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DATE

KHMER KR~M A~D PRO VI NeE (0011

ACTIVITIES IN HAU GIANG 1975 - AUGUST lQ79'

DTH~R

PESTSTANC~

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1. AT THF TIM- OF THE SOUTHERN CoLLAPS~ IN APRTL 1975 THF KHMFR ~ROM WERE VERI' APPR~HFN~IVE OVER THE CoM~UNIST TAKEOVFR AND wERF FEARFUL OF A RFCIIRRENCF "'1" THF !lLOOOV REPRFS5IoN ~HICH THEY HAn FxPERI~NCEO AT THE HAN~S OF THE VIET rINH IN 194~. AT THAT TIME, THoU~ANDS OF KHMFR KROM WERE KTLLED TN p~GPoMS CARRIFD OIIT IN VARIOUS LOCATIONS IN THE CA MAli, S~C TRANG AND BAC UFl! ARF.6S. TH!" MOST COMM~N METkO~ OF KILLING WAS BV SETTING FIRE Tn AUTLDINGS INTO WHICH KHMER KPOM HAn BEEN HERDEn. THns~ WHO TRIED TO FLEE FpOM THE 'BURNING BIIILDTN~S WERF SH~T~ THE STORIES OF THE~E POGROMS HAVF AEFN PAS~ED DOWN ORAL LV THwauG~ SUCCES~IVE GENERATIONS OF KHMER I(ROM~ AGAINST THIS BACKGROUND, THE KHMER KR~M HAVE BEEN AND CONTINUE TO AI" HOSTILE TOWARD~ THE COMMlIN!STS~ 2~ AT THE TIME OF THF. COMMliNIST TAkE"'VF.R MANV kHMER KRoM SOLDIERS OF THE,. FORMER REGIME HYD THEIR WEAPONS~ OTHERS DID N~T RFP~RT TO THE NFW AUTHoRITIFS BUT TOOK RFFUGE IN THF MAQUIS. PRnMTNENT KHMER KROM FTGIIRES BEGAN TO LAY THE F~UNDATTONS OF AN UNDFRGR~UNo P~LTTICALI MILITARV MOVEMENT wITN THE ULTIMATE AIM OF LAUNCHING AN UPRISING AGAINST CoMMlINI~T RULF. THE MOST PROMINENTLnF THFS~ FIGURES IN HAU GTANG PROVINC~ WA~ TH~ MONK, ~ 0 N SOC, wHO ~A~ DEPUTV PATRIARCH OF THF KHMER ~UDOHIST CHURCH IN VIF.TNAM.

3. SON snc WAS BASED AT TH~ KALENG PAGODA TN S~C TRANG rITY. HE r.lIlTCkLV FSTAF!USHEn LINKS wITH O'!'HFR OISSIDFNT MONKS ANn KHMER KROM LEADERS THRnll~HnUT THF KHMER KR~M APEAS,OF THE PRnVINrE~ E\IIDnHTST PA~OnAS WERE FkF.QIIFNTLV UTILI7En I'!V THE OISSInENT KHMI"R FOR THEIR COV~RT MEI"TINr,S AND PROSELYTIZING ACTYVTTTES. TH~ PATR!A~CH, TAN G NO, "'Hn ALSO RESIOED AT THE I<AI ENG PAGnDA nIl' NOT T,lKE ANI' ACTIVE PART IN KHMER KROM RESISTANCE ACTIVITIES. NEVERTHELESS, HE GAVE PASSIVE suppnRT F!Y TIJRNING A BLIND FYI" TO SUCH ACTIONS BY snN SOC AND OTHFR M~NI<S UNDER HIs ~WAV. TANG NO REPLA~En T HAC H PET AS PATRIARCH WHEN THI': UTTF:R FLEI' vIETNAM TN APRTL lQ7!5 I\E~AlISE OF HIS CLOSE AS~OCJATION WITH THE THI~U REGTMF. IN FEI\RUARY lQ17 THI" nEFP RI"SENTMF~T ANn FEAR of THE COM"'UNIST LED TO A LARGFLV SPONTA~IEOUS UPPISING IN THE ~HMER KROM yILLAGE OF 8EN XA TN MV XUYEN DISTRICT, HAil GIANG PR(lVIN~E. THE REVOLT WAS APPARENTLV NOT,DIRE'CTLV LINKI"O TO SON ~or's PLANS. FOIIRTEFN CADRF~ LOST THElp LIVES TN THE INCIDENT AN~ EI~HT VILLAGERS WERE KYLLEO., SOME 2~~ vILLAGERS WERE SUBSEQIJENTLV RnUNOFD-UP AND JAILED TN THE SOC TRANG PRISON. 4.

