim against you. Prices correct at time of publication.

Protecting the professionals. Howden know how.

Call us Monday to Friday 8.30am to 6.00pm to arrange cover or just for some friendly advice. Tel: 0113 251 5011 Email: enquiries@howdenpro.com www.howdenpro.com Howden Professionals, 1200 Century Way,Thorpe Park, Leeds LS15 8ZA. Tel: 0113 251 5011

Howden Insurance Brokers Limited is authorised and regulated by the Financial Services Authority (Firm Reference Number 312584) and is a subsidiary of the Howden Broking Group Limited, part of the Hyperion Insurance Group, winners of a Queen’s Award for Enterprise in 2007.

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EATING DISORDERS AND OBESITY A PRACTICAL, EXPERIENTIAL PROGRAMME

MASTER PRACTITIONER PROGRAMME EATING DISORDERS & OBESITY A comprehensive 3 course programme whose modules may be taken individually. However, when all 3 courses are booked together a substantial discount is available. The 3 modules of this programme are:

Excellence in Practitioner Skills for Eating Disorders

An 8 day diploma course teaching theory & effective integrative skills for the treatment of binge eating, bulimia & anorexia. Autumn 2009: 8–11 October plus 5–8 November, London area

Essential Obesity: Psychological Approaches

For all clinicians with a personal and professional interest in the psychology of obesity and its effective management 3 days: 4–6 June 2009, London area

Nutritional Interventions for Eating Disorders

Practical and effective treatment of nutrition-related aspects of eating disorders. 3 days: 2–4 April 2009 or 23–25 November 2009, London area

Additional courses scheduled for 2009: Binge Eating in Obesity: a 1 day Masterclass 1 day: 7 June 2009, London area

Emotional Freedom Technique for Eating Disorders 2 days: 13–14 June 2009, London area

Access To Training in CognitiveBehavioural Therapy Already got basic counselling skills and want to incorporate CBT interventions into your work? Let us be your point of access. Courses starting in April 2009 Llandudno, Wrexham, Manchester, Leeds Locations nationwide from September.

Nutrition, Obesity & the Bariatric Patient: a 2 day Workshop 2 days: 3–4 July 2009, London area

A prospectus for each course can be found online at: www.eating-disorders.org.uk (select ‘Training’) Alternatively please call 0845 838 2040 for further info

Check online or telephone for details now! Tel 01352 711008 www.accesstocbt.co.uk

NIHR Mental Health Research Network National Scientific Conference 20 – 22 May 2009

East Midlands Conference Centre, Nottingham

The conference will be multidisciplinary, bridging basic and clinical science through to public mental health. The focus will be to showcase high quality international research. Who should attend? Anyone who has a background or strong interest in mental health research, including academics, clinicians, allied health professionals, carers, service users, NHS research and development managers and administrators. Poster Presentations The Scientific Organising Committee will consider abstracts for poster presentations, which fit into the general theme of the conference. Conference Details Full details of the programme, registration, accommodation, social events and abstract submissions are available at: www.mhrn.info or contact Joanne Greenwood, E: joanne.greenwood@nottshc.nhs.uk; T: 0115 8231282

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MSc/PGDip/PGCert

Training in Psychometric Testing

Aimed at psychology graduates who want to develop their knowledge and expertise in the application of research methods to real-world issues.

****Distance learning now available!****

This postgraduate programme provides a sound basis for further training in doctoral-level research and the psychology professions.

MSc/MA/PGDip/PGCert This postgraduate programme covers a number of perspectives in music psychology including developmental, social and cognitive, enabling students to carry out research in the field and specialise in it through intensive exposure to the current ideas, techniques and areas of application Roehampton University enjoys a growing international reputation and delivers outstanding programmes.

xIndividual delegates exempt from VAT xDiscounted rates for students xFurther discounts when level A and B purchased together

Centre for People@Work

The Centre for People @ Work (CP@W) is pleased to be able to offer BPS accredited training courses in the qualifications of Test Administration, Level A and Level B Occupational Testing April

Roehampton University fosters a culture of excellence, innovation and aspiration in both teaching and research.

Test Admin 17th

For more information and to apply visit www.roehampton.ac.uk or call 020 8392 3232.

Level B

Level A

June July 1st

17 -18 & 24 -25 (Fri, Sat) 1st-4th th

th

th

th

6th-8st (follow-up 1st Sept)

Contact us:

OPEN SPACES OPEN MINDS

01905 542046 cpaw@worc.ac.uk

British Psychological Society

Consciousness and Experiential Psychology Section Annual Conference 2009

Consciousness and Belief Do beliefs affect experience? 11th–13th September St Anne’s College, Oxford

CALL FOR PAPERS The British Psychological Society’s Consciousness and Experiential Psychology Section invites submissions for its 2009 annual conference to be held at St Anne’s College, University of Oxford. We invite proposals for individual papers or symposia on how our values, assumptions and beliefs shape our experience.

The conference is open to everyone, not just BPS and section members. We will provide three bursaries to students whose proposals for talks are accepted. Keynote speakers include Raymond Tallis – who will critique the Computational Theory of Mind and what he calls ‘Mythinformation’, and Jonathan Cole – who will speak about neurological impairment, embodiment, belief and intersubjectivity.

All submissions should be sent to Dr Susan Stuart by 1st May s.stuart@philosophy.arts.gla.ac.uk Programme, registration, and further information can be found at: http://www.bps.org.uk/cep

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A weekend of thought-provoking presentations,workshops and debates on the future of psychoanalytic psychotherapy How can psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic and psychodynamic therapies take their place in todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s world? With its special emphasis on the complexity of the mind and the way the past can impact upon the present, the psychoanalytic model can make a powerful contribution to modern mental health and social care, and within other contemporary contexts. But there are large challenges to realising this vision. The conference will engage with these challenges and help shape a future where psychoanalyticallyinformed approaches will flourish.

Richard Wollheim Memorial Award Lecture given by Antonio Damasio (Friday evening)

Friday 5 evening Saturday 6 Sunday 7 June 2009 Old Theatre London School of Economics (Friday evening)

Mermaid Theatre Blackfriars London

Special presentation on Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy with Robert J Neborsky

Other speakers : John Alderdice, Malcolm Allen, Tessa Baradon, Geoffrey Baruch, Nicholas Benefield, Dick Blackwell, Michael Brearley, Jorge Canestri, Peter Fonagy, Aikaterini Fotopoulou, Paul Hoggett, Jeremy Holmes, Jim Hopkins, James Johnston, Angela Joyce, Brett Kahr, Alessandra Lemma, Julian Lousada, Jan McGregor Hepburn, Ian McPherson, Susie Orbach, Matthew Patrick, Stanley Ruszczynski, Mary Target, Yoram Yovell, Ruby Wax, Peter Wilson

(Saturday & Sunday)

British Psychoanalytic Council in association with: Anna Freud Centre s Association for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy in the NHS sAssociation of Child Psychotherapists s British Association of Psychotherapists s The Institute of Psychoanalysis ( BPAS) s British Psychological Societyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Division of Clinical Psychology s Institute of Group Analysis s International Neuropsychoanalysis Centre s Lincoln Clinic and Centre for Psychotherapy s London Centre for Psychotherapy s North of England Association of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapists s Scottish Institute of Human Relations / Scottish Association of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapists s Severnside Institute for Psychotherapy s The Society of Analytical Psychologys Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust Sponsored by Howden Professionals For details of conference programme go to www.psychoanalytic-council.org Or telephone: +44 (0)20 7267 3626

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BPS Division of Neuropsychology

Research Board

Forthcoming Division Events

LIFETIME ACHIEVEMENT AWARD

BPS Division of Neuropsychology Post-qualification Training Day

Neuropsychology of Language Disorders in Adult Acquired & Progressive Neurological Disorders Convenor: Carmel Lum This Post-Qualifying Training day aims to provide the novice and experienced practitioner with an overview of current perspectives on the neuropsychology of language (and speech) dysfunction in the context of acquired and progressive neurological conditions. It will bridge the gap between statistical models and cognitive neuropsychology models of aphasia. Included in this event, will be an account of the latest developments in research on these conditions and how it has informed our understanding of language and cognition and its impact on social function. This PQT event will be particular suited to those who work in the Older people sector, Specialist Neurological Diagnostic and Rehabilitation services, Community Neurorehabilitation Services and Stroke Units.

The Research Board is delighted to announce the establishment of an annual award to recognise distinctive and exemplary contributions to psychology knowledge.

Eligibility: Academics and researchers, including those in retirement, in any area of psychology. Nominees need not be members of the Society but they must be resident in the UK. It is expected that award winners will not only have an outstanding record of personal achievements but will have also made significant contributions to the advancement of psychological knowledge; contributions to the work of the Society would also be considered appropriate in this instance.

Nominations should include: Date: Friday 12 June 2009 Venue: The Resource Centre, 35b Holloway Road, London, N7 6PA Topics to include: Exploring language impairments in aphasia: syndromes, models and everyday language (Jane Marshall)

A statement, up to 2000 words in length, detailing the nominee’s achievements and the grounds for nomination.

A full CV

The names and addresses of three potential referees (to include a least one current/former colleague of the nominee, who may be an employer such as a Head of Department, Dean etc.)

Any other relevant supporting documentary evidence (e.g. published articles, books etc.)

The functional neuroanatomy of language disorders (Richard Wise) Unpicking the weave of language disorder and neuropsychological assessment (Elaine Funnell) The evolution of semantic dementia: understanding its impact from naming to activities of daily living (Diana Caine) Contrasting patterns of naming and reading in semantic dementia and progressive nonfluent aphasia (Anna Woollams)

The Award will confer: •

Life Membership of the Society

The nature, impact and assessment of speech changes in progressive neurological conditions (Nick Miller)

£1000 to be spent on furthering an area of research of the nominees choice

Current methods & issues in interventions for language disorders (Jackie Kindell and Julie Morris)

A commemorative certificate (which will be presented to the recipient at the Society’s Annual Conference).

Register on-line for this event at: www.kc-jones.co.uk/languagedisorders

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For all registration enquiries: Tel: 01332-227775 Email: bps@kc-jones.co.uk

Nominations should be sent to the Chair of the Research Board c/o Dr Lisa Morrison Coulthard at the Society’ office to arrive no later than 8 April 2009.

For further general information about this and other PQT events contact: Stuart Anderson (DoN PQT Coordinator), Tel: 01444441881 (Ext 5687) Email: stuart.anderson@southdowns.nhs.uk

Further details can be obtained from Liz Beech (liz.beech@bps.org.uk)

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Faculty of Medicine

MSc/Post-graduate Diploma in Clinical Neuropsychology Section of Psychological Medicine Applications are invited for places on the full-time or part-time courses in Clinical Neuropsychology. The course is accredited by the British Psychological Society and provides the underpinning knowledge component of the BPS Division of Neuropsychology Practitioner Full Membership Qualification. The next intake will be in September 2009. The MSc includes the opportunity to undertake a research project in Clinical Neuropsychology. The course is taught in four, two-week blocks over one year full-time or two years part-time. Selected parts of the course are available individually on a CPD basis. Closing Date – 30 June 2009. Contact: Professor Jonathan Evans, Psychological Medicine, University of Glasgow, Gartnavel Royal Hospital, 1055 Great Western Road, Glasgow G12 0XH, Tel: 0141 211 0694, Email: jonathan.evans@clinmed.gla.ac.uk or visit www.glasgow.ac.uk/departments/psychologicalmedicine www.glasgow.ac.uk

MSc/PgDip/PgCert

ADDICTION PSYCHOLOGY & COUNSELLING Part-time programme – September 2009 entry The leading training programme for addiction counsellors in statutory, independent & voluntary sectors. Enhance your career prospects in addiction counselling. This programme prepares students for work in a wide range of organisational and therapeutic environments. Apply now to secure your place. • Equal emphasis on addiction psychology and research, and professional practice • Units include models of working, professional development and ethics, strategies and techniques, treatment contexts, personal development and robustness, psychological concept of addiction, development of addictive behaviours, theories of addiction and research methods

• Part-time, 1 day per week – MSc 2.5 years, PgCert 1 year • Successful completion of the Diploma fulfils the formal training requirements for FDAP Counsellor accreditation (NCAC) leading to UKRC registration, and confers Drug and Alcohol Professional accreditation (DANOS based) • Fees support for accepted students may be available via the Alcohol Education and Research Council

For full information and application forms, please contact the Course Enquiries Office on 020 7815 6100 or email course.enquiry@lsbu.ac.uk

www.lsbu.ac.uk

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DPsych in Counselling Psychology Â&#x2039;)7:HJJYLKP[LKWYVNYHTTL Â&#x2039;3LHKZ[V*OHY[LYLK*V\UZLSSPUN7Z`JOVSVNPZ[Z[H[\Z Â&#x2039;-V\Y`LHYZI`WHY[[PTLZ[\K`VYQ\Z[[^V`LHYZPM`V\HSYLHK`OVSK*OHY[LYLK *V\UZLSSPUN7Z`JOVSVNPZ[Z[H[\Z ;OLWYVNYHTTLHPTZ[V[YHPUZ\WWVY[HUKLUJV\YHNLYLĂ&#x2026;LJ[P]LWYHJ[P[PVULYZ[VMVJ\Z VUWYVJLZZPU[OL[OLYHWL\[PJYLSH[PVUZOPW^OPSLILPUNH^HYLVM[OLZVJPHSJ\S[\YHS HUKKL]LSVWTLU[HSJVU[L_[Z\UKLYWPUUPUNWZ`JOVSVN`[OLVY`HUKYLZLHYJO;YHPUPUN LTWOHZPZLZ[OL\ZLVMHJVNUP[P]LILOH]PV\Y[OLYHWL\[PJHWWYVHJOĂ&#x201E;YTS`IHZLKPU JVYLJV\UZLSSPUNZRPSSZMYVT[OLVYPLU[H[PVUVMO\THUPZ[PJ[OLYHW`;OLWYVNYHTTL HSZVPUJVYWVYH[LZWZ`JOVK`UHTPJ[OLVY` >LWYPKLV\YZLS]LZVUZTHSSNYV\W[LHJOPUN^P[OHUL_WLYPLU[PHSHUKJSPUPJHSMVJ\Z ;OL[LHJOPUN[LHTHYLHSSWYHJ[PZPUNJSPUPJPHUZ^P[OZ[YVUNSPURZ[V[OL5/:;OLZLHUK V[OLYWYVMLZZPVUHSSPURZWYV]PKLH^PKLYHUNLVMWSHJLTLU[VWWVY[\UP[PLZZ\WWVY[PUN[OL KL]LSVWTLU[VMJSPUPJHSZRPSSZHUKWV[LU[PHSLTWSV`TLU[VWWVY[\UP[PLZ*VTWYLOLUZP]L YLZLHYJO[YHPUPUNPZWYV]PKLK[VLUHISL[YHPULLZ[VJVUK\J[KVJ[VYHSSL]LSYLZLHYJO

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Parenting the Primitive Brain Innovative Body Based Interventions with Traumatised Children

London Conference â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Friday 15 May 2009 Presenters: Eadaoin Bhreathnach MSc. is a Consultant Occupational Therapist. She has a Masters Degree in Guidance and Counselling, advanced training in Sensory Integration and is trained in the use of the Adult Attachment Interview. Eadaoin has developed an innovative neuro-behavioural approach, Sensory Attachment Intervention. SAI focuses on providing enriched sensory and attachment experiences in order to facilitate the process of self-regulation and co-regulation. Giselle Genillard is a licensed Midwife, SEP, member of the International Association of Structural Integrators (IASI) and Touch-in-Parenting Instructor. She has been working in the field of human endeavour for 30 years. Since 1999 she has been combining her skills as a somatic therapist with the art of midwifery and combining the core principles of Somatic Experiencing and her experience of a cross-cultural education. Babette Rothschild M.S.W. is the author of the bestselling book: The Body Remembers: The Psychophysiology of Trauma and Trauma Treatment. Founder of Somatic Trauma Therapy, she has been a practitioner since 1976 and teacher and trainer since 1992. Louis Sydney is a qualified child and adult integrative Arts Psychotherapist, who has trained with Dan Hughes, the Theraplay Institute and is also trained in Peter Levineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Somatic Experience. Louis is currently Clinical Supervisor at Family Futures. Jay Vaughan is a qualified Dramatherapist who has trained with Dan Hughes, the Theraplay Institute and is also trained in Peter Levineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Somatic Experience. Jay is the Therapy Services Manager at Family Futures and is currently developing an innovative somatic approach to working with traumatised children and their families. Our work with children who have experienced multiple traumas in infancy, pre and post birth has allowed us to recognise that the impact of such traumas is not just psychological but also neuro-physiological. This hypothesis is further supported by recent research on pre and perinatal psychology as well as neuropsychology. We therefore need to understand our childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s responses to trauma within a body/mind context to know how to better respond and help them effectively. Body therapies combined with our experiential and scientific knowledge remind us of the need to address our childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;primitiveâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; as well as their intellectual brain. We are privileged to have new presentations from pioneers in the field. Each presentation will help participants to understand and use body and somatic observations and interventions with children. This understanding will enhance your ability to help children to form more secure attachments and become healthier young people and adults. This ground breaking conference will explore how parents and therapists alike can apply body based interventions with traumatised children, helping them to be calmer and gain more self control. Cost: ÂŁ190 + VAT (Lunch provided) For further details and an application form, please contact Family Futures Training Co-ordinator; joanne@familyfutures.co.uk or alternatively book online at www.familyfutures.co.uk Tel: 020 7354 4161

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The Tavistock Clinic Training Programmes Introduction to Counselling and Psychotherapy (Ref. D12)

Commencing October 2009

This course is aimed at those practitioners who are looking for an opportunity to deepen their understanding of their clinical work, but who have only recently finished their professional training, or who have clinical experience and responsibility but no formal professional qualifications.

The Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust's Psychology Discipline comprises highly experienced clinical and educational psychologists working across the age range.

It is also suitable as an introductory course for those seeking a qualification in counselling or psychotherapy in the longer term.

TRAINING PROGRAMMES IN WORKING WITH REFUGEES AND THEIR FAMILIES Working with Refugee Families (Ref. D35) A one term course The unique nature of the refugee condition creates a multiplicity of problems. The complexity and variability of refugee needs as well as the resulting pressures on the workers are such that they require most delicate treatment. This course aims to assist those working with refugees to develop and enhance their understanding and skills in the context of their own experience. Using systemic and psychodynamic approaches, it aims to create a facilitative space within which to consider the complexities of the refugee condition from a more rounded perspective including therapeutic, clinical, theoretical, organisational and political dimensions.

The Discipline has particular expertise in three therapeutic modalities: psychoanalytic psychotherapy, systemic psychotherapy and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT). It plays a leading role in the delivery of specialist psychotherapy trainings in all these modalities. These trainings are especially suited to applied psychologists wishing to specialise as psychotherapists.

Courses Specifically for Psychologists Adult Psychotherapy for Professional Workers in Health and Social Services (Ref. M1) Interdisciplinary Training

Supervision: A Psychological Approach (Ref. D67)** Psychodynamic Approaches to Working with Children, Adolescents and their Families (Ref. CPD9) A workshop for psychologists

On Becoming a Qualified Psychologist

Multidisciplinary Courses of Interests to Psychologists Working in the Young People's Consultation Service (Ref. D7) Psychodynamic Approaches to Working with Adolescents (Ref. M33)* Postgraduate Certificate/Diploma/MA

MA/PhD in

The Foundations of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy (Ref. D58)**

Refugee Care (Ref. M35)*

Postgraduate Diploma/MA

A one year course

Intermediate Clinical Course in Inter-cultural Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy (Ref. D59) Psychodynamic Approaches to Old Age (Ref. D2)

This course aims to offer a systematic framework that will assist students to work directly with refugees and asylum seekers and combines theoretical, practical and experiential modes of learning. The PhD in Refugee Care requires students to complete successfully the MA in Refugee Care (without the dissertation) and then proceed to two years full-time (or four years part-time) work on their PhD thesis.

Other courses of interest

Understanding Trauma: Principles and Practice (Ref. D18)

Managing in Multidisciplinary and Multi-agency Environments: A Systemic Perspective (Ref. D23S) Managing Psychology Services: A Systemic Perspective (Ref. D23P) Working with Disruptive Adolescents (Ref. S15) Therapeutic Communication with Children (Ref. D30)*

A one year, part-time course running Thursday afternoons

Postgraduate Certificate

*Offered in partnership with the University of Essex

A course for professionals who work with people who come for help following experiences of trauma. Previous students include clinical psychologists, counsellors, psychotherapists, art therapists, psychiatrists, social workers and GPs, amongst others. The afternoon comprises a work discussion group, theoretical seminar and an experiential group. Primarily focused on a psychoanalytic approach to understanding the aftermath of trauma and to the management and treatment of traumatised individuals, the course also looks at the place of psychoanalytic thinking in current practice, in relation to other models such as trauma focused CBT and EMDR.

Black Leadership in White Organisations

(Ref. D66)

Postgraduate Certificate

Emotional Factors in Learning and Teaching: Counselling Aspects in Education (Ref. D1)* Postgraduate Certificate/Diploma/MA

Counselling in Educational Settings

(Ref. D82)*

Postgraduate Diploma/MA

Working with People with Eating Disorders (Ref. D9)* Postgraduate Diploma/MA

Infant Mental Health

(Ref. M9)*

5th Annual Trauma Seminar

Postgraduate Diploma/MA

Giving Evidence in Asylum and Immigration Proceedings

Psychoanalytic Observational Studies

Friday 3 July 2009

Postgraduate Diploma/MA

Mental health professionals are frequently asked to act as experts in asylum and immigration proceedings, usually instructed by the solicitors representing the person seeking asylum.

Emotional Well-being in Children and Families: Interprofessional Practice (Ref. D42)*

The role of the expert in such proceedings is complex but their evidence can be of the greatest importance. This seminar will discuss the areas that need to be addressed in reports and will offer suggestions as to the way this kind of evidence can be presented, particularly focusing on issues of credibility and predicted psychiatric and psychological consequences of forced return.

(Ref. M7)*

Postgraduate Certificate

Child and Adolescent Primary Mental Health Care Work

(Ref. M42)*

Postgraduate Diploma/MA Validated by the GSCC for the Higher Specialist and Advanced Award in Social Work (Children, Young People and Families)

Child Protection and Complex Child Care

(Ref. M22)*

Postgraduate Diploma/MA

Appropriately anonymised examples of reports will be distributed which will then be a basis for more general discussion.

Validated by the GSCC for the Higher Specialist and Advanced Award in Social Work (Children, Young People and Families)

This conference is suitable for all professionals working with refugees and asylum seekers.

Postgraduate Diploma/MA

Speaker: David Bell, a Consultant Psychiatrist in the Adult Department of the Tavistock Clinic, has considerable experience as a psychiatric expert in immigration tribunals and is regularly instructed by leading Human Rights lawyers. His evidence has been highly praised in immigration courts and has been crucial in many determinations. He has also lectured to Immigration Judges on the assessment of psychiatric evidence.

For further information please contact Directorate of Education and Training, The Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust, Tel: 020 7447 3722, Email: det@tavi-port.org, Website: www.tavi-port.org/training

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(Ref. CPD80)

A reflective workshop series

Fostering and Adoption Studies

(Ref. M25)*

Validated by the GSCC for the Higher Specialist and Advanced Award in Social Work (Children, Young People and Families)

Consultation and the Organisation

(Ref. D10D)*

Professional Doctorate

A Foundation in Work with Forensic Patients (Ref. P5) Introducing Psychoanalytic Ideas On Sexual Perversions, Delinquency and Violence (Ref. P1) Understanding Risk: A psychodynamic approach to assessing and managing risk (Ref. P20) * Offered in partnership with the University of East London ** Educational Psychologists only *** Offered in partnership with the University of Essex

For further information please contact Directorate of Education and Training, The Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust, Tel: 020 7447 3722, Email: det@tavi-port.org, Website: www.tavi-port.org/training

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Division of Occupational Psychology

Learning a Living 2009 The CPD Programme for Occupational Psychologists

The British Psychological Societyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Division of Occupational Psychology runs an excellent workshop programme called Learning a Living. The workshops are designed to give you practical tools and techniques, underpinned by sound theory that you can readily apply to your work. Learning a Living is of direct relevance to Occupational Psychologists, Human Factors specialists, HR practitioners, trainers, coaches and many more.

2009 WORKSHOPS

DATE

Developing Situational Judgement Tests: A Practitionerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Approach

16 April

Coaching and Counselling with SPACE: An Introduction to a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy-based Approach

21 April

What makes for a Successful Survey? Designing, Analysing and Reporting on Employee Surveys

7 May

Maximising Interpersonal Relationships: FIRO Element B (European English Edition, 2003) Accreditation

21 May

Improving Well-being in the Workplace: Mental Health at Work

4 June

Coaching for EQ with Gestalt

18 June

Helping People and Organisations to Achieve the Balancing Act: A Holistic Perspective on Work/Life Management through the Employee Lifecycle

9 July

Dialogue: How to Create Change in Organisations through Conversation

20 July

Business Coaching and your Professional Practice

10 September

Solution Focused Practice: Skills for Effective Consultancy

18 September

Assessing in Assessment Centres

24 September

For full details on the above workshops please visit: www.bps.org.uk/learningaliving2009 or alternatively contact Lianne/Reshma on 0116 252 9555 or e-mail: learningaliving@bps.org.uk

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MSc in Occupational Psychology One year full-time starting September 2009

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The Psychology Department has a particular strength in Occupational Psychology. Reflecting our strong emphasis in both research and teaching, the department was rated 24th among UK psychology departments in terms of research quality profile in the December 2008 RAE, and 28th in the UK for teaching quality rating in the 2008 National Student Survey. This full-time MSc provides a thorough grounding in both academic and practical aspects of occupational psychology. Courses, workshops and topics covered include: Assessment and Selection G Training and Development G Human Factors and Ergonomics G Occupational Health Psychology G Organisational Behaviour and Change G Research Design and Analysis G Counselling in the Workplace G Professional Skills Workshops G Level A and Level B Test Training G Distinguished Visiting Speakers Series G Supervised Research Project. The MSc benefits from staff and research students who conduct theory-driven, award-winning, applied research in both public and private sector organisations. It is accredited by the BPS Division of Occupational Psychology, and is well resourced by a full complement of teaching staff, many of whom are Chartered Occupational Psychologists. You must have a psychology degree of an upper second or first class standard from a university course conferring Graduate Basis for Registration with the BPS. Work experience is an advantage. Places limited to 26. For further information www.goldsmiths.ac.uk admissions@gold.ac.uk 020 7919 7060 Committed to equal opportunities

The Development of Psychoanalytic Theory: Lecture Series (Ref. PC4) This course provides a systematic overview of the development of psychoanalytic concepts. It is useful to those who have existing knowledge but wish to deepen their understanding of psychoanalytic theory and serves as an introductory course for those without prior knowledge. The course covers the history and development of Freud's thought and explores contemporary developments through study of the work of Anna Freud, Klein, Fairbairn, Winnicott, Segal, Rosenfeld and Bion. Past students have called it 'inspirational' - 'I feel privileged to have learnt from such expertise, knowledge and experience.' Course Leader and Principal Lecturer: Dr David Bell Introduction To Psychodynamic Concepts:

A Workshop For Counselling And Clinical Psychologists (Ref. S2A) 20 - 24 July 2009

Are you a clinical or counselling psychologist interested in learning more about a psychodynamic approach and its place within contemporary psychology? This short course may be for you. The five-day workshop is for counselling and clinical psychologists, including those in their final year of training, who want to learn more about a psychodynamic approach and its relevance to professional practice as an applied psychologist. â&#x20AC;˘ Provides an introduction to the ideas and concepts involved in psychodynamic psychotherapy with a variety of patients and in a variety of settings. The week comprises lectur es as well as small and large group experiences. Ther e are opportunities to learn from the experiences of the staff and from your own experience, in your work settings and during the workshop itself. Comments from previous students 'An extremely interesting and useful week, both personally and professionally' 'I've taken away a number of concepts to use in my practice' 'Much harder than I thought, but also much more helpful' Postgraduate Diploma/MA in

Psychoanalytic Studies (Ref. M16)* This course offers a wide-ranging study of psychoanalytic theory and its applications to culture and cultural artefacts, as well as direct experiential understanding of emotional development through observation of an infant or young child. 'The diversity of modules, combining theory, applications and observation remain its great strengthâ&#x20AC;Śstretching students intellectually, emotionally and in terms of their skills.' Professor Paul Hoggett, former external examiner, Professor of Politics and Director of the Centre for Psychosocial Studies

'I have not felt so mentally alive for years.' Former student

Find out more about the course, including press articles, examples of work and dissertation subjects at www.tavi-port.org/training * Offered in partnership with the University of East London

For further information please contact Directorate of Education and Training, The Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust, Tel: 020 7447 3722, Email: det@tavi-port.org, Website: www.tavi-port.org/training

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Post Qualification Doctoral Programmes Joint Programmes with Middlesex University

Doctorate in Psychotherapy by Professional Studies Since the launch of the DPsych (Prof) in 1998, the programme has gained a reputation for innovation and quality in practice-based research. Graduates have contributed in major ways to the improvement of services, to interdisciplinary dialogue and to the enhancement of professional knowledge in the field of psychological therapies. The Programme is aimed at re-vitalising and nourishing senior practitioners and offers an alternative to a traditional research based PhD or to academic, taught doctoral programme. Candidates may complete the programme in a minimum of three years. During the first year of the programme taught modules take place approximately once a month. Candidates develop a research submission which is project - rather than thesis - based.

Doctorate in Psychotherapy by Public Works This award appeals to senior and accomplished practitioners based in the UK and internationally, who have already made a substantial contribution to the field of psychological therapy through a range of publications and/ or public works. These may include: the development of innovative therapy services; the facilitation of major organisational change; and the establishment of successful training programmes which have been pivotal in the field and commended, reviewed and respected by peers. Candidates create and present an audit of their achievements For further details about the application process, please contact Mandy Kersey, our Academic Coordinator. 13 North Common Road, Ealing, London, W5 2QB T: 020 8579 2505 W: www.metanoia.ac.uk E: mandy.kersey@metanoia.ac.uk Registered Charity No. 1050175

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Postgraduate Study at the Institute of Psychiatry Study at one of the world's leading centres for mental health research and education

Taught Programmes Masters MSc Advanced Psychosocial Practice with Children & Adults MSc Child & Adolescent Mental Health MSc Clinical & Public Health Aspects of Addiction MSc Clinical Forensic Psychiatry MSc Clinical Forensic Psychology MSc Clinical Neuroscience MSc Epilepsy MSc Family Therapy MSc Forensic Mental Health Science MSc Health Psychology MSc Mental Health in Learning Disabilities MSc Mental Health Services Research MSc Mental Health Social Work with Children & Adults MSc Mental Health Studies MSc Organisational Psychiatry & Psychology MSc Neuroscience MSc Psychiatric Research MSc Social, Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry MSc War and Psychiatry

Postgraduate Diploma PgDip Cognitive Behavioural Therapies PgDip Cognitive Behavioural Therapies for Children & Adolescents PgDip Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Psychosis PgDip Family Interventions in Psychosis

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Research Opportunities There are currently over 350 research students at the IoP working on projects covering all areas of mental health science: from molecular genetics and biology to neuroscience, neuroimaging, clinical research studies, psychological studies and new treatments; from longitudinal studies, clinical trials, bio statistics, epidemiology and health services research to transcultural studies. The 2008 Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) confirms King's eminent position in the 'golden triangle' of researchintensive universities in London and Oxbridge. Kingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s College was judged to have the highest research power of any institution submitted to its unit of assessment in the 2008 RAE, and was awarded the highest (5*) rating in the previous two RAEs (1996 and 2001).

