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REDHOUSE'S TUEKISH DICTIONARY, En

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ENGLISH AND TURKISH, AND

TURKISH AND ENGLISH.


f REDHOUSE'SJ

TURKISH DICTIONARY, En

ENGLISH AND TURKISH, AND

TURKISH AND ENGLISH. IN

WHICH THE^ TURKISH WORDS ARE REPRESENTED IN THE ORIENTAL CHARACTER, AS WELL AS THEIR CORRECT PRONUNCIATION AND ACCENTUATION SHOWN IN ENGLISH LETTERS.

BY

J.

W. EBDHOrSE, M.R.A.S.

MEMBBB OF THE IMPEBIAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCB OF CONSTAlfTINOPLB, ETC.

Wtitian, Ee&t^etr antr

CHARLES WELLS, Formerly Professor at the Imperial

(An Essay on

Political

Naval

Economy

Tales from Eastern Sources."

Ph.D.

(Leipsic),

College, Constantinople, Author of

in Turkish),

of'Mehemet

Late Private Secretary

the

Ci)l*^-J^

Surd and

**

other

to Lieut. -General

%

Sir Arnold Kemball on the Turco-Persian Frontier Commission,

Turkish Prizeman of Sing's College, London,

<5fo.

^X^^-^""*

LONDON: BERNARD QUARITCH, 15 PICCADILLY. 1880.


PL f?6'4

pf-f

WYMAN AND

SDKS,

ORIENTAL, CLASSICAL, AND GENEBAL PBINTBBS,

GBEAT QUEEN STBBET, 1OWDON, W.C.


INTKODUCTION TO THE SECOND EDITION.

an extraordinary and lamentable fact that the language of the Turks has hitherto received little or no attention in England, although it is spoken by millions of people belonging to a vast empire with is

IT

which we are in

less used,

It is the is

country the

Court

who

thrones

of

as

much of

as

and

Persia,

Persian.

of

the

It

in is

provinces of

many

difficult

to

that

account

for

such an

study important language, used by a people who once influenced half the overturned and established empires, who have possessed the Persia, Syria, Greece, and Arabia, whose power was once neglect

considering that world,

circles,

language of

spoken

absolute

by mutual vital interests, and is more or from Tunis in Africa to the walls of China.

closely connected official

it

is

dreaded by Italy, Germany and France, and to whom our proud Queen The Turkish lanElizabeth applied for aid against the Spanish Armada. the to us, owing to the greatest consequence guage has always been of

importance of

our

political

and commercial

relations with

the

Ottoman

Empire, and the complete ignorance of it on the part of our countrymen has greatly impeded proper communication and intercourse between the two nations and given rise to most serious misunderstandings and difficulties, both in the diplomatic and commercial world.

Hitherto, the only means of com-

munication between the two peoples has been the employment of Levantine interpreters, who seldom or never know either English or Turkish properly,

and speak the

latter unidiomatically

tasteful to the educated Osmanlis.

have become in one sense identified

and with a vulgar accent peculiarly

dis-

Recent events in the East, by which we with the Turkish Empire through having

undertaken the Protectorate of Asia Minor and the administration of Cyprus, now render the acquisition of the Turkish language by English officials and commercial pensable

if

men more urgent than ever, and indeed it is we wish to fulfil our task efficiently and avoid

tions with the natives

and the Turkish Government.

that this subject will at last receive the attention of the for the

Government and the acquisition

of the

We it

absolutely indisendless complica-

may therefore hope

deserves on the part

nation, that proper facilities will be afforded

language by a Professorship of Turkish being


REDHOUSE'S TUEKISH AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.

vi

founded at one of our Universities, and encouragement and reward being Persons offered to those who devote themselves to this arduous study. wishing to become student-interpreters, or officials in any part of Turkey, in Asia Minor, or in Cyprus, should be required to possess, at least, some knowledge of Turkish before being appointed and before leaving England, as they will find the want of proper teachers in Turkey an insuperable barrier The only persons who teach against beginning its study in that country.

Turkish in the East are Greeks and Armenians, most of whom appear physically incapable of pronouncing Turkish correctly, and possess in general little

As we have in English nearly every sound existing in Turkish, an Englishman, if properly taught, can pronounce far better than a Greek or an Armenian. For the same reason, as I found from or no knowledge of the literary language.

experience in instructing the students at the Imperial Naval College of Constantinople, Turks can pronounce our language far more purely than the Christian races under their government.

A

good dictionary is indispensable rendered a national service and Mr. REDHOUSE any language, when he produced his excellent work, which I hesitate not to say is incom-

for acquiring

parably the most correct and trustworthy Turkish lexicon in any European

The original edition having been exhausted, I willingly consented to Mr. QUARITCH'S proposal that I should edit a second issue, as all students of the language would find such a book most necessary, and the language.

undertaking. While preserving all the valuable matter contained in the first edition, I have attempted to increase its use-

learned author sanctioned

my

by the addition of a considerable number of words omitted originally want of space, or which have been coined by the Turks during the

fulness for last

twenty years to meet the requirements of their advancing

Amongst

civilisation.

other things, the names of countries, towns, rivers, mountains, and

other geographical words were entirely left out of the English-Turkish part, and nearly completely omitted in the other part. These I have supplied, giving special attention to names of places in the East. to enable a

portion being scarcely copious enough book, or an Englishman to write or speak on

it,

an English Turkish, I have

to read

all subjects in

introduced a large number of fresh words into

augmented the Turkish- English

The English-Turkish

Turk

and I have

also, to

some

Thus, the present edition will be found to contain several thousand more words than the original work extent,

part.

published twenty-five years ago, which, however, was far more correct and copious than any other European Turkish lexicon. It is a strange fact that the number of Englishmen

write Turkish

hand.

The

who can

read and

so small that they can be counted on the fingers of one and what is more astonishing, the English English is

public,


INTRODUCTION TO THE SECOND EDITION, residents in Turkey,

know

Vll

and interesting

scarcely anything of this curious

tongue, and rarely succeed even in speaking a few words properly to understand

As

essential.

a

nation

rightly

a knowledge

of

its

is

language

I once remarked in an article in the Gentleman's

;

yet

most

Magazine

and published some years ago, the physical features of the East, the length breadth of its rivers, the height of its mountains, and the costumes of its peoples, travellers

have been ascertained and described by enterprising European but the spirit of the East, which only can be comprehended by a ;

thorough acquaintance with its language and familiar intercourse with the Indeed many works natives, has remained a sealed book to Europe.

which have been written

for the purpose of enlightening us

with regard to

the East, have, with rare exceptions, only misrepresented and burlesqued it, although, I admit, that the writers did this in all sincerity and unconsciousIf Europeans

ness.

ever learn what the inner

life

of the East

is,

they

have been wonderfully narrow and one-sided; that many things they believed to be universally true are, under certain circumstances and in certain places, absolutely false; and they will discover find that

will

their ideas

that is good and valuable in the institutions, and much that is admirable in the manners and customs of the Turks, as well as some things

much

which we might with advantage imitate. lengthy discourse on the language and

A

literature of the

Osmanlis would

be somewhat out of place here, but a brief account of them may be interesting to the general reader and, especially, to those about to commence the

The Turkish language is of Tartar origin, as the Turks study of Turkish. came from Central Asia, and is consequently quite distinct from Arabic and Persian ; although it is true that in modern times the Arabic characters have been adopted for all three languages, and that the Constantinople dialect is half filled with Arabic and Persian words, but these have been incorporated without affecting the nature or framework of the Turkish, which is as different from Arabic and Persian as Anglo-Saxon from Latin and Greek.

The

original Turkish tongue

and concise when spoken.

was somewhat barbarous, but extremely

Very

often,

forcible

in colloquial language, a whole

sentence in a European language can be expressed by one or two words in Turkish. For example, the phrase " The book which I have written," can be expressed in Turkish in two words, viz., In fact, kitab.

yazdighim

Turkish

is

a language in which pronouns personal and relative, conjunctions,

and other parts of speech constantly recurring in European languages are almost entirely dispensed with, by the help of certain peculiar inflections of which the verb is capable. Unfortunately, this superiority in Turkish has

been more than counterbalanced by the cumbersome and inflated style which


REDHOUSE'S TURKISH AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.

viii

has become prevalent in writing, especially in official documents, sentence on sentence being strung together into one, until the reader is at a complete loss to catch the writer's meaning. Another mistake the Turks have made is in adopting Arabic and Persian words ad libitum ; so that to understand their

language

it is

absolutely necessary to be acquainted with nearly all the words

in the other two,

and something

of their

grammars.

Thus in

reality to

comprehend written Turkish you have to acquire three languages, in great This fact, no doubt, is one great reason why so few part, instead of one. Europeans have succeeded

own

language

many

in mastering

Turkish

;

and a Turk must study

years before he can either read or write

it

his

properly.

There are almost always in Turkish three names for everything the original Turkish, the Arabic, and the Persian and thus the student has a triple

Had

vocabulary to acquire.

when

Persian and Arabic words been taken only

was no Turkish word to express what was required, Turkish would have become an extremely rich and powerful language ; but words there

having been adopted indiscriminately has led to a redundancy which is only embarrassing both to the native and the foreigner, while thousands of abstract but most useful words are therefore, the enormous it is

an extremely

difficult

subject, or to translate

still

number

non-existent in Turkish.

Notwithstanding,

of words to be found in a Turkish dictionary,

thing to express one's self in Turkish on any civilised

any ordinary European work into

it.

Great progress,

however, has been made during the last twenty years in simplifying the Turkish style, and in coining words to express scientific ideas. Ali Pasha and Fuad Pasha took the initiative in this matter, and they have since had

many worthy

imitators, such as

Ali* Suavi Effendi, Kemal Bey, and Zia also been most

Bey.

The Imperial Military and Naval Colleges have

useful

laboratories

for

the

new

production of

words,

which was found in instructing the students in European and in translating French and English works for them.

the necessity for arts

and

sciences,

A

great

number

of very useful books have been prepared by the professors of those excellent institutions,

and although generally not

original,

they are very creditable,

and have done much good in shaping and improving modern Turkish. Some enlightened and unprejudiced officials, such as Said Pasha, who was Minister of Marine in 1878, and formerly Governor of the Naval College, * Ali Suavi Effendi, a well-known Turkish savant and a very able writer, was the editor of a Turkish newspaper, called the " Mukhbir"

f

^s"

),

published some years ago in London,

to which I myself contributed, which aimed at introducing not merely political reforms into Turkey, such as parliamentary government, financial control, &c., but also recommended

and inaugurated a reform of Turkish composition, orthography, &o., and the introduction of a clear and simple style similar to that approved of in most European languages.


IX

INTRODUCTION TO THE SECOND EDITION.

have also lately set the example of writing Turkish in a simple and practical and promoted this improvement. This able statesman style, and encouraged a striking illustration of what I have stated above, that Turks and Englishmen can acquire each other's language with remarkable purity, as is

(Said Pasha)

he speaks and writes English like an Englishman. Yet, notwithstanding the eumbrousness I have above complained of, the language of the Turks possesses a great and interesting literature ; works

on almost

all

mathematics,

subjects

known

logic, theology,

to Orientals history, geography, astronomy, geometry, arithmetic, &c., were to be found in :

Turkish hundreds of years ago in manuscripts only, of course. Indeed, books on those subjects had been written at so remote a period as a century prior to the conquest of Constantinople,

and some

historical, astronomical,

and poetical works by celebrated writers of that day are still in existence. It is also to the credit of the Turks that they always had in ancient times,

and

still

have, a deep reverence for learning and literary men, while their

sovereigns have been great patrons of literature, and have treated authors

savans with the most liberal favour and munificence. last

It

is

and

reported that the

his son Orkhan were, " Be the upholder of the protector of science ; " and no sooner had the crescent been

words of Sultan Othman to

the faith and

planted on the walls of Broussa than Orkhan gave orders for the erection of a royal college. This example was followed by his successors, who have vied

with each other in the protection and encouragement of letters. The Turkish writers excel particularly in historical composition. They have many valuable works of history, written by private individuals, and a regular series of public annals from the most remote times to the present, compiled by the official historiographers of the empire.

Among

their

most celebrated historians are Sead-u-din, the

historio-

the Third, the author of " Taj-u-Tevarikh," ("The Crown " Tarikhi Jelal of Histories,") Jelal Zade, the author of Zade," the Annals of the reign of Suleiman I. and Selaniki, whose works are only to be found in

grapher of

Murad

manuscript, and Kashid Effendi, Sami, Shagir, and Subhi, whose works have been printed by the Imperial press. Amongst historians also must not be forgotten the learned Haji Khalife, who wrote several historical and geographical books, and a work on Oriental bibliography, a universal history in Arabic, and also the History of the Maritime Wars of the Turks, the History of " Jihan Numa" Constantinople, and the celebrated Oriental geography called ("

The World-Shewer"). The Turks have always

cultivated poetry with the greatest zeal and Poets have ever been greatly honoured and muniTheir poetry, it is true, is somewhat wild and ficently rewarded by them.

considerable success.


extravagant, but full of power and imagination.

Amongst

others, Fazli's

version of the Gul-u-Bulbul (" The Rose and the Nightingale ") is a really beautiful poem, and a mere list of Turkish poets of respectable ability would fill

pages.

In conclusion, the Turkish language, in the simplicity and regularity of framework and mechanism, is only equalled among European languages by the Spanish, in the attention it pays to euphony by no

its original

European language, except perhaps Hungarian, and in the richness of its it would make but proper use of them, it might rank with any

resources, if

language of Europe or Asia.

To cement the

and the friendship which have existed for so many years between England and Turkey, and to promote the interest of both nations, nothing is more indispensable than that they should acquire each other's language.

alliance

The Turks have made great

efforts

and spared no expense

Hundreds of young Turkish officers studied English under me, appointment by the Turkish Government as Professor of the English

to this end. after

my

Language at Constantinople, and nearly all of them displayed the greatest zeal and ability. It is to be hoped now that the same ardour will be shown and the same attention given, on the part of the British Government and people, in promoting the study of the Turkish language in England.

Having had great experience in connection with the acquisition of Turkish and other Oriental languages, I venture to call the attention of the Governpublic to the fact that sending out gentlemen to Turkey who have merely given proof of possessing an ordinarily good European education, and who have evinced no special aptitude for acquiring Eastern languages, is

ment and the

not the best method they could have adopted for obtaining a body of Oriental Facilities should be afforded scholars who would be really useful to them. for studying

Turkish in England, and then only those who gave proof of Turkish a feat by no means in everybody's power

capability to master

should be appointed student-interpreters. Austrian and Russian officials in the East learn Turkish at their respective universities before going to Turkey,

and Russia and Austria have consequently had for many years good Turkish We shall never have good Oriental scholars in ours

scholars in their service.

we adopt the same system. No one can learn to speak and write Turkish by mere residence in the country, as is proved by English and other European residents in Turkey not being conversant with the language who until

have lived there

for twenty and thirty years. But any one who goes to Turkey, having already studied the language He will find plent) successfully, will speedily become thorough master of it.

of opportunities for practising his knowledge of Turkish, if he have any

;

but


INTRODUCTION TO THE SECOND EDITION. if

XI

he have none, he will never pick the language up, as

it is called, by merely Without study, Turkish, as written diplomatic purposes, can never be mastered, and facilities for

breathing the air of Constantinople.

and spoken

for

this study at

first,

at least, are best found in England.

Moreover,

it is far

government should only help those who have given proof of and this could be tested by establishing a Turkish Professorship

better that the their ability, here,

and sending out only those who should have passed an examination in

Turkish

the plan already adopted, I believe, in the case of Chinese students.

CHARLES WELLS. LONDON, December, 1879.


CONTENTS. PAGE

V

INTRODUCTION TO THE SECOND EDITION NOTICE

.

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION REDHOUSE'S DICTIONARY.

ERRATUM

.

APPENDIX.

.

.

XIV

.

...

1

ENGLISH AND TURKISH

...

25

TURKISH AND ENGLISH

...

383

...

882

.

883


NOTICE. The abbreviations English,

used in

\

both

and

j\

parts

in

the

of

auxiliary verbs C^XtiLH and ^L4\\ t

Turkish character, and et and 61

this Dictionary,

and

stand

respectively

their pronunciations fetmek

in the

for

the

and olmak.


KEDHOUSE'S TUEKISH DICTIONAEY.


PREFACE TO THE FIEST EDITION.

the spring of 1855, on the occasion of the formation of the Turkish the author of the present work published a " Yade-Mecum of

TN Legion,

Ottoman Colloquial Language," in the Preface " for the information of those prepare,

of

who may wish

which he promised

to

afterwards to penetrate

deeper into the arcana of this really beautiful tongue, complete and scientific works."

a series of more

The following pages

are a first instalment towards the redemption of the From then the size of this volume, the reader must at once given. pledge that it has not the pretension of perceive being a complete dictionary of the two languages, which it would require several years of constant labour to

But as there does not exist in English any similar bring into existence. work, it has been judged that a book which shall contain the more usual terms of the two languages, and explain the more striking modifications of which shall give, not only the orthography of the Turkish their meanings

words (whether of Arabic, Persian, or Turkish origin), but also their correct pronunciation and accentuation two things never achieved, and the latter never attempted, even in the best dictionaries published on the continent could not fail of being acceptable to the very great number of our countrymen now interested in obtaining quickly a competent knowledge of the language of our Eastern allies ; and the author has therefore undertaken to provide them with as good a dictionary as could be prepared within a reasonable space of time.

For the materials of

this

book he

is

indebted to no one, even of the

continental authors, unless in so far as he has used two dictionaries to arrive

without loss of time at the alphabetical arrangement and selection of the words contained in either part of this publication. He does not pretend to be absolutely and entirely free from mistakes of any kind ; but he confidently appeals to all capable of judging, to pronounce whether the great number of errors to be traced in every page of the

ancient or modern,

is

more voluminous continental works,

not a circumstance which greatly deteriorates the value


REDHOUSE

2

TURKISH AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.

S

of their productions, although, at the

the authors for the

works

same time, the greatest

credit is

due to

immense labours they have undertaken in preparing their They have done their best, and the thanks

for the use of the public.

of a host of students have been, and will continue to be, their just meed.

Neither

is it

in

spirit of detraction that the

any

author here notices these

but, on the contrary, by alluding to them, he ; desires to stir up their authors, or others, to investigate the subject with renewed zeal and acumen, under the conviction that the greater the facilities defects of his precursors

afforded for an interchange of ideas between the East

and West, the more

rapidly will be effaced those invidious distinctions of caste or class, or nationor religious denomination, which ignorance and intolerance set

up in the more

ality,

bygone times, but which in England have generally given place to becoming rule and feeling of respecting in all the conscientious dictates of faith

and

shown

taste,

to our

As above Dictionary,

even as we ourselves wish to have respect and consideration

own by

if

all.

the publication of a complete Turkish and English

noticed,

ever undertaken, will be a

will require years for its performance.

work

of considerable expense, and

Hitherto the number of those

who

might have occasion for such a book has been too limited by far to induce any one to make the attempt. These circumstances appear now likely to be changed, through the attention drawn to Turkey by the recent aggressions of Russia, and also

Empire answer

by the

the " sick

in

"

this change, if effective,

English literature is,

man

unexpectedly discovered in the Ottoman The author would be proud to of the aggressor.

vitality so

itself,

left

by the

by an energetic attempt to

want

of such a work.

well worthy of the labour

;

fill

up the void in

The Turkish language

and, whatever the ideas on the sub-

ject hitherto current in England, as in the rest of Europe generally, there

manuscript as yet, it is true, as known to be found in the Persian

exists in that language a literature, mostly in

varied and as refined as that which

is

does not embrace those periods of time, the middle ages, tongue, though which render the study of Arabic and Persian doubly interesting. In a it

political

and in a commercial view, the tongue of the Osmanli merits

attention as any, since its use, or that of

its

congeners,

among

as great

natives of

every sect and nationality, or among official people, is spread from Tunis in Africa, throughout the Turkish Empire, the northern half of Persia,

Khorassan, to Independent, Chinese, and Russian Tartary. But -it is as true, as it will appear singular, that whether from apathy, or from the fatal delivering themselves

up into the hands

of double sets of interpreters (one set

consisting of Greeks, Armenians, Jews, or Levantines,

who

explain verbally


PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.

3

between Europeans and Turks, and the other of Turkish writers, who reduce these verbal expressions into written forms of their own), the greater part of our merchants and consuls living in Turkey, some for periods of fifty years, word of the language, or

are unable, with a few rare exceptions, to read a

perhaps to understand

when read

it

to

common

them

;

and many are even incapable

The fact, however, of in a short time, Turkish servants, working engineers, and others picking up without books or aids of any kind, is sufficient to indicate that there is of uttering a single phrase in

nothing peculiarly

difficult in

the language itself; while the mere mechanical

difficulty of the handwriting, as

be got over with a

conversation.

is

known

to all students, is equally easy to

little practice.

Hoping, therefore, that a taste for

this useful

language

that the occasion will thence arise for the preparation of

works on the abilities,

that

it

subject,

the author

will be

to

now

may

spread,

which he engages to respond to the best of

offers the

found as useful in

its

present work

c 2

his

to the public, in the trust

sphere as he could wish or expect.

LONDON, 1856.

and

more extensive


REDHOUSE

S

TURKISH AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.

ON THE SYSTEM OF ORTHOGRAPHY EMPLOYED TO REPRESENT THE TURKISH WORDS, AND ON THE POWERS OF

THE TURKISH LETTERS AND ORTHOGRAPHICAL

SIGNS.

representing the sounds of one language with the characters of another,

IN we

find that

one value

all

or

many

of those characters generally possess

We

in their original language.

dictionaries are obliged to

pronouncing

observe, further, that the authors of

have recourse to various systems of

orthography, in order to represent to the mind, through the eye, in a

from doubt, the sound of every

more than

letter in

each separate word

;

way

freed

and that a con-

siderable difference exists between the current orthography and the results of

The reasons of

each such system.

this divergence, in respect to the

English

language, may Many words of foreign origin have preserved their original orthography and pronunciation (this latter more or less vitiated), which do not follow the same rules as the words of our own language

be reduced to three

:

1

st,

;

2ndly,

Many

other words of foreign origin, though they have more or less been

submitted to a process of adaptation to our pronunciation and orthography,

still

traces of their origin as to require explanation on the former,

and

retain so

many

authority for the latter, inasmuch as the two do not agree together with sufficient simplicity, or according to our received ideas of the

component words

letters

;

3rdly,

The

fundamental values of their

difference of pronunciation of even indigenous

in different parts of the country,

whereby an orthography more or

less in

consonance with the pronunciation of one part, at a certain period of time, was adopted by some one or other of the early English writers, and has since become (either with or without modification) generally or universally current, although it

does not accord with the usual pronunciation

classes in the greater part of the

now

in use

among

the educated

kingdom.