!5~ THE UPRISING AT BEN XA AND THE FXPoSURE I'll" MORE EXTEN5TVE UNOEPGnUND ACTTVITTES LEO TO MANV OTHER ARRESTS. SON SOC WHO "'AS KEPT UNDI"R CLOSE SIIRVEILLANCE BY THE AIJTHORITIFS WAS FTNALLY ARRESTED AFTER


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DATE L.U'IIr. PHU PAGODA ANn ONE FROM BAl lCAU (MV XIJ¥EN' PAGO I,.. 6. SINCE APRTL 1975 AN ESTIMATED J~ T~_6~ PERSONS HAVE BEEN DETAINED FnR VARVINGLFNGTHS OF TIME FROM, VILLAGE IN THE KHMER KROM DISTRI~TS OF THE PROVINCE. EACH AS of DECEMPER 1978 THE VASV MAJORITY OF THF ~~~ PERsn NS A POLITICAL ~EfTIN~ AT THE ~ALENG PAGODA I~ JANUARY HE WAS TAKEN FROM THE PAGODA. pERO~En AND SHACKLEO 1978 . IMPRJsnNEO IN THF CAN THO JAIL . IN MAV 1978 ANOTHERAND SE~InR MONK, T HAC H SAVANG FRnM KALENG,PAGoDA. WAS ALSO JAILEO~ HE WAS RELEASED IN DECEMBER 1 0 79. TN JUNEI JULV lQ7A FIVE MNI(S IN THE eo THAD PAr.oDA AT MY Til ARRESTED AFTER WEAPONS WERE FOUND RURIED IN THE PAr.ODWERE A GROUNDS. DURING 1078 TWO MoNKS WEPE ARRESTED FROM THE y~ FOllR LA"'GE CELL'l OF Snc TRANG PRISON WERE KHMER KROM WHO lolA" REEN ACCII~FD OF COU~TER_REVOLUTID~IA RY ACTIV IMPRISnNED IN THF SAME CELL AS THE SOURCE WERE THAeHITIES~ SAVANG AND SON SOC FROM KALENG PAGODA AND M A I HIEN FROM 8A THAn PAGODA.

7~ FROM DECEMBER i978 TO FEBRUARY 1979 AN UNDER. GROUND BATTALION CnN~ISTINr. DF 9P0 MEMRERS WAS FDRME THE .TH WARD OF SOC TRANr. CITY: THE PRINCIPAL.ORGA D IN NIZERS OF THE MOVEMENT ~ERE Nr.UYEN VAN T U A N, ~ VIETNAMES E OF, Ml~En CHINESE DE~CENT AND FORMFR MP SERGEANT, ANn SOURCE. THE npr.ANIZERS MFT REGULARLY IN THE ATTIC OF TUANi~ HOUSE AT ~7 HAl PA TRtJNG STREFT IN 5QC iRAN~~ A~