Programme information: www.iop.kcl.ac.uk/courses/ or email eva.langan@iop.kcl.ac.uk or call: +44(0)207 848 0335 Apply: www.kcl.ac.uk/graduate/apply Funding information: www.kcl.ac.uk/graduate/funding/database/ Visa and accommodation: www.kcl.ac.uk/international or email welfare@kcl.ac.uk

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Postgraduate Certifcate/Diploma in

Applied Systemic Theory (Ref. D4)* This course is a continuing professional development opportunity for professionals/managers from health, social, education and related services. It will focus on developing an understanding of systemic theory and its applications to professional contexts.

     

                          

                    

         

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Systemic Psychotherapy (Ref. M6)* This two year clinical training course is located within the NHS and offers: London and regional bases for supervised clinical teams Potential for Clinical placements in primary care W ide range of clinical opportunities such as CAMHS, Community-based and Adult services Resear ch and teaching experience W eekend residential UKCP r egistration upon successful completion Applicants must have successfully completed an intermediate training or its equivalent in Systemic theory.

Other courses of interest Consultation and the Organisation: Psychoanalytic Approaches, Postgraduate Diploma/MA (Ref. D10)* Working in Organisations (Ref. S3) Intermediate Clinical Course in Inter-cultural Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy (Ref. D59) * Offered in partnership with the University of East London

For further information please contact Directorate of Education and Training, The Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust, Tel: 020 7447 3722, Email: det@tavi-port.org, Website: www.tavi-port.org/training

Coaching and Mentoring Certificates â&#x20AC;&#x201C; delivered to you by the CIPDâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s own specialist learning provider Coaching and mentoring are rapidly becoming the preferred method for implementing development programmes. Whether you are an experienced coach-mentor or keen to gain the knowledge and skills to become an effective coach-mentor, we offer two qualifications to suit your current professional level and needs. Certificate in Coaching and Mentoring A 7-month programme designed to help you develop an understanding of the theory and practice of coaching and mentoring. Ideal for those aspiring to be a highly effective coachmentor, either as a line manager or as a dedicated coach-mentor. Advanced Certificate in Coaching and Mentoring A 12-month programme ideal for those who already have some experience of coaching and mentoring, but want to develop their ability in a wider range of contexts and at a higher level. These certificates are accredited by OSCM/Oxford Brookes University. They also carry the EMCC Quality Award kite mark.

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The Skills Development Service Ltd presents one day training courses: Seminars: THE ESSENTIAL TOOLKIT FOR RUNNING GROUPS Key skills for running CBT, psychoeducational or exploratory groups and for managing common group problems

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NEW A one day course that takes you beyond Kubler-Ross and challenges commonly held assumptions about grief work 30 April 2009 Glasgow 10 June 2009 Manchester 16 June 2009 London 22 October 2009 London MANAGING CONFLICT & AGGRESSION WITH CLIENTS NEW A one day course designed to enable delegates to prevent and manage conflict and aggressive behaviour with clients 21 October 2009 London SKILLS FOR WORKING WITH PERSONALITY DISORDERS A one day introduction to understanding and working effectively with Personality Disorder clients 05 October 2009 London SKILLS FOR DEALING WITH DIFFICULT PEOPLE AT WORK A practical one-day course focusing on how to deal with difficult colleagues at work, from your staff to your boss 19 October 2009 London

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Entry Criteria: Applicants will normally be expected to hold a good honours degree (2.1 or above) in Psychology, which confers graduate basis for registration from the British Psychological Society. Psychology Programmes: • MSc/PgD/PgC Forensic Psychology • MSc/PgD/PgC Lifestyle Psychology • MSc/PgD/PgC Health Psychology* • MSc Health & Social Science Research. Available full and part-time. Closing date for entry for 2009/2010 to the MSc Forensic and Health Psychology: 30th June 2009.

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CAREERS

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After finishing my final year at Sussex I applied to a number of different US graduate schools, and went off to Stanford.

Consulting on talent Ian Florance talks to Charles Bethell-Fox, Deputy Managing Director of Personnel Decisions International (UK)

How did you first get interested in psychology? Two things – studying science and the influence of people. I’ve been given a lot of help by some fine people throughout my career. I studied A-level science and learnt physics using the Nuffield approach: learning through discovery. You mimicked the footsteps of earlier thinkers, and discovered the laws of physics for yourself by testing hypotheses via experimentation. What fascinated me was how real-world phenomena could be

jobs online

Charles.Bethell-Fox@ personneldecisions.com

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predicted using simple generalisable formulae. I began to wonder ‘Why not study people’s thinking and behaviour in the same way?’ This seemed like a clever, original idea until my physics teacher pointed out experimental psychologists had been doing this for the last 100 years! I decided to go and study with some of them. My headmaster put me in touch with a former pupil who was now a psychologist. He recommended some psychology departments and I plumped for Experimental Psychology at Sussex. The staff and the students I met at Sussex seemed very bright, but they were also friendly, liberal and open in their thinking. Sussex’s tutorial system was also hugely attractive. I learn best by discussing and arguing to find ideas and so-called facts that stand up to scrutiny and challenge. That’s also core to finding theories that reflect reality and have practical value. During my second year at Sussex, I got on an exchange programme with US universities, so I spent my third year as an undergraduate studying in Los Angeles. I audited classes in different subjects, including varied aspects of applied psychology. Living in Southern California at that time was terrific: people seemed very open and inquisitive, and willing to test out new ideas in practice. By contrast, Europe seemed more cautious and, perhaps, risk-averse. I ended up wanting to do a doctorate in the US – studying people scientifically seemed such an interesting thing to do.

See www.psychapp.co.uk for the following jobs, to search by job type, area and more, and to sign up for suitable e-mail alerts. Carter Corson – Occupational Psychologist Cubiks – Consultant Jigsaw CABAS School – Teaching Staff Medic International – Clinical/Counselling Psychologists International Eating Disorder Centre – Chartered Psychologist/Psychotherapist MyPsych.com – Online Consultant Psychologist

I get the impression you were fascinated by psychology as a subject and approach rather than one particular specialisation. I think that’s right. I’m working in organisational/occupational psychology now, but my PhD was in learning and individual differences, whereas my undergraduate work was in experimental psychology. My time at Stanford helped me grasp something I felt was fundamental. Experimental psychology looks for commonalities. Individual differences tend to be seen as ‘errors’. The people I was studying with – Richard Snow and Lee Cronbach, in particular – helped me understand how a scientific perspective could provide insights into individual variation across people, and how psychology could be all the more useful and practical for that. For example, we built informationprocessing models of how people use different strategies to solve exactly the same problems, and found that these differences were strongly associated with different levels of test performance. That’s interesting, but it begs questions about whether lower-performing people can be trained to use the high-performing strategies, and whether there is value in using different instructional methods to teach people the same things? So, part of the work I did at Stanford looked at the interaction between individual variation and instructional methodology. When you came back to the UK you started to work in applied psychology. Was that a difficult decision? No. By that time I was already very interested in practical applications. My PhD focused on getting answers to some theoretical questions that, potentially, had practical applications. Initially, on returning to the UK, I did some test

Human Factors Int. – Director or Senior Business Psychologist Keele University – Lecturer in Psychology (2 Posts) Online ads are just £150 (NHS and academic) or £250 (commercial), or free with a job ad in The Psychologist. Print ads are available from just £315+VAT. The next deadline for job advertising is 11 March (for the April issue). For more information, see p.258. To book, e-mail Kirsty Wright on psychapp@bps.org.uk or call +44 116 252 9550.

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development work but moved into broader applied work with the Ministry of Defence. The MOD offered a very good environment for studying people across a range of roles. You could also work with large numbers of people, and the importance of the role that psychologists could play was well established. At Senior Psychologist (Naval) I worked with Alan Jones, a great psychologist with a very practical bent. That experience helped shape the way I try to work today. In part we focused on improving officer selection methods. The Royal Navy is full of competent people who value competence in others, and so young officers have to win the trust and respect of the people who report to them. Officers can’t get away with just ordering people about. Good officers have highly developed leadership and people skills. And experienced naval ratings know how to make a bad officer’s life hell! I also had a chance to work on training programme design. The navy trains people to use complicated bits of kit, and to work cooperatively in very challenging situations. Part of this involved working on simulators, trying to train people so that they can perform a sequence of complex judgements and actions flawlessly under time pressure in stressful contexts. That was another ‘ahha’ moment: understanding the difference between knowing how to do something well versus actually doing it well. Simulators and simulations are good tools for helping people learn and practise doing things, and to assess whether they’re ready to do them in the real world. This presumably fed into your organisational work. Yes. At PDI I work with senior and middle executives – you could say the officer group – mostly in larger, international organisations. Some of this involves using simulations to assess and develop leaders. As in the navy, a leader needs to communicate a vision in a clear and engaging way. And you can’t just tell people – you need to get them engaged in thinking through solutions with you: getting the best ideas on the table; building clarity and commitment; holding people to account, while also offering support and encouragement. Leaders who can balance task focus with good people leadership skills can make a huge difference. After the RN, I worked for Hay McBer, founded by the Harvard psychologist David McClelland. This was the early days of assessing and developing the leadership competencies identified by behavioural event interviewing. We

FEATURED JOB Job Title: Learning Mentor Employer: Culloden Primary School, Tower Hamlets avid Gregory, Assistant Headteacher Inclusion, describes Culloden Primary School as ‘a vibrant, diverse, inclusive place, increasingly involved in the community, where 18 languages are spoken and the leadership team is highly effective. It really is an enriching place to work and experience.’ The new role of Learning Mentor seems an unusual job to advertise in The Psychologist, but David had a specific aim in mind. ‘We’re looking for someone who wants to apply the ideas they learnt in a first psychology degree. It would be ideal experience for someone who wants to go on to qualify as a child and educational psychologist. The person must be adaptable, child-centred, and have real energy. Every member of staff models behaviour for the children, whether they’re talking to another person or simply walking through the school. The Learning Mentor will need to build up a range of approaches and then choose appropriate ones to use with each pupil, who they’ll get to know closely. We feel a graduate psychology student who wants to work with children will find this a really rewarding role.’ The job involves identifying and “The person must be supporting children who are adaptable, child-centred, underachieving or disaffected from and have real energy” learning. ‘Statemented children are looked after by the Special Educational Needs Manager. The Learning Mentor will identify – through discussion, classroom observation and work with other staff – children where there are other barriers to learning. Examples would be an inability to attend or manage themselves in a classroom setting. The mentor will work with them in the classroom, one-to-one or in small group settings. This is a really varied, challenging job – the successful candidate will be working closely with children aged from 3 to 11 for instance, requiring very different approaches at different ages. We take a best-practice approach and the Learning Mentor will work with me, the Special Educational Needs Manager and other staff to develop ideas. We’re very keen on peer support and staff development, so we help staff grow with the job. That should appeal to a graduate psychologist.’ David says that ‘the school really changed nearly three years ago, and our Executive Headteacher Amanda Phillips is driving change further. This is an essential new role which can contribute to that change.’

D

You can find this job on p.277, and with many others on www.psychapp.co.uk.

addressed which competencies drove superior levels of leadership performance. I worked in London, Toronto and then New York before returning to the UK. Later, I worked for McKinsey to help them enhance their selection systems. McKinsey do a lot of work around business analysis and strategy identification, so that helped grow my interest in making clearer links between business and talent strategies. Working at PDI has pulled all my interests together. I use a reasoned approach to the identification and development of leadership capability. We often make use of simulations, creating experiences very close to those a leader would come across in work. This is very powerful especially when someone is

seek and advertise at www.psychapp.co.uk

being considered for a step-up to a leadership role. As observers and role players, we get a good sense of how ready the potential leader is. As participants, potential leaders can test themselves and decide on necessary developmental action before making a step up. So it’s an empirically-based, discovery approach, which, I suppose, is a bit like my school Nuffield science. Another chunk of our work involves helping organisations develop talent strategies linked to the tactical and strategic needs of the business. I enjoy this work enormously because it’s all about focusing capability on the critical needs of the business, and about developing people to be ready to take up critical roles.

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What are the qualities and skills you look for in an occupational psychologist? Intelligence, obviously. Can they articulate their thinking in a crisp, clear way to communicate with clients, especially at senior levels? Do they focus on what’s really important? This depends on putting yourself in someone else’s shoes by listening actively: can you understand what’s important from another’s perspective, and then find the right words to discuss these needs? This doesn’t mean completely shaping your solutions around another person’s agenda. Courage is something else I look for: the grit to be unpopular, at least in the short-term, and to be honest enough to say what’s in the client’s best interest, even if the client’s not sure that that’s what they wanted to hear. In my view, if you can’t do this you’ll never be a really good consultant. You seem to be talking about more general personal competencies.

Yes, I think that’s right. A good knowledge of psychological theory is a given, but you’re also looking for the building block competencies that can develop into strong client-interaction skills. It doesn’t matter how long someone’s CV is: if they haven’t got the potential to develop good clientinteraction skills they’re unlikely, I think, to grow into a good internal or external consultant. I’d also add enthusiasm, to help create energy and accountability. The latter’s important. A good psychologist is caught between a number of pressures: their employing organisation’s need to win and keep business; the manager or organisation purchasing or using those skills; and, of course, the challenges of the intervention itself. Needless to say, integrity’s crucial, and in this sense a consultant is akin to a leader in any organisation. Clients must feel that they can trust you, and you need to be able to back up your claims. Also, I look for a track record of

success in whatever the person has done, whether it’s relevant to psychology or not. Particularly in new graduates, this suggests drive and self-discipline. And I like to see strong evidence of learning from difficult experiences. We all make mistakes; the question is, do you have the ability to learn from them and raise your game. Good consultants are able to apply a knowledge of psychology to helping find solutions to real-world issues in organisations; they talk in appropriate language; have drive and a real love of their work; and the can build trust, respect and relationships, while arguing their case convincingly. Given your views on successful consultants’ competencies, you must have views on psychologists’ training. Unfortunately, I don’t meet many people who understand the practical usefulness of what they’ve learnt or discovered. If someone reads the latest research finding in, say, memory functioning or decision

Taking flight as a legal eagle Craig Ward on his move from a psychology degree into the law aslow taught that individuals strive to become everything that they are capable of becoming – to achieve what is attainable. If you complete a psychology degree you should possess particular knowledge, skills and techniques that will open up a huge variety of possibilities and opportunities. My choice among all these was to become a lawyer.

M

How lawyers operate The life of a lawyer has some echoes of a psychologist’s. They both work with clients, many of whom only require assistance during the most stressful times in their lives. They extrapolate from the information clients give them, sifting out what is relevant and trying to understand the clients’ expectations. Both have to know current good practice in ‘case law’, and be able to evaluate evidence objectively, understanding why

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there are differences in evidence and opinions. Based on this knowledge and analysis they advise clients, in an intelligible way, on the range of options available. Becoming a solicitor involves a law conversion course, followed by a legal practice course; both are one year full-time or two years’ parttime courses. These are followed by two years of on-the-job training. The route to becoming a barrister is similar, but involves less on-the-job training. Much of a lawyer’s life is spent balancing clients’ needs and expectations with legal principles and case law. I find the following skills, attitudes and approaches I gained through studying psychology essentially useful in my work as a solicitor.