Causes analogous to these have also affected the orthography and pronun-


PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.

5

Turkish language, the present alphabet and orthographical system

elation of the

In the pure Arabic the simple short vowels are

of which are originally Arabic.

never written, being merely marked over or under the consonant affected by

them, and are but three

in

number

they are represented by separate consonants,

u

viz.

\,

and

,

u5 of

(oo English), the

i

i,

letters,

Of

.

a,

and u (Latin).

When

which have

their special values as

(c

a,

thej of

was next adopted by the Persians and although four consonants

Muhammed

;

were added to the twenty-eight of the Arabians, nothing was

,J vJ")

?,

the religion of

sound of

This system of the Arabic language

(ee English).

also to the other Semitic dialects)

(common when they embraced

still

these, the '\ represents the

these are long,

,

done to extend the number of vowel-letters, or of the vowel-points, beyond the original three, excepting the

a fourth consonant (&)

definite adoption of

represent the terminal broad e or surd a found in so

many

Persian words.

to

The

three original vowel-letters received also a second value each in addition to the

was made to represent the broad a of the English, the j the European languages, and the t-? the e of the same as heard in our word there.

Arabic one, of

viz.

\

The Turkish

nation,

Adopting

and, by their chief and early conquests in Greece and Asia Minor,

coming from the eastern parts of Central Asia, first encountered the Arabian system of writing, under its modified form, in Persia. this,

escaping from the direct influence of the Arabians, they value to one consonant (C-!) by

Arabic value of

and

k,

its

making

Persian value of g hard

greatly extended the use occasionally

in their turn

gave a new

represent a nasal n in addition to

it

made by

(gli,

its

or gu), and they also

the Persians of the three long

vowels as representatives of their cognate short vowels.

Passing over, therefore, the consideration of the true number of different

vowel-sounds which

may

exist in

may

Arabic or

exist in

in Persian,

or of the

any uncultivated Turkish or Tartar dialects,

number which

we may now proceed Ottoman

to observe that there are eleven distinct vowel- sounds in the cultivated

Turkish language, besides the modifications of certain of them by mere prolongation of

sound

;

whereas there are

letters to represent

them.

especially to learners

;

many

but three vowel-signs, and but four vowel-

This necessarily causes great confusion and

and to

of Arabic and Persian words

preference to

still

it,

in great

(in

of their most

measure,

writing,

common

I attribute

much more than

in

Turkish equivalents.

these languages a combination of two, three, or four letters,

difficulty,

the prevalent use

may

speaking) in

In

all

three of

often be read

several different ways, the signification varying with each modification of sound

;


and there

is

no system

in use

the nations speaking them whereby the word can be depicted to the intelligence in a manner entirely free from doubt. The

among

true vowel-pronunciation of each

through the medium of the eye,

Persians have adopted two terms whereby they describe the different values of

the vowel j as representing u and

o,

u

also of

so that the

number

employ two combinations

c

the

(j\

These, then, are is

but this

;

the same

in

not really so

\,

way

L\

read ku, and

is

i

as Ji

a

is

ki.*

:

in

1st,

of

in

all.

7th,

of

.

.

a

.

.

far.

8th,

.

.

o

3rd,

.

.

a

.

.

about.

9th,

.

.

u

]0th,

.

.

u

.

.

full.

llth,

..

u

..

fun.

4th,

.

.

a

.

.

5th,

.

.

e

.

.

pen.

i

.

,

pin.

Our system of the Turkish

.

and

as the other consonants.

2nd,

.

they

:

which in Arabic takes the

eleven Turkish vowel-sounds are the following

6th,

;

no true addition to the number of Turkish vowel-letters, and

read u the same as j3

The

is

they are merely used, or rather the j

are introduced to define the value of the

three vowel-sounds indifferently,

j!

;

but

;

and u3V of these vowel-letters,

which have been looked upon as diphthongs represent no separate vowel-sound

i

in writing

At the beginning

but three, to represent the eleven vowels existing in Turkish. of words they

mark

and of the vowel-points

remains but four,

of vowel-letters

and

as representing e

further they have not gone, and these terms have no equivalent

pan.

of orthography in this

words

is

book

i

.

girl.

go.

.

tu.

for representing the pronunciation

founded upon the two following axioms

and second,

character shall have two values ;

French

in the

No

:

First,

No

value shall be represented by

more than one special character. In applying these two rules to the eleven vowel-sounds,

we have been

* There exists even at the beginning of some Turkish words the combination

which may have been considered in

like

that of the two combinations, <-' and

^

is

a trne consonant, and therefore

<-

we

manner a triphthong at the ends of

;

but in

led to

<-$)

>

this case, as in

some words and

syllables, the

are justified in totally denying the existence of

diphthongs or triphthongs in the Turkish language.


PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.

1st,


REDHOUSE'S TURKISH AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.

8

English grammarians have laid

It

it

down

must be conceded that y standing alone

but

w

As

never so used in English.

is

middle of syllables they

much

without

and

as a rule that

w and

y are consonants

beginning of words or syllables, but vowels at the end or in the middle.

at the

y, at the

may be

in the middle of a syllable is a

syllables,

from the error

when immediately preceded by

certainly be considered a true vowel.

in either case

a consonant,

;

may

There remains then to be considered the

when they terminate

case of these two letters

;

considered either as vowels or consonants,

practical inconvenience resulting

end of

vowel

the second letters of diphthongs in the

a syllable

and are preceded by a

In this case Oriental grammarians have justly regarded them as con-

vowel.

sonants

nor would

;

it

be

difficult to establish

that the practice of the English

tongue fully confirms that decision, as regards the letter y, and also as regards the

w

if

preceded by an

o.

forming from them the

Take

for instance the

participles

and y are as much consonants

as

flowing and

words flow and flay

flaying,

we can

:

now,

perceive that

in

w

though the division of the two words into

separate syllables was flo-wing and fla-ying, when, even

by the admitted

our grammarians, these letters would be consonants.

This being established,

more

as a

means

rules of

of comparison between certain conditions of our language

and

we may now state that we consider the letters w cases where we use them in our system of orthography

the elements of the Turkish,

any y as consonants

in

all

as here adopted for representing the sound of the Turkish language

complete our system of syllabic formation,

we have but

of vowels preceding or following these two letters in the same

other consonants

Ab bA

AW

WA Ay YA

;

thus

:

;

and, to

to follow out the series

manner

as for the


PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. read like pie, rey like ray, soy exactly as in English, and

will

pay

will

muy,

each be readily understood, though

our language.

we have no

kz'y,

as also

similar combination in

thus become apparent that these are not diphthongs com-

It will

posed of two consecutive or combined vowel-sounds, but, on the contrary, a pure

and simple vowel, followed by a simple consonant.

The foregoing remarks not only

is

this particular bears also in

we

consonants, since

and

more consequence than appears

are of

at first sight

a correct appreciation of any subject a great desideratum in

this could

no

slight degree

itself,

:

but

upon the question of reduplicated

frequently meet with both the j and the

not be unless they were true consonants.

t_

reduplicated,

It has also a very great

grammatical influence upon the words, and roots of words, which have these terminations, as

it

inflexions vary, according as they are joined

or to one ending with a consonant

the doctrine here laid

moves.

Grammar

be seen throughout the Turkish

will

down

and

;

it

that affixes and

on to a word ending with a vowel, be found that in

will

has the further advantage, too, of confining the letters

It

these cases

all

agrees with the principle upon which that language

one sole value, instead of using them sometimes as vowels,

w and

y to

sometimes as

consonants.

Proceeding, now, to a consideration of the Turkish characters in themselves,

and of

their values,

consonants,

we

first

as also of the

mode

of transcription here adopted for the

observe that the Turkish alphabet consists of twenty-eight

simple and primitive characters of Arabic origin, the ordinary

forms of which are as follows \

elif,

(^- sin,

(J kXf,

To

C.J bE, CLJ tE, cL> SE,

^ cJ

^a

shin,

kfif,

sXd,

^a

lam, * mim,

J

names and primary

:

,

jim,

dAd,

_

\s it,

^ nun,

1?

J

^ kh,

hX,

c

z,

^ w6w,

<-

dXl,

J

zel,

j n, j ZE,

" ayn,

ghayn,

<_J fs,

JE.

these original Arabic letters are to be added the three following, received

from the Persian, which have a special form, distinguished from the originals whence they are derived by the number of dots under or over them, viz.

C

?

derived from

pi,

<

^ chim, J zhii (French j) ....... j The written,

.>

bis.

jim. ZE,

additional dots of these letters of Persian origin are often to be found in

and even

in printed, books.

(five or six at most)

The

words of Persian

last of

origin.

them

is

only used in a very few


REDHOUSE'S TURKISH AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.

10

The

fourth letter added

without

its

by the

distinguishing points,

Persians,

namely, the

generally left

is

\^5,

and these, even when added, are sometimes

used as marking, not the Persian value of the character, but a third use to which this letter is universally applied

by the Turks, that of a nasal

equivalent to our

n,

common

English ng at the end of sing, ring, &c., but softened down to a

pronunciation of the capital, and of people of refined manners in

A

provinces.

second method

value of this letter

whether dash

medial, or final

initial,

two

single in the

is

one.

the one character ;

There

is

cJ

and

made

to distinguish the Persian

a double dash in

in the case of the

and

first positions,

totally

and

all its

positions,

Arabic value, the

wanting in the last-named

common

in

or

official

writing,

only in some manuscript books, generally

is

marks

diacritical

when the

are inserted, that any

of the three values of this letter.

also a

It is the character

compound character and which,

X

which

in use,

for that reason, cannot

is

always to be found

be passed over

called lam-elif, being, in fact, nothing

joined calligraphically to a following

\

our printers continue to join the/ and

elif, /

in

in a similar fl,

or the

/

manner

and

i

in

in silence.

more than to that

some words

is

lam

whereby

\

(lif),

amount of explanation.

sometimes a vowel, and sometimes a consonant

;

the latter in

of Arabic origin only, and even then only in the middle or at the end

of these words, never as an

always surmounted by the

initial

!,

is

Arabic language, which

The consonant

1,

To denote

initial.

diacritical

can occur between the vowel affecting an

J

&c.

fi,

these thirty-one (or thirty-two or thirty-three) Turkish letters, the

in its various uses, requires the greatest

This letter

of the

many

has three distinct values, for which no discriminating signs it

inserted in alphabets,

Of

it

whereas,

;

whole of the vowel-points and other distinction is

by which

also in use,

therefore, that in printing,

It results,

are employed

is

consists in giving

it

:

n in the

\

mark

,

consonant value of the

this

it is

no confusion

This rule of the

hEmzE never

named

and the consonant.

',

b.EmzE, so that

a practical rule of Turkish, and does not apply to the

we

are not here considering.

then,

we proceed

to say, follows the

same

rules as

do the

other consonants in point of being followed or not by a vowel in the same syllable,

and we need not dwell upon that subject here

power

is it

we

shall only

and that

that of a slight hiatus, or catch in the breath,

" sented

:

in this

work, as

in

our

little

Vade-Mecum

Language," by an inverted apostrophe, thus

(').

The

of

sign

remark that

we have

Ottoman

hEmzE

its

repre-

Colloquial

represents in

Arabic, I apprehend, the transition from the natural state of the organs of


PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.

speech it

when

and closed against the passage of vocalized breath

in perfect repose

vice versa, the stop

represents, also,

11

when

applied,

denly the emission of this vocalized breath

;

and the action

altogether from that whereby a vowel- sound

therefore,

it,

or whereby

it

is

simply allowed to cease

it is

represents differs,

made

is

formation of any definite consonant, or whereby that sound

formation following

to follow the

hEmzE

is,

by such a from being

cut off itself

This view of

emitted without any change of position in the organs of speech. the value of the

:

speaking, to cut off sud-

as before stated, altogether overlooked, however, in

Turkish, at the beginning of words

and the

;

\

then regarded always as

is

(e"lif)

a simple vowel.

As

a vowel at the beginning of words the

sound found

It

may

of determining the vowel-sound to be given to

are general,

in

\

we proceed

represent every vowel-

same manner that any consonant may be Nor does it differ from the consonants in the

in the

by every such sound.

followed

modes

in the language,

to state

them

it

;

and, as those

modes

here.

has already been noticed that there are three signs of Arabic origin, used

Turkish to indicate the vowel which

is to

follow a

letter.

These are named

harekE (motion, or movement), and the first, consisting of an oblique &j>straight stroke marked above the letter from right towards the left in descending usstun and kste fetha (t-h.) It indicates that the (thus '), is called

^^\

letter over

which

vowels, A,

a, a, E,

it is

or

6,

is

placed

which,

it

to be followed in pronunciation will

by one of the

be perceived, form a series of vocal sounds

of a cognate character, varying merely in breadth, and capable of infinite sub-

modifications of tone. all

express

pronunciation, which violin, in

In

these five vowels do not correctly and fully

fact,

the modulations which an experienced ear can detect in Turkish

may be

which the notes are

truly compared, in its nicety of differentiation, to a left to

be formed by the player, rather than to any

instrument in which the notes or half-notes are absolutely fixed.

although

we have deemed

we have

done, the different vowel-sounds of Turkish words,

it

useful

and very necessary

Therefore,

to indicate, to the extent

we admit

that a

greater variety exists, which we leave to practice and experience to indicate learners, believing that the extent to which we have pushed the subject will

still

to

be found

sufficient for all practical purposes.

The second vowel-sign letter,

and

is

called

x^A

consists in a precisely similar stroke placed under the

esse^E, or Xj~

be followed by one of the vowels

i

or

kessrs. i.

The

It indicates that the letter is to

third

is

a small character some-

thing of the shape of the figure 9, or of the Turkish letter j, placed over the


REDHOUSE'S TURKISH AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.

12

letter

it

where the usstun would otherwise be.

affects,

wturu (and rarely is

<UJ damma

zamma), and

or

be followed by one of the vowels

to

This sign

called

indicates that the letter affected

or u, which

o, u, u,

is

will

it

be perceived

are of a kindred kind.

According to what is

usstun,

the sign

and

hemzE, which

representative of the

writings at the 1,

made

has no real value.

it

when

it

mere

it is

figured over or under the

and even common African

writings, is

sometimes

affected

by ope of

to precede that letter.

It

may now be

readily inferred that according as the

the remaining vowel-points esse"rE or wturu,

is

\

takes the value of either

it

p, u, u,

Thus

or u.

i

or

i,

or

9

x'

of

at the

never introduced into Turkish

beginning of words, though in Arabic

in ancient manuscripts,

and

itself,

It is in fact, in that position, a itself

is

mark

bears the

vowels indicated by

five

thence be correctly inferred that of

may

it

\,

same

equivalent to any one or other of the

itself,

beginning of words,

and

stated above, the letter

is

is

\

read A,

or

a, a, E,

e"

\

;

is

read

or

i

i

;

and

\

read

is

or u.

o, u, u,

Not

to have to repeat

what

is

we here

thus explained,

shortly mention that

the same rule applies generally to the whole of the remaining letters, the vowel following, but never preceding them.

C->

is

either bi or bz

;

and iL)

is

s

It

Thus, f^J

is

either bA, ba, ba, bE, or be"

either bo, bu, bu, or

bw

not be amiss to notice particularly the case of the two letters and c5, ^

may

and to remark

that,

as with their English representatives

w and

always consonants at the beginning of words, and consequently j

y,

is

?

VA is

va, va, VE, or

v6

read, yA, ya, ya, VE, or y&\

u

(or

WA, &c.),

To make

;

j as

vi or

as yi or yz

vz*

three letters

;

they are

to be read, '

as vo, vu, vu, or \u

j

and

;

;

while c5

as yo, yu, yu, or yu.

certain of these vowels long (the others never being prolonged in

Turkish), the letter bearing the vowel-point

\

;

and so throughout.

;

\,

,

or <-, which

followed up by that one of the

homologous with that vowel-point; namely, by usstun, by u when it is esserE, and by j when it is is

when the vowel-point To avoid the repetition is

is

wturu.

of the

itself in

\

following out this rule the sign

*~ ,

named J^ medd,

usstun,

*J^ me'ddE,

or

and the second

I

is

is

suppressed.

placed over the

Thus

s

f

u

;

b

is

I

first

read A or

\

in lieu of the

a, <-i

i

or

?,

is

read bA or ba, <J. bi or bz; and

y

and 9

9

bu

;

&c.

The combination

^

is


13

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.

The

not to be met with in Turkish. after a

word, adopted into Turkish, in

u>

final,

some Arabic words,

as a vowel in

consonant marked with usstun, takes the value of a or A, and the same is

very frequently written with

as, for instance,

consequence;

for ^J)\, LaJ\ AksA/or

iila

^1

printing, the three Arabic letters of prolongation,

as

\,

,

and

&c.

^aA,

common

As, however, these vowel-points are never marked in

to

instead of the c5,

\

writing or

c5, have, according

what has already been remarked, come to be very frequently used in Turkish, and the medd over the \ is sometimes indicative in Persian, as short vowels ;

of the short sound of A, when, without

To

one of the four remaining values. culty

which hence may seem to

it,

this letter is

more frequently read with

obviate the almost insurmountable

It

and

arise in relation with the distinction of long

short vowels in Turkish words, a very simple and seldom varying rule

be noticed.

diffi-

may

here

that in words of purely Turkish origin there are scarcely any

is,

long vowels (European authors generally state that there are none), whereas in

words of Arabic or Persian origin these

esteemed to be long

letters are generally

vowels.

There remains now to be noticed the use of the been seen that a.

1,

The other

Jb t

three vowels, of which the vowel-point usstun

in the case of feminine nouns,

of the fetha class, into the value of

when

CU

(t)

word

the

But even

has

It

final,

is

the representative,

in the original Arabic, the

has always been sounded as a vowel

is final

in its sentence

;

on other occasions, and although

when

of other words, even

value of the

as a vowel.

Jb

as a vowel after a consonant, represents one of our vowels A or

are therefore left without an equivalent. final

letter

preserves

its

though

it is

changed

this letter, in the case

This

value as an aspirated h.

was accordingly adopted by the Persians to represent the a or E many of their words are terminated and the Ottomans, finding it >

wherewith so

;

so used, have extended

its

sphere of

utility by introducing

it,

in certain deter-

minate cases, into the middle of words, but always at the end of a syllable, with the same vowel value of ticiple, into ttell

a, E,

or &

;

as, for

as the third,

where

it is

It is

end of some

example

is

first

and second persons

final) of the conditional aorist, into the root

entire conjugation of the impotential verb,

verbs.

example, into the future active par-

the second gerund, sometimes into the

and

at the

end of the roots of various

sometimes to be seen introduced into the very body of nouns syllable

;

syllable establishes

at the

but these are generally words of foreign origin, and the

never to be followed without good and sufficient authority.

circumstance of the

(as

and

This

& vowel never being used unless as the final vowel of a a marked difference between itself and the three letters,


14

REDHOUSE'S TURKISH AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.

and o, which are commonly to be found alone is ever used as an initial vowel. again, t

f

),

in the

middle of syllables, though,

\

Into whatever part of a

word

this letter

Jb is

introduced with a vowel value,

the greatest care should be taken by the student of Turkish (as by those of the Persian, Arabic, and cognate languages)

English

inconvenience of incapacitating us aspirate consonant value of that aspirate, the letter

and

will

be

the subject

~-

never to transcribe

more or

as this practice,

letter h,

less

from properly distinguishing it from the and of its cognate, though stronger

letter,

This incorrect and incommodious practice

.

who has

almost every English author

felt in use, in

and even the French are by no means

;

by using our

it

followed, has the very great

free

may be

seen,

yet written on

from the

defect, as is

noticed and reprehended by Bianchi in a note at the foot of p. xxviii of the " Dictionnaire Turc-Frangais."

first

volume, second edition, of his

Of the mere consonants by which

it is

the letter *-> has the value of the English letter b,

also represented in our

times, at the end of words, and

such as

ch, or sh,

t,

system of transcription

when preceded by

J

d),

and

d>

under any circumstances. letters

which we are forced

to

men, to give to

all final letters s,

so,

z,

we have thought

not the

it is

(but

is

sometimes changed ortho-

is

represent

equally applicable to the other two

by our

s

:

they must

never

and to avoid the tendency, so strongly pronounced

;

the sound of

t

of s sharp or double, never degenerating into z

This remark

degraded into z

when

although some-

acquires the sound of p.

it

c-J has always the sound of p, C-> of graphically into

;

certain sharp-sounding letters,

first letter

but in this instance

we

as well as to those placed between

better to double that letter on

it

of a syllable.

Theoretically,

we

are

in

be

English-

two vowels,

all

occasions, to

wrong

do

reluctantly sacrifice consistency to the practical object

of trying to prevent the malpronunciation of whole classes of words of which the

well-known Kars and fez are instances. 5

/

and

if

delicacy has

have adopted

d;

is

they were written according to our system Karss and fess respectively,

every one would pronounce them right

letter

In both these words the final letter

is

even changed it,

so

;

whereas, in the latter word, French

the orthography, and

our travelling countrymen

corrupted, from the writers of our gallant

equivalent in

Arabic to our th in think, but that value

allies. is

not

The

known

in Turkish. -

has the value of our English

j,

exclusion of our equivocal g, which gully,

and sometimes

soft, as in

by which we invariably represent

is

gem,

sometimes hard, as

gin, gymnastics.

it,

to the

in gat, get, gird, got,


PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. -. is our ch in church,

done,

has the sound of h, as has also the letter

not thought our

before these letters, as

t

often

is

of no use in English, though necessary in French.

is

-.

and the addition of a

15

mode

it

mode

them

of pronouncing

hand, no error

at

graphy being

when

We have

a consonant.

necessary to establish any difference between these two letters in

of transcribing them, as there

ears, in the

Jfc

is

is

;

no

difference, perceptible to English

and, besides this, the Turkish ortho-

and our transcription

likely to occur,

a

is

system of guidance to pronunciation, not to orthography..