THE TWO nPGANTZER~ CDOR~INATEn THEIR ACTIVITIE WITH AN AR~ED GUFRRILLA ~ANO CALLED THE HAC LONG BATTS LED ~Y NGUYEN VAN T HAN H"A FORMER LIEUTE~ANT FROM ALION REGIONAL FORCE BATTAL!ON <122. AS OF AUGUST 1!l7g THIS PROVINCIAL. ARMEn [INIT WAS STILL LOCATED IN THE COASTAL AREA EAST 0" VINH CHAII DIST RIeT. BAC LH'U AND HAD SWA~P SOMF 7111 CONSrSTrNG OF A MIXTtlRE nF ETHNIC VIFTNAME~E. CHTNESE MEMBERS KHMER KRoM. THE HAC LONG UNIT CONCENTRATEn ON POLIT AND ICAL ACIT rvrES AN~ SELDOM ENGAGED IN MILITARY ACTION~ g~ THE5E TWO UNITS TOGETHER HAO ABOUT i2t11 WEAPO NS AT THErR DISP A. LEAFLETS AnVERTISING THE E~I~TENCE OF THE HAC 1.01 . HUL TON , CAL.I ING UPON FORMER SOLIH TO JOI~I THE U I AND. CALLING ON COMMUNIST PERSONNEL ERS OEFErT wERE q S PIRUTED ON THRFE OCCASIONS IN THE SOCTO TRANi MARKET' i~. ~HE LEAFLETS WFRF IS~UFO IN THE NAME OF THE ARMED CE5 OF T~E REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM ~QUAN LUC VIETNAM CONG HOA'. THE TEXT OF ONE OF THE LEAFL~TS IN SOC TRANG AS RECALLED BY THE SOURCE WHO WA5 ITS OISTRIBUTED ORIGINAL AUTHOR I~ ~S FOLLowSI J

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THIS LFAFLET BEING CTRCULATEO RELO~G~ TO THE "~IPP~T· SOLDIER UNIT OF THE HAC LONG BATTALInN STATIONED ON THE COAST DE VIN ... CHAU. WE CALL UPON ALL "~U~P~T· SOLOIERS Tn TAKE PART IN ITS ACTIVITIES TO SAVE THE cnUNTRY AND THROW OUT THE COMMUNISTS sn THAT OliR PFOPLE' CAN HAVE THElR LlBE'RTY . I RESTORFD A~D BE REUNITFD WITH THEIR FAMILIES. W~ CALL UPON THE vIETNAM~SE COMMUNIST 10 ASANDON THEIR RANKS. , WE WYLL TREAT YOII WITH CLEMENCY ANO WELCOME YOU WARMLY. 1~. THESE ACTIVITIES I~ ~OC TRANG CAME TO A HALT IN EFBRUARV 1979 WHEN TUAN AND snME OE HIS ASSOCIATES WERE ARRESTED. THE LOSS OF TU~NiS CENTRAL ROLE, THE IN~RFASEn SURVEILLANCE THAT FoLLOWED AND THE REPORTS OF ~EVERE BEATINGS RECETVEO BV POLITICAL "ETAINEE~ PARALVZEO THF nR~ANIZATIONfS UNOfRGROUND.ACItIVITIFS.IN SOc TRANG AS PFDPLE BEC""'E RELIICTA~T TO CONTHlllf THEIR AFFJUATlDNS. HOWEVER, DURING THF THREE MONTH PERIno IT WAS ACTIVE, SIv ASSA~SINATIONS Tnn~ PLACE UNOER THE ORGA~I7ATlnNIS AUSPICES.

TwO OF THE VICTIMS WERF MEMBfRII OF THE PIIPUC SECURITY SERVIC! (PSS, AND FDlIR WFR~ ADMINISTRATIVE CADRES~ THE ASSASSINATIONS WERE CARRIED OUT RV LE THA~H 0 U N G WHO SHOT THE VICTI~~ AS THEV RETURNED HDMF LATE AT NIGHT. 11. RESIDES THE HAC LONG GUERRILLA UNIT, A SIMILAR FORCF rD~sISTING OF .PPROXIMATFLY ,~~ MEN WA~ ACTIVE AS OF AIIGIIST 1979 ON ,!,Hf RIVER ISbAND OPp('ISrTE LONG PHU VILLAGE. THIS U~IT 15 ENTIRELV KHMER KROM.IN MEMBERSHIP AND IS LFD BY L Y ~A~IN. A FORMER SERGEANT IN THE LONG PHU REGIONAL FORrES •. LV SANN WENT INTO HinING wIT~ A GROUP of SOLnrERS AT THE TIME OF THE COMMUNIST TAKEnVER, .THIS BAND I HAS PEEN VERY ACTIVE IN CARRYING OUT GUERRILLA-STVLE WARFARE. 5I~ILAR GIJERQIlLA RANDS WERE R~PORTED TO BE ACTIVE IN MY TU ANn KF SACH DISTRICTS.

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Khmer Krom and Others Resistance Activities in Hau Giang Province DOI 1975 - August 1979