Critical evaluation As a lawyer you need to

understand how the aspects of a case affect people. Lawyers are supposed to assess and advise dispassionately, without prejudice, but I have found that practising law is often more emotive. For instance, take the case of Mrs Smith. She is an 80-yearold widow, with carers coming daily. She has two adult children, one of whom, her disabled son, lives at home. She has recently started spending time with one of her carers socially. A recent social services assessment says she needs to go into a care home. She retains sufficient mental capacity to make decisions. The lawyer’s notes might include: I Moving home is very upsetting and disruptive. Mrs Smith does not necessarily have to move, as more care might be provided for her at home; that way she could also continue caring for her son. I She has mental capacity and should consider making a

Lasting Power of Attorney (this grants authority to someone to make financial and care decisions if she loses mental capacity). This would allow her to have control over her life, and she could choose the person that would make decisions for her if she became unable. I Abuse is always a possibility, so a check should be made to ensure everything is well. The lawyer is still dispassionate, but can see her social and emotional needs, particularly where and with whom she may want to spend her time. A knowledge of the dynamics of relationships, and of how numerous variables interact, can often be useful. I have found that being called to a police station to advise an alleged robber sharply focuses the mind. Most crimes occur within a social framework, perhaps because of pressure, desires, status or emotions. Seeing how these affect each

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making, have they asked themselves produce the person sitting in front of ‘So what?’ and been able to draw any you, how can you possibly come up practical conclusions. Students should be with practical solutions that will help the challenged to examine the implications of individual develop their leadership or psychological theory in the real world. other skills? By the way, that’s not some antiI’m not suggesting that encouraging academic polemic. For example, Daniel students to think in this way never Gilbert is indisputably an academic, but if happens, but I do think it could be you’ve read any of his work it’s clear that strengthened. And teasing out how you he’s constantly asking himself can make use of ‘So what?’ in a very practical a body of sense when he’s reading knowledge doesn’t “I look for a track record research articles. necessarily water of success in whatever I’d also like to see students down rigorous the person has done” think more about how academic content different aspects of – in my view, it can psychological theory interact. help strengthen it. When we study something, we tend to I also think that we don’t have to have break it analytically into pieces, but in the a complete, watertight account of an area real world people, organisations and before we can begin using it in anger. issues present holistically. For example, if Instead, we should try to get the best out you’re coaching a leader you have to take of what we already know. into account cognitive skills, personality I feel the same issues apply to dispositions, motivation, past knowledge occupational psychology training – more and other things. But if you can’t grasp real-life issues being considered, and how these different factors interact to more people from business being brought

other allows greater insight to providing advice, in quite a stressful situation. Psychological study is invaluable here. Sitting in a police station taking instructions from someone about a significant life event, which needs resolving fairly quickly, requires patience, understanding of their emotions, a perception behind what happened and the events leading up to this, and the ability to draw out hidden issues or agendas in order to provide advice. Does all this sound a little like counselling? Open and closed questions, exploring, recognising patterns and themes, confronting discrepancies and goal setting – skills lawyers need, albeit without the counselling qualification.

Problem solving Lawyers are often faced with cases which, like jigsaws, have missing pieces. It’s not always obvious how what’s missing affects everything else. Inserting this missing piece allows effective advice to be given. Getting there is about problem solving. Psychology

students who spend their days challenging why things happen, and how variables can be altered to affect outcomes, become very good at problem solving and seeing what is missing. This is a particularly useful ability when advising in civil litigation cases, in which people are allowed to claim confidentiality on documents. The ability to see what is missing and why allows links to be made between evidence in order to advance and challenge a case.

Higher-order analysis Lawyers are often faced with piles of documents that need to be read, quickly mastered and advised on. Success in this is the ability to see connections between ideas, especially obscure ones. Psychological study teaches ways of seeing relationships between ranges of information. Being able to see these links, and how they affect each other, allows for more effective choices for the client. This is helpful for advocates attending court, as crossexamination requires you to quickly jump between what the

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in to enliven courses, and real individual and organisational cases for occupational psychology students to work on. This technique is used in other areas – training medical doctors and MBA students, for instance. No doubt some courses are doing this sort of thing, but it could certainly be done more frequently. This would produce people with academic training in occupational psychology who have practical skills that they can turn to good effect immediately. That would also help to raise their employment prospects. You seem to see that ‘consulting’ model as important to all applied psychologists. Yes. The challenge is discovery – how you surface things to get to the issues that need to be addressed. In their day-to-day work, most applied psychologists have to sit down with people, hold a discussion, find out the person’s or organisation’s need, and then use interpersonal skills to apply psychological knowledge in an appropriate and effective way.

witness has just said, and what is recorded in the documentary evidence. The better you become at seeing the links, the better you are at challenging someone in cross-examination.

Information gathering The law changes constantly, and being able to sift, analyse and prioritise what is relevant is an essential legal skill. Psychological research skills teaches how time can be saved, whilst helping both the lawyer and the client stay on top of what is happening.

People are the key Lawyers are more people-oriented than they’re usually portrayed. Most law is practised with an individual in front of you – a client – seeking reliable advice about what may happen next in their life. It’s almost like a counselling session.

Just like psychologists, some lawyers spend their time resolving life’s social issues – working in criminal law, mental health or community care law, as I have. Lawyers can work in high street firms, for charities, social services departments, health authorities, central government or as a mediator. Psychological study involves learning how to form hypotheses. These require testing before a conclusion can be reached. Lawyers work in the same way: forming a legal idea that is evaluated against the evidence. This leads to client advice on how best to proceed. Psychology underpins society. I believe it underpins law in the same way as any other activity, though you wouldn’t always think so given the way we are often viewed!

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CONTENTS Clinical Counselling Forensic Health Neuropsychology Occupational Psychology graduates

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Job advertising is also available online-only, for just £150 (NHS or academic) or £250 (commercial). See www.psychapp.co.uk.

The Retreat is a not-for-profit specialist mental health provider, working with the NHS to provide care for people with complex and challenging needs. Two positions have arisen in our Acorn Programme. This is part of The Retreat’s specialist adult mental health service, and is a Therapeutic Community informed by Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) for women who engage in ‘self-defeating behaviours’ such as self-harm or eating disorders.

CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGIST

Hours: 18.75 per week (2–3 day rota) Salary Range: £32,860 – £35,700 (FTE dependent upon experience) The above position will contribute to a multi-disciplinary staff team working within an accredited Therapeutic Community. The postholder will work alongside the existing Consultant Clinical Psychologist and psychotherapist colleagues in providing individual therapy and assessment within the group programme. Applications are invited from recently qualified Clinical Psychologists. Knowledge of and inclination towards Therapeutic Communities/ groupwork, DBT and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy is desirable.

Interested in helping people with Acquired Brain Injuries to get back to work? We need Professionals with a background in this kind of work.

Occupational Psychologists • Clinical/Neuropsychologists Occupational Therapists • Assistant Psychologists Job Coaches/Employment Coaches Self-employed and Part-time contracts available Full training provided but we are particularly looking for people with previous experience related to vocational training, health care and disabilities, including acquired brain injury. For further information send a CV with covering letter, or contact Karen Royle or Angela Smith, Ways to Work Ltd, Champness Hall, Drake Street, Rochdale, OL15 1PB Tel: 01706 525200 E-mail: info@waystowork.co.uk www.waystowork.co.uk

ASSISTANT PSYCHOLOGIST/SUPPORT WORKER

Hours: 37.5 per week Salary Range: £15,571 – £20,058 (dependent upon experience) The successful candidate will have excellent communication skills, a minimum of a 2:1 honours degree in Psychology and be eligible for graduate membership of the British Psychological Society. In addition to working individually and in groups with our clients, the post will include protected time (currently under review) for research and audit related activities. Supervision will be provided by a Clinical Psychologist. For an application pack, please contact Helen Wood on 01904 412551 ext 2222 or e-mail: hwood@theretreatyork.org.uk Suitable applicants will be seen upon receipt of application. The Retreat is an independent hospital and a registered charity. Heslington Road, York, YO10 5BN.

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CLINICAL/VARIOUS

Programme Supervisor (Clinical Psychologist) Cambridgeshire Band 8b: ÂŁ43,221 - ÂŁ53,432 p.a. Full-time, 37.5 hours per week - Job ref CPFT2899C In this new role, you will work within the newly established Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care team. The team is part of a nationally-led, but locally implemented project aimed at improving outcomes for children looked after between ages of 7 and 11 years. You will be responsible for the design, coordination, delivery and monitoring of all aspects of the treatment packages for individual children, overseeing all clinical aspects of the MTFC-C approach. You will also be involved in assessing the children referred, developing psychological formulations and implementing treatment packages. The post also involves training, teaching and supervision. The Trust is committed to safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children, young people and vulnerable adults, and expects all staff and volunteers to share this commitment. As part of the selection process, you will be required to undergo a Criminal Records Bureau check. We are genuinely committed to Improving Working Lives and our commitment to training and development is second to none. Informal contact: Helen Upright on 01480 415300. For full details on this and all other vacancies in the Cambridgeshire and Peterborough region and to apply online, please go to:

www.jobs.cambs.nhs.uk If you do not have access to the internet, please call 01480 398652 (24 hour answerphone). Closing date: 12 March 2009. We are an equal opportunities employer.

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EXCELLENCE IN THE PROVISION OF MENTAL HEALTH CARE

Chartered Psychologist (Clinical or Forensic) Up to ÂŁ42,000 (dependent on experience)

This is an exciting new opportunity for a Chartered Clinical or Forensic Psychologist to work in a forensic environment. Your post will be split between two medium secure units: The North London Clinic, Edmonton, London and Suttons Manor Hospital, Romford, Essex. The North London Clinic offers specialised assessment, treatment and rehabilitation services for mentally disordered men presenting with challenging behaviours (61 beds). Suttons Manor services focus on the rehabilitation of mentally disordered offenders with severe and enduring mental illness in a medium secure setting (24 beds). You will be working in the Psychology Department and will be supervised by a Consultant Forensic Psychologist. You will be involved in all psychological interventions, including

assessment, individual and group therapy, staff training etc. There will be opportunities for research and involvement in service development. You will have full divisional membership as a Chartered Psychologist with the BPS and considerable experience in working with mentally disordered offenders. Experience in interventions such as substance misuse, sexual offending work, anger management, cognitive skills etc would be an advantage. For further information, job description and arrangements for an informal visit, please contact Eleni Belivanaki, Head of Psychology, on 0208 9561223 or email: EBelivanaki@partnershipsincare.co.uk Deadline for applications: 20 March 2009. www.partnershipsincare.co.uk/jobs

Partnerships in Care is committed to providing equal opportunities for its staff and our patients.

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CLINICAL/FORENSIC

Bexley Directorate Acute and Community - Adult Mental Health

Highly Specialist Clinical Psychologist Band 8a £39,178 - £46,224 inc. per annum Community Assessment and Treatment Team: 8 sessions Long-Term Intervention Team: 2 sessions Oxleas NHS Foundation Trust is an innovative and successful mental health and learning disability Trust providing services within the South East London Boroughs of Bexley, Greenwich and Bromley. The Trust has consistently received a three star rating and was amongst the first Mental Health Trusts to be awarded Foundation status. We have a large, well-established and supportive Clinical Psychology, Psychotherapy and Counselling Department, with strong leadership and professional development. The Department contains psychologists with extensive training and experience in cognitive, psycho-dynamic and systemic approaches. Service-related research is encouraged and supported by providing protected time for these activities. There are strong links with the South Thames (Salomons) Clinical Psychology Training Scheme. There are good working relationships with both managers and other senior clinicians and psychotherapy is well-represented at senior managerial and clinical levels. The Head of Psychology is also the Director of Psychological Therapies and a member of the executive team for the Trust. The input from psychologists is valued within the Trust and we undertake important roles, not only in clinical work, but also management, service development and clinical governance. This is a newly reconfigured post designed to increase senior psychology expertise and leadership principally in a busy Community Assessment and Treatment Team (8 sessions), and the associated Long-Term Intervention Team (2 sessions). Psychological therapy has been a core aspect of the work of both teams since their inception and, in addition to other psychology colleagues within the teams, many other members of the staff group have psychological therapy skills and are keen to embrace this work. It is expected that the post holder will make a significant contribution to the psychological thinking of the staff teams via training, supervision/consultation, psychological formulation and co-working. It presents the opportunity for an experienced and innovative clinical psychologist to shape a developing service. The post is based in a purpose-built community mental health centre, which houses both teams, and is located near to the centre of Bexley. You will need to be experienced in the psychological assessment and treatment of clients presenting with a full range of adult emotional disorders, including those with complex needs such as psychosis, and practice in a family and carer inclusive way. You will also need to be skilled in engaging multi-professional teams and providing support and consultation in relation to client’s care. Service Evaluation and monitoring the progress of users within the system will also form an important part of this role. You will be encouraged to consolidate and further develop your therapeutic skills in a friendly and supportive multi-professional and multi-agency context. Professional line management and support will be provided by an experienced Consultant Clinical Psychologist who has worked in the locality for many years, and previously provided clinical input into CATT, and continues to provide management and supervisory support to both teams. Specialist supervision in CBT, Psychodynamic/Mentalisation and Systemic approaches is available, with opportunities for training and service-related research. Project work is encouraged. Recent initiatives in the borough include intensive CBT for OCD clients, a mindfulness group for clients with recurrent depression and a specialist systemic family therapy service. For more information or to arrange an informal visit, please contact Lorna Hogg, Consultant Clinical Psychologist in South Bexley, on 020 8301 9463. For an application form and job description, please visit the trust website www.oxleas.nhs.uk Please quote Ref 1765 in all correspondence. Closing date for applications: 22 March 2009. Possession of a criminal conviction does not automatically make an applicant unsuitable for employment in the NHS, however, some offences may preclude an applicant from having access to patients. The trust has effective processes in place to ensure that applicants are supported appropriately throughout the disclosure process. Applications from candidates who require a permit to work in the UK may not be considered if there are a sufficient number of other suitable candidates. For further information, please see ‘Applying from outside the UK’ on our website. Please also note that for some occupations we receive a high amount of applications and where this is evident the post will be closed and we will put a limit on the number of applications that we are able to receive. If you do not hear anything within four weeks of the closing date, please assume you have not been shortlisted.

We are an equal opportunities employer. We are committed to improving the working lives of all our employees and will consider flexible working arrangements.

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Somerset Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, in collaboration with the National Mental Health Service for Deaf Children and Young People

Highly Specialist CAMHS Clinical Psychologist, Band 8b (indicative) £43,221 - £53,432 per annum Permanent Contract 37.5 hours per week We are looking for a highly skilled and motivated Clinical Psychologist to join our exciting joint venture with the National Mental Health Service for Deaf Children and Young People. As part of the national programme for developing this specialist service, we are establishing a new multi-disciplinary team, which will work across the whole of the south west, and will be located within our existing CAMHS team in Taunton. Working closely with colleagues in the national service in their existing bases across England and with the local project implementation team, you will need to bring your specialist skills, expertise and enthusiasm to build effective links with partner agencies, specialist resources and CAMHS colleagues across the south west. We will be working to find creative and innovative ways of addressing and overcoming the logistical and clinical challenges, using technology such as video-conferencing. You will need to be an experienced CAMHS practitioner. Experience of working with deaf children and young people would be an advantage, although full support through an extended induction programme and additional training will be available as part of the national specialist service. You will be required to learn British Sign Language if you do not already have these skills, and training would be provided. You will be joining the Trust’s well-established Psychology and Psychological Therapies Department. Psychology management is through the Heads of Specialty Management Group and operational accountability through the regional and national steering groups. We have excellent library facilities and well-established links with the South West Regional Joint Clinical Training Course. For more information, please contact Jane Yeandle, Head of CAMHS Psychology on 01823 432211 or Alison Chisholm, CAMHS Service Manager on 01823 330510. Ref: FEB.1

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CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGIST Band 8a £43,044 - £50,465 pa inc pro rata 18.75 hours per week

Ref: 334-CAM8950

We are looking for an experienced and enthusiastic Clinical Psychologist to work half-time (five sessions) in the Adult Acute Inpatient Services in Lambeth. The Lambeth Directorate has four gender specific and one mixed adult acute inpatient wards including Intensive Psychiatric Care Unit (PICU). The wards provide service to severely mentally ill people with challenging behaviours and complex mental health needs. The Inpatient Psychology Service is centralised and you will be expected to provide sessions to PICU as well as to other inpatient wards. The main focus of your clinical work will be running patient groups relevant to the acute inpatient environment in order to improve the therapeutic environment of the ward. You will also be expected to provide assessment and individual treatment to clients as well as consultation and supervision to ward staff. Clinical supervision for running groups will be provided. You will be joining a group of psychologists working in Adult Mental Health and Complex Needs. We have strong academic links with both the Institute of Psychiatry and Salamons training courses and good opportunities for continuing professional development. We are looking for someone with a special interest in group therapy, especially for inpatients, advanced therapeutic skills, and ability to work with clients with complex needs and challenging behaviours. For further information, please contact Dr Katja Hajek, Consultant Clinical Psychologist by e-mail: katja.hajek@slam.nhs.uk or Isabelle Ekdawi, Consultant Clinical Psychologist and Head of Complex Needs Psychology, Lambeth on 020 3228 6325 or by e-mail: isabelle.ekdawi@slam.nhs.uk Closing date: 27th March 2009. Interview date: 22nd April 2009. To apply online please visit our website www.slam.nhs.uk Alternatively call us on 020 3228 5371 (24 hour answering machine) for an application pack quoting reference number: 334-CAM8950.