+ is

transcribed, according to general custom,

is

learnt

acquired,

we recommend

J

Arabic value being that of our th in though; but

letter s in

r,

the true Arabic

is

(j~

is

t

;

J

is

a z

never so used in

;

by the combination

occurs,

it

and j another z J is equivalent to the French j, and of the We have represented it, in the very few words where it pleasure.

j an

Turkish),

be

as a k, but always as a

it

a d, sometimes, after sharp letters, acquiring the sound of

is

power

This can

in Scotch.

Thus the word khan must be sounded hXn, and not ksn.

strongly aspirated h.

(its

the learner never to sound

its

:

of this consonant

true value

but, until the

by practice;

kh

letters

German and

equivalent to that of the combination ch in

only be

by the

Of

in Turkish.

zh.

s,

^

is

equivalent to our sh, and \jz

the difference between the

to speak further in treating of the

^

hard and

and the soft

^

we

letters,

is

shall is

^o

also a pure s

have occasion generally a

z,

but in some few Arabic words has the value of d.

b

generally a

is

origin,

it

t,

though, as an

takes the sound of d.

a few words, one of the letters or (^.

Jfc)

occur, the

t

another

(CL? or t)

forming the succession th t

some few words of purely Turkish

in

initial

1? is

in

We

z.

is

may

here remark, that, in

followed by one of the letters

our transcription.

and the h are to be kept separate

When

this

pronunciation, as the

in

generally the last letter of one syllable, and the h the

first letter

h

does t

is

of the following

syllable.

^

is

a letter that has generally been considered

European

writers, always excepting the learned

his stamp.

De

and treated as a vowel by Sacy, and a few scholars of

Nothing can be conceived more erroneous, since, in the mouth of

an Arab, no consonant exists having greater claims to the appellation.

pronounced

in the deepest part of the throat,

in infancy, or letter

with an

which can never afterwards be attained.

becomes

silent at the

effort that

It

is

must be learned

In Turkish, however, the

beginning and end of words, but

is

indicated

by a


REDHOUSE'S TURKISH AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.

16

We

kind of hiatus in the middle. treating of the

have mentioned the hiatus of the hEmzE,

and we may here notice that the

^ ;

the same relation to each other that

^~ and ^, and

CU

that

in

and the hEmzE have

letter &

and t,

as also that

and CJ, and j and ^a or &, have to each other namely, the one is hard and Jj the other soft in pronunciation, as is to be hereafter noticed. Of the two, the ;

c

is

the hard hiatus, and

apostrophe (")

words,

we have

work

in this

it

with a double inverted

that, at the

beginning and end of

therefore represented

and we repeat

;

generally quite or almost silent, after the fashion of our silent h, but

it is

never a vowel.

it is

we have no

a hard g, taking sometimes a gliding sound, of which

is

The French

in English.

example

have taken

in Algeria

it

to be the equivalent

by some people, like a w. From this " well-known word razzia," which is the Arabic

of their r grasseye, or r pronounced, as

now

they have formed the

so

we have

uniformly transcribed this letter by gh, instead of using a single g, on

account of the double value of this reason, for rejecting

down

softened

by

i

we have u-9

and is

by

cJ

in a

it

times

it

w when

our

f (it

becomes almost imperceptible

would be mere

We

Jj,

as

is

first

sometimes used

for

be gained

to

in a

sometimes done, and

Jj

and

for

it

by ph).

its

represent distinction

softened

second, or Persian value, it,

;

equally with that

cJ, but

CJ

letter,

is

has

it

down

a further violation of

CJ

is

in

somewhat

all

designate this by placing the gh in letters better appreciable

thing obtains in our in the

own language

word

in

we

letter

cases,

s.

like

4 and we ,

though with this

susceptible in Turkish of being

As with

italics.

by our readers,

The

the disadvantage of a

to a value approaching that of y, as the

other times becomes imperceptible also.

example,

a hard g,

by gh

namely, the Persian value of

J>

pronouncing dictionary

it is

double value, being sometimes equivalent to k, and sometimes to In

This

or Arabic value of the latter letter

the special rule which requires the letter q to be followed by a u. c is

sufficient

sometimes

is

in the pronunciation.

and pedantry to represent

folly

no advantage

see

using the letter q for

This letter

italics.

are both simple k, as far as the

concerned.

though amply

sole,

preceded or followed by o or u, and even

designated by putting the gh in

is

our

letter,

pronouncing dictionary.

to the value of

at other

;

In the present work

a crusade).

(a military expedition against infidels,

gazya

does that of w, and at

we

the 5, so with the cJ,

To render

this

quality of the

two

here point out that the very same

the case of the combination gh.

throughout, that combination

is

For

sounded as w, and

in


PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. pronounced as y ;

is

it

sighing

nounced sowAn, and Jj J ^}, the

when

letter,

so, in Turkish, ^Ic^^?

di^Ail is

pronounced

ducing

CJ, and before the vowel, a

is

sog^An (onion)

diyil.

a, o, u,

u, u, takes before

we have denoted by

letter

pro-

In both these values of

followed by any of the vowels

the vowel a short and incipient sound of y, which after the

17

y

This

in italics.

intro-

often

is

heard in English, as in the words cure, pure, &c., some persons using

also

it

before an a in the same manner.

The

or purely Turkish value of cJ,

third,

when

it

is

surd kisf

called

(t^&fcl*), and even surd nun (^y^L?), is that of our ng at the end of sing, It is never to be found elsewhere than at the ends of words or

ring, &c.

and consequently never

syllables,

the educated classes,

among

generally

the influence of the final g, and

by placing the

indicate

g

CJ

is

it

At

initial.

loses,

sounded

is

and

Constantinople,

almost constantly and entirely,

like

common

a

we

This also

n.

by some people it is sounded, In the two words, fj^s\ and cXc<JoJ, where showing that

in italics,

though dropped by others. the

can be

followed by J, the sound of the

J

is lost

;

and the

first is

generally

pronounced anuamak, the second dinEmek, instead of anglamak and dinglEmek, their true original,

and even now their provincial sounds.

other letters, whether vowels or consonants, the to be sounded as a separate letter

;

g

When

followed by

of this combination

never

is

but the English words singer, ringer, are to

be imitated, while those of anger and finger are the models to be avoided, the division

of syllables being different in the two classes

;

as,

sing-er,

ring-er

;

an-ger, fin-ger. fj is

that

our

when

is

/

1,

the <j

our m,^a,nd

^

our n.

The only remark necessary

here,

is,

followed by a or a (jJ with its Persian value, forming, in ^, the transcription, the combination ngh, it is to be understood that the combinais

tion is not solvable into ng-h, but only into n-gh.

sound of the

J

tinople, in the

respectively

The

is

Also, as remarked above, the

entirely suppressed, in the ordinary pronunciation of

words (j**&s\ wnglamak, and

cX<<uj

Constan-

dinglEmek (pronounced

wnnamak, dinEmek).

letter

^ requires

more

particular remark, as

values as a consonant, besides one other incidental.

it

has three distinct proper It is

sometimes a pure

v,

sometimes, though not frequently, a pure w, and more generally a combination of the two,

its

as a pure v,

it

pronunciation beginning as a v, and ending as a w.

may be

before the soft vowels

classed as a soft consonant, since <, E,

i,

and u

sounded as a combined v and w.

;

whereas, before A,

At the end D

it

a,

In

its

value

takes this sound a,

o,

and

u,

it is

of syllables, the same rules occur

.


RKDHOUSES TURKISH AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY. with regard to the preceding vowel, to which after

i

In

and

we may add

the sign hEmzE, before mentioned, thus j a consonant when so surmounted, whether or whether

own

;

and

vowel-point point

is

in

usstun

and,

;

it

may now be

also being then

used, the letter over which

We

itself

added, as

is

is

the reason

why

when

the

the

placed

may be

\

when

the e

the vowel-

Whenever the

always a consonant.

considered merely in

being the real and true consonant

have therefore always represented

we do not

as a consonant,

recollect

many its

letter,

;

with the inverted

employment

:

in fact, the idea of a silent h

and whether the A consonant or the

beginning, or at the end of a word or syllable, aspirated as a rule of

it

instances of the

it

-

occasionally be subjected to in the tongue of the

must be equally and

It is, in this

respect,

common

something

we

people,

has

be at the

grammar and language, whatever degradation

the end of words and syllables, which

in

reduplication occurs.

an aspirated h

is

never occurred to an oriental

day intercourse.

in the

capable even of reduplication in the same way with every

is

but

;

hEmzE

it is

Turkish of those Arabic words in which

JJ>,

is

is

other consonant.

The

this

then selected as the recipient of the hEmzE, as

Arabic

apostrophe

and

;

is

the light of a support, the

which

syllable,

and

it,

vowel, must be an wturu (and confined to the two branches

is esse'rE, this letter

hEmzE

necessarily and constantly

be placed at the end of a

it

of that class u or u, to the exclusion of o and u) letter^

always surmounted by

is

*

is

it

In the former case the vowel preceding

begins one.

it

latter case its

the

a pure v

is

it

u.

incidental value as a consonant, the letter

its

that

it

fully

may

and of every-

our English letter r at

like

so generally omit in pronunciation,

but which no grammarian has ever held up to notice and imitation as a silent

The two

letter.

letters

J*

and

.

are,

however, generally sounded, the omission

being quite the exception, even at the end of words. It

may be

as well to notice here the circumstance of the use of the

placed over the letter

-fc,

when used

as a vowel at the

end of words.

It

only

occurs in the case of nouns, substantive or adjective, which are connected with the following

word

in the

sentence by the Persian rule of construction, which

governs the relation of a noun with its

proper function of

takes as .

its

own

final

its

qualifying term.

vowel in the word where

separate vowel the esserE, which

represented by the letter riitbE'i-saniyyE, &c.

i,

as in the terms,

lj^

may

it

The

J&,

occurs,

then, performs

and the hEmzE

always, in these cases, be

S.XJ bendE'i-khuda


IM;I:KA(

The 5 consonant words or

syllables,

is

being

nature, to adopt the

19

our English y, both at the beginning and at the end of

always preceded by a vowel.

in the latter case

really a sad mistake for us, its

TO THK FIRST EUITIOX.

i;

It is

possess this useful consonant, and are aware of

who

lame expedient to which other languages are forced to

have recourse, namely, the use of the vowel

i,

with or without the

diseresis

over

Take, for instance, the word <Uy, where the consonant t_ is reduplicated, and compare the lame and erroneous transcription by an eminent French author, it.

terbiife,

which

plain

even with the French rules of

at variance

is

method rendered

diseresis,

use of possible by our estimation and

with the

y, as a consonant

equivalent to the oriental ^J consonant, namely, terbiyyE, in which the syllables are ter-biy-yE, precisely as in the original, the reduplication being merely

we sometimes

omitted a second

one, as

in

m

by placing a dash over

practise ourselves

the

an excuse for not using the y not recognise

in this, to us, natural

French authors have

to

is

manner, because they do

own language

as a consonant in their

it

their imperfect substitute

what

when we have

This was very frequently

word comon.

manuscripts before the invention of printing.

practised in

or n,

but for us to adopt

;

abandon gratuitously an advantage of no mean

character.

When

the

hEmzE

is

placed over a

which usually distinguish the

that whereas, in an original Arabic word, a

i*J

the same word, on passing into Turkish, loses

long vowel, resuming (issti

its

But

with a

its

frequently the case,

it is

hEmzE

is

correctly used,

hEmzE, and the u5 becomes a

Thus the Arabic word ^iifcJ

suppressed dots.

zan) becomes generally in Turkish

To

middle of words, the two dots

in the

L_

letter are omitted.

J jui^l

(isstizan).

what we have to note respecting the various uses of the hEmzE, we may here say, that at the end of a very few words it is found without any finish

letter to support

Ex.

*js>.

at the

though sometimes a ^

(or^js*-) juz',

end of a phrase,

forth.

ending in

i

*& it is

(or j^j) bed'.

very

common

to the one in the word,

homologous and so

it,

in

In this case, to

and *j>-

add to is

it,

ifa'), in

if

in

it

after

them, with esserE as

construction with the

word

^

its

pronouncing, a vowel

then uttered juz'u, *JJ as bed'i,

hEmzE

vowel-point,

Thus the word

J deyn, becomes

number

of nouns

after that letter)

when they \su\

are in

ifa (originally

J*Uj\ ifa'i-deyn. ^jj

o

however, more usual nowadays to use a supplemental this case, so that the same two words would be written

D 2

to those words.

the word be alone, or

In a kind of imitation of this rule, a certain

Persian construction with a following noun.

is,

added under

(but which, in the original Arabic, have a

assume a hEmzE

*Uul

is

instead of the

^j

It

hEmzE

JuSlJu! ifayi-deyn.


20

REDHOUSE'S TURKISH AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY,

Having had occasion and

soft,

we may here

to mention the distinction of the Turkish letters as hard

elucidate the

very great part to play in the

meaning of the terms,

as the subject has a

euphony of the language.

Any Englishman can

appreciate the distinction between the value of a in wall,

the same letter in father, arm, part, &c. broad, hard, and masculine

We

boule.

is

latter is

value

is

So

to

and feminine.

soft

do not, however, carry our distinctions any farther than the vowels

to paint their distinctions, have introduced will

first

the difference between the vowels of bulle and

whereas the Easterns, as the alphabet shows, not having vowel

We

and of

&c.,

call, tall,

and perceive that the

whereas the

;

an ear accustomed to French

;

not contend that this

knowledge of spoken Arabic,

is

them

into the

;

by which

consonants instead.

the correct view of the case

in its purest dialect, is

letters

for

;

my

practical

me

not sufficient to enable

which the organs of speech have to be thrown, when pronouncing respectively CJ and L, - and <j~ and ^, J and \ff, J and viJ, to judge of the shape into

Jfc,

for

We

instance.

different

that

it

believe

are really the representatives

they

modes of utterance

in the original

we

but

;

are also convinced

would be impossible to convey to an English, or to any European mind,

a just appreciation of the differences. is

language

of effectively

this necessary

and, for

;

all

soft,

subject clear

we have adopted

effect

^'

r* T' U' hard vowels A,

^'

'

& an ^ O u

we

are

We

^e h

is

concerned,

are convinced that

by

of the distinction of the letters into

the most effective

and easy to our readers.

Turkish

far as the

practical purposes,

throwing upon the vowels alone the hard and

Nor, as

ai>

will

d

method

of rendering the

therefore simply observe that

letters, generally followed

by the

whereas CJ, J, u~, ^J, Us, and hEmzE, are the soft followed consonants, generally by the soft vowels a e" or E, i, u, or u ; and that a,

i,

o,

;

,

the remaining letters

ranged class,

class.

in pairs,

may be

considered neutral, both because they are not

and because they are followed by vowels, sometimes of the one

sometimes of the other, though It is, indeed,

far

and embellish every word

it

it is

in English.

must be doubled

of the soft

adopts.

Reduplication of a letter in Turkish that

more frequently by those

one great characteristic of this beautiful language, to soften

On

is

the contrary,

in pronouncing, as

not the mere matter of orthography

when a

we do with

full long, with n in thin nose, with 5 in

less

letter is

doubled in writing,

the letter d in mid-day, with

smoke, or with

Turkish there are two modes of reduplicating a letter

:

t

in

the

fat turkey. first

is,

as

/

it

in

In with

by simply writing the two one after the other, as in the word JJ-T^y (kullAnmak), where the" /is doubled, in the word ^J^cjl (ummak), where the m

ourselves,


PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. is

and

repeated,

in

cases where the locative preposition *J (d

many

word ending

follows a

21

The second method

in d.

or da)

of Arabic origin, and

is

confined in use to Arabic words mostly, with a few Persian exceptions.

method the

be sounded double, that

letter to

beginning of the next following syllable of the

again at the written once

(teshdld), and figured thus

dash

letter written, just as the

same word,

the difference

which

,

is

which

is,

Arabian rule of reduplication

further

carried

is

is

j j, t

is

^,

(jZ,

js, yo, L,

(

omitted, and the

of pretty

frequent

still

or

]0,

or conversion of the J, by using our

further

compound utterance,

for in cases

;

to the adoption of this

expressions, the

and

its

place

\

noun

we have

figured

by

means a god, and

All Ah,

As

suppression,

of

J

this rule

adverbial

apostrophe, followed by the

method by the consideration

J

;

being

that, in these

also suppressed in the

is

taken by the vowel which, theoretically and gram-

us,

as

it

this

is

pronounced,

we may

word, with the

the God, the true and very

God

;

formed the proper name

is

CU,

letters

represented this suppression

own common

of the Arabic article

further illustration of this subject, ilah

doubled.

is

" A>-j}tju

This

then, in pronunciation, the

matically, always terminates ordinary Arabic nouns. is

a

where a noun,

sound of which takes the place of the original one of the

moved

is

must be

letters.

compound proper names and

in

application

expressions, adopted bodily into Turkish,

letter the

jj,

letter of the

first

two

commences with any one of the

preceded by the definite article Jl, J, j,

only

placed should have been repeated in

it is

to be equivalent to

Cj,

and

placed over the

that the Arabian sign indicates that the letter

repeated in pronunciation, or so dwelt upon as

the article

is

sometimes employed in our old manuscripts

is

to indicate that the letter over

writing

By

syllable,

but in manuscripts where the diacritical marks are used there

;

sign, called J^JuLJ

:

once at the end of a

is

is

this

Thus the proper name In

Abdu-'r-Rahhn, &c.

explain that in Arabic d\ (for ^\)

article

Jl, forms by contraction

<d! \

from which again, by composition and " Abdu-'llAh," generally written erro^

neously Abdalla, or Abdallah.

We

now come

to the consideration of the Turkish consonants

follow a vowel in a syllable.

when

may the

This

may be

when they

divided into three branches

the vowel begins a syllable, having no other consonant before

it

First,

:

(and

here remark that in Turkish a vowel can never begin a syllable which

first

of a word)

in the syllable

;

and

secondly,

;

thirdly,

by another consonant

As

in the

to the first case,

it

when

follows,

we not

the vowel has another consonant before

when the consonant under same

is

consideration

is

it

followed

syllable.

from what we have already explained, that

\

is


REDHOUSE'S TURKISH AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.

22

commence

the only vowel fhat can

by a consonant or with is

6t or ut, t>~*$

is it

a

and the

It,

thus d^l

;

With the

first

sole

d^

either At or et,

may be

be long, as in

itself

may

\

J

I

al,

~U-

Ex. <^1

manner

leb,

is

letters

Jj

\,

,

Jj

dil,

zull

ference, that with us the preceding consonant

t

whereas

;

j3

in

namely

syllables

jjfej

words

n,

r,

is

s,

are,

however, not

that language

in perfect

we meet with

such as

very frequently intercalate a

hukyum

for

hukm,

final

opportunity offers,

ch, sh, ph,

p,

if

followed

'$

"Xfv,

^

"tizv, -j*\

emr,

are generally Arabic words of

These

vowel has been dropt.

keeping with the

spirit of

the Turkish, for in

is,

that the Turks

vowel between the two following consonants, when

word

;

and we generally hear them say emir though they correct this

for emr,

when

the

emn'-'ali, hukmu-sherif, &c.

This quality of a consonant, its quiescent state

ss,

a less combination of consonants than even in

&c., in the first case;

and say

11,

and sometimes

English or any of those derived from Latin. The consequence

a vowel does not follow the

this dif-

capable of being followed by every

we may explain,

from which the

originally,

J^J! kol,

rehn, &c., which must appear quite unnatural to

English eyes and ears, and which,

two

1,

with

Turkish every consonant

J&-j vejh,

may

limited to a small class (except

is

Thus we have the words J^-J dakhl,

kAtl,

^b bXsh,

words of our own language, but with

in cases of orthographical reduplication or composition,

other.

;

these again

consonant follows the preceding one in exactly

final

as in similar

th, ck, &c.) called liquids,

^, and

or

tlz.

hAjj,jjJ zvr.jJ

In the third case, the the same

if

by one of the three vowel

be either long or short. kzz;

composed of two consonants, marked) the vowel-point, and may be

respect to the second case, the syllable

of which bears (or would bear,

or not followed

by

is

example, the intervening vowel

an, &c.

jjl

jj

^J intervening j or a

or, as in the last

;

and the word read

long,

a Turkish word, either followed immediately

viz. its

not being followed by a vowel,

and (^^1** sukyun),

is

is

called

denoted in manuscripts by the sign

o

placed over

We in the

it.

The

must here add

sign a

is

called

*j>- jezm.

remark as to two circumstances which

of the dictionary,

will

be noticed

by our readers, as seeming incongruities, but

body which are only the necessary and regular consequences of two leading bases of the Turkish language, its euphony and its euphuism. We have already touched


THE FIRST EDITION.

1'KKFACE TO

23

soft vowels with upon the sequence of hard vowels with hard consonants, and but the first of the 'circumstances to which we now allude is, soft consonants ;

that in words or inflexions and affixes of Turkish origin,

the vowel-point fesslre (or value of

i,

the syllables bearing

if

be immediately preceded, in the same

i)

word, by a syllable having the vowel-point wturu

then the syllable

(o, u, u, u),

by the preceding wturu, and

or syllables having the CSSLTE are influenced

The word wturu

sounded as though they bore that vowel-point.

are

all

is itself

an

f 9

instance

:

its

orthography

The

of the preceding one. is

is

but the last syllable

^y^> rule

one of the hard vowels o or u, then the

when

the preceding vowel

is

Ex.

of u.

^^

wzrumu

^**=D&- hukmunu, L

kulun^uzu.

These

sounds u or

" '

*

latter syllables are

by the vowel

takes the sound of u

esse"rE

either of the soft

'

affected

when the value of the preceding wturu

that

is,

is

u, it

and

takes the value

<\ ;

;

kolun^ruzu, or

u^JJy

always short and unaccented.

Attention

to this rule, and freedom from obtrusiveness in the pronunciation of the affected syllables, constitutes

that after the

first

one of the niceties of the Turkish language

affected syllable,

cases towards, but not is

to,

the sound

the value of u or

is

;

and

I

may

add,

again slightly modified in both

respectively, according as the tone

i

of the hard or soft class.

The second

of these two circumstances

of the former, inasmuch as

it

Muni accompanied by

point

may be

said to be the very reverse

consists in the pronunciation as

a vowel j.

i

or

i,

of the vowel-

Its occurrence is limited to

one syllable

of a few classes of words, viz. the last syllable of the aorist indicative and aorist

form them

active participle, of such verbs as

or

ir

accordingly as the tone of the

ghelir, jj\\\^ is

affected in this

pronounced

word

sAllanzr.

way when the tone

The

words

as they are written.

pronounced

li

To conclude guages,

or

\i

these remarks,

is

which

is

then pronounced

Ex. j^>

not that of wturu.