The successful candidates will be asked to apply for an Enhanced Disclosure. Further information about the Disclosure scheme can

Apply on-line – www.sompar.nhs.uk and click on ‘jobs’ on the left-hand side.

be found at www.disclosure.gov.uk

CLOSING DATE: 22ND MARCH 2009. We are an Equal Opportunities Employer. We welcome applications from people that have personal experience of mental health difficulties. All posts require a criminal background check via the disclosure process.

Creating a world-leading Academic Health Sciences Centre.

a health and social care organisation In partnership with Somerset County Council

and forensic, MHOA, CAMHS, learning disabilities and

The Trust is committed to employing a workforce which reflects the diversity and meets the needs of the local population. We provide Mental Health services in adult, rehabilitation

addictions services, covering the London boroughs of Southwark, Lambeth, Lewisham, Croydon, Bexley, Bromley and Greenwich along with national specialist services.

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CLINICAL

Cheshire and Wirral Partnership NHS Foundation Trust

ADULT & OLDER PEOPLE MENTAL HEALTH DIVISION, WIRRAL “TALKING CHANGES” PRIMARY CARE MENTAL HEALTH SERVICE, HAMILTON CENTRE, ST CATHERINE’S HOSPITAL, CHURCH ROAD, TRANMERE, WIRRAL CH42 0LQ

Clinical/Professional Lead Band 8c £52,007 - £64,118 pa 37.5 hours per week Ref: PT8307 We are a newly commissioned service that has been set up in order to meet Improving the Access to Psychological Therapies requirements and is consistent with NICE and other national guidance. We are looking for an experienced, highly committed Clinical Psychologist to join our rapidly developing, innovative service that works flexibly across the Wirral Peninsular. Our service, which is being delivered in partnership with Wirral Mind and Advocacy in Wirral, aims to significantly increase access to psychological therapy for people with anxiety, depression and other common mental health problems. The service also aims to impact on the work and social adjustment outcomes of this client group. You will be responsible for the clinical leadership of a multiprofessional group of Practitioners within an excellent clinical and professional governance structure. You will join the Service Manager and GP with Special Interests in ensuring that there is an emphasis on developing a service that is evidence-based, effective and cost effective.

You will have experience in the planning and development of Primary Care services, ideally at both a local and regional level and will be up-to-date in relation to psychological practice and mental health services. Clinically, you will have a clinical expertise and a specialist interest in one or more specific treatment modalities and a specific clinical domain. This is an exciting and challenging post that will draw on the range of skills expected of a Clinical Psychologist, including strategic and operational planning and development, teaching and training, consultation and supervision and research and dissemination of knowledge through publications. Informal enquiries to Linda Cannon, Service Manager or Aisling O’Kane, Acting Professional Lead on 0151 653 1520. To apply please visit our website on www.cwp.nhs.uk Closing Date: 21 March 2009. Interviews to be held: 9 April 2009.

New entrants to the NHS will commence on the minimum of the scale. The Trust operates a No-Smoking Policy. Working towards equal opportunities.

Yesterday he stayed firmly in his own world. Today he stood and watched me. I can’t wait to come in tomorrow. Clinical Psychology Assistant Practitioners £19,176 + 5.2 weeks paid holiday 40 hours per week, 40 weeks per year The world can be a confusing place for young people with Asperger Syndrome and associated disorders. We provide quality care and education for those people. Located in the village of Boldre, near Lymington, Southlands School works with young people between the ages of 7-16. The Wing Centre is a residential post-16 specialist provision, based in Bournemouth, Dorset. Each school is looking to appoint one Clinical Psychology Assistant Practitioner. Eligible to register with the British Psychological Society, you have an approved qualification and proven research experience combined with relevant experience of working with children or adults with learning difficulties or challenging behaviour. This could turn out to be the most rewarding work you’ve ever done. To find out more and to apply for the Southlands School position please contact Naomi Clarke on 01590 675350 or email eric.cawdron@cambiangroup.com quoting reference SLS/01/CPAP/09. For The Wing Centre position please contact Gina Davis on 01202 635630 or email twc.recruitment@cambiangroup.com quoting reference TWC/01/CPAP/09. Closing date for both posts: 16th March 2009.

seek and advertise at www.psychapp.co.uk

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Refuge is a national charity, which provides a lifeline for women and children experiencing domestic violence. We are currently looking to recruit two full-time female* Psychologists/Senior Social Workers/Mental Health Practitioners to work with children and their mothers in our new cross borough group programme. These posts are funded by a grant from the London Councils.

Psychologists/Senior Social Workers/ Mental Health Practitioners c. £32,000 pa (inc ILW) 4 Year Fixed Term Contract (possible extension subject to funding) Based Greenwich, Lambeth, Lewisham and Southwark The primary aim of these posts is to deliver a range of group work programmes to women and children who reside at Refuge affected by domestic violence, as well as to those who live in the community. Individual psychological support should also be provided to priority children. These new posts will form part of a larger team of Psychologists and Social Workers within Refuge who offer individual and group support to children and their mothers. In order to apply, you must be either a qualified Psychologist who has Chartered status with the BPS; a Senior Social Worker with additional therapeutic training/experience or an experienced Mental Health Practitioner. You must have significant experience of working with children and families. A feminist perspective of violence against women is essential, as is a non-pathologising approach to the work more generally. The use of a car during working hours to travel between sites would be useful but not essential, as would the willingness to undertake minibus training. You must have a commitment to the values of empowerment, support and equality, which underpin all the work undertaken by Refuge.

For an application pack, please email refuge@point13media.com or contact Point Thirteen Media on 0845 496 7416 quoting reference number 1844. Benefits include 28 days’ holiday, non-contributory pension scheme, employee assistance programme and a child care voucher scheme.

Closing date: Wednesday, 11th March 2009. *Section 7.2(d) of the Sex Discrimination Act 1975 applies. Refuge values diversity and welcomes applications from all sections of the community. Charity no. 277424

www.refuge.org.uk

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Clinical Psychologist Ref: BPS 052 £28,043.90 - £42,949.55 pa (Plus St Andrew’s Healthcare Clinical Allowance of £1,182.73 pa pro rata) 37.5 hours per week St Andrew’s Healthcare, Northampton is a 450 bedded hospital run as a private charity and is Britain’s largest and most diverse independent Psychiatric Hospital. The hospital has established a national reputation for specialised services in psychiatry, developmental disabilities and is a national centre for acquired brain injury. The Women’s service provides specialist care for adult psychiatric and learning disabled patients with challenging behaviours which preclude them from treatment in mainstream NHS settings. Core tasks are to formulate patients presenting problems and evaluate their response of treatment with a view to moving them to less secure settings as soon as possible. A large and pleasant campus offers a wide range of treatment, vocation and recreational facilities, including opportunities for progress to open wards and staffed group homes. Clinical Psychologists are responsible for helping to plan, provide and evaluate the range of psychosocial treatment programmes which are broadly based on cognitive behavioural principles and in particular on relapse prevention work. We would look to recruit either a newly or recently qualified psychologist, with 0 - 2 years post training experience. You would join a team of Clinical Psychologists and CBT Therapist and will help to plan, provide and evaluate a range of psychosocial treatment programmes based on cognitive behaviour therapy principles in the Learning Disabilities path of the Women’s Service. A wide variety of interests can be accommodated and all enquiries are welcome. To attract the right candidate we offer competitive salaries and conditions of service including good opportunities for continuing professional development. The successful applicant will be joining a well established Psychology Department that offers professional support and a wide range of expertise. For enquiries or to arrange a visit, please contact Dr Clive Long, Group Head of Psychological Services St Andrew’s Healthcare on (01604) 616307. For an application form and job description please telephone: (01604) 616589 (24 hour answerphone service) email recruitment@standrew.co.uk or apply online via our Website www.stah.org Please quote the relevant reference number on all correspondence relating to this vacancy. Closing date: 20 March 2009. The charity has a commitment to the future of mental health care. The St Andrew’s Academic Centre at Northampton, part of The Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, is dedicated to world-class research and teaching. St Andrew’s works closely with the University of Northampton and other leading universities in training mental health professionals for the nation. Our benefits include: • Subsidised Staff Restaurant • Subsidised childcare facilities • Sports facilities (gym, pool, squash courts)

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Delivering Care Without Compromise Raphael Healthcare Ltd is a new healthcare company, established to become a market leader in the provision of the highest quality care to people with mental illness and/or personality disorder.

Our plans are to expand and develop at an ambitious pace across the UK. Our first development, a purpose built 40 bed low secure specialist unit in Newark, opened in June 2006, providing care for women who require rehabilitation and care within the safety and security of a holistic environment where their physical, social psychological, spiritual, cultural and educational needs are met. Our building is superbly designed to maximise the space for our patients and to provide fully equipped facilities for therapeutic programmes.

Clinical or Forensic Psychologist • Salary negotiable dependent on experience • 37.5 hrs pw flexible over 5 days We currently have an opportunity for an enthusiastic chartered Clinical or Forensic Psychologist who wishes to work as part of a multidisciplinary team in this challenging environment. You will be involved in a variety of psychological interventions, from assessment utilising motivational framework, to formulation, based on schema theory, as well as 1-1 therapy and group work, looking at areas such as self harm, personality, risk and offending. You will be provided with supportive training and CPD as well as support in the specialised delivery of specific interventions. You will have experience of working with complex clinical and forensic needs and be able to design and deliver complex psychological interventions. You should have experience of relevant risk assessment and management tools that are standard within forensic mental health settings. Service Development and experience within a women’s service would be advantageous, however, not essential. To apply please call us on 01928 515967, alternatively email: vacancies@raphaelhealthcare.org.uk giving your name and contact details. Closing Date: Friday 13 March 2009. We are an equal opportunities employer.

Specialist Clinical Psychologist Post Ref: D472.08 Prison Mental Health In-Reach Team based at Forston Clinic, Dorchester Band 8a (subject to consistency checking) £37,106 - £44,527 pa pro rata 26.25 hours per week over 7 sessions per week, Permanent This new post is part of our commitment to developing mental health services to prisoners within the Dorset Prison Partnership. You will join a multidisciplinary team consisting of medical, nursing, social work and clinical psychology. You will work primarily under the direction of a clinical psychologist to provide a high quality assessment and treatment service on both an individual and group basis, with additional responsibilities toward developing our audit and evaluation service, teaching and training and provide support and supervision to other disciplines working with this challenging client group. For further information please contact Dave Walker, Team Leader on 01305 361421, or Mike Hennessy on 01202 492893. Car owner/driver essential subject to the provisions of the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 and 2005. To apply please visit our website www.jobs.nhs.uk and search under Dorset.

We are an equal opportunities employer. Registered Charity No. 1104951.

Closing date: 19th March 2009.

A charity leading innovation in mental health

Committed to equal opportunity & flexible working practices, all full time posts are suitable for part-time working/job share.

seek and advertise at www.psychapp.co.uk

CLINICAL/COUNSELLING/FORENSIC

Women’s Service - Mental Health & Learning Disabilities Services - Northampton

16/2/09

Interviews are planned from 2nd April 2009 onwards.

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Isle of Wight INTEGRATED DEMENTIA SERVICES

Clinical Psychologist Ref: 296-08-362 Salary: Band 8a £37,106 - £44,527 pa Hours: f/t 37.5 pw - job sharing considered Mental Health Services on the Isle of Wight are being reconfigured to include an Integrated Dementia Service, fully integrated between the Trust and the Isle of Wight Council’s Community Services. The service will provide holistic care for people with dementia and other cognitive disorders and their families and carers, in line with the National Dementia Strategy. Joining a multidisciplinary service, you will be involved in developing an innovative service and work flexibly in a variety of community, residential and inpatient settings. If you believe you can make a valuable contribution in this challenging and rewarding area of work and would like to know more, please contact Sian Bayer on 01983 525244. To apply, visit: www.jobs.nhs.uk and quote Ref. If you have any queries regarding applying on-line please call 01983 534411. To find out about the Trust: www.iow.nhs.uk Closing date: 20 March 2009

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Northern Ireland Specialist Clinical Psychologist, Band 8A* CARED FOR CHILDREN THERAPEUTIC SERVICE WARREN CHILDREN’S CENTRE Hours: Full-time (37.5 per week). Interviews will be held on 7 May 2009.

Apply online at

www.hpssjobs.com

Following interviews a 6 month waiting list will be held for future full/part-time temporary/permanent & Bank vacancies. Application forms can be obtained by telephoning (028) 9151 2000, by calling in person to the Reception, Health & Care Centre, 39 Regent Street, Newtownards, BT23 4AD or apply on line at www.hpssjobs.com Closing date for receipt of completed applications is 4.00pm on Friday 20 March 2009. The Trust is an Equal Opportunities employer and welcomes applications from all sectors of the community irrespective of their religion, politics, race, age, gender, sexual orientation or disability. However, due to under-representation, the Trust particularly welcomes applications from Catholics for vacancies in the North Down and Ards geographical area and Protestants for vacancies in the Downpatrick area.

The Trust is an equal opportunities employer and offers flexible working. We also operate a non-smoking policy.

The Trust is a smoke free organisation.

Visit all our vacancies on Musgrove Park Hospital

www.nhsggc.org.uk

Bariatric Services

Clinical Psychologist

Ref. 403-2199B

Band 7 or 8a depending on experience. (Bandings subject to confirmation under agenda for change) The Bariatric service based at Musgrove Park Hospital Taunton provides a service to patients throughout the South West Region. This new post, part of a wider service expansion, will provide the clinical psychologist with opportunities to shape psychosocial assessments and interventions as part of a multi-disciplinary team comprising Consultant Endocrinologist, Consultant GI Surgeon, Specialist Dieticians and Nurses. You will have experience in group and individual interventions including CBT, teaching, audit and research. You will develop psychosocial interventions for adults with significant weight problems and for those undergoing bariatric surgery. The Clinical Psychologist will establish referral pathways and provide consultancy to MDT. At band 8a level you will provide supervision for other Healthcare Professionals and Clinical Psychologists in training. Closing date: 13 March 2009. For information contact: Dr. M T Fitzpatrick, Lead Consultant Clinical Psychologist Dr. I Douek, Consultant Physician and Endocrinologist Mr. R. Welbourn, Consultant GI Surgeon Ms. Ann Wheeler, Specialist Dietician

01823 343770 01823 344986 01823 342100 01823 343561

An application pack can be obtained by telephoning our 24 hour dedicated voicemail service on 01823 342814 or email: staff.recruitment@tst.nhs.uk quoting the reference number. Alternatively, please visit our website www.jobs.nhs.uk Musgrove Park Hospital is part of Taunton and Somerset NHS Foundation Trust.

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Clinical/Counselling Psychologist Band 7, £29,091 - £38,352 37.5 hrs, Dykebar Hospital Ref: 16555P You will work with other psychology colleagues to provide a high quality psychological assessment and therapy service in the field of adult mental health within the Renfrewshire area of NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde. This will mainly be within a Community Mental Health Team setting, with the possibility of some dedicated time to a specialist area of adult mental health. There will be excellent support from other psychologists and multidisciplinary colleagues and ample opportunities for development of clinical interests and skills, as well as possible involvement in the training of clinical or counselling psychology trainees. You will be a qualified clinical or counselling psychologist eligible for chartered status with the British Psychological Society. You should be an effective communicator, with significant experience of working with a wide variety of client groups across a wide range of care settings, as well as experience of teaching, training and/or professional and clinical supervision. For further information please call Dr Charlie Marsh on 0141 314 4433 or email charlie.marsh@renver-pct.scot.nhs.uk To download a job pack and application form visit www.nhsggc.org.uk/recruitment and follow the links or e-mail your full address and job reference number to nhsggcrecruitment@nhs.net or call the recruitment line on 0845 3000 831. Closing date: 13th March 2009.

Tackling Inequalities

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Clinical Psychologist Band 8a: £37,106 - £44,527 p.a. 37.5 hours per week Kent Forensic Psychiatry Service, The Tarentfort Centre Forensic LD Service, Dartford Ref: W051

Part of the Kent Forensic Psychiatry Service, the Tarentfort Centre is a Dartford-based secure unit which opened in 2007 to provide in-patient care to 20 men with learning disabilities who have offending behaviour histories and may have additional mental health needs. With the development of the second ward in the unit, there is an exciting opportunity for a Clinical Psychologist to join the strong multi-disciplinary team. You will help to take forward the development of the psychology programme and contribute to the wider work of the service as a whole. You will bring excellent clinical skills, a commitment to the development of treatment programmes and service evaluation, and a strong track record of working in complex multidisciplinary settings. Experience of working with service users in forensic settings and/or with those who have complex needs is essential. The psychology department at the Tarentfort Centre includes a consultant clinical psychologist and forensic psychologists, as well as a full-time assistant psychologist. It is part of the wider KFPS psychology department within the Trevor Gibbens Unit in Maidstone, to which it is closely linked. The service has a strong commitment to CPD and is research active, with excellent opportunities for the development of research interests. There are good links with the local clinical and forensic psychology training programmes. Suitably experienced candidates who would be eligible for appointment at Band 7 may be considered. For an informal discussion about this post, please contact Dr Anne Sheeran 01322 622222. If your application is successful, you will be notified by e-mail. Therefore, please ensure that you regularly check your NHS jobs account.

TO APPLY: We encourage applicants to apply on-line - go to www.jobs.nhs.uk Completed applications by: 20 March 2009. Employment in this post is subject to a satisfactory Enhanced Disclosure from the Criminal Records Bureau Car owner/driver essential, subject to the provisions of the Disability Discrimination Act (1995)

For other job opportunities visit our website www.kmpt.nhs.uk Working Towards Equal Opportunities

seek and advertise at www.psychapp.co.uk

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CLINICAL/COUNSELLING

Kent and Medway NHS and Social Care Partnership Trust

16/2/09

NO GIMMICKS … JUST EXCELLENT SERVICE We are currently recruiting for: Clinical and Educational Psychologists; o o Clerical Staff. We offer: o Over 25 years experience; o Nationwide coverage; o Compliance checks on all Candidates; o Competitive rates; o Permanent and Locum positions; o Training courses provided. Contact our specialist recruitment team on:

Tel: 020 8523 3561 E-mail: info@hecresources.com www.hecresources.com

www.nhslothian.scot.nhs.uk Psychiatric Rehabilitation Services, Adult Mental Health Royal Edinburgh & Associated Services

Consultant Clinical Psychologist Band 8c £52,007 - £64,118 37.5 hours per week Ref: REH/GH/140 We seek to appoint a consultant clinical psychologist (Band 8c) with the relevant experience, interest and enthusiasm to work in a multi-disciplinary psychiatric rehabilitation service based at the Royal Edinburgh Hospital. The service comprises of 4 inpatient wards and a community team. Our clients have complex and enduring mental health needs such as diagnoses of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with co-existing social and interpersonal difficulties. These necessitate high levels of clinical and psychosocial input. This is a new post, which means you will pay a key role in negotiating and shaping with staff an effective clinical psychology service with potential for both systems level and individual work. You will have the valuable assistance of psychologist practitioners, clinical psychology trainees on a five year flexible training route whose half-time work components will be in this service. Professional and clinical support will be supplied through NHS Lothian’s main Adult Psychology Department which is also based at the Royal Edinburgh Hospital. Close academic links with the East of Scotland/University of Edinburgh Clinical Psychology Doctorate Course are encouraged. With its history, appealing architecture, cultural festivals and proximity to coastlines and countryside, Edinburgh is widely regarded as one of the UK’s best cities for quality of life. To discuss this post further please contact: Alisdair Gormly, Consultant Clinical Psychologist on 0131 537 4530 or email alisdair.gormly@lpct.scot.nhs.uk For an application pack please contact our Recruitment Line on 0845 60 33 444 or email: recruitment@wlt.scot.nhs.uk Closing date: 10th March 2009.

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West London Mental Health NHS Trust provides a full range of local mental health services to the London boroughs of Ealing, Hammersmith and Fulham, and Hounslow as well as specialist forensic mental health services, including high secure services to a much wider catchment area.

Corporate Services

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to maximise the potential for improving the psychological well-being of all service users. Regular individual supervision from an experienced Clinical Psychologist will be provided. You will be part of a strong local Psychology Department and will also access wider Trust resources for professional support and continuing professional development.

Older Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Mental Health Services Hounslow, London

For further details contact Sarah Ghani, Consultant Clinical Psychologist and Clinical Lead for OPS in Hounslow on 020 8483 1801 or sarah.ghani@wlmht.nhs.uk

Clinical Psychologist

Forensic Services

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Band: 8a, ÂŁ41,262 - ÂŁ48,683 pro rata 37.5 hrs per week Ref: 222-WL7587 An exciting opportunity has arisen for a Clinical Psychologist within Hounslow Older Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Services. You will be part of a small but driven psychology team who work within a strongly multi-disciplinary model. You will be working primarily within the in-patient unit or within the Community Mental Health Team (CMHT). The CMHT is co-located with the Treatment and Rehabilitation Day Service and the Memory Clinic (including a Clinical Trials Unit). The overall service has recently been re-designed to enable more specialisation and expert input. There is strong commitment to continue to develop excellent services with service user input being very much a part of this. Clinical Psychologists are key members of the service. The client population includes people with a wide range of difficulties, primarily of a severe and/or enduring nature. Whilst we aim to work within proven effective modalities, it is also understood that to truly meet client needs flexibility of approach is essential. There will also be an emphasis on working with staff

Please apply online at www.wlmhtjobs.nhs.uk or alternatively if you would like to request an application pack, please call 020 8354 8122 or email HR-Admin@wlmht.nhs.uk or telephone 020 8354 8122, quoting your name, address and reference number. Closing date: 6 March 2009. If you have not heard from the Recruitment Team within 14 days of the closing date please assume that you have not been short-listed. The Trust will apply for an enhanced CRB disclosure for the successful candidate prior to appointment. For more information visit www.crb.gov.uk The Trust welcomes applications from all sections of the community who fulfil the criteria for the post. We are keen to ensure that our workforce reflects the community it serves, particularly in terms of ethnicity, gender, disability and experience of mental illness. The Trust is committed to equal opportunities and where practicable facilitating flexible working arrangements. The Trust operates a No Smoking policy for all staff.

.BOZWJFXQPJOUT0OFWJTJPO

Comprehensive CAMHS: Healthy Minds Community Specialists This is an exciting opportunity to join our newly formed Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Services Directorate. We are developing a cutting edge service to promote good mental health and emotional well being for children and young people, supporting Tier 1 and 2 as part of comprehensive CAMHS. From April this year, we will also be a Phase 2 pathfinder in the national Targeted Mental Health in Schools project (TaMHS) which will transform mental health support for children. Flexible working arrangements including term/part-time working and job-share will be considered.

Healthy Minds Community Specialist Either at ÂŁ31,385 - ÂŁ34,805 pa or ÂŁ37,095 - ÂŁ40,525 pa depending on qualifications and competencies 2 year fixed-term contract until April 2011 Ref: EDS641 We require an experienced, dynamic, creative and motivated qualified professional (e.g. clinical psychologist, family therapist, psychotherapist, mental health nursing, etc.) to promote the emotional health of children/ young people and families in schools and the community. The beneďŹ tsâ&#x20AC;Ś â&#x20AC;˘ ďŹ&#x201A;exible working options â&#x20AC;˘ generous holidays â&#x20AC;˘ ďŹ nal salary pension scheme â&#x20AC;˘ free parking â&#x20AC;Śplus many more We value diversity and welcome applications from all sections of the community.

Healthy Minds Development Worker ÂŁ23,580 - ÂŁ25,160 pa 2 year fixed-term contract until April 2011

Ref: EDS642

An exciting post for a practitioner who is currently on an appropriate professional training programme. Following successful completion of the professional training and qualified status, you may be eligible to apply for promotion to the community specialist role. A development programme and enhanced supervision will be provided. For informal enquires, please contact Helene Green, Principal Officer for Psychology and Inclusion or Alison Crossick, Senior Educational Psychologist on 01628 796688. To apply.... visit www.rbwm.gov.uk and click on â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Jobs and Careersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; to view all our current vacancies and apply online. Alternatively, email jobs@rbwm.gov.uk or telephone our Recruitment Line on 01628 683888, quoting the relevant reference number. Closing date for both posts: 13 March 2009 RBWM has a responsibility for, and is committed to, safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children and young people and for ensuring that they are protected from harm. The above posts are subject to an Enhanced CRB.

PLEASE SEE THE FULL ADVERTISEMENT FOR THESE POSTS ON OUR WEB-SITE: www.rbwm.gov.uk

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CLINICAL/NEUROPSYCHOLOGY

Kent and Medway NHS and Social Care Partnership Trust

Clinical Neuropsychologists ° Clinical Psychologists ° Full-time, part-time or job share When someone suffers a stroke or acquired brain injury in Kent, we’re here to get them on the road to recovery. With significant new funding behind our clinical neuropsychology service, we have the resources to address the cognitive, psychological and behavioural consequences of stroke and acquired brain injury. Crucially, we also have the right approach. Our policy is simple. Formulate, don’t diagnose. So working here, you can use your skills and judgement to rehabilitate those affected one by one, learning about their unique circumstances to help them get their lives back on track. Your career will see the benefits too, thanks to our commitment to your continuing professional development whether or not you’re currently in the field. To get a new sense of direction, make your way to www.headforkent.co.uk or call Catherine McDonagh on 01622 885923 or Elizabeth Francis on 01634 833937. Closing Date: Friday 10th April 2009

seek and advertise at www.psychapp.co.uk

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Complex Behaviour Service Consultant Clinical Psychologist

ÂŁ52,007 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ÂŁ64,118 pa inc

The Complex Behaviour Service provides assessment and intervention to children with learning disabilities who pose additional challenges because of the complexity of their behaviour.

The department has links with the Leicester and Trent Training Programmes for the Doctorate in Clinical Psychology.

This is a small multi-disciplinary team providing a specialist service to a defined group of children in Derby and Southern Derbyshire.

For further information please contact Helen James, Consultant Clinical Psychologist on 01332 777060.

As Consultant Clinical Psychologist you will be responsible for the provision of psychological assessment and treatment to children and families as well as taking Lead Clinician responsibility, and managing staff within the team.

Local Services

You will be a member of the Clinical Psychology Department at Derbyshire Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Hospital in Derby, with good opportunities for supervision and continuing professional development.

Corporate Services

Please apply online at www.derbyhospitals.nhs.uk or if you do not have access to the Internet please â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;phone our 24-hour Jobline on (01332) 785522 stating your full postal address and quoting reference 320-WC-0471. Closing Date: 30th March 2009 The Trust is an Equal Opportunities employer and operates Employee Friendly Policies including Job Share.

West London Mental Health NHS Trust provides a full range of local mental health services to the London boroughs of Ealing, Hammersmith and Fulham, and Hounslow as well as specialist forensic mental health services, including high secure services to a much wider catchment area.

Experience of neuropsychological testing and of working psychologically with people with long-term neurological conditions is desirable. You will be part of two teams where your input is enthusiastically received and there is ample opportunity for service development and becoming involved in future strategy.

Clayponds Hospital, South Ealing

Although based at Clayponds Hospital this post is part of the Clinical Health Psychology Department at nearby Ealing Hospital (currently two wte). There may be the opportunity to add further sessions at Ealing Hospital in other areas of clinical health psychology.

Highly Specialist Clinical Health Psychologist/Clinical Neuropsychologist Band: 8a, ÂŁ41,262 - ÂŁ48,683 pro rata 0.7 - 0.8 wte Ref: 222-WL7483 Clayponds Hospital is a small and friendly rehabilitation hospital in South Ealing. It is well placed for transport links within Central, West and outer West London. You will spend two and a half days a week working as part of the MDT on the neurological ward. Most referrals are patients who have suffered stroke, other acquired brain injury or neurological disorder. Intensive rehabilitation is designed for discharge home wherever possible. The multi-disciplinary team includes a full range of therapy staff.

Forensic Services

Applicants at 8b could be considered for progression into the post.

For further information please contact Clare Cooper, Head of Clinical Health Psychology at Ealing Hospital 020 8967 5235 or 020 8967 5000 ext 3249; clare.cooper@ealingpct.nhs.uk Please apply online at www.wlmhtjobs.nhs.uk or alternatively if you would like to request an application pack, please call 020 8354 8122 or email HR-Admin@wlmht.nhs.uk or telephone 020 8354 8122, quoting your name, address and reference number. Closing date: 27 March 2009. If you have not heard from the Recruitment Team within 14 days of the closing date please assume that you have not been short-listed. The Trust will apply for an enhanced CRB disclosure for the successful candidate prior to appointment. For more information visit www.crb.gov.uk

You will offer neuropsychological assessment and act as a resource to staff and relatives regarding a range of psychological and management issues. There is opportunity to be involved in service development and staff training. There will be the opportunity to supervise trainee clinical psychologists and scope for developing specific interests.

The Trust welcomes applications from all sections of the community who fulfil the criteria for the post. We are keen to ensure that our workforce reflects the community it serves, particularly in terms of ethnicity, gender, disability and experience of mental illness.

You will also spend one day a week working with the new ENable team, also based at Clayponds. This is a new small multi-disciplinary team working in the community, with people who have long-term neurological conditions.

The Trust is committed to equal opportunities and where practicable facilitating flexible working arrangements. The Trust operates a No Smoking policy for all staff.