Purists,

Again, the syllable

in a general

jj,

or hard.

last syllable of the first

of the verb

ghidip, C-JjlS ghelip, c-Jjjl; bXkip, &c.

is

in

is soft

^1

is

pronounced

gerund

is

Ex. c

however, pronounce

which ends so many

all

also

Ju these

adjectives,

way.

we have now

only to add that, as in

all

lan-

there are in Turkish a few words of every-day use which have an

accepted pronunciation more or less at variance with their orthography.

have pointed these out

(when

ir

this is also

in parenthesis,

We

by the side of the correct pronunciation

used by persons of education), or by

itself

(when everybody


REDHOUSE'S TURKISH AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY.

24

We

uses the incongruous pronunciation alone).

shall not

do amiss to notice,

also, that, in ordinary conversation,

a few words are used as Turkish singulars,

which

but this

are, in reality,

the words J^jl

jL

Arabic plurals

;

evlad (children) child

;

Jl^j

kibar (great men) a grandee, &c.

of these words are not used, but the phrase

of the

state functionaries, fyc.

not correct in writing.

is

rijal

Even is

in writing, the

turned

Such are

(men) a state functionary

;

as,

;

Arabic singulars

one of the children, one


EEDHOUSE'S DICTIONARY. PART I.-ENGLISH AND TUEKISH.

A, An,

art.

Abdomen,

bir.

j>

and pr.

Abaft, ad.

x)j

HS^^s Abandon,

v.a.

tsrk-et,

"arsz'z,

IcJy

vaz-ghechmek

cJ**f$j^

;

^1*^3 kXchmak t^jj^o mEtruk j~)j\c.

ed, p.p.

;

;

;

j^j-JuU-

v.a.

utAndzrmak,

JUjJolky

v.a.

kzrmak, ^JjJ*J tenzil-et, (J*

Ashaghz-varmk;

Abbey, Abbot,

5.

mXnastir.

^JL}jZ~i\sc v.a.

Abbreviate,

Abhorrence, s.ybJ ten^ffur.

(J^j^3^ oturmak,

v.a.

kzssAltmak,

^^vlLaJi ;

ed, p.p.

Abbreviation,

s.jUiX^

<UaJ

Ability, 5. J\ JcJi! iktidar, LTJ^jJ kudret;

a.

Jj^JuU -<

^<~*

kAbiliyyet.

misskin

;

(

J^C^e

Ablaze, ad.

Able,

a.

^jljf kldfr,

ghelir,jJCJUi

ikhtissar; -MaXsr

10

mukhtAssar. Abdicate, v.n.

^.o ^^.^^o

a.

Able-bodied,

^^ yemin-

tErk-et.

J^*^< mefulun *'anh. miishta"il.

j^ jjAill

cJy

cJ Jls^JcoLL:

dan-chekilmek.

^L? sagh, AcL? sagh[ghussl.

tErki-s.\l-

Ablution,

sXltAnXt-

Aboard, ad.

Abode,

Elindan-

muktedir.

10m.

^c^iLLs

(j-^^i

kXlmak,j1 ,J^^ sakin-61.

-edup-brakmak, l(jjy

sr raukhtAssar.

tAnXt-et,

mek, (j fj\yjjs&<< menfur-tutmak.

Ablative, s. or a. k*z

mAnastir-bAshf.

ikhtissar-et

hich-SEvma-

LtXcUj^-j/^^

u

misskin-ghibi.

v.n.

,

v.a.

Abjure, v.a. (J*$\rf L.J>jJol

j^\^c

^l

Abhor,

Abject,

Azllmak. 5.

yardim-et.

jJt> hunEr,

XzAltmak,

(J~(d\j\

Abed,

Abide,

chXpkm.

khmak, It-Jj^:^ mahjub-et.

(J-**j+s

Abate,

^

karn.

^13

Abet, v.a. CLX^yjJ^J yuz-vErmek; ^f^V.

Jk*3|/ brakmak,

<j^*Ju>- chzkmak

Abash,

gherida,

kich-tarafznda.

5.

ad. ^jJJl^j yatakda.

s.

s.

L^-ujJj\

y<.\;.^J

^^^

abdesst,

J---i

ghfemi zchinda.

j\ fev,^> ysr, jjC-,^

messken.


ABUSE

ABOLISH v.a.

Abolish,

laghv-et \?~*

Abominable,

kXldzrmak,

(jp<jjJl3

j\j* murdar

s.

Jfy bok,

:

s.

Abortion,

pi.

a.

Abortive,

^*J

Xssl-yisrliler.

Abound,

v.w.

^Jf/i,iJy

v.w.

$.

^J^\

i

,3^^-

iLJ^l etrafma, J da'ir

/>r.

etrafmda L;*/csr

;

takhmma

Absinth,

sularznda

,

;

VM.

gha'ib-o!,

mutUk,

jJJa^

Jii^.o

musstAkzll. 1

Absolutely, aa

&OJM.&

;

a.

JJG^,-^ uss-

;

self,

^^^^ pelin-otu.

tAkriba,

yj^ij^. jzwarinda,

one's

;

;

sawushmak.

s.

Absolute, ;

-

gha'ib

ghitmek, j\+^t\

JJj1Jt1

l-J.ytf

yakmlarznda

^JkJ^LwJij

tunda

;

Jj\

u^

yok,

J dXlghm

CJv*^

ch6k-bulunmak.

J^

a.

u^J^-^

yokluk,

J&jj.

nafila,

chok-6l,

sk-

j;^JJJ'u?

[ghaybubet.

/L*.-ij\*tf

About,

kXchmak;

^4.j^\Jf

CJ^Jj.^ ghizlEnmek,

Absent,

^Jfj-

^V bXsh-

j^V^" chiban.

5.

Absence,

<djl3

bosh,

bihudE.

a^fo

^1-2*1

lanmak.

dushuk.

cJ-^J

5.

J^

JjyJ

Abscess,

Abscond,

tJbj-j&i** menfur-shey.

Aborigines,

a. C3-J*> dik,

Xsha^Az; (j-y terss.

nefret

CU>yD

(d^sharz),

v.a. u. abolish.

Abrogate,

Abrupt,

v.a. v. abbor.

Abomination,

tXshra

tjo

tXshrada (dhharda). yJj^ll?

(mun-), j^'&^c menfur.

Abominate,

ad.

Abroad,

fesskh-et.

Ui fsna,

a.

^iS

mutlAka.

d)*4csrl ichmek,

u.a.

Absorb,

UU

.

ad.

dJ^,x^

chekmek, ijd\ Xlmak.

L/^

^'^^.

muhztan

Ash^Ai-yukkri;

jhj

;

masszla-beraber v.a.

JuLi>b

etmek,

^Ju^*J^L ;

to

go or

bXshlamak

Abstain, v.n. *LJbJ perhlz-et, dolasb-

set

about,

Abstinence,

(J^*>^V.

Absurd,

kz'na,

ziyadE

;

yukan'sstna,

A^MJ^ljj

yukarzssmd

^JCJji

fevkmda ,

ad.

;

;

^

v.w.

(J.scj*teJ*\

Jj4,^ij!

jl>J

<-^\JJj..>

jKj^J

Ishznmak;

Jr^^

perhiz.

mAsskharah'k

5.

jll^J

CJy.i^

dan-

yukarz,

,

VM.

Abundant,

a.

Abuse,

JU

s.

lAm'sh;

;

J^J

bol,

Jlsr*

Jjl*j>-

J^ chok.

^Ulljl^JjJ S& kyufr,

yolsuz-kullXnmak nick.

bolluk,

fessXd;

;

abbreviate.

;

kessret.

Xshmdzrmak.

I>.CL u.

perhizkyar.

(impossible).

chokluk,

^

5.

Abundance,

suzluk

Abreast, ad. A)b ^\j yan-yana.

Abridge,

a.

{jfiXjSf**

fev-

AiJJy

2fJJj\5*J yukarida.

Abrade,

a.

muhal

pr.

SJOw^jtj^j

Abstemious,

;

yol-tutmak.

Above,

^Lf^l^

sakmmak, CL)-^^>- chekinmek.

;

yol-

yolsuz-kul

^LsL-^-j v.a.

,

jijJo

-

sv-


ABUT Abut,

v,n.

[27

dayonmflk

(

Accord,

;

varmak. Abyss,

,

*k

s.

ACCUSED

]

varta, Hjks>-

Academy,

jW^

ittifXk,

J\AJ\

ittihad

;

n^k ih-

(^hcjij, VErmek,

san-et, ^/*Uj^ in"am-et.

hufrE.

mektsb

5.

5.

v.a.

Accordance,

< ;

mutAbakXt,

c^-JijlL^

s.

medre"ssE.

Accede,

v.n.

ka'il-61,

According

muwlfakXt-et.

-E-gnyrE;

v.n.

Accelerate,

J

Accept,

j^l akhz

Acceptation, Acception,

Accident,

Accidental,

a.

tessadufi

;

kAzara,

ittiflkz,

^ij*oJ'

"^WBW.

[ila.

ClLe.* ^v

Accomplice,

(

CXca^M

beraber-

refakXt-et.

a.

Accumulate,

v.a.

s.

a.

d)^*.^=^

itmAm-et,

;

beJErmek,

cXuS^i!^>-

LV 1JU^\

tXmXm-et, ikmal-et,

^J J

birikmek, r.a.

,

;

fj^jjb

top-

jem"-et.

s.

(j^j&~=:j)

birikdirish

;

^^ yzghzn.

;

d6(jr7iruluk,

^L\..^o

issnad,

^j*$* dbghru, ^js! ^.xLc mel

a.

Accusation,

(^^ojsr

5.

c^sS^

sihhXt.

Accursed,

J-w^Cf tekmll-et.

book,

mess'wl.

-<

(J-

^^=^

Accuracy,

arkadash,

(jL\tej\

hussula-ghetirmek

^J^l ^ix*^^;

birikdirmek,

Accurate,

(J^LSj'y bXsharmak,

\

Accountable,

g-ilj^^c^>vl.J kXba-

v.a.

for,

;

deftEr.

^JLf^J^a t6planish

s.

Ijj:

cJ^.^c-J^*^ JE-

;

bini-ghywsstermek,

Accumulation,

mu"avin.

Accomplish,

Ll^l

yEr

;

i

hat-arkadasht,

^U^s

i"tibar-et

ishini-

j

tutmak,

"dd-et, tjUs&l

CJ<;^ demek

v.a.

:

J^"^

lamak,

-ghitmek, le^Jlij

hissXb

,>

Jj-.L? saymak,

.^

5.

v.a.

&i ebE-hfekim.

**^-fi>

C->1

toplanmak

-ghy^rmek.

L5"*^J!/

Account,

s.

s.

v.a.

Accommodation,

Accompany,

Accoucheur,

hikmetini-n^/amak

^^ yokush.

-vErmek;

ad.

ly,

wXb-vErmek; LlX<jl-jy /-*.* sebe-

ittiflka, aLU^aJJ kAza-

Accommodate,

uzerE;

*j

Accouchement, 5. J^^*--^ vwaz'i-hXml.

v.a.

Lzi^ ez-kXza, ^IJ^

ac?.

Ij'lijl

s.

ma"na.

5.

;

,<9\i^

^j^-^

Accidentally,

Acclivity,

kXza

s. (*zs

kXbul.

;

dukhul.

^JAJ

5.

kX-

Xlmak ^<*i! 5.

Acceptance,

Access,

hzzlan-

akhz-et.

i

[bul-et;

v.a.

p\ ^^^=<U

as),

tessri"-et,

IjLs*-' ta"j71-et,

dzrmak.

or

(to

s.

p\\

LI

sahih.

'un.

.l-i> shikyayet,

SJ\

itham.

Accuse, v.a. lc^o\C2JkX*fih hXkkenda-shikyayet-e-,

Accused, -"alevh.

5.

^/^^

<UXc

itham-et.

W'^.x*

mudda^a-


ACCUSER Accuser,

mudda"i.

cc ^'<

s.

Acquit, v.a.

l

Accustom,

v.a.

one's

Alzshdzrmak

^j^Jk^Jl

^^\

v.n.

self,

;

Alz'shmak,

"adet-edinmek; [me'luf.

i"tiyXd-et.

Accustomed, Ache,

s.

sizi,

a.

LJ\

\ghri,

-~-j veja",

(J~f.\ tyhrimdk, v.a.

Achieve,

CtX^ Acid,

a.

J derd

CX*h-

v.n.

s$zle"mek.

<U*i

ekshi

LhumuzXt.

^^rkrl* maykhosh. Cl^uldi

5.

ekshilik,

v.a.

Acknowledge,

C^X*Jj bilmek,

^^^^s>ikrar-et,

\)\j*\

i^tirXf-et, ^>-i

lu-J^c!

a.

sub-acid,

:

.

J

tesslim-et,

^KJ^L tAmmak.

Acknowledgment,

5.

JCM-J

s.

Acquittal,

Acre,

5.

Aconite,

sened;

^xU

Acrid,

a.

Across,

jor.

Acorn,

5.

b^b

khlnik-u'zzib.

pXlamut.

[vErmek.

CX<^^*-

khXbEr-

Acquaintance, s.ji- khAbsr,

cuU^U^!

v.a.

Acquaint,

ma"lumat

;

a.

Acquainted,

<jJ^b bildik L^^ill Mfet. j\Aj*&* khXbErdar,

j^i

5.

kfessb-et,

5.

\*aj

J^

fxssl;

I

,

J*

fi"l,

"AmEl;

C-ULl->! ishlE-

v.n.

mek, CtX^2jl etmek, ^^jV.

Action,

.

har6kEt-et.

Jxs

ish,

^Lj\

L^c J da"wa

;

j

Active, a.

fi"l,

lc^ ghaw-

;

kesskin,

^

jfenk,

ishghyuzar

;

^*

V6r#

sert;

active,

fi

/

li-ma"lum2-

nmta"ddi. Actor,

5.

riza,

^l s.

oyunju, jJjto mukXllid.

^j:^^ Assl,

oyunju-kAn.

t!L^J zat.

j^J-Jil^

l~Us^4

Actually,

JM

arf.

el-an;

^J^l Xlmak, CL

Acute,

a.

O(X*-i shirndi,

>- hala,

bi-'l-fi'X

Jxallj

J

hXktkXtan,

J-^asT

isstihsAl-et.

^UJ

(jl)^ ish,

ElE-ghetirmek, ^JuJ peyda-et, IL-. I

-OV^"^** arkm (ay-^jj\ \3j^j\

km), Act,

Actual, a.

muwAfakXt-et. lL^\ilJ^'<

v.a.

J bir-yanzn-

-Jjl^JcJb

;

muwlfakXt. Acquire,

sert.

<<

Acquiesce, v.n. ^K**\) rizt-61,

Acquiescence,

tiUJb

hAchwari-olarak,

Actress,

kl'il-ol,

d^

AJZ,

gha (kawgha), C)j^>-

^l^-

c. 53J\

dwnum.

^^-1

"XmEl

p^1 evj. 5.

tebriy-

<-J^'^jJl<> rnXkbuz-

s.

*3^J

',

5.

J^*JC~iUA*&jJ

y6-ma"nassinda-hukm.

Ic^^p-

teshekkyur j\J*\ ikrar.

Acme,

tebriyye-i-

-zimmet-et.

dan-o-bir-yanzna,

fi"lE-ghetirmek.

j^l^l

Acidity,

,

;

ypmak,

(_^*>{V.

self,

one's

tebriyye-et;

IL^A^J*JJ-J

senedi, L^JC**!V' ibra-senedi.

,^^

&j

^-J

v.n.

Acquittance,

Xlzshik,

<J-J*

ACUTE

[28]

sivri

;

fi-'

JUs.V.1

dirayetli

inja ;

;

(disease)

JJ yen^ri-zuhur-etmish

tahszl-et,

angle,

jj

;

zaviyye-i-haddE.


ACUTENESS AcutenesS)

dirayet,

Adapt,

5.

v.a.

uyghun,

<J/J'JJ

yekyun-et,

<*^~i\^o

s.

v.a.

up,

;

<J*^b

C^ol

int.

enghe"rek, ^_c*^

ef"a.

^j^lJl Ah'shmak,

Xlllha-issmarladik;

"ilavE,

XjLc

a.

Adjacent,

j\js*&

zamm

;

yakm,

^*^.

L^^A^

5.

v.a.

Adjoin,

Additional, cNjl

;

za'id

LiJjo yedek.

Addle, Addled,

^>-

a.

!*_j\la>- khztlb-et;

dErmek;

letter)

Afc hunEr,

s.

bashka

mektubAng-usstu yir, (j-j^

Adept,

v.a.

Adjudicate, v.n.

a.

shir,

Adhere,

j^\

jli kyafi, v.n.

tutmak Adherent,

CI-^/K-J

;

-et

;

Adjure,

[usstaz.

Adjust,

J\^>\ usstad,

jl^-jl

elvErir, jj2*Zf

t

^j

\+z~~*jL s.

,

c

-

toplanmak

-

;

IJ^tJ^frJ da"wa-fAssl-

l*s- hukm-et.

v.a.

<U>^

s.

Adjunct,

semt, ^>

yeti-

wafi.

^J^L.^ yapzshmak,

;

v.n.

tetimmE, <U-***3 zA-

.c-^^;^

v.a.

yardimji.

(J^^V. yAlvarmak,

\^>-j

rija-et, ^jlJ niyaz-et.

irad-et.

5.1^-jjl ussta,

Adequate,

,

;

^<J^->

bashka-

dll^-U^aJllj bashka-

5.

Adjournment,

^i-^!dXj^^o

adress.

\\j>\

wAkzt

wAkta-ihllE.

CL^J^^C ma"rifet,

;

-

v^X<^ Joi ghywn-

mimE

Adduce,

[terflk-et.

kAtmak,

cJj^>-

suweylemek,

mektubung-usstunu-yazmak

JUjb ,

(a

[churuk.

jzlk,

C^X*w*->

v.a.

Address,

s?fAt.

kAtma, *^lc "ilavE,

<UJ'lJ!

;

bitishik,

Jp*J^M'jJ?j^;ll.j

-wAkta-brakmak s.

;

jzwar,

j\y>-

cXl^J

^^J'^

v.a.

Adjourn,

j<

JLJ^j

;

selametla

wfe-'ss-selam.

mulass/k, J^aX^ muttlsszl.

Adjective, +*a

<iLj

;

hemjz'war;

(JM0L

il^c miibtela.

%-*>-

(arith.)

ey-vl-'llah,

<d!i^\

khosh-ghMdin^

toplamak,

self, v.n.

s.

Addition,

Adieu,

\

CJvwJolkiJjU "adet-edinmek. a.

ypzshkAn,

iJJ&J\J

Ujll ed-du"a

Addict one's

Addicted,

a.

^\+*\

-et.

jem Adder,

ya-

^U^l^

kAtmak, Ujlc "ilavE-et,

zamm-et

l**s

lussuk>

Jj^

ji^-jijJ luzujiyyetli.

muwAfz'k.

munassib, <J^-c

Add,

uydurmak.

jj\

5.

pzshma.

^

a.

Adhesion,

Adhesive,

pulld.

v.a.

Adapted,

U^-iy

Akl.

ferasset,

Adamant,

ADMINISTER

[29]

v.a.

mulazemet-et.

j\J tabz", jlj^i tarafdar.

uydurmak,

do^Arultmak,

(JAskje.jo

i

\^m**

tAsshzh-et.

Adjustment, (J*+'Jjb

(J^j^-?.j\

Adjutant,

s.

s.

^sf^

_^*\

(

Admeasurement, Administer,

v.a.

s.

tAsshzh.

t->^ Alay-femini.

te>-\~< m^ssahE.

(j^b

bAkmak,

tw^j

i


ADMINISTRATION ru'yet-et,

idarE-et

\Sj\J\

c

cXcj^sj \Jjto

s.

idarE

Sj\\

oibj

;

/JfU? -viikela-takzim.

Admirable, asT jj-j

a.

bahriyyE-

^llbajysr -

kApudana pasha

amiral

l-LU^ljjJ

;

lord -high

;

lib^Jj-S kXpudAn-pasha vice - - of the fleet,

bahriyyE-ferikz

pAtruna-pasha -

Ltlj

pasha

;

^jU^UJ

's

L

?*&

s

5.

Admiralty,

L2U^Jw

,

HmXn-re'yissi-pasha

J^-

5

bahriyyE-

^-j^-JdUy^

;

AJ .rsT

Admiration,

Admire, l^j-

lord

of the

^^.jCL.^^

CJv*.*^r-J

musstahsEn. bfe^^Enmek,

zsT tahsm-et. 5.

(^-^

J^-S\-e

5.

^\

ghirish,

tfesslim,

v.a.

[merAkH. "Ashzk,

akhz,

J^->

JJ

^Juil^x

(JK*S1

dukhul; A-L-J

Almak, \&-\ akhz-et,

icheri-komak,

UaJ nAsszhat, <U--J

s.

ghenjlzk.

tutmak

v.a.

Adopt,

uymak,

;

imtissal-et;

kAbul-et;

evladl^a-

kAbul-et. s.

Adoption,

J..JJ

-imtissal;

I

a.

l

a.

kAbul-u-

akhz-u-kAbul.

akhiretlik.

L>

tApinzlir,

^J^js.^

sejdE-ve-"ibadetE-shayAn.

["ibadet.

Adoration,

Adore,

5.

sejds,

v.a.

sejdE-e-,

"ibadet-e-,

.-^

CUjL*. lcL?oLc

perestish-e-,

tApznmak. v.a.

cXcj^il^Jj zmetlEndirmek,

tezyin-et.

J^^jiJjS

Adrianople, Adriatic, Adrift,

s.

arf.

s.

<tij<3\

ufj? i^

edirnE.

[fez/.

cJ^Jj Ven6dik-kyr-

ciU^ Ju^j jcJil cXj^jCJl

*}J^ yaln^zz-suyung-Akmdz'ssila-ghit-

kAbul;

kAbul.

J^Ji

tfenblh-et.

j

5.

Adolescence,

Adorn,

b^AEnish,

L/'.i.=uJ

tahsin,

Admission,

hat-vErmek,

,

bahriyyE-nazm.

5.

v.a.

Admirer,

Admit,

jfirst

nAssJ-

v.a.