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CLINICAL/HEALTH/NEUROPSYCHOLOGY

Herefordshire Primary Care Trust

Head of Children & Young People’s Psychology Service Band 8d £62,337 - £77,179 p.a. Full Time, 37.5 hours per week Permanent

Due to the retirement of the current post holder, we are looking for a Clinical Psychologist with considerable experience to help shape the future direction of Children and Young People’s Psychology Services for Herefordshire. We are seeking someone with enthusiasm for multi disciplinary working, excellent communication skills, qualities of leadership and expertise in clinical work, consultation, research and service development, who is prepared to work flexibly around the need. You would be professionally responsible for a team which currently consists of 4 Psychologists, a CBT Therapist, 2 Locality Workers and 2 Assistant Psychologists. Services are provided to a variety of Specialist Teams in Health, Social Care and Educational settings. The commissioning arm of Herefordshire PCT & Herefordshire Council are in the process of becoming a Public Service Trust which offers you a unique opportunity to contribute to the development of high quality integrated services with local partner agencies. The PCT Psychologists have a history of strong and harmonious working relationships and meet regularly for CPD and support. There are strong links with local Clinical Psychology training courses and regular training placements. This post offers excellent living and working prospects. Herefordshire is an unusually beautiful rural county with highly rated schools and good access to Birmingham, Bristol and Cardiff. For further information please contact Eamon Toman - Interim Operational Manager (CAMHS) on (01432) 378940 or Kevin Sullivan, Head of Children and Young People’s Psychology Service on (01432) 356438. To apply online please visit www.jobs.nhs.uk or e-mail for an application pack to recruit.admin@herefordpct.nhs.uk or Tel: (01432) 383795. Ref: 540-CSPSY620A. Closing date for receipt of completed applications: 16th March 2009. Interviews: Week commencing 20th April 2009. The Trust is an employer committed to Equal Opportunities.

www.herefordshire.nhs.uk

seek and advertise at www.psychapp.co.uk

ESSEX NEUROSCIENCES CENTRE, Romford, Essex The Essex Neurosciences Centre is based at Queen’s Hospital, Romford. There are 7 consultant neurosurgeons, 7 consultant neurologists, 2 consultant neurophysiologists, 4 consultant neuroradiologists and 2 consultant neuropathologists. The Neuropsychology Department consists of 3 clinicians, one of whom specialises in neuro-rehabilitation. Referrals to the Neuropsychology Department are also received from neurologists and other consultants working in different hospitals of the region. There are regular case presentations and academic meetings. There are close links with a Memory Clinic, based at a nearby centre.

Consultant Clinical Neuropsychologist Band 9: £77,773 - £97,254 per annum inclusive Ref: 162-2895 This is an exciting opportunity to join a dynamic and expanding neurosciences centre as Head of Neuropsychology. You should have a substantial experience within clinical neuropsychology and high degree of expertise in working with people with a wide range of neurological and neurosurgical problems. You will work as a senior clinician in the service, providing a highly specialist neuropsychological assessment and, where appropriate, treatment. You should have experience of professional management of qualified psychologists and also experience in teaching trainees, medical students / junior doctors and other members working within neurosciences. You should have a keen interest in research and track record of publications in peer reviewed and / or other academic or professional journals or books. You should have a post-graduate doctoral level training in clinical psychology (or its equivalent for those trained prior to 2000) and post-doctoral training in clinical neuropsychology. You should have Practitioner Full Membership of the BPS Division of Neuropsychology.

Clinical Neuropsychologist Band 8b: £47,377 - £57,588 per annum inclusive Ref: 162-2896 Joining the Neuropsychology Department, you will be involved in neuropsychological assessments and counselling of patients with a wide range of brain disorders. You should have extensive experience in specialist neuropsychological assessments and ability to work within a multi-disciplinary team setting. You will be encouraged to be involved in research projects, supervision of trainees and teaching of medical students and other clinical staff. You will have post-graduate training in clinical psychology (or its equivalent for those trained prior to 2000) and post-doctoral training in clinical neuropsychology. You should have Practitioner Full Membership of the BPS Division of Neuropsychology.

Further details for the above posts can be obtained by contacting Dr L D Kartsounis, Head of Neuropsychology, on 01708 503102; email: ld@kartsounis.fsnet.co.uk or Mr John Awuah, General Manager of Neurosciences on 01708 435000 ext. 6129. To apply online and for further information about the Trust, please visit www.bhrhospitals.nhs.uk/jobs or contact the Recruitment Department on 01708 435053.

Closing date: 22nd March 2009.

Working Towards Equal Opportunities

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HMP & YOI NEW HALL

EXTRAORDINARY JOBS. EXTRAORDINARY WORKPLACE. CHARTERED FORENSIC PSYCHOLIGIST (MANAGER F) ÂŁ26,280 - ÂŁ38,082 HMP New Hall set amidst a working farm and is nestled in the countryside between Wakefield and Huddersfield in close proximity to the M1 and other major transport routes for an easy commute to work. Flexible working hours are available to maximise your work life balance. We are looking for a chartered forensic psychologist to join a small team to offer psychological services to a diverse group of women. HMP New Hall holds a wide range of female offenders in both closed and semi- open conditions. We have remand, juveniles, YOI and life sentenced prisoners. We also have a mother and baby unit and a detoxification wing that cater for particular needs. The successful candidate would also hold a caseload of indeterminately prisoners who have complex needs that require you to complete detailed, extensive and thorough risk assessments and in many cases 1-2-1 intensive intervention to help address their needs. The successful candidate may also be involved in the development and introduction of new group interventions for women. We are genuinely interested in all applications from people from a range of psychological experience. The post will work within the British Psychological Society Code of conduct, the DFP Ethical guidelines of forensic psychology, the professional practice guidelines in applied psychology, Prison service codes of conduct and discipline and prison rules. The successful applicants for this post will be entitled to 25 days annual leave plus 10.5 days public/privilege holidays. As noted above, you will be able to work flexible working hours to maximise your work life balance. You will also have access to free staff parking, a gym and a subsidised staff canteen. We offer you the opportunity to join the Civil Service pension arrangements, which include a valuable range of benefits.

Application packs are available via www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk Closing date: 19th March 2009 Please note that all Prison Service posts are open to part-time and job share applicants. Applicants are required to declare whether they are a member of a group or organisation, which the Prison Service considers racist. The Prison Service is an equal opportunities employer. We welcome applications from candidates regardless of ethnic origin, religious belief, gender, age (subject to being within the normal minimum retirement age for the grade), sexual orientation, disability or any other irrelevant factor. All posts are subject to Enhanced Disclosure by the Criminal Records Bureau.

HM PRISON SERVICE Public Sector Prisons

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at HM Prison Rye Hill, Rugby GSL UK Limited, a part of G4S plc, manages HM Prison Rye Hill, a 660 bed Category B training prison near Rugby. Our operating philosophy seeks to normalise prison life to reflect life in the outside community whilst providing opportunities for prisoners to address offending behaviour and maximise their potential upon release. Working in a prison isn’t just about keeping people behind bars. It’s also about being observant, adaptable, compassionate, well organised and treating people with respect and consideration. As a member of our psychology team, you’ll play a vital role in the rehabilitation of offenders, so it’s important to build positive relationships and help them to see a brighter future for themselves - a future without crime.

Lifer Psychologist c. £40,000 pa • Full time We’re looking for a Chartered Psychologist with previous demonstrable management experience and a sound knowledge of the offender management process to deliver a range of psychological interventions to prisoners. Excellent communication and time management skills, knowledge of the criminal justice system and issues surrounding life sentenced prisoners are just a few of the skills required for this challenging yet rewarding role. Conducting psychological assessments and interviews as well as completing reports, you will also provide support, training and advice for personal officers and life sentenced prisoners.

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FORENSIC

Helping to build a brighter future

16/2/09

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Motivated and committed, you’ll need to establish positive relationships with both the offender and prison officer communities. A knowledgeable, systematic and non-judgmental approach coupled with the ability to cope in sometimes stressful circumstances is also vital.

Core SOTP Manager HMP GARTREE>

c. £40,000 pa • Full time We are currently looking for an experienced and qualified Forensic Psychologist to manage our Sex Offenders Treatment Programme (SOTP) so that prisoner needs and staff training requirements are met. The majority of sex offenders will be released back into society and it’s the role of the SOTP staff to ensure that when that time comes, their risk to the public is greatly reduced. Working within G4S’s prison services philosophy and procedures, you will conduct interviews, undertake psychological assessments and evaluations as well as producing reports to meet offender management requirements. If you are an enthusiastic and progressive psychologist who is able to manage and lead a multidisciplinary team, this could be your next career move.

Programme Facilitator c. £18,000 pa • Full time Are you a versatile and organised team player with great people skills and the ability to motivate others? If the answer is yes, you could join our team and facilitate a range of training programmes for offenders. Contributing to sentence planning and undertaking assessments, you will also be delivering treatment programmes. Your calm and focused approach coupled with the ability to work on your own initiative will be essential as you work directly with offenders to enable them to modify their behaviour and adopt a new outlook to life. If you have the qualities and experience that we’re looking for, please email your CV and a covering letter stating which role you are applying for to: recruiting@gslglobal.com Closing date: 16th March 2009.

EXTRAORDINARY JOBS. EXTRAORDINARY WORKPLACE. CHARTERED FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGISTS – 2 POSTS £26,280 - £37,262 We are seeking two qualified Forensic Psychologists (Manager F) at HMP Gartree which is a Category B closed male prison in Market Harborough. You must be a qualified psychologist – evidenced via proof of chartership with the British Psychological Society (Division of Forensic Psychology). Applications not meeting this criterion will not be considered. To find out more or to apply for this vacancy please visit: http://www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk/careersandjobs/currentvacancies and search under job type ‘Psychologist’. Telephone 0845 010 3508 if you have any further queries. Closing date: 19 March 2009. This post is open to part-time and job share applicants. We are committed to promoting the benefits of a diverse workforce.

www.g4s.com/uk Please note that these vacancies are subject to a 10 year checkable history and the strict vetting standards set by GSL and the Secretary of State for the Home Office.

An equal opportunities employer

seek and advertise at www.psychapp.co.uk

a part of G4S plc

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HMP HEADQUARTERS, LONDON >

EXTRAORDINARY JOBS. EXTRAORDINARY WORKPLACE. SENIOR PSYCHOLOGIST – DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PROGRAMMES – MANAGER E £29,184 RISING TO £44,894 (EXCLUDING LOCAL PAY ALLOWANCE) You will be the Clinical Lead for HM Prison Service's domestic violence programme, and will be involved in the development and delivery of a range of violence interventions for NOMS. Work will include programme development, clinical and case advice, evaluation, training and providing information for briefings and parliamentary questions. The work is high profile and the role will make a significant contribution to the strategic development and delivery of domestic violence interventions for prison and probation. Eligibility: This post is open to external candidates as well as staff on promotion/ level transfer. For information on who is eligible to apply for this post, please refer to the table on the Ministry of Justice Jobs Website and the Grade Eligibility for Prison Service Vacancies. Applicants must hold Chartered status through the British Psychological Society. Competencies: Showing resilience • Acting with integrity • Building relationships and team working • Communicating effectively • Problem solving and decision making • Organising and maximising performance.

If you would like to discuss this job please contact Ian Garrett on 01902 703743/07530 264288 or via email at Ian.Garrett@hmps.gsi.gov.uk To apply, please visit our website and download an application pack via www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk/careersandjobs/currentvacancies or alternatively email LondonAreaRecruitment@hmps.gsi.gov.uk Completed applications should be returned by post to: Tom Matthews, Interim London & HQ Field Based Team, HMPS Shared Services, c/o London Area Recruitment Centre, HMP Wormwood Scrubs, Du Cane Road, London W12 OAE. The closing date for receipt of applications is 19 March 2009. Applicants will be required to declare whether they are a member of a group or organisation, which the Prison Service considers to be racist. Part-time working or job sharing will be considered.

The Prison Service is an equal opportunities employer. We welcome applications from candidates regardless of ethnic origin, religious belief, gender, age (subject to being within the normal retirement age for the grade), sexual orientation, disability or any other irrelevant factor.

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FORENSIC/OCCUPATIONAL

With so much scope on offer, we suggest you pull up a chair. Senior Occupational Psychologist £35K - £43K Nr Reading, Berkshire Uniquely responsible for maintaining the UK’s nuclear deterrent, we are one of the nation’s largest establishments for research and development in many areas of science and technology. Not surprisingly, our organisation depends on a very broad range of disciplines and functions – from scientists and engineers to accountants and apprentices. Pulling this varied and complex workforce together to realise the company’s mission is a real challenge. As an Occupational Psychology professional, ideally with chartered status, you can expect to play a key role in helping the organisation and its individuals to fulfil their potential and take AWE forward. We’re looking for someone with an aptitude to influence and facilitate change at all levels, combined with a proactive approach to help develop the current occupational psychology capability. In return, you will be given the autonomy to make a real difference and the opportunity to work across a broad range of occupational psychology areas. If you’re looking for a challenge why not take a seat? Find out more and apply at www.awe.co.uk or call 0118 982 9009 for an application form.

ATOMIC WEAPONS ESTABLISHMENT AWE promotes diversity in employment. We welcome applications from women and men, regardless of disability, sexual orientation, racial or ethnic origin, or age. Applications from women and ethnic minorities are particularly encouraged. Successful candidates will be selected solely on their ability to carry out the duties of the post. The normal contractual retirement age at AWE is 65. Because of the nature of work associated with the post, it is subject to special nationality rules and is open only to British citizens. All selected candidates will be required to undergo security clearance.

seek and advertise at www.psychapp.co.uk

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Psychometrics role with International Test Publisher This is an opportunity to be part of a growing and successful psychometric test publisher based in Oxford. We wish to recruit a psychologist with enthusiasm for psychometrics applied in occupational and clinical settings. The role is designed to support our high professional and technical standards of product development and customer service delivery. Central to the role will be the provision of sound technical support to: G existing and prospective customers (in both clinical and business contexts); G sales and customer support functions. Data collection from customers and involvement in the preparation of tests for our computerised test system are also key to the role. Additionally, the successful candidate will contribute to delivery of training in test use and test feedback. You will have a good mix of technical and human skills. Qualified as a psychologist trained to British Psychological Society Level B competence in test use with a particular interest in psychometrics the successful candidate will need to assimilate a detailed knowledge of both our occupational and clinical tests. You will have a strong commitment to quality and ethical practice, an eye for detail, good presentation and writing skills, comfortable communicating both verbally and in writing with clinical and occupational psychology professionals and business leaders. You will be IT literate, enjoy networking with the ability and motivation to contribute to the growth and professionalism of our business. A positive attitude and a ‘can do’ mentality are important attributes sort in candidates for this role. For more information please contact wendy.lord@hogrefe.co.uk Tel: 01865 402 900 www.hogrefe.co.uk

University of Plymouth www.plymouth.ac.uk/vacancies

PHD Studentships

Search for your ideal job, and sign up for e-mail alerts. www.psychapp.co.uk

Applications are invited for two PhD Studentships in the School of Psychology at the University of Plymouth starting October 2009. In the latest Research Assessment Exercise 85% of the School’s research was rated as of an international standard with some as world leading. For many years the School has enjoyed full recognition from the ESRC as a centre for training postgraduate students both at Masters and at PhD level. We place great value on our postgraduates and now seek to strengthen our research profile by recruiting the next generation of researchers. Project Description These studentships are financed by the University of Plymouth and open to any area within psychology. Information about the research groupings within the School can be found on our website: http://www.psy.plymouth.ac.uk/ Applications Applicants should have a good first degree in psychology or other relevant discipline. The studentships are for 3 years and include a subsistence grant of approximately £13,290 per annum and tuition fees for a Home/EU student (approximately £3,400 per annum). Requests for further particulars and informal enquires may be made to Dr Rob Ellis by email rob.ellis@plymouth.ac.uk although applications must be made in accordance with the details shown below. General information about applying for a research degree at the University of Plymouth and application forms are available at http://www.plymouth.ac.uk/pghowtoapply or by contacting Ann Treeby by email ann.treeby@plymouth.ac.uk Decisions will be made during April with the aim of the successful candidate starting in October. We regret that we may not be able to respond to all applications. Applicants who have not received an offer of a place by the end of May 2009 should consider their application has been unsuccessful on this occasion. Closing date: 12 Noon, Friday 27 March 2009 Applications should be sent direct to Mrs Ann Treeby by email ann.treeby@plymouth.ac.uk or posted to Faculty of Science Research Office, University of Plymouth, A504 Portland Square, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA.