;

SAnjak-ghEmissi.

kAtma, fUJjJw^lj}

kAHshdzrelma, *j)U "ilavE.

Adorable,

-kApzssz; (at

^.^ssT

U.JIJJ

superintendant,

diwAnkhanE

1

Admixture,

Adoptive,

Constantinople) A/lffHjJ

L^-islj

JUpt) dukhul.

L&uAJLjjl

,

^w^iJ^'ldilj pasha-ghE-

ship,

missi,

vice

;

;

^^^JAJ^OS?

rear

;

,

(kXptAn-

bjJ^\3^l kApudXni-dErya

pXsha),

s.

tenbih.

pEk-a-"la.

tess-

izin-VErmek.

5.

Admonition,

s.

U-l-J

Admittance,

WcJj

-pashassz, J\^?*l

iriyala

uV.^*

kXbul-et,

CX^jj^Jl

shayAm-tahsm.

Admirably, ad. Admiral,

^J

Admonish,

ghyuzel,

Jjj-^=

ADROITNESS

]

lim-et,

tenavul-

-ettirmek.

Administration,

30

s6kmak,

;

vErmek, LlX^Jo ykdirmek, ichirmek,

[

Adroit,

a.

LLXjl>- chabwk,

CJ^J' tetik,

ma"rifetli. ^Lxto hunErli, j\.ijXsc

Adroitness,

5.

cJlSoUy v

chabwklik, J.-j&

hunEr, L^v3.^< m;V'rifct.


ADULATION Adulation, lulation, Adult,

t :s. fejbfju*

and

a.

s.

[

miidabanE. biyuk,

cJj-J

jJWJjic

id-yl*5>" jcssaret-et

,

;

v.a.

,

;

ghim-bbzmak,

.yJttil*

sXfti-

ichina-

J^U^Si^ifl^ zam,

^Jl

Adventurer,

^.^.^3

s.

zinakyar,

j\$\j

&~~>)\

zaniyyE,

15-^**^^

rosspz (orosspo), <C^-vj fahishE.

Adulterous,

a.

^~*& JJI\ ^fr*j*j=> #&->*

s.

Adversary,

^^J

zinakyar,

j&tij

relik

Adverse,

bakhtzna-

khassm,

.^-U

zina,

IjJ

cJJ^--JJ zenpa-

c

(zampardzk),

v.n.

cJl5j->^ Advert, v.n.

c

^j|

C

ileri-

il^ri-surmek

siiweylEmek,

il^ridn-vErmek

!j

;

irad-et,

^A^j

5.

5.

jli

:

ilerileyish;

^>jt Advantageous,

'a.

fa'idE, ;

kyarK,

^^s kudum. |y^-U majera,

SErgbyuzesbt,

c ^<

J

v.w.

,

;

JJjic

nAss2ht-

^^'

;

U^ll--^

dlnzshmak.

isstiIll-

"aklsz'z.

s.

Advocacy,

to take

Advocate,

iltizAm,

-edfin

5.

L^

da"wa-vekili

(sa'ab),

cu-o^

sahabet-et,

tassabhub-et. tarikh

5.

L&jUVj ^,lJ mebde i-ta"dadz-evkAt. Aerial, a.

;

sahib-chik-

v.a.

,

mak

,

L^.

shabet-

^jJo!^

;

\^<z^

fa'ideli.

s.

munassib.

Advise, v.a.

fursati-kullanmak.

^y

vT

;

sababet. ^J^jli

c^-.%i^c mEnfa"rtt

-&3 nef",

khlbEr

jJ tedbir.

-sharE-et, Jp*,.U!j

^i-Jjy^l

kyar,

(.j^i i"lln.

zkbtar-et

ilerilEdish.

Advantage,

Adventure,

j+)

5.

Advisable, a.

advised,

Advancement,

s.

;

;

khbEr-vErmek.

rs-

5.

tedbir- et

VErish.

Advent,

-szhat

^'k7n-et

\.>lpi

<

t/V^Jc

ilferil^yish,

felaket.

v.a.

Advertisement,

;

Advice,

der-pish-et,

L^-^rirJ

Tma-et,

LiX^^>-

ilerilEinek

chekmek,

bakhtsizlik,

dushkyunluk,

c^^li

Advertise,

CX*1^

ileri-ghfetirmek,

cJ^~^=tT

mu-

ross-

pilik (orosspoluk).

Advance,

u-cllsr*

tferss,

^*yJ* 5.

nikbet, 5.

[klmlif.

a.

Adversity,

zina'i.

Adultery,

texsC*

sErsEri,

dushmEn. s.

(Jf<ji

ghyiighEnir-mejhulu-'l-Xssl-kiraessnE.

-shey-kAtmak.

Adulteress,

v.n.

komak.

Adulterate, v.a. (j-<jtf

Adulterer,

AERIAL

J

SErmaye i-tijar-sssESs

"ikkr-blligh.

5.

31

r

;

ha\va"l.


ESTHETICS s,

^Esthetics,

Cl^U>s>- JuC

pi.

"ilrm-

uzXk,

jjljjjl

j^fl-Uj

tlattuf,

uzlkda.

*tX5V>jl

^,

cX^jg^M kEd

v.a,

Afflict,

tlltzf,

A^

chelebi,

L5

duchar-kilmak.

Affluence, ish,

c^js.^2^ mAsslahat

jenk, <U ^\5S*

t7. a.

muhar^bE

;

cX^j

Afford, v.a.

<tw

;

Affluent, a. .*j*Jj zEnghin.

virmek,

a.

Affected,

te'sir-et.

s.

Affectation,

bokdn-

l^o

miit6'essir

ypma.

<U.J lj

;

5.

Affray,

y^

s.

mu'essir,

^3^*sr>-

khussuss

5.

vekkyul

\*&

^^-

Jj^^jC^*^ mhb-

110

v.a.

,

;

i"timAd,

J^J

a.

Afloat,

nikyah-et,

ghyuJEndirmek,

^Ui! afghan. 5.

^l^Jlxs!

jy^l

afghanisstiin.

yanzor.

ad.j^j^

yiiziyor.

Afoot, ad. yjJbl ayakda.

Afore- mentioned,

afore-

afore-named,

5.

said, a.

j&sc

tezevvujdan

-

hlsszl

- 61

An

-

karlbet,

<uS!

^j*f*

muma-

dUJ^ll^ musharun-ileyh.

ileyh,

^-o l^Js

5.

mezkyur, jj*> mezbur,

messfur,

j)L~so

beyan. Affinity,

karshz-

dlrtltmak.

Afghanistan,

te-

"akd-et.

Affidavit,

bed-mu-

J^jd^&jlj

i^^cjJ^^

^jp*sljU3

Afire, ad.

jUocl

,

;

[bet-meshmul.

Affectionate, a.

v.a.

;

Afghan,

mraz.

;

mu"AmEle'i-

dLljcJJ

-ghayri-layzka,

"AmElE

k6mak "zllet,

*L'jt

^flj^je

khuluss,

^y^*-

L^Lc

;

j^*^

hssi-kAlb!

^ij^>.

c^-*^r c mahttbbfet,

Affiance,

Ic^c kawgha.

s.

[dokunur.

Affection,

J./i.sr

Affranchise, v.a. |jljl azad-et.

Affront,

.

1

;

[-nezakEt.

CU^jJ^jJIy

^3

Affecting,

CiXy3^b

Trass-et

thammul-et.

U

l^J

miis-

zEnghinlik.

(iU**jj

.

gh^tirmek, !cL?^JJ Affect,

L^^sz^

;

slbet, 5b bela.

tlltzf-et.

yiA

ksdEr

Affliction, s. j<l

^

to be affable with, v.a.

Ct)^^

JuJu^Jf tlssdzkz,

.

CX*i-5jW^J

Affable, a.

Affair, s.

iddi"a.

Ic Jl

;

subuti.

wazish.

;

^j<A^J tXssdlk, CL

s.

Affirmative, a.

^LA^ chelebilik,

Affability, s.

-tzfjz

Affirmation, issbAt

jemalat. Afar, ad.

AFRICAN

[32]

j&jf k6rkmak,

Afraid (to be), v.w. khavf-et.

c^-J^*tf sihriyyet

;

<*z-~+i\

Afresh,

bfet.

arf.

^*Xj>

yen^idan,

*

Affirm, u.a. issblt-et,

^Juw llcj|

suwevlEmek.

tXssdlk-et,

iddi"a-et,

c

mujedd^dan Africa,

s.

African,

;

tAij*

a.

j!<&>

U

X-j miikErrEran

afrika.

J\ afrikalu.


AFRONT Afront, ad. jAji bErabEr,

fc^i^J

bir-

-hizada. Aft,

^jj^

gheri,

jj+Z

gherida,

gheriya,

biyut-

ii^J*Jj;J

daha-beter-et

dzrmak,

pr.

ba"da

5.

dan-sow^ra,

^Jl^aJJ ad.

,

;

5.

&

a.

Aggregate,

daha-fEna,

^j^

;

et,

kzz-

dXrzltmak.

JJ^jlj

Aggravation,

sbngra,

*JLe

(UfUj

v.a.

Aggravate,

l^uUj

cjy:^L<k:\

doghru. After,

Aggrandizement, mekh'k,

ad.

*<^-

AGREE

[33]

^Licl

igzab.

<Ksre

s.

mejmu". '

ba"dahu

a.

,

;

s.

Afternoon,

ikindi-

;

[ba"dahu.

Afterwards,

ad.

ad.

&J

^L^

X^xJ

sbngra,

^

J

1

yinE

(ghenfi),

tekraran,

\j\jti

chabwklwk.

CJK>1^

v.a.

^Z^oUJl^ chXlkamak

karshz'ssma

k*~~J4j\i

^o

"aleyhinda

JJkifcL:

s^a^

fma,

Age,

s.

s.

s.

Agitation,

suleyraAm.

"Xssr,j^J devr,

iztzrXb;

sbn

;

j<zz a.

jJb blhgh, ^JbjdJi^ "Akk-blKgh under age,

a.

^-^

;

ad.

Ago,

/cXLc(jAjy

a.

y^shmda

;

j!b\ aylzk

;

j\~-\

;

atet,

Agent, /*J)

5.

;

^

<dj-U wasszta, c^-^Ljj w^ss-

vekH,

jL^j

5.

Jy

wasszta,

dk^lj

[etmek^'k.

c)l*-,>! t

kXvl-et,

-et;

CX*^j^\^J

c-).L? V

V

t6p

mek,

l^lft^o

cXiKoJ

mu-

kXrar-VErmek

raze-61, lj^Ji3^.<

uymak,

adEm (XdAm).

Agglomeration,

1

ikhtiyar,

eu j^x* ma'Vifet. 5.

;

hal^tu-'n-nez"i.

Agree, v.w.

&^jj koja, ^p-^j mussinn. Agency,

bundan^mukXd-

sAbl.

cJi)/ ghyunluk

yjc^b

telatum,

dEm, (Jj^-tiji bundn-EWEl. Agony, s. C-^^k^\ ^Jac "XzTm-iztzrAb gyiSlilU-

Aged,

^lioLj

;

(?)

karn; of age,

^y

chXlkXnz'sh

(JLJ\^\.^-

^/J tfemevvuj.

^

^l) ysh,

^ojS^tj\

;

khill-

khiUfmda.

^Uj-La

vErmek,

kXreshdzrmak.

l

Agate,

muztarzb-et

"aleyhin,

&L>-

;

-

iztzrlb

8>&~~J*j\J

;

<Li.^--J-j:

;

;

;

l

karshzssmda

sitemdids.

^Jib bXsh.

Agitate,

)t+j3& a-karshz

a\

x&S*zi

maghdur,

5.

*fix* mXzlum, J^AXXJ

a.

Aggrieved,

Agio,

&

^^^i^\

-sebeb-61an.

bir-

UL>^

-daha.

Against, pr.

tejavuz,

^Jij\ tejavuz- VE-takhtti-birla-niza' a-

Agility, 5.

tekrar,

jjl^

f

o Jo3j._JjJ=ru!

5.

s.

Aggressor,

cJj-0 s6n^.

-wXkttlart.

Again,

Aggression,

gherideki,

gheriki, \^/*4**

Afterbirth,

(mar.)

5.

;

muwAfakXt-

lyi-ghElmek,

(J^-^l

cWf^yUjJ CJviKjL^ muwAfzk-ghMmek

uyghun-ghEl;

^! J^lia^e mutAbzk-61,! j;3y tawaffuk-et;

together, v.n.

JP**j1

u}*ushmak.


AGREEABLE a.

Agreeable,

Jj

tXtlz,

^Jjll?

&

shirin,

Agreeably to tXtbzkan,

mXksud

ghyuzel,

u-aJaS

tevfzkan.

ULJy

hewa (hawa)

Air, 5. \jb

jb

[muklvelE.

tawr;

v.a.

,

y~Ju nefess

;

Agriculture,

and

kXvl,

J^3

5.

s.

L^-^jJ

ad.

Aground,

ghyunesha-SErmek,

e^o-ls

waya-SErmek,

mek

Jjb! ehli-zira'^t.

5.

Air-gun,

Ah,

int.

y\

ah,

<*- hayf, Ahead,

ad.

Ahoy

i.

Aid,

!

t\j

a

-Jj^ dirigh.

Alarm,

s.

j^b

yavsr, c.

her,

me ? j*)(&

j\j)ti nen^-var

nen^iz-var

;

nem-var; him,

;

us?

nfessi-var;

<~*te

nemiz-var

J)j<&

you

<

;

them

?

?

j^j&& nel^ri-

j\5^U

Ailing, a. J**fe

keyfsiz, <t^=J- khXssta,

J*^5-U^o mizajsiz, s.

Aim,

v.n.

r^j^

^JJjJL$

khXsstalfk

;

.

e^Lc

"illet

^/*J^,lU

;

JJ^S^S>

J,J derd.

dfihshEt; ^-ri- khXbsr

kA?sd, J.<^ emel, <*^r<

;

;

,

^^^jlj^jf

\^J^>^sC

takhwif-et,

ikhafE-et. L^\

int.

ay,

c5^ way,

&\j

wah,

L"-'*- hayf, 5--!j^ dirigh. Albania,

,$) ^'^

s.

Albanian,

s.

c.

and

a.

jjjijyb

arnaw ^- v ^ a y e ^arnawd.

^j^j'

hsr-nakAdar,

issada.

,

Alchymy, Alcohol,

nishXn-Xlmak

kurmak, \ J^<! emel-et

khavf,

Alchymist, g.j\~4J* kimiya-gher.

namizaj.

keyfsizlik,

uJ^

k6rku,

j

(

\ti\\ Alas,

mussara'^t,

(j>.^jL-A>

memnuniyyet.

s.

Albeit,

-var.

Ailment,

j*j*$ Xk-mErmEr.

k6rku-vErmek, ails

^

it?

s.

khhsm.

J.+zijji korkutmak,

v.a.

yavEri-harb.

?

^arL

c^^JbO

Aide-de-camp,

what

a.

U^J^*

yardam-et, \JU

\*(3j[j

^^jL^J^-Ju

chzk.

J>^

Alacrity, ;

i"anE-et, lc

thee

a.

A3 nefesslik,

hawadar. [nefess- deli^Ai. jljlyb

Alabaster,

t

Ail, v.n.

Ajar,

yel-tufenghi

<G

yardam,

J;l

v.a.

Airy,

a.

Akin,

u^l ey.

imdad, L^%3^U^ mu"av^net

0^/e\

j^^

[(tufe^rAi).

Jojtf L(,b

(

cJl

s.

Air-hole,

j^

s.

,

wah,

self airs,

^V balon.

5.

Air-balloon,

<Ua-j sztma, <U*-J\ issztma.

s.

hava-VEr-

Xtwar satmk. (JK*?l*

kXraya-

(J^jysjitef^

to give one's

;

ha-

cXr^-*>\*A

ClX^y^fe

felah^t.

-oturmush.

Ague,

cJ-^-i^-^^

swz, aSjU*

c^-c^ij zira"at, \~~~&j>*

^^j\jS>- hirasset,

Agriculturist,

j^>

;

<CU\

dX</s-jj

Xtesha-ghyMSstErmek, s.

Agreement,

nishXn-

^1'^liJ

;

Xh'sh.

l^tif.

with), ad.

(or

ALDERMAN

[34]

;

s.

meram,

Alcove,

s.

5. s.

~jj

"ilmi-kimiya.

ruh.

*/sr*" hujrE. 5.

Alder-tree,

Alderman,

L^-Jx

5.

^fr\*

d*d

\"<*

a"y Xn

'

murver-


ALE Ale,

iy+*Jjijg iJ

5.

Alembic, Alert

s.

(j-~j\

beyAz-arpa-suyu.

inbik.

on the), v.n.

be

(to

j\

^V.^

uyan/k-61, jl jjjcLJtjJ dwrt-ghywz-6,

j'jV J/ 5.

Algebra,

s.

Algiers, Alias,

Alien,

5.

Alike,

sh

jek,

beu^zEr,

Alive, a.

(J**jy*

<ull**

u^J

mu-

bessl^y^jek,

diri,

yeye"-

c)^j

[yemek.

61^ sagh, C^L>-J

bEr-hayat, ^JuLrv. hayatda. Alkali, s. All, a.

alkah'.

jjjiil

c-^to

las^-'i

;

after

;

bitun,

above *

,

^^JL^. khu-

k^lam.

Allay, v.a.

5.

takhsFss-et.

brakmak, ^-c^J izin-vErmek,

ta yin-et,

i^^-XJ

takhszss-et;

of,

lw_>L-2*.

for,

tesskm-et.

u^j-^J

da"wa,

kXziyyE.

IJj-fJ

kXbul-et

hisslb-et;

;

v.n.

,

'^Ju-J tesslim-et, 1_J^:

Allowance,

s.

ja'iz.

^L1

ghyund^lik, <jdb

C^L-^j v.a.

\.\i

yillik,

to

nXzar-et,

j

C.

aylek,

ta^yinlt;

.j^^ make (

ta"yin> for,

l^J^^ljiiuL-^-

hissAba-dakhil-et. s.

3\^lj\$J*4}JJjA\

ghyumisha-kAtzlAn-blkzr

AUude

;

jUc

Xltma"ayar.

IWjl ima-et, ,j+jAisa\

v.a.

to,

Xn^d/rmak. Allure, v.a.

t^^-J

Allegation,

hissE.

:,

AUoy,

c^j

hep,

jemi", <U^s>- jiimlE

khususA

s.

Allowable, a.jj\>-

nfaka.

$. tiisu

nutk.

Allot, v.a.

k6n-

bir.

cX^A-Lj

Alimony,

[mak.

\&z ghzda, cJx5-<U.>

s.

s. <J>

Allocution,

rukhsAt-VErmek,

tebrid-et.

jj=^

timsah.

;

cX*jl enmek,

abih,y

Aliment,

ejne"bi

\-tojJ

a.

s.

IcXL^Jay^l akhara-tem-

Alienate, v.a.

Alight, v.n.

Alligator,

muttefik.

k6mak,

Je*za'ir.

ad.jjJ+\J nAmz

ITk-et,

,'&<

Allow, v.a.

^.>- jebr.

,*i-1

Allied, a.

Allotment,

gty*z-kulAk-61.

j>\j*r

ALMONER

[35]

\iJ^-

Allurement,

s.

jezb-et.

foj\>- jazibfi.

Alluring, a. (Jj\>- jazib. Allusion,

UM

5.

ima,

^j&>\

an^dzn'sh.

Allege, v.a. \3\J\ irad-e.

Allegiance,

s.

L^-.j^-J

tbb

L^S^Ju? sXdakXt. Alleviate, v.a.

s.

cX^A-Ari-

khXfifletmek,

l^.?.J.aT takhHf.et. Alley,

5.

jUj-tf

b

rAbzta'i-wahidE-tahtma-idkhal-et

dar-s6kAk,

Almanack,

5.

j\su\

ittifXk.

s.

/*>^-A-J

tXkwim,

salnamE. a.

Almighty,

Almond, Alliance,

muttefik.

j^<>

Almoner,

s. s.

^JjJ

kXdir.

*4\) badem. *\+\

imAm. E 2

;

,


ALMOST ^L*Jb hemAn

Almost, ad.

Alms,

s, aJjutf

Aloes,

Altar,

Az-kAldz.

c^JiJlSj!

5.

(J-<ji

wood

sAbr;

m^zbah.

^fcX-o

v.a.

Alter,

sAdaka.

~**a

s.

AMAZE

[36]

CX;*XL>^

mak, l,Jj<XJ tebdH-et,

of

,

mahv-u-issblt-et Aloft, ad.

<J>;ljJ

dip'Aishdirmek,

bXshka-hey eta-ko-

<Ls...Jb<UllJ

yu-

yukan, SJjjljy

v.n.

di^Aishmek, ^-jw taghayyur-et. t

JjJuJ tfebdH;

s.

Alteration,

kart'da (yukarda).

,

;

mahv-u-issbAt.

Alone,

l~dl>

a.

yAln<7/z,

lyi?

tenha, Altercation,

^bLlb

bAshh'-bAshma;

all

naza"o:,

Alternate,

cLsXjo

ad.

Along,

J

along! >

along,

U

yt-i-f<Ci,>1

q

it

^

<z-,

;

ishin^a-ghit,

jJ.Cj^^l^

haydi-siktir.

Alongside,

nmdfl

rf.

karn-karnrt,

Alternate, v.w.

&X3jy*jy

^JJJI uzXkda,

*

*J^\3^\J

Alternative,

JcU^l

Alphabet,

b\

Alphabetically,

arf.

-^?"

jehran,

s.

s.

(i)J.J5j

hsr-nakAdar,

irtifa".

(j^^^

bitun-bitun.

t>Li shXb.

)

ad.

s.

\^**}j^j.

bir-durlu

-ma"den.

U.J^

da'ima,

^^

hEr-wlkzt.

Amanuensis,

Amass, kfezilik,

Jj^^iiJ

tarzkz-akhar.

j&tijb

\&j\

shimdi-bilE,

rak. /

LjL^o "aifi-'l-

issada.

Alluminum,

(

61-wXkta-kllmaya-

Also,

chars,

v=>-^^

Alluminium, ^

Always, Already,

^LiH^

^l^-

c.

Altogether, ad.

Alum,

elif-ba (elif-b E ).

i

nubetla,

dl^y

alar-

sXvtz-bulend-ila. 5.