Promoting Equality and Diversity

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OCCUPATIONAL/GRADUATE

What’s your contribution to London’s mental well-being? Working for Wellness (WfW) is recruiting over 200 trainees with a number of PCTs in London as part of the National Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme. The position Trainees will work within new IAPT services, which promote access to low intensity therapies, guided self-help and computer assisted Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, as well as high intensity psychological therapy. Our offer Trainees will receive employment, full salaries, a year of high quality training at one of our world class universities, as well as strong support and comprehensive supervision.

Advertising in The Psychologist works

Two types of worker To train as a low intensity worker requires mental health work experience and/or some lived experience of mental health issues. To train as a high intensity worker requires a professional qualification in Mental Health, Health or Social Care. Who should apply? Courses are at postgraduate level and applicants are normally required to have a degree, or be able to demonstrate academic equivalence. We believe in recruiting a diverse workforce and actively seek applicants from across communities. When? The regional recruitment process will take place throughout spring and summer 2009 with training/employment starting in September/October.

For further information about Working for Wellness and how to apply, please contact us at wfw@ldc.org.uk

LEARNING MENTOR Primary age 3–11 years old 35 hours per week – Term time + 2 weeks £20,281 – £21,962 incl. L.W. G

Could you make a difference for a primary-aged child who needs your support to be a successful learner? G Do you have experience of working with young vulnerable children and a background in education, or social services? If you think you have the skills to work in our school, helping individual pupils and small groups of pupils overcome barriers to learning, call immediately for an application pack. Culloden Primary School Dee Street, London E14 0PT. Executive Headteacher: Amanda Phillips Telephone: 020 7364 1010 Minicom: 020 7364 1030 Fax: 020 7364 1022 E-mail: admin@culloden.towerhamlets.sch.uk For further details and to apply for an application pack, please contact: Bethany Woodcock, Personnel and Administration Officer. Closing date: 23 March 2009 at 9.00 a.m. Short listing: 23 March 2009 Interviews: 30 March 2009 We shall ensure fairness and equal opportunities throughout our workforce and in service delivery. We welcome applications from suitably skilled candidates regardless of ethnicity, gender, disability, sexuality, religion or age. As the post deals with both the welfare of children and the management of personal data, strict recruitment and vetting procedures will be used in line with safer recruitment legislation.

seek and advertise at www.psychapp.co.uk

In a survey of job advertisers from our April 2008 issue, 80 per cent said they had received a good response, and 70 per cent said they had filled their vacancy as a result of their ad To request a 2009 media pack with prices, deadlines and more, e-mail psychapp@bps.org.uk or call +44 116 252 9550.

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Alfred Binet – a truly applied psychologist Richard Howard on a psychologist who is remembered for educational testing, but whose interests covered the full gamut of individual differences

lfred Binet, who died in Paris in 1911, will for ever be associated with intelligence testing, having developed the precursor of the Stanford–Binet IQ test, the Binet–Simon scale. Ironically he would have abhorred the idea of assigning a numerical value to a child’s mental capacity – his purpose in testing the intellectual capacity of school children was, he pointed out, to classify, not to quantify. It is as a pioneer in the field of educational psychology that Binet tends to be remembered, largely due to the fact that his techniques for assessing mental (as opposed to chronological) age were exported to the United States and taken up by Terman. However, the aims and interests of Terman and Binet in relation to mental testing diverged considerably. In a commentary comparing Terman and Binet, Henry Minton (1998) pointed out that Binet saw the mental tests as diagnostic tools that could target such children for special compensatory education programmes that would improve their academic performance. They would even, in some cases, enable these children to be channelled back to mainstream classrooms. Terman, on the other hand, was concerned with the need to identify the mildly retarded so that they could be segregated in special institutions. In the US, Binet’s techniques spawned an ‘educational testing’ industry that has flourished ever since.

references

A

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Binet, A. (1887). Le fétichisme dans l’amour [Fetishism in love]. Revue Philosophique, 24, 143–167. Binet, A. (1900). L’interrogatoire. In La suggestibilité [Suggestibility] (pp.299–414). Retrieved 8 December 2008 from www.gutenberg.org/files/ 11453/11453-8.txt Binet. A. & Simon, T. (1973). The development of intelligence in children. New York: Arno Press.

Binet would have disapproved of the misuse to which his scale was put in the US, especially in the hands of members of the eugenics movement. The following quotation shows that Binet was primarily interested in what we would probably nowadays call ‘social intelligence’: It seems to us that in intelligence there is a fundamental faculty, the alteration or the lack of which, is of the utmost importance for practical life. This faculty is judgment, otherwise called good sense, practical sense, initiative, the faculty of adapting one’s self to circumstances.

(Original work published 1916) Gerrie, M.P., Garry, M. & Loftus, E.F. (2004). False memories. In N. Brewer & K. Williams (Eds.) Psychology of law: An empirical perspective. New York: Guilford. Gudjonsson, G.H. (2003). The psychology of interrogations and confessions. A handbook. Chichester: Wiley. Howard, R.C. & Chaiwutikornwanich, A. (2006). The relationship of

A person may be a moron or an imbecile if he is lacking in judgment; but with good judgment he can never be either. Indeed the rest of the intellectual faculties seem of little importance in comparison with judgment (Binet & Simon, 1916/1973, pp.42–43).

It is less widely appreciated that Binet’s interests covered the full gamut of individual differences, from deviant sexual interests – he originally coined the term ‘erotic fetishism’ (Binet, 1887) – through expert chess players, to chiromancers. This breadth of interest he combined with an experimental rigour that is exemplified in his work with schoolchildren on what we now call ‘interrogative suggestibility’. His interest in this topic probably reflected, in part, his early exposure to Charcot’s work on hypnosis at La Salpêtrière in Paris, which he abandoned to work at the Laboratory of Experimental Psychology at the Sorbonne (in his latter years, as its director). In part it also reflected his interest in the law – he graduated as a lawyer aged 21, and developed a keen interest in psychology and the law. Indeed, he might equally be called a pioneer of forensic psychology. He was well aware of the problems of faulty memory in relation to eyewitness testimony, whose reliability he questioned in his book La Suggestibilité, published in 1900 (this has never been translated into English, which accounts for its unfamiliarity to the Anglophone world). In La Suggestibilité Binet described a series of studies in which he manipulated, and measured, interrogative suggestibility in French schoolchildren. Using the technique of interrogative

interrogative suggestibility to memory and attention. An electrophysiological study. Journal of Psychophysiology, 20(2), 79–93. Minton, H.L. (1998). Commentary on: ‘New methods for the diagnosis of the intellectual level of subnormals’ Alfred Binet & Theodore Simon (1905); ‘The uses of intelligence tests’ Lewis M. Terman (1916). Classics in the History of

Psychology. Retrieved on 8 December 2008 from http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Binet/ commentary.htm Terman, L.M. (1932). Lewis M. Terman: Trails to psychology. In C. Murchison (Ed.) History of psychology in autobiography (pp.297–331). New York: Russell & Russell.

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looking back

pressure – ‘la memoire forcée’ – both oral Binet alive today he would and written, Binet would present the doubtless be using the child with simple objects such as those techniques of neuroscience shown in Figure 1. He would then use to investigate the neural suggestive questioning to induce memory underpinnings of suggestibility errors. For example, the child would be (something I have attempted asked to reproduce, graphically, the two myself: see Howard & centimes stamp, indicating ‘the postmark Chaiwutikornwanich, 2006). that obscured the stamp’ (the stamp In this era of increasing actually bore no postmark). The result specialisation and fragmentation was that many children would, under within our discipline, Binet interrogative pressure, draw a stamp with stands out as an exemplar of a postmark, as shown in Figure 2. what a psychologist perhaps Binet described two types of memory ought to be. He was an error – logical errors and errors of the autodidact – everything he imagination (‘erreurs d’invention’). In the knew about psychology he first, there was a logical connection taught himself through his between the question and the child’s reading in the French National answer. For example, in response to the Library – and his interests question ‘How was the button attached to extended far beyond psychology the box?’ the child might answer ‘It was into the natural sciences. He sewn on to the box with thread’. In the was awarded a doctorate for second type of error, the child would, his dissertation concerning the through an act of the imagination, correlation between insects’ construct an object that, as Binet put it, physiology and behaviour, had no visible relationship with reality. and therefore qualifies as a For example, in response to the psychophysiologist. suggestion that there was something on Despite his extensive studies the button, the child would report that at and his prolific output – he its centre there was a sparkling diamond. wrote 13 books and numerous This description of an invented or false articles on diverse topics – Binet memory was, some 75 years later, was never offered a professorship rediscovered by Loftus and co-workers, in his own country. He did no who described it as ‘imagination teaching apart from a summer inflation’. course in psychology at the While Binet’s pioneering studies University of Bucharest. Here he Top: Objects used by Binet in his forced memory procedure focused on both inter-individual variation seems to have been appreciated Bottom: Evidence of interrogative suggestibility in drawings in interrogative suggestibility (the ‘Who?’ – the auditoriums where he of the objects. Children were asked to draw the postmark question) as well as on the possible taught were full to capacity, and that obscured the stamp: in fact there was no such postmark. underlying mechanisms (the ‘How?’ he was offered a Chair in question), subsequent research has tended Psychophysiology. Would he to focus on one or the other. An have wanted himself to be typecast as Beaunis, then Director of the individual differences approach has been an educational psychologist, as a forensic Experimental Psychology Laboratory at adopted by Gudjonsson and others (see psychologist or as a psychophysiologist? the Sorbonne, led to Binet asking him for Gudjonsson, 2003, for a review), while an I would argue that he would not – he a job, a request that Beaunis acceded to. experimental approach has would have wanted to This was arguably his lucky break, been pursued in the US by be remembered as an without which his later studies on Loftus and colleagues applied psychologist interrogative suggestibility and mental “everything he knew (reviewed in Gerrie et al., in the broadest sense. testing might never have occurred. about psychology he 2004). Loftus and What was Binet In conclusion, it is appropriate to taught himself” colleagues defined like as a person? It is quote Terman’s assessment of Binet: My favourite of all psychologists is interrogative suggestibility difficult to tell, since Binet; not because of his intelligence as the extent to which there are few if any test, which was only a by-product of people come to accept a piece of postpersonal accounts left by those who knew his life work, but because of his event information and incorporate it into him. The product of a union between an originality, insight, and opentheir recollection. They have principally artist and a medical doctor, he seems to mindedness, and because of the been concerned with the conditions have led an outwardly conventional life. rare charm of personality that shines under which leading questions are likely He was apparently not particularly gifted through all his writings. (Terman, to affect the verbal accounts of witnesses. as a child, but applied himself assiduously 1932, p.331). On the basis of studies in which subjects’ to the pursuit of his intellectual interests, attention was manipulated, for example aided by the financial support of a wellby directing their attention to misleading heeled family. In 1884 he married the I Richard Howard is Reader in Personality information, they concluded that daughter of an embryologist at the Disorders at the Division of Psychiatry, interrogative suggestibility is mediated by Collège de France, by whom he had two University of Nottingham a dysfunctional central cognitive daughters. An accidental meeting on a Richard.Howard@nottingham.ac.uk mechanism, ‘discrepancy detection’. Were railway platform in 1891 with Dr Henri

read discuss contribute at www.thepsychologist.org.uk

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…with Carol Tavris American social psychologist and author

One inspiration My mother, Dorothy Marcus Tavris, who became a lawyer in Chicago, in 1927, at the age of 21. She taught me that with reason, data, humour and persuasion, people can move mountains. One moment that changed the course of your career Reading the incomprehensible and pompous Talcott Parsons in graduate school at the University of Michigan (I had been admitted in sociology) and realising that either I was too stupid to be in a PhD program or that a lifetime of reading sociological jargon was not for me. I was persuaded to make the latter attribution and switched to social psychology, then a great interdisciplinary field at UM, which I loved immediately.

One nugget of advice for aspiring psychologists Follow your passion, not ‘duty’. Do the work you love, even if it’s not the work your colleagues approve of. One heroine Elizabeth Douvan, my mentor and professor at the University of Michigan; a feminist before anyone was using the term, who supported my decision to develop an idiosyncratic career.

‘Writing Mistakes Were Made (but not by me) with my dear friend, the world class social psychologist Elliot Aronson, was a deeply gratifying experience, intellectually and personally. Elliot went blind with macular degeneration shortly after we began this project – we both had to learn how to write a new way, through listening. I’m proud of how it turned out, and of the struggle that got us there.’

Articles on happiness, perceptual control theory, an interview with Daniel Everett, and much more... I Send your comments about The Psychologist to the editor, Dr Jon Sutton, on jon.sutton@bps.org.uk, +44 116 252 9573 or to the Leicester office address I To advertise in The Psychologist: psyadvert@bps.org.uk, +44 116 252 9552 I For jobs in the Appointments section: psychapp@bps.org.uk, +44 116 252 9550

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One alternative career path A traditional academic career as professor and researcher. As it happens, I was able to combine my love of teaching and lecturing with my love of writing about psychological science for the public. One hope for the future That psychology as a discipline will resist the temptations of the biomedical revolution – which of course has produced important and interesting research – and remember that psychology has something to say about human behaviour too. For example, thanks in large part to funding by pharmaceutical companies, the field of sexology has virtually been taken over by the medicalising approach: sex is just a matter of getting the parts to work (and of taking

One great thing that psychology has achieved Documenting scientifically the Carol Tavris most difficult lesson for the public ctavris@sbcglobal.net to understand: That evil acts can be done by good people in evil situations – and a drug if they do not). But that good people will justify sexuality is also profoundly their harmful acts in order to affected by a person’s learning, preserve their belief that they culture, relationships and are good people. experience.

coming soon

One thing that you would change about psychology I would require the training of psychotherapists, of any kind, to be grounded in critical thinking, the scientific method, the basic findings of psychological science on memory and human development, and an understanding of the way the

One challenge you think psychology faces The current incentives for doing safe but boring research, and the dangers of research funded by corporations and businesses with vested interests in the outcome.

resource

One journal article or book that you think all psychologists should read Impossible question. William

James’s Principles of Psychology for writing style, prescience and insight; Elliot Aronson’s The Social Animal for its passionate, personal prose and introduction to the major concerns of social psychology; and Judith Rich Harris’s The Nurture Assumption for its brilliant, creative reassessment of the basic but incorrect assumptions of developmental psychology. Her book is a model of how psychologists need to let data supersede ideology and vested intellectual convictions, and change direction when the evidence demands.

confirmation bias can create a ‘closed loop’ of therapeutic practice that remains impervious to criticism. These measures may be irrelevant to beneficial clinical practice, but they are essential if therapists are to avoid dangerous, foolish or useless fads.

contribute

ONE ON ONE

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Think you can do better? Want to see your area of psychology represented more? See the inside front cover for how you can contribute and reach 45,000 colleagues into the bargain, or just e-mail your suggestions to jon.sutton@bps.org.uk

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Professional Training Courses in Clinical Paediatric Neuropsychology The UCL training programme in paediatric neuropsychology draws upon the wealth of specialist expertise within the UCL Institute of Child Health, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and other leading international institutions.

Postgraduate Diploma or MSc in Clinical Paediatric Neuropsychology Applications are invited from Chartered Clinical and Educational Psychologists for the professional qualiďŹ cation in clinical paediatric neuropsychology which is accredited by the British Psychological Society.

MSc Applied Paediatric Neuropsychology Applications are invited from outstanding psychology graduates who wish to make an early start to a professional career in paediatric neuropsychology.

2nd UK Paediatric Neuropsychology Symposium: Rehabilitation and Intervention. 19th-23rd April 2010. Further announcements to follow. Programme Director: Dr Peter Rankin For Further Information: www.ich.ucl.ac.uk/neuropsych Programme Administrator: Lynne Mason email: l.mason@ich.ucl.ac.uk Telephone: +44 (0)20 7905 2257

Closing dates for Diploma/MSc 2009 programmes - 29th May


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