5.

bAshka-yol

Altitude,

pik,

nubetleshmek.

borda-bor-

^t3<L-j\

Aloud,

days,

-munavebE.

Although, arf.

cJviulIiJy

Alternately, ad.

daya. Aloof,

on alternate

;

mutenavib6tEn, ^ijb yanina, ^Ji3l> ya-

one another,

;

mu-

go

ghit-bAkAlzm,

:

<ilcjlixj

U^c ghawgha (kawgha). J jLi^ mut^badil, c.-?ll

mut(6navib

ghEl-bXkXb'm

niza",

a.

come

boyunjcc;

c^

s.

,

s.

u-^Ja kyatib.

v.a.

toplamak,

ve-

kezalik,

dakhj,

VE-dakhi,

vfe-hfem-dakhi,

^^^j

Amateur,

Amaze,

5.

v.a.

-ettirmek;

havessli.

UX;Jfijrtcy**# ta"ajjubamazed, a. L- ^s^ miV hayrln

;

to

be


AMAZING \-^s*>

,

shtfshmak,

min-et,

ta"ojjub-et,

(J^'i^j^

hayrAn-kAl-

mak, JK*!IJ kAlmak, J^!lS<bb baka-kXlmak. a.

^^^sF"

L_-jyi gharib

Ambassador,

Amber,

5.

"Xjib

ly, ad.

;

Amethyst,

J

s.

Ambition,

5.

>^~*

Ambitious,

[-'sh-shln.

Amity,

harlssu-

^

j \

fesh-

eshmek,

eshkin-ghitmek, ^\f>\j

Ambling-horse,

j^J^^J^

s.

(bEghir).

Ambuscade, Ambush, to

an

lay

ambush,

pussu kurmak; bush, Jh*!jjL

Amen,

Amenable,

Amend,

a.

;

(j<<j

to fall into

&^

J^--^

v.a.

,

y\fy

Amends,

to

^j*

fark.

make,

v.n.

s.

6rt-

^j.^s^j^ji

Ls fsna, LA-J sakAt.

5.

dossti,

mukhldenet.

Ammonia,

5.

Ammoniac,

jjliJ nishldir.

s.

jjlU

nishAdz'r.

^-

harut,

^A

"afvz-"amm.

s. /*lc

Among,

Amongst,

Amorous,

Amount,

[mak.

h'gh-61.

esslah-

bir-Az-Iyi-61,

[-tutmak.

\++*i

tAz-

aras-

fc*~:\j\

j^s.^\. "AshzkanE.

a. s.

^^J

doghrultmak,

jar.

szna, jJc^lj! arassznda.

^L^c meblagh

yekyun

Amphibious,

LL?1

s.

Amnesty,

a.

,

;

;

v.n.

jl-i^ iJiyJ

t^t

top,

jl jJt

bA-

*js>

^J*^

>Jb

hem-suda-hem-karada-yshar. Ample,

a.

Amplitude,

Amputate,

Amendment,

*Jo^j<Gj^l

arassznda.

a.

tutul-

mess'ul.

JUcJjijL

v.n.

;

v^j* an am-

pussuyyk

tasshih-et-,

\^s^ et-

4*y pussu

amln. (1^c\

int.

Ajls^J

drtassmda,

^\j&\j

tjsbkin-barghlr

s.

[dosstanE. ad.

Amicably,

pr.

Ammunition,

rahwAn-ghitmek,

rabwAn,

a.

(

C^A^I

v.n.

,

^^\

rahwAn,

tAtK.

-yErl^rina-doghru.

h^rssz-hukyu-

a.

Ambler,

Amicable,

Amiss,

met.

ghyuzel-

Amidships, ad.

h^rssu-'sh-

jeb&okum.

sj-

a.

Amidst,

mughlaklik.

Amerikali.

c.jil&^J

5.

a^ij|j'

Ambiguity,

;

and

-khuylu,^ij'lL?

kApAnzk,

Amerika*

a.^

Amiable,

mughlAk.

kin

s.

ch6k.

,J^>-

elchi, .-jLj sefir.

-cf^l

a.

Ambiguous,

s.

karmak.

Americani

Ambergrease, Ambergris s.~.z "anbEr

Amble,

Xjissini-cht-

;

(Aja'ib),

kchruba (kehlibar).

'j^

-shAn,

mek

America,

Amazing,

s.

AMPUTATION

[37

J^J bol, s.

Jy.^

v.a.

^i^

ghenish.

U-j si"a'i-meshnk.

CX*~^

kessmek, l^SaS

klt"-et.

Amputation,

[kit". s.

<ul ^ kessilmE,

r ^^


AMULET *?*> nusskha

Amulet,

s.

Amuse,

v.a.

An,

j>

v.n.

self,

Anger,

Analogous,

mushabih,

makzss. s.

Angina

Analysis,

Analyze,

v.n.

Anathema,

fessad,

e^**J

5.

,

ikhtilal.

JL>-\

la"net, IcJJo bed-

-du"a, j)jfi aforoz. v.a.

Anatomize, s.

Anatomy, Ancestor,

a>- jedd

s.

Ancestry,

5.

Anchor,

s.

ejdad

mek,

v.a.

,

v.n.

,

;

c-^-J nesseb.

demir-Xtmak;

demirli;

(J*<j^\*

^j^<^

s.

to ;

cast to

at ,

weigh

de'miri-kaldirmak.

demir-yeri,

(Jjjj*~j

j(^,s*- tj>j y**3 demirle'ye'jek-yer.

Anchored,

Anchovy, Ancient,

a. s.

a.

}jf**3

esski,

s.

kXdim,

mutakXdesski-za-

dimin,

c.

^ VE,

^ ^^^

^V

^-^

darghzn

(1

JU)/J

;

dakhi.

dE,

Anecdote,

s.

*i*

Anemone,

5.

4JU

;

61ta-ila-

to be

darilmak, i}*j**

,

kkmak,

ghyuJEnmek, C-U.li<Ujji

detlEnmek. i^JJlafi "Azim-dErd,

Anguish,

s.

Angular,

a.

Animal,

s.

j&J*i

haywln;

^\j.+^>-

fzkra,

manissa.

mankabfi.

,

a.

l<^j*>" haywlnl. Animalcule,

Animate,

s.

J^kMjd*

CX^j

v.a.

haywanjzk.

jj'-s^

jXn-vErmek, ll*>-^

jXnlandzrmak,

Jj;^jc\-iJjU>ihya-et.

Animated,

a.

jb^llJ

c^-2*l^J bfeshashet.

s.

.

km, ^*-^

Ankle,

s.

s.

Annalist,

beshashetli.

CLJyjLC

"adavet,

Annals,

Annex,

^^=5

kinE.

^j*^

anass6n.

JjjJjk t6puk. s.

^jyo

muverrikh, ^~>j <Ujj

wXk"a-nuwiss.

mAn-XdAmlari.

And,

kywshE, <L;|j zaviyyE

(J^<^1

a.

Angry,

Aniseed,

pi.

J

bir-

j;^ fj^/

bXlzk-awlamak.

Animosity,

AJJJ

^jJ^l^ kyarz-kXdlm. Ancients,

khunnAk-^illeti.

5.jJuJ^

<Li>^==>

v.w.

Animation,

demirli.

AJJ^L; sardela.

(j*1

^

1

(J^-

jU

demir-

demirl^-

LL)^j^*-J

demir-atmak

JH*?1 j*-*3

Anchorage,

(demir),

viX*3jj*-5

JU^Uy*.^ &))***

,

;

darghmlzk, ^^L-.J^JJ

ghXzAba-ghElmek, CJvJ-JJkrs- hid-

J^Jc^t ejdad.)

tlrnur

lenghEr;

l^mek

(pi.

pectoris,

LL)v*^^^=

teshrih.

<f^r~3

t<ifi

s.

v.n.

teshrih-et.

\if2r~>

jii^L^

nev-"i-ziku-sadr.

Angle,

hall-et.

IJl^

jLJ

5.

Anarchy,

mushabe'het;

c^~$ll~

J.>- hall.

5.

mela'ikE.

melekl.

^Lo

5.

Angina,

Cu*

Analogy,

5.

4#L>

melek,

kzzghml/k, L.-^^ ghAzAb.

[mek. <ul**

a.

a.

Angelic,

bir.

CJi*

s.

Angel,

(rmsska).

cJ

one's art.

ANNEX

[38]

s.

pi.

v.a.

zamm-et.

i&fi

[tawarlkh). tarikh

IjLffil

(pi.

ilhlk-et,

*-?jrjJ

1^


ANNIHILATE v.a.

Annihilate,

J^jJlS ^yjJ^j .J

vulUil

y6k-et,

ljy

judini-kAldirmak,

ANTiaiJITY

[39]

ifna-et.

Answerable, Ant,

s.

kXn'nja.

5.

Announce,

v.a.

vErmek,

Antarctic, a. .*>}*>- jenubT.

ghyun.

^j

khXbEr-

clX^Jjy-*^

i^J-^J

khAsszm.

s. **3z>~

Antagonist,

Anniversary,

mess'ul.

a.

Antecedent,

tebllgh-et,

a.

s.

,

;

sabzk,

>J& mu-

mevsulun-bih.

ifadE-et. v.a.

Annoy,

^^

salif,

mukXddEm

UjLj!

ta"jiz-et

Jj-^sf

sekmti-vErmek, L eziyyet-VErmek, \\~x>-\j rahatstz-et;

ghyiijuna-ghitmek.

t-ojl

s.

5.

Antediluvian,

a.

tufAndan-

l?

5.

j&\

jeyrAn

(jeylAn),

^)<^^. j^

wylsden

\

ahu. a.

Antemeridian,

eziyyet,

diwAnkhanE.

EVVE!.

Antelope,

ghyuJEndirmek,

Annoyance,

Antechamber,

evvel.

Anterior, a.

a.

Annoying,

salif,

sabzk,

^l~>

-ghyujuna-ghidEr.

Annual,

a.

Annuity,

Annul, et,

\

\~*

v.a.

Annum,

5.

iXi/4w}j

<^-j

5.

fesskh-et,

1J

yzlda, <*Jj~i

sens

Anomalous,

per annum, ^^i^

;

SEnEvi.

^u~< a.

ibtAl-

hXlka-ress-

<JLJlL>-

pi.

Jlf^

s.

f

dejjal.

Anticipate, v.a. <jU*<^

mfi'mul-et

ranmak

;

ummak,

(JNVJ^j^Jj^

EWEl-daw-

J ji ^ JJ-fiJ,!

s>-

Lr

;

U^

Jh*J^ ^y*-^ CJ-c^j

t^^lb tXleb-

S-'j^

61unmazdan-EvvEl-hisss-edwp-vErmek-

ya^A-surmek,

tedhm-et. a.

Antichrist,

[minda.

cJ-b

Anoint, v.a.

Anointed,

\lsjl

bXttll-et.

Jlkj

Annular,

irad.

**$* s^him,

s.

s.

Anthropophagi,

^

[dehhen.

mu-

messih,

Anomaly,

yakhud-yapmak. Antics,

<

5.

pi.

Antidote,

s.

Antimony,

5.

J!* /sr~

-.Ic s.

mASskharalzk.

"ilaj.

timur-b6zAn

(J^j^jy^

(demir-b6zAn).

Anonymous, Another,

a.

a.

\(**\

j>&Lj

imzassiz.

bAshka-bir,

s.

<-->^>-

JEwIb;

,

v.a.

CX^j JEWAb-vErmek;

,

61mak, (J>*Jj\ iiymak

forj

kefTl-ol;

;

v.n

mess'ul-ol.

s.

LL^W

nefret;

CL^iJ

"adavet, L^-v<fl>- khussumet. Antique,

dighEr-bir.

Answer,

Antipathy,

esski,

5.

<U^

(j~z2-

"antika "atik,

;

>-^^-JJ

Ajjj^l^ kyar/-kXdim.

Antiquity,

U

5.

djbi

esski-zamXn.

,

"antika;

a.

kXdlm,


ANTLER Antler,

s.

Anus,

5.

Anvil,

s.

bdynuz.

jyj$

5.

the

wrss.

v~jj\

Cl^Usi*

j

Any, pro.

*j&

kXssavet

^^

;

Anybody,

hich-bir.

kimessnE

A-^jlJ*aJ nassl-6lursa

ac?.

C^U-

Apace, ad.

s.

Apathy, fcXJU

Ape,

s.

,

.

^J-sJuJ

;

^^Ul

Wy&

da'irE.

^J^J

,*Jtc

kaydszzh'k,

maymun,

cXJ

shebek

;

v.a. IjulaJ' tAklid-et.

dXJj

s.

Apex,

5.

u~\j

^^

delik,

C3L-A3

^JjL>-l achzkb'k,

re'ss,

^j J

(j>&j\ arpalzk, ^jljUJl>U

JJU? takzm,

s.

s.

libXss, ^L-Jl elbissE. a.

yfe

Us

LIU

ad.

Apparently,

Apparition,

j^

aralzk,

nefesslik.

zirvE.

sighinmali

v.n.

Appear,

CLX-^_iJ zuhur-et;

it

5.

hey'et;

(J^j

i^a~as>- hadid.

Apologize,

Apology,

s.

[Ifimek.

clX^^bt^nXc

6~<\jj&-

"wzrnamE

;

"wzr-di-

zuhur.

cJLjj j^

Appease,

Append,

"wzr-beyani.

Apoplexy,

s.

Apostasy,

s.

*>1jJj1

5.

Apostate, <UJjt)

AL*i>

Ju^

dXmla,

Ji3

nuzul.

irtidad.

miirtedd

Apostatize,

dan-dknmek.

;

^^li ghelir,

v.a.

l^JbU^

^L^

(mfirtXd),

cJviJJJ^iJJ

^-^^

^;jx-

v.a.

(J^J^a

ghywrunmek, ij^-^J0

Ulc

v.imp.

jj*Jjj=z ghyw-

surst,

ghywrunush;

^ tesskm-et.

1^

zamm-et,

Appendix,

s.

\

<Ui3'

timmE, <U-,^ zaminiE, *j!c Appertain, v.w.

dmin-

kha-

"ilavE-et.

Appendage,

dwnma. v.n.

;

ghywzikmek, appears,

Appearance,

v^Jjx^c meshkyuk.

v.n.

zuhur

OX*J^^

--^=>

runiyor.

Apogee,

;

id-^t>-UA! miiraja' at-et.

;

a.

5.

ghAliba

[yals. s.

Apiece, ad. tej^j behErina.

Apocryphal,

zahir,j^Ju)Jo bedidar,

huwEyda, jl^^il Ishikyar.

ghlliba

^a^>-

5.

esswAb (essbAb),

LL*\jJ\

haded.

Aphelion,

CL^ijJ^C-?^

Appeal, v.n. LlXfc-^t} dushraek,

Aperient, a. J.-~<> miasshil (ss-h).

Aperture,

s.

zahira.

"adEmi-ttfkayyud.

^y****

k6rkutmak,

(JH**jJijjJ

bAshmaklzk.

Apparent,

6da

jLs^U*^

ejzajz,

takhwif-et.

IcjbysT

Apparel,

chabwk.

4?j\

^

3

ig**])

;

Apart, ad. u^jl ayrz.

Apartment,

[isspenchiyar.

alat-edawat.

hich-bir-durlu.

jJjJ^-AJb

;

^Jjl^-c-

.

v.a.

Apparatus,

(kimssE).

Anyhow,

of Christ,

s.

Apothecary,

Appanage,

^

*

&,.\ ...

pro.

J-y* mursel

ressul,

(Jj~>j

apostles

Appal,

^/Uj bx"zz;

j\j) bir-AZ;

hich,^J-^.J&

5.

hawariyyun.

telashl (telash). bir,

APPETITE

]

Apostle,

mak"ad.

JjtJU

Anxiety,

[40

menut-ol, Appetite,

5.

j^^U

^^i^Jc

"ila

rajz"ol, j'l

muta"allik-oL

1^-1 \ ishtzha (ishtah.)

te-


APPLAUD Applaud,

v.a.

Applause,

5.

^^Aia

^^L^

APTLY

]

J^^

dokunur

5.

Application,

(wurush),

^..iJW

iX>-

^

v.a.

Apply,

\(J~bu

-

LlX*^

;

tatbzk-et

I

;

St

($*jj\ij& bXshJ wurmak, i^Lt-ij dushmek, U^-Jej^^c tzla-et

v.n.

,

;

muraja'^/t-et

for,

;

lUjaJ

mek,

,

one's

cJv^-ct

isst^-

l<u!lL^c

isstid"a-et,

mutal^bE-et,

niAtlub-et

1^-J^ll^o

;

l^yui sa"y-et, iCL^jfijf^JUi sa"y-u-

Apprentice,

nXssb-et, l^^u^^kr

Appointment, riyyet

(A;!

;

ta"yin-et,

Ic^*a3

takhs?ss-et.

o jj^U

s.

ish.

-hisssE-taksTm-et,

Appraise,

jJJjj

[nassib. <

y611u,

v..

-tlkdir-et,

mu-

klmet-

ClX*^

l^j

baha-bichmek

(pAha).

Appreciate,

;

|^,^

v.a.

,

;

5.

tAkdlr-et,

kXdr ini-bil mek

.

sha-

LlJ^=l-l

[mek.

Approach,

J^

.

rub;

y61

&

v.a.

,

rub-et,

khlbEr-VEr-

tX*j j*

Apprize, v.a.

;

n.

/^A-i>jl^&j

<*-*j&J

Approbation,

5.

yakznlashmak,

T:?

^LaCUJ

takhsfss-et

^^--^sr

;

U^M*^M miinassib.

a.

,

[isstihsan.

rs^ tahsm,

^

Appropriate, v.a,

takartakar-

\<*-Jj

cJ^ljijA yakzn-varmak.

5.

Approval, ad.

^ugcLji

j^*

isstihsan

;

on

mukhXyy&r.

^^^ tlkribi, ^j^asC

a.

Approximate,

v.n.

,

v^jQ

rub-et.

takar-

[takhmma.

5.

Approximation,

<-r-yi3

l^-sT

takarrub

;

j^sC takhmm.

(

April,

5.

Apron,

a.

Apt,

,c-^

5.

Apricot,

^jl

5.

Apropos, v.a.

shay^ird

Approximately, ad. \+>J& tXkriba, hisssE-

a.

i

5.

takhmini;

mfi'mu-

Apportion, v.a.

Apposite,

[kussu-6lAn.

p'Airdlik.

,

I^.JU

;

a.

Apprehensive,

-ghayret-et.

Appoint, v.a.

j f^hm-u-idrak

liW^

;

akhz-u-

s

k6rku.

y^y

JUhiJl>- chXh'shmak,

self,

/

Apprenticeship,

y^ptshdtrmak

;

-gbirift

d6kundurraak,

(jU^XJjJ

;

sarfz-zihn,

jidd-u-JEhd.

(JKCjjjb surmek

CLJ^CJ^JC-J sa"y-

^J^j^?

-u-ghayret, Jk$sj-

muraja"at;

o*^-]^

chXb'shzsh,

derk-et

5.

Apprehension,

^JJ*y$

;

bXsh-urush

u~jj\u^-l

anglamak

korkmak.

dokundu-

^iJcJitJ

rush, (j^Ju^A; yapzshdm'sh

dushush,

=^

(annamak), IcJ

;

munassbet-AKr. j^!!L^v-jlxx)

3^^^ akhz-u-

.

-ghirift-et;

a.

Applicable,

tutmak,

I^

ytfkalamak,

sitayish.

J

v.a.

Apprehend,

sitayish-et.

Mma.

5. 1*1!

Apple,

[41

J

^<^;J

zerdali.

nissan.

JUkllJ peshtamAl. a.

&

aa".

w^^aL^ munaszb.

AJO-^O mussta"idd.

ad. ^4^*, Aptly, ' v * ^ /

kayssz,

.

.

I

^U^>U<< 2 .

[vwejil^.

mun-aszb^ti-


APTITUDE )***

s.

Aptness,

Aptitude,

AROMATIC

ti"dad.

iss-

[kEZAb-suyu,

Aquafortis,

s.

Aqueduct,

s.

<~~>\j~i tizib,

^jj.y*

.yj0u^

^

kuru,

kAlkmak

v.n.

Arise,

v

nesh'et-et,

j^ lazzm-ghElmek. kibar.

Aristocracy, 9,j\

Arab,

"arab.

s. '-

Arabia,

s.

Arabic,

s.

jk*&jy*\ mezru" ;

mezra"a, j^L s.

Ararat, Mt.,

ekilir-bichilir

land,

,

^.

Arch,

s.

s.

s.

Archives,

;

J\^

uJU1

s.

kemankeshlik.

fEnni-mi"-

bin alar.

Argue,

a.

.

ateshli

ci/^*^'^

!i-J>Jii

kelam,

j

5.

,

,

;

v.n. v.a.

;

J^y

k61tuklu,

k61tuklu-SAndAliyyE.

^\&MMCJ! ermenisstln.

s.

a.

ermeni ^.

ermeni

,***j\ ;

teste~<j\

s.

,

;

ermenTJE.

\$\>-f kuJAk, \e*$y \$&~j*

;

jlil? y^nar.

ghy&cli,

lakfrdz-et,

Armlet,

u^J^Ji!

lakirdi,

kzlijji,

Armory,

s.

Armour,

s.

/

s.

jebE-khanE. zirh

J

;

.L9 silah.

.

k61tuk.

Army, s.jJj 6rdu, Aromatic,

tu-

^^yp"***

chakmakjt.

fenkji, ^

'i*^;^^"

kyurE-

blzubend.

s.

Armorer,

\AX^VM

s^s

mutarekE.

Armistice,

^;*^>

**

s.

'i-mushebb^kE.

Armpit,

** suz.

silah;

;

Armillary sphere,

-yarzshz-et.

Argument,

Armenia,

Armfull,

JC^ muta"assir.

;

s.

^J!jki-tf

r<*^

^

v.n.

covenant,

kuJAk-dolussu.

^^=

mubah^ssE-et

the

U.i3^J d6nanma.

s.

Arm-chair,

kuyudlt

^J*H sAth (t-h.)

Arpn o. -Mica,

k61

Armenian,

n~+~*j* ghermiyyet.

Arduous,

of

;

5.

Armada,

shim all.

.

,

silahlanmak

cA^-$

pi.

Ardent, a.ji~J'l

chetin,

Noah's

Jjbl ehli-

tabuti-sekinE.

Arm,

evrAk-makhzEni.

Ardour,

s.

^

5.

silah- VErmek

deftErkhlnE,

<Olri^Jj

"ilmi-hissAb

d6natmak.

c^U^o^.i

LJ bina

Arctic, a.

Ark,

Aghri-dAghi

hakEm.

kAlfa. jt*Jt^ mi"mar, <ulU

Architecture, ;

Arithmetician,

J^l ayrd-et.

cJi~lOU

s.

Architect,

marl

jf"

^J&)\*=, kemankesh.

s.

Archery,

*

ksmEr.

j+$>

Archer,

-

["ilmi hissab.

kavss.

(j~

5.

kibar-den-biri.

u^ ^.

-ghemissi

,PV U^cl

\

s.

tarla.

Arbiter, Arbitrator, *j>Arbitrate, v.n.

J

(hes-).

a.

J5J!/*

Arc,

Arithmetic,

tef^f- "arabja.

Arable,

s.

Aristocrat,

"arabistan.

fe

;

tulu"et; Ici-llJ

j

-*^==

su-y61u,

Arid, a.

a.

k6kulu.


AROUND and pr.

ad.

Around,

ASCENSION

[43] a.

Artful,

etrafa,

ti\Jb\

sheytAn,

toUa-j-A

j\j

etrafda.

X*s\Jb\

cX<^

hilfibazlik.

^Jjj

Artfully, adi

b.\ uyndz'rmak.

Arrange, v.a.

5.

Artfulness,

kaldnrnak,

v.a.

Arouse,

Artichoke,

dizmek, ^c-^-

,[&>\ inghinar

s.

Jerusalem

;

tErtib-et,

nizA'ma-k6mak

kArar-

;

bend,

lashdt'rmak. s.

Arrangement,

nizAm

;

j\Ji

5.

Array,

i

Arrayed,

u.^.Jy

kArar.

^L*J

lebbess.

Arrears,

[bAkaya. s.

Arrest,

sAff.

mu ~

\>\b

mandfi,

pi.

hAbss

5.

;

v.a.

,

akhz-u-ghirift-et

;

tevkzf-et.

vussul, (j^j\)

Arrive, v.n. LL)vJj ghfilmek,

^J

mak,

s.

a.

Arrogant,

(^^

Jaw

^-o

Arrogate to one's

ta"azzum,

self,

v.a.

Arse,

5.

uzErinE-

j^

6k, ^.J

^J dubr,

^

Arsenal,

5.

4jUr.jL t6p-khan.

Arsenic,

5.

^y^^-

Arson, Art,

5.

s.

3

san"at

;

..

J

C^'yt^o ma"rifet; Artery,

Artillery, s. ^JojL t6plar,

man,

;

.4t*lA

shah-dAinar.

s.

[ehli-san"at.

t6pji.

uJlx*^ essnaf,

5.

U&^KS^Jjbi

Artist, s. ,*L>) ressam.

slfd^run

^

;

j*s+

hilESsiz. e.

iken

it

as

>-

chiinku,

teJj^

as ... as

;

^-0^30 J

were, as though,

much

as

.

.

.

.

.,

chun

jjJ kAdr

-di^Ai-ghibi

A&L?

ghelinJE

;

sanki; as

jJ kAdr

;

;

;

as

as

much,

,J^.^ 61-kAdr

.,

ad.

;

(6-)

;

as well as,

ghibi, jJ^J kAdr.

szchAn-6tu.

Ascend,

J^^lj <OU- khanE-yakmak. L^%*.

tAklid.

-'

bu-kAdr,

kyun.

mii-

^-i*^

sanna",

sehm.

tir,

L^-^*:

sun"i,

,

for, as to, *fld

C-

5.

a.

Artificial,

as soon as,

-Xlraak.

,

ehli-san"at.

ijL\ (J.+.~&

indefinite

;

uJli^l essnaf,

Artificer, 5.

As,

t

mute'kebbir.

kXlkfshmak,

Arrow,

!

Artless, a. [tfekebbur.

u-^

,

Artifice, s.

Artisan, var-

wAssil-61,

wussul-bulmak. Arrogance,

;

var/sh.

^

;

edati-t^bhlm.

t

t6pjz-"AsskEri

kudum, ^lo ghelish

s.

Arrival,

definite

;

harfi-ta"rif

J

nizAm,

u~*^'*

ghiyili,

f tkra

^w

/

[ i_j2<?

/Ui)

tertib,

-Jy

a.

tErtib,

mata", Jto mAl

Article, s. -cli^e

finn

and

v.a.

w.

^j

chzkmak,

su"ud-et. ;

Ascendency,

*^sAscension,

5.

J^ftj

hukm. 5.

J**^ su"ud.

i"tibar,


ASCENT Ascent,

Jyu? su"ud

s.

^^ yokush.

;

\sT

Ascertain, v.a.

tahklk-et.

J^

s.

kyul

rumek,

\

yuruyush-et,

hujum-et.

Ascribe, v.a. \jls-1 issnad-et.

Ash, Ashes,

ASSISTANT

[44]

mahekkE-tut-

Assay, v.a. ash- tree,

;

mak

iUc "aya-

<to ;

^^Ic^jlj^j^jJ dish-budAk-At^AJt. to be Ashamed, a. cJ.-s^ mahjub

rma-bakmak.

1

;

(J.*^j\ utAnmak.

v.n.

,

5. L-J!

Asiatic, a.

Assia.

^bj

Aside, ad. -tarafa

Ask,

v.a.

Askew, Aslant,

C?Jj^ Asleep,

mush,

Aspect,

w^-

ayri.

sormak, IJ^j-j su'al-et;

ad.

^jj\ arkuri(aykm), ^j^c^\ uyu-

uykuda.

hey'et

;

;

Cl^Ui)

ijJvi^J j

^^b bXkzsh; nezaret.

s.

<U-*?

Ass-colt,

Assail, v.a.

jl^>- hzmar, y>-

s.

^?.^s&

^

Jw

v.a.

hujumju,

JjU

AJS?*

^XcjjJ^l

kAtzl.

wldurmek,

kAtl-et, Ifc^Jj telef-et.

Assassination,

Assault,

hujum

5.

5.

J,*^ kAtl.

(j^.jj)j

t

;

C^Jv4J

j

riza-VErmek,

iddz"a-et,

\\c.<3\

s.

kavl,

lddi"a.

^rj /

lc-il

v.a.

Assess,

swz,

laktrdi,

L3<ljs*i

Ujl

Assets,

5. />/. JLssrl^Ll

Asseveration,

j^

s.

tt

(

s. *\>\s\

Assiduous,

JU mAl-ila-Xkcha. yemln.

Tkdam.

/JJi< mukdim,

a.

i4-

Assign, v.a.

taym-et

5.

\<

j>-

hawalE-et.

J->-^=^ vekH.

Assist, v.a. ^/*^

.

yardim-et,

mu"avenet-et, \ jt*Xl imdad-et

kAnh',

^ijli'

Assassinate,

Assertion,

Assignee,

j^Joi hujum-edEn.

Assassin,

v.a.

Assert,

takhsz-s-et;

spa.

\ffsP* hujum-et. s.

Assailant,

cX^->^

[khar.

<*^J*\ eshek, s.

muwAfakAt;

L^> riza,

Assiduity,

ghyuz-dikmek,

\<jo\ emel-et.

Ass,

jem"iyyet.

ta"yini-vergu-ichiN-keshf-et.

kush-k6nmaz.

s-jujs^js

Aspire, v.n.

,

s.

mmu"-et.

5.

v.n.

Jy

tj&< mlnzara

Jb

Assent,

toplanmak,

^

demek.

j)}J,j\ uyuyor,

xJ*i;bj\

;

toplamak,

v.n.

,

Iw^^AJl^o muwAfakAt-et.

charptk.

Asparagus, s.

XAJjbjJ

isst^mek.

C^Jv*>**>i

a.

<^f*V bir-

bir-yanda,

o^l

(j**j)*e

jem"-et

Assembly,

bir-yana,

^^V.y

;

bir-tarafda;

tf J

v.a.

jl^^f- jem"-ol,

Assiali.

^)LJ

s.

Assemble,

Ashore, ad. ty^s kAraya, &xjs kArada. Asia,

Assayer,

yuruyush, fc*fj)

v.n.

(J*+^*J bultinmak,

mek, jLjUs.

Assistance,

c3v*K

hlzzr-ol.

/*^^,

yard/m,

imdad, JjUl i"anE,

d-OjU*

venet. Assistant,

mu''a-

[mu^avin, jj^. yamak. s.

^^js^u^b yardzmjz, ^j\**<


ASSOCIATE ^^JAJjl arkadash,

s.

Associate,

^y

refik,

kArin

,

;

ATTAIN

[45] 5.

Astrologer,

v.n.

Astrology,

kon^ushmak, cJ^-^^^=> ghywrush.-

Astronomer,

mek,

Astronomy,

\

UL^\

arka-dashKk-et,

jLibajjl

1

Ij^t

ikhtilAt.et, 5.

Association,

LjL^JJ

shirkfit,

L^~,<

Is.^

Assuage,

v.a.

V.f*~ J

Assume,

v.a.

(jd\ Xlmak, J*-J kAbul-

-et;

tesskin-et. \

uzErinE-Almak

Jf^JUijjjJ

;

CJ^^s ghirmek. CuU-^U

Assurance, s.j^s SMZ, (pi.)

;

yemln

ij+A^

jUc*c! i^timAd,

;

J^U

sebat;

te'minat

"ars/zlzk

;

k+~s sighurta.

Assure,

v.a.

yemm-et Asterisk,

Astern,

5,

\

;

5.

iki-parcha

j}

raelja.

At, pr. ^j E, a

Atheism,

a

;

J

dE, da.

aUb jlC\

5.

inkyar-bi-llah.

munkir-bi-'llah.

Atheist,

s.

<d!b^^o

Athens,

s.

L-J! Xtina.

Athletic, a.

Atlantic,

ufy kawT, ^ijy kuwetli.

s.

,^jjS.

kJBf ^sT

\b *j=

Atmosphere,

5.

zerra.

C-^U,^

(*) j--&l

Atone, v.n. !c^,U? kef^ret.et.

<U-jOjl arkassina,

ardma,

&^j\

5.

IjA

Atonement,

5.

Atrocious,

a.

^^^ftj^^.^

z?ku-'n-nefess,

jkX^aJi^JU^ zzku-'ss-sXdr.

kefUret.

cl^jlfi

%-^^

sh^ni",

cXjJaJc.^.s*^ t-"j-

Astonished,

a.

^-,

Atrociousness,

L-^^S**^ muta"jjib

le-^s-^

v./?.

;

to

ta"ffjjub-et,

J^^jli> shshmak.

Atrocity,

L^vcLi

s.

iX^Alamak,

jj^JLcfy

rAbt-et, ^JCJ bend-et v.w.

^-i>!

[shena'^t.

Attach, v.a.

jub-etdirmek.

;

Oyi> hawa.

eshna".

Astonish, v.a.

bahri-

kyure'l-hawa

Atom,

^.

;

mimfXssil.

emm-et.

arcjmda.

be

"ilmi-hey'et.

<>

L^!

arkassmda;

Asthma,

ehli-hey'et.

s.

muhit-gharbi.

te'mm-et

\^<\j

;

arf.

"ilmi-nujum.

5

u^.;! ayri,

Asylum,

k6mpanya.

:

ad.

Asunder,

ulfet-et.

munfejjim.

5.

;

1

iaj^

-r- one's self,

J^jLfiLj bX^Manmak,

"alaka-et.

Attach^,

s.

(French)

i^j*U

ma"iyyet-m4muri.

[mflhabbet.

f

Astonishment,

d>^

s.

^-^-s^

hayrfet.

Astound,

v.a.

Astray, ad.,

to

J^/Jj-L>J^j (vanish)

Astringent,

^*!U? go

tij4>-

astray,

t-' ajjub,

Attachment,

[-sXlmak.

Attack,

hayreta-

v.n.

^/Kb

yanglish-y61-tutmak

s.

a.

AJJlc

"alaka,

hujum

/*^s^

;

hujum

!/*y?^

;

,

v.a.

J^Jlo^^-lc

r et;

"aleyhina-ch^kzghmak

Attain,

c^-^sr<

L^-oy nubet,

tl^jU?l issabet j^^l? zuhur,

bet-et,

.

s.

;

\^^*i\&\ issa-

lj^5 zuhur-et.

v.a.

j^J 1

9 '*

wassfl-ol;

^^

*Jb


ATTAINMENT baKgh-61

;

na'il-61

jr'Jjto

^L.^rsT'tahszl-et, 1t-^

Attainment, Attar,

;

kessb-et.

>

Jaz "hr

of

;

jac

^cb

Attend,

kXlkzshz'sh

^^Lftllj

,

;

v.n.

kXlkzshmak.

^4.^-Jilljf

CX^IL

v.a.

b^klfimek

ks^iU|

;

bAkmak, lc^^^>-

JPJ^

refukat-et;

khMmet-et (hizmet). Attendance,

;

\

s.

refik

JH^J

ihtimam

c>J} J dikkat-et c^JJJ

to

;

to

;

Ic^JJ

tlXj

^r*

Attic, s.

*,}**

kzb'k,

Attitude, (pi.

Id^jl^

5.

;

CUJl|^&

elbissE,

/jiJ evza")

^J

u?) ziy,

kissvet

,

;

v.a.

ti-i-A hey'et.

J-,^ vekH, ^JiJj l: J da";

power

vekyalet-namE.

aji^

Auction,

s.

J\j*

\j

szfAt

^

v.a.

,

;

"zv-et,

of

,

lipisska.

mezad (mezXt),

muzay^dE. Auctioneer,

[dellal s.

a.

5.

Audacity,

"arstz.

j^**^.jessur 'j^j^& ;

Cl^L-j^

J^J

mezadji,

t^-^j*

jessaret

;

^j^j^

"arst'zlzk.

Ji.LjuLjl J

a.

Audible,

ishidilir.

*

Audience,

mulakAt (interview)

cl^lJjL*

s.

C^\cU^

jema"at, ^-x^Lj sami"?n

to hold an

(j*jf

,

uyjfc^

;

;

diwAn-

kurmak.

jjU^J^t-^L-^ hissAb-yokcU-jls.x

miihASS^bE-et

'

lamak,

I

s.

,j*ks

;

muhass^be-

tU-jlsr*

kalEmi. Auditor,

s.

^U^^

dingl^yen (dineyen),

^-^L: sami"; ^

Auger,

s.

,fjj> burghu.

s.

^jfy bir-shey

;

hich-bir-shey. v.n.

Augment, (j^j*

durush, %-^^ wXz"i ;

a.

Aught,

ghiyindirmek.

s.

wa-vekHi

;

tawXn-arassz.

Cl^^...^

9^y

Attorney,

,

yemin-VErmek

^.-^o yemm

1-)

Auburn,

Audit, v.a.

[shahadet.

<L-J^

tJMjJ*

^^La

C3*<^j vErmek,

office,

yemm-et,

i**yi*}$* s.

Attire,

to,

to be

;

shahadet-et. 5.

,

dikkXt-et.

v.n.

Attestation,

pay

call

dikkat-jelb-et.

Attest, v.a. ,

attendants,

;

<xJU mukayyed

Attentive, a. v.n.

ctba".

L^~JL> dikkXt, JuJu takay-

s.

Ij^^L:*-

etba"-

[?W^

/%U^

yud,

L^-^Jo-

;

^IjlLcljjl

-taktmz.

Attention,

kuvveti-

JLJjl.s~Ll^J

s.

Attribute,

Audacious,

e^-jjlj; refakat

s.

khzdmet (hizmet)

Attendant,

[-jazibE. j.

issnad~et.

"hr-yagAi. s.

chekmek.

Attractive, a. t_jjl=^ jazib.

(

roses, (C^V. <J^ gyul-yagAi,

Attempt,

d

>X>. jezb-et,

<

Attraction,

J*>^a^ tahsH.

s.

(Arabic)

.

Attract, v.a.

;

muw^ffak-61

^^y%

muzaffEr-61,

AUGUR

[46]

k/-et

artmak,

izdiyad-bulmwk, v.a.

,

;

^

^f/

terak-

{

(J-*fj\

artzrmk,

teksir-et.

\j~=Z

Augmentation, tezayud,

Augur,

(J^J^

s.

^ay

s.

^jfcl^

i>b*>^1

terakkt.

kyahin,

izdiyad,

&$j/>


AUGURY fXl.

Augury,

5.

Jls

August,

s.

(j~j^~*\ a^osstoss

JU Aunt,

5.

nal)

a.

(mater-

;

iLj

(uncle's wife)

*|J teyzE;

[sa"adE.

yenghe".

Auspices, s.pl. Auspicious, a.

says, fcXfiL*" mus-

<t;Lo

.XcL^c mussa"id.

a.

Avalanche,

5.

Avarice,

e:^ ^-

s.

;

an

a.

s.

Aversion,

Australia,

c^s**

s.

Authenticity,

Author,

u^cb

slnz";

^-Jl*o

-** mu

^s^ sahzh,

a.

s.

[bfir.

t^-

c^jb

ba"iss,

badi,

mu'ellif, u-ft

u-fl!^-<

mussannif.

s.

hakim, izn,

amiranE.

&J\j<\

*^- kukm,^! emr

**\

lajL?

amir,

rukhsAt

c^-*2_~Lj

me'zuniyyet

Xl^i

;

zabit ;

Award,

;

Aware

Auxiliary,

izn,

(*)\

me'zuuiyyet.

J^^= ghyuz, jl^cJ^? sony-

a. 5.

J^

<Ju.j*-

fASsh'-kharif.

kharifT.

^^^jb

Available,

\

kXbul-et.

JjJ a. .^W

hlz/r,

one's self [2fJw!

MdE.

^f-vc mevjud,

\

;

,

v.a.

v.a.

(J

klrar.

khAbEri-61

(to be), v.n.

ad.

Awful,

;

with,

^^.jJ

a.

5.

s.

a.

Awry,

bir-wAk?t,J^

biz.

.,..,<?. *..

j?

[ytfkz'shzkszz.

(_*/>

Axis,

s.jjS^

Axle,

s.

J6J

a.

y akz'shmaz, j

bir-Xz.

&xJ tent.

5. <dalb

Azure,

kaldirmak.

korkunjlu.

J-J

Awning,

uzAkda;

\iz\gha,

&.\jj

Awkward, a.J^^JJ

Axe,

yardzmjz'. ;

,

*>- hukm,

s.

Awhile, ad.

Awl,

Avail, v.n. Uju'j fa'idE-et of, v.n.

L^^*a^-i

CX^.;^ ^jl izn-vErmek,

-bahar, cJ.;y>^

Autumnal,

uyanzk

become),

(to

Away,

^

terkh?ss-et.

\us+s>3 5.

5.

c^J^t) U

;

Authorize, v.a.

Autumn,

a.

to do

Authorization,

ti-

rlf-et.

Awake,

;

L^-%-3

sened,

l^Jcl

uyandzrmak.

burhan.

rukhsXt

ikrar-et,

^

\}**\iy uyanmak;

Authoritative, a.

Authority,

chekinmek.

sakz'nmak,

Avow, v..

szhh<it.

;

kXchmmak. ^

v.a.

Avoid,

"adEmi-riza

Lj^AJuc

nefret.

i^jju

Avstria.

b^3-jj\

Authentic,

Avstralia.

U^x^^

razi-di^M.

^J^e>\j s.

on

;

bir-biri-usstuna.

feaw^U^J

,

<0'^ 6rta

k-jj wXssAt,

a.

5.

5.

kh.Xssiss.

intikAm-Almak.

Austerity,

L^-v4?bj riyazat.

^^-*>.

one's self, v.n. ( J^\*\sc>'A

Xlmak;

Averse,

Austria,

khissset,

(J^\ ^sc\scJ\ intiklmtni-

v.a.

Avenge,

Average,

sert-tAbz"tli

^l^JrCl^-j

Avaricious, a.

riyazatli.

liJbj

(French) j-^>~ chzgh.

khXssisslik.

hAla

<*ll>-

(paternal)

Austere,

,

;

saml.

.^b

"all,

AZURE

[47]

charpzk.

bAlta.

mihver. dinghil.

^bcj^-l

achtk-ma'i (mavi),

ghyuk-ma'lssi (mavissi).


BABBLER

BARB

[48] Balance,

s.

terazi

j\\Ji

;

^Lsi

B. Babbler,

s.

J^^y bosh-

&jj> gheve"zE,

s.

s.

s.

Baby,

cXj

(js>-J>- chojuk,

Baboon,

cXj

bebek

Bachelor, s.j^Lj bikyar (beykyar).

Back,

J\

s.

zahr

ard

;

;

gheri

gherida

boat

;

;

v.a.

,

tawla-

<U~

Backwards, ad.

jj>

tErssina,

gh^ri-gheri,

*j

k.\lp

^^

don^uz (do-

Li fena

bozuk

;

kyutu,

;

J

lU

Bail,

kefil.

\em

*J

yem-VErmek Bake,

v.a.

s.

Ballot,

;

^,

;

,

v.a.

cJ>^x/*j

v.n.

5.

^

balon, ^ JtW chAdzr.

kur"a,yi3l.,j piyanko.

te-Ji

s. jjj~<\3

^^J

cXoj V

^

;

5.

muzika.

.&/<*

sarghz.

c

surmek,

^^Ai

s.

nefy-et

^yjy^

<^AJJ

;

Banker,

1

;

(j

^^

ri

^.

Bankruptcy, s.

j

Banquet,

^rm,

Bar,

etmekji

J>

^^-^\

*^

1

surghyun, ^Ju l

su-kEnari

mufliss.

^jJ^o s.

cA-fU

J^J

muflisslik.

ju

bayrak,

sXnjak,

bandara. s.

u^%L5

(ekmekji)

;

kol

5.

kumsAl

;

ziyafet.

etmekji-duk-

szrik

;

J

;

mant-61.

[kyani.

Barb,

s.

;

sarraf (saraf).

Baptize, v.a. \j~A\) waftiz-et. s.

t-

banka.

uJ

s.

Bankrupt,

fmnda-pishir-

^

u^^s

s.

l

Bakery,

JlL takim,

;

def"-et.

Banner,

yemlEmek.

tiX4-lJ

fmnji. s.

klmish.

5.

sedd

pishmek.

Bake-house,

sXfra.

^V>

s.

balo.

jib

;

<d

;

tiirkyu.

x&

s.

Bamboo, Band,

^$j

yumak

kurshun

^~>j

.

JHCJJ

;

J^ kM.

;

nefy.

[pirti.

cX^-J^jJjJ

mek;

Baker,

Ballad,

Bank,

ish-yok.

keyssE.

Jutf

5.

Bait,

l>l

;

L-il eshya, cJy, yuk,

5.

Baggage, s.

L-^^ top

Banishment,

s. fo

Bag,

5.

surghyun-et,

s.

a.

Ball,

Banish, v.a.

muz) passdirmassi. Bad,

C)J J denk.

Bandage,

kzchm-kzchm.

Jj

Bacon,

5.

bMuk

6yunu.

tirss,

Bale,

Balloon,

;

iP*-tjl <UjU

a.

Ballast,

rowing) I&M* siyE-et.

in

5.

Backgammon,

;

bXshJ-tlss

Bald,

ghyullfi; s*rt

gheri, fa

*^j

n. (a

tJ>*

-<

ad.

,

gheriya,

arka

tsrss

(j-y

;

;

and

&\

cJj J denk. .l^&lii shahnishm.

s.

Balcony,

Babel- shehiri.

u^i Jjlj

s.

bebek.

maymun.

^+*-~<>

(Jfc-j>- chojuk,

Babylon,

a.

Balanced,

bo^Az. Babe,

muhass6b6-deftEri.

J>\ L-^c.

"arab-Att.

,

;

v.a.


BARBARIAN Barbarian,

5.

BEACON

turk,

cJ^

*jt^-J*>j

vahshi-AdAm. 5.

Barbarity,

Barbarous,

{sizlik.

insaniyyet-

cJ^~-~?Jl~-^

a.

insaniyyetsiz

JO-jLjl

;

Barber,

5.

5.

Barberries,

Bard,

(j^b.*^

s.jS\J*

Bare,

a.

,

Barefoot, ad.

Barely, ad.

achzk

;

pazarh'k

&j*\*

sAiidAl,

^Ij

ov

navi

v.n.

maghoua

;

fh'ka.

;

haw-

,

,

;

kA-

v.a.

s.

Barometer,

s.

\^*)j\j* \j&

Barrel,

^^^

5.

dl^J

i^Ji keshla,

*.

fzchz,

tfe^j

varil

;

gun-

double-barrel

gun,

<&zs>~

a.

J-J^Asr* Barricade,

Barrow,

10 -'

mahjub, ~.UjlLj!

<LJO

s. s.

+,**

s.

,y+&* chanak

kyassE,

[^>-

fessass.

(j~\~i\ s.

Bason,

C-jl-sr^ hijab.

5.

&

seped,

s.

Bastard,

s.

bassra.

^2; and

a.

-^u pich.

Bastinado,

s.

Bastion,

^-Juz tAbiya.

Bath,

s.

jUt

dayak.

(J***^ chomak

s.

&~> J yerassa. i

;

*Uk- hAmmAm

5.

kyufjE.

^^J le^En.

Bassora,

Bat,

;

hawz.

(hAniAin).

<V.^ suya-ghirmek

;

-

kssr

mahsulszz 5.

.^J 5.

Ji

j^>^

;

^^.ttojS. Jl

;

<Jj->-

J-^^-

^ib

kApi.

jyb

s.

Battalion,

tAbur.

s. 4-jjlb

s.

Battle,

muharebE.

Bay,

v.w.

5.

tAbiya.

LLXi^- jenk, Ic^i (kawgha)>

<oA.sr*

Bawl,

du^^mek.

[ba^Azrmak.

^<Ji*>- haykzrmak,

(gulf)JJ;^

kywrfez

;

xi-<.clj

(tree) <U5t>

defnE; (colour) jj 5 J doru.

O-iAJ' cbift^-tuf^k.

Barrier,

Basin,

Battery, kzshlagh.

(^^^^'cX^-i-A-j tufe^ing-

-demiri;

Barren,

c^sr

d^'z-ma^lum.

^.L?

5

Batter, v.a. LL^/..jJ

C-^A! j bir-lakb.

5.

Barracks,

barrel,

;

yzkamak. hawa-terazissi.

^.^A! J bir-lakb.

5.

Baronet,

ka"idE

toj\ arptz.

Barn, s.j(*J\ anbar.

Baron,

*jLjt*o

Bathe, v.w. Ci^^-ji

bughunu-soymak. Barley,

s.

a.

Basket, ,

;

5.

lamak

^Acljj

;

(J-*\ Alchttk.

-

Bashfulness,

Basis,

yAlm-ayak.

ghyuch-bela.

J^jJ/J

5.

Barge,

J^-S

;

pazarh'k-et.

WjljV,

Bark,

^~-

a

kyursi

^ij>

Bashful,

J^*-^ achmak.

v.a.

jy^jJU

5.

Bargain,

tranpa-et,

^<UJ^J'

utAnghAch.

jV=*- chiplAk

jjs kuru;

s.

Base-line,

sha"z'r.

n.

dtyAish-et.

Base, >

"anbErbariss.

tranpa,

<LJy

and

v.a.

LJ kAba, LccLjJ tErbiyyessiz.

JJ bErbsr.

s.

Barter,

ch&l,

khayrszz.

^^ bir-nev'i[mani"-duwar.

El-"Arabassz.

Bayonet, Be,

5.

mak, Beach,

j^ 5.

Beacon,

L

,-0^-j

sunghyu.

(J^*\ olmak;

v.n.

5.

^Ty*

bulun-

mevjud-ol.

iJ^\*3.Jb

^lU

(JP^|*J

yAh'-kEnari.

nishAn,

c^^^ "alamet.


BEAD Bead,

J

s. 5.

beads,

Beak,

cJ^ Beam,

wood)

light)

(J^J>

Bedridden,

;

kirish

(broad) &i]Jb bXklo

5.

(of

;

<uLusi fassulyflf.

Bear,

s.

ayi

y\

klld/rmak

;

mul-et;

(fruit,

Beard,

tahm-

cj,/.cs^

J^>s.

Bearing,

ker^vet.

s.

hamil, ^JJj^J

arpa-suyu, ^-^ bira.

s.

s.

s.

Beastliness,

Beastly, a.

Beat,

s.

jihet,

v.a.

come)

s.

jLL a.

Beautiful, s.

Beauty, Beaver,

bozmak, Ic^J^

(J-*)jj

Beating,

5.

Ci)JJj/

Becalmed,

a.

c.

\jj

v.n.

Become,

ghyuzellik

;

Bed,

s.

c

}*$)&

t;.a.

Jjl

Evvel,

UjJi-o

-mukXd-

isst^mek,

v.n,

CX.^L J

UUU-

1

dilEnmek.

^J

hlsszl-et,

7^P'

J^V.

(procreate)

;

5.

^^aclLj dilEnji. and w. ^jkLl^ bXshlamak. 5.

Beginning,

bAshlanghzj

Behaviour,

s.

chunku,

^j->-

^Ij

;

Ijcjl

blsh

;

^i^lj

ibtida, Jj^

e^=r^ j j> \

Behead,

isharet-et.

(J^j\

olmak

;

(suit)

Xtwar,

EWE!.

tawr-u-

Le-

ha-

ytak,

bXshini

v.a.

kessmek,

t

boyununu

-wurmak.

yak/shmak.

Jflsj

Beget,

Begin, v.a.

[hussn.

J^'V.

zira,

^CUj'-l!

v.n.

^i.lJJb

jjj cX*->! ,

jJ^i^jH

ad.

,

;

time)

(in

;

dlbek-Eli.

tej\ uny\ma,

front)

;

;

shu-sebebdan-ki.

ijf+~ij& Beckon,

v.a.

Beggar,

ghyuzel,

ruzghyarsiz yXtmak. Because,

(in

bwjek

mak, M*XJ peyda-et.

kunduz. (to be)

;

Trass- et

Alt-et.

dayak.

Jj^^=

)j^>

Beg,

(over-

;

C3^j

J^CXJ*3

wn^unda

dilEmek

du^Amek

(jj^t3

&c.)

dan-EWEl

dErna

murdar.

j\j*

jssrb pXnjr.

miikAddEm,

murdArlik.

J^j]^*

s.

(insect)

j9r.

X&'*j\

haywAn.

(Jj~=>~

bXl-mumu.

(fullers',

Before,

darends.

^~~$FT

(direction)

*~j\ Xri-k6wXni.

s.

Beetle,

[khltzr-et.

bXl-Xrisst.

s^Az'r-eti.

Beet, Beetroot,

doghur-

<j^j^

Jb

odassi.

ghyulghsn,

arma. &J> k^rtE; (armorial) ^<j\ Beast,

>j\

Bees'-wax,

vir-

clX^5

JUus skAl.

s.

5.

^J\

s.

Beer,

dayanmak,

der to bear in mind, \js\^j^

s.

Bedstead,

Beehive,

<j^o^)lJJ

> i

&c.)

(children)

;

Bearer,

L*i

(j~<*-J

chekmek,

mak

v.a.

,

;

Vtak

jfy,

Beef,

Cl3v*x>-

mek;

kyuturum.

s.

Beech,

(kidney)

;

a.

Bedroom,

Bee,

shu"A",^-J pirtev.

J*-$>

(of flowers)

;

tesC takhta.

emzik. (of

tAbAka

(stratum)

;

*A+~3 tessbih.

pi.

5.

Bean,

tessbih-dane'ssi

^clc ghagha ^*jj> burun,

s.

BEHIND

[50]

cXij^

dushek

;

Behind,

pv.

ardm,


BEHINDHAND ardmda

arkassma,

;

arkassmda

;

gherissinda

gheri,

ad.

,

;

iJi^Jrb gherida,

&*\jj

VErada.

^er^ ghech

ad.

v.n.

K*

;

to be

ghech-kAlmak

^

Behold, v.a.

s.

K

shey;

1*1^3^1.0

mfevjudiyyfet,

llsr*

Beleaguer, v.a.

Belgium,

^U-.s~

Ifuy v.a.

Believe,

CX^;^

,

Beloved,

a.

jjjz

(mas.)

5.

;

^-^

;

^j^,

yrtnmda

fcr+ss?

;

tahtmda

^Ujl

;

^V j

;

zirina,

Xlt-

^'^JyJ

zT-

a^!l

ac?.

,

;

X&^zsT

tahtena,

zirda

Belt,

s.

(strap)

Bench,

^\s

;

^> kEmEr, s.

s^ra,

Xj*

kayish

imAn.

I^^Ji

;

peyks;

&c.)

(car-

desstghyah

Bend,

cLL*i

v.a.

^Amek

>*

mak

;

mak

;

bend down,

--

,

v.a.

Xn^ (of

(small)

;

a

time-

notice,

chingarak-asan-ehli-san"at.

yatir-

ytmak.

;

J^oJ de^mz;

J^^jjlj ytfkzshmz.

Benefactor,

^

charpzl-

(J-<^>\\

v.n, ^-4.5 w

v.n.

,

;

Beneath, pr. teA\ Xlt/n, iJccll Xltrnda

mu'min,

LI^JC.^ Jjb!

(waist-

;

kushXk.

,3'i <s-j

inwnmak,

zil.

5.

Xltmda

(tezghyah).

Beljika.

chingharXk;

Bell-hanger,

;

(fern.)

Alt-ynma, Jf)cju^

penter's,

l^twl imAn-et.

;

Aijc^^

ma-dun und

Jj

SEvghili

Altma, *Jc^

Below, ^r. Aii

band)

Beljikali.

(large)

J^^piece)

makhsuss-61

ma"shuk;

jj^x^c

musslim.

BeU,

"AZIZ

\

muhlssera-et.

^jlij|

5.

Believer,

^a&*

v.n.

v

s. &*.(.:==:

Jjjy kulXk-vErmek

i"tikXd-et

kywruk.

karn.

^j\s

Belong,

tuj (tunch).

ghfyAirmek,

;

jUifi\ i^tikld

Belief, 5.

\#j&

rinda;

ghe^Airma, i**J gheyirma.

s.

s.

du^Amek.

CJ-^C^D

CA^,^ ghfeyirmek

a.

s.

All Ah.

<d!\

cJ^J

v.w.

^^

k^ynun^t.

Being, the Supreme, Belabour, v.a.

var-

varlzk, t)j>-j

^j\j

v^oJ^-^c

Belgian,

Bellows,

~3 or ~jb

ma"shuka.

(existence)

viijud,

Belch,

Bell-metal,

tellal.

J!ta

s.

muharib.

L-^s"

muta"allik-61;

ishta,

f~j* mevjud, ^j'j^j

;

kfevn,

fc~s\

(thing)

kya'in,

6lAn

int.

,

5.

s.

mensub-ol.

<J^b bXkmak, cX^U=5

ghywrmek; U na.

and

;

dX<ted^j yetishEmamek.

Being,

Bell-man,

Belly,

Behindhand, ,

BENEFICENT

]

Belligerent, a.

X>

gherissina;

rfLi.-jj^O

Xi~sjjJ=a 3j*>

[51

s. Lj?<Aiii

Beneficence, Beneficent,

a.

* *K

one's

one,

[veli-ni"met. efendi,

l~ =*-' ihsan.

s.

;

kerim. F 2


BENEFICIAL Beneficial, a.

j^l; yarar

;

BILGE

to be

v.n.

,

.->

Benefit,

CiJW

wilik,

(jl~>-!

ihsan,

khayr,

menfa"at u ni"met

mak, Ujjls

;

v.a.

,

;

fa'idE-et

<J^e y, yara-

v.n.

by,

;

Bestow,

cJi^-JJ^L*>-

s.

endishlik.

v.a.

Betray,

a.

J**-

a.

Benign,

Benumbed,

a.

to

^

uyushmak

i

;

uyushmush, be

v.n.

,

cold)

(with

5.

Bequest,

Berry, Berth,

t

j

5.

khMmet

ysr

<5J^ danE (tans).

(employ)

Jj^ Uj daha-

daha-a^la. jor.

di-^j!

rasszn,

<UU-J

beynina,

;

<Ui-jLo mabeynina,

;

mabeyninda;

,

ad.

yXlvarmak,

(J*j$\

Beside, pr. fcj u

araya, ij'jlarada; iJuj-jUjmabeynda.

Beveled, a.j--i shev.

5.

z??^.

sakz'n

,^'^

;

\

\&-j

^J ;

bXshk,

J^J

dan-bXshka,

dan-ma"ada, ^LsJ^J ,

ad.

iiJUj^Jo^

A&l.j^jO^

dan-

Andan-

bundn-bXshk,

Besiege, v.a. \2^\JK* muhlssara-et. [&c. v.a.

>\*--

v.n

skmmak.

^/iJjU^l

siparish-et.

issmarlamak,

J^*Xc "udul

s.

Bias,

;

book.

Bier,

^

^mr-et

cJ-J _y...

kojamln;

a

(at

;

sale) j

(

5.

Bigotry,

-

,

with child) <U^= ghebE.

Bigoted, 5.

i _

biyuk, u?'y^ ^ >

Bight, s.^ij^ kywrfez, Bigot,

(God's

VErmek.

t-^.jlj tlbut.

5.

a.

meyl.

[^^/.J

v.a.

Bid,

J-*^e

a^lJlc-jl^ kitlbu-'lllh

s.

Bible,

ym'na, iJCJu ytfnznda,

<L<LL

,

&^~i<ti Beyond, pr, &*~&j,\ j j wt^ssinE,

Big, pr.

fa\J

Ashm.

^jLi>^J; kushXtmak, ^^-s^ hujum-et.

r

n-

L^-^^cA>-

^^^ic^^r'^ etrafzm-Almflk,

Beset, v.a.

Bespeak,

[kyah-et.

Bewilder, v.a. ^^iJ^l-ij shashirtmak.

rija-et, |jlj niyaz-et.

Besides,

Uj

beyninda

iJ^i...'!^

n.

kha'inlzk-et,

(hzzmet).

v.a.

Beseech,

;

*'^^i-J

and

v.a.

akd-et,

arassmda

Jfj)ltf

^? mahrum.

^*? yemish,

s.

ghyuzel, lei

Beware,

LZ^-^j vwAssiyet.

Bereft, a, **

J^J\^

(

Better, a.^^ltoJ daha-iyi,

Bevel,

\<^+*a* vwXssiyet-et.

v.a.

,

;

v.a.

Betroth,

^J^.-^1

don^mak. Bequeath,

bahss \

Between, Betwixt,

shwfakAt.

^,*u>^J

uyushuk

(j;*j.>jl

khayr-

khayrli.

e^&Ll

5.

Benignity,

khayr-

^Jjj^*-^

L->ssr bahss-et.

[\

c^o?

5.

\A\XJ\

VErmek,

in"am-et. Bet,

en^-a^la.

khzyanet-et.

[-endish.

Benevolent,

bujak.

CJ^j

v.a.

LlX<^*Jol5 fa'idE-ghywrmek. Benevolence,

*^^

s.

jJcJ ^-Tyi, \.\^}\

a.

Best,

(J^j^l yaramak. s.

Bessarabia,

^^^jfj

a. tii'

0*3 koy c^v^sx^o miitassub.

[

Assz'b.

Bile, s. \jk* SAfra (sAfra).

Bilge,

s.

A^-^-J sentina

;

bilge-water,

sentina-suyu.


BILIOUS a.

Bilious,

s.

;

<Jiclc

)

sAtzr

j^LLo tAhvTl

ghagha;

of parcels,

<nLjJ

pussla

s.

Bill-broker,

J*^^

exchequer

;

^

/*~s

c_>jL,

5.

or

LLJoj==

;

(soldier's V

<sL?4j

)

*\J^s

kyutuk

cJjj konak

,

;

konak-et.

v;Uy

Billet-doux,

s.

xj*&*

v.a.

v.a.

[nama.

(French)

^J^Lib

ba^Mamak

5.

^y 5.

Birdlime, Birth,

5.

Biscuit,

ghevrek, Bisect, u.a.

^sj-lc!

Bite, v.a. Bitter, a.

jl>-

^U

jild,

Blame,

<fcj\5

^o

?

)

^J^^clJ

;

(grass

(fault)

nAmh'

[ladet. (JLJJjf.

)cJ^

O-o-LJi kAbahat ,

;

v.a.

;

(cen-

<*z~+->-^-?3

^jtj.^ kAbahat-hulmflk, (^lj|j^ Azar-

Blank,

vfe-

kalyeta.

J

a,

^4.'

bosh;

(without ball)

J^.-ij^J kurshunsuz; point-blank,

J^.i^-c/*lj

blank ,

kebissa.

parcha tU^.llalJ!

kXnjik. zsstrmak.

<&-\ Xii.

;

J^ y^prAk.

)

tAmm-menzil

;

4;

JUJl

cartridge,

kuru-sikz'ya-Atmak

;

to fire with

..

JL^ j^J

s.

(space)

^.\7 tanszf-et.

^jb

^^^^

"tid.

lamak, \*._^++AJ ttt"yzb-et.

+=> ghem, Jscfa

3*-

)

^s-^cJ

)ji\\ghz; (shoulder

s.

.

sidik-kawu-

^e^

sure) j\j\ Azar

^l^

kayn-A^ajt.

doghush,

^^

or

(sword

kyurek

CUJjL veladet-ghywnM.

Bissextile, 5. <L~--

5.

5.

kundura-

s.

(gall s.

^xs^i

chlpkmlik.

[demirji

s.

(knife

^lbti

;

<L-^1 uksE.

Bit, 5. (piece)

Bitch,

ghu;

CL?U*Jj peks&net, (iJ^Ss

s.

bridle)

chApkzn, 5.

^

s.

Bladder,

kush.

^ifiji? 5.

Birthday,

s.

Blacksmith,

(

;

[kAb.

(of a book),

Birch-tree, 5.

[kyulkhani.

bdyassz.

Blade,

kAblamak.

Bird,

derss-

5.

Blackguard,

<ulvLc "Ashk-

books) CXtJjuS^- jildl^mek

Binding

kara-tawuk.

Blackboard,

;

Bin, s.jUj^ anbar.

Bind,

s.

Blackberry,

Blacking,

,

;

arab.

tahtassi.

tAhvfl-

pusslo,

siyah

i

5.

Blackguardism, (note)

a

Blackbird, 5

-simsarf.

tezkE>E

,

;

"arab.

S-^

1

kh^zmE-tahvIli.

^^s-Yojj^-

Billet,

bosh-b6^AAZ

tj* kAra,

Blackamoor,

<^^>- hawalE;

(cheque)

;

a.

(negro)

;

(for cutting)

of exchange,

;

Black,

<tL^J

(for advertising) dcJb yAfta

(bird's

,

deftEr,

(account) jziJ

pussla

^/-^

5.

Blab,

;

sAfrassz-kAbanmsh.

^L<j[^3 Bill,

sAfravi

Ojyu?

BLEACH

[53]

Blanket, ;

s,

^Ujy jJjls

^neia-yurghAn.

of a

Blaspheme,

v.a. lu-^-- sebb-et.

kAntarma.

Blasphemy,

s.

(

Blaze,

s.

^Lc

^

kyufr.

"alev

;

v.n.

"alevlEnmek. Bleach, tf.. Jp^lil A^^armak,


BLEACHER beyAzlanmak

mak

v.a.

;

BODY

[54]

mk.

bozmak, Lir?V tErkm-et.

^i'^Jy

Bleacher,

s.

,e.f^\j^^eliU

Bleed, v.n.

Blow,

chirpiji.

kXnamak;

5.

j^jj (wurush), u^l>~ chAb'sh; fist, &x.L,,-c mushta (mis-

of the

v.a.

,

ti^-"-^- chizmek,

out,

;

;

fortune) L^-^lj felakEt

Blemish,

.A.^ sakAt,

5.

Bless, v.a. (man to

du"a-et et

;

man)

(man

;

(God

to

zarar

to

du a

s.

God)

C^y Blind, a.

nose,

Uj^>-

khayri-

God's goodness)

of

bere"kEt.

j

kywr,

a"ma

v.a.

,

;

\j<> kywr-et.

^^jlJ klbarpk

(vesicatory) .Jil

ykz

kXbarmak,

v.a.

;

,i>.rc.

;

;

(J'*;^

(J}*3j\+i kAbart-

mak. (block of stone)

(kXh'p)

kyiituk v.n.

;

;

^UrtAsh;

(of

(mould) L^Jlj

^.^L.Jf

kXpamak,

^J^cla-b t^kamak.

Blockade,

s.

hlssara

5.

v.a.

,

5.