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÷Õ]B ÂV¶V”\[≈› º>Ï>_ 2014

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√V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚E : º>Vu≈D, k·ÏflE, ÿÔV^ÁÔÔ^

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ƒJÔ ¤™ÂVBÔD

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√∑Á\¬ Ô‚E

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>twÔ \¬Ô”¬z √ËkV™ ºkı|ºÔV^

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\¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_ ÷¶Œm¬ˇ| >MBVÏ mÁ≈l_ ÷¶Œm¬ˇ| ƒV] º\D√V‚|¬ z§X| \ı¶_zø ∂§¬ÁÔ Â|kı WÆk™∫Ôπ_ ÷¶Œm¬ˇ| ¿]›mÁ≈l_ ÷¶Œm¬ˇ| 9.

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√^π¬Ô_s (School Education) cBÏÔ_s (Higher Education)

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10. ÂÈkVμ°

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ÿ>Vu≈V> ºÂVFÔ^ >|©A› ]‚¶D (NCD Action Plan) 11.

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\m \uÆD AÁÔlÁÈ Œa©A

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skƒVB›Á> ∂a¬zD *›º>[, ®ˆkV•¬ zwVF ]‚¶∫Ô^ ´›m ÔVÈWÁÈ \Vu≈D (Climate Change) A]B A›>Vl´\Vı| º\D√V‚| ÷ȬzÔ^ (Post-2015 Development Agenda) ̶∫z·D, Ô_√V¬ÔD ∂b cÁÈ ]ÚkıV\ÁÈ Ô°›] \uÆD ºkΩB©√[ \ÁÈ \´√b \Vu≈D 13. \M> cˆÁ\Ô^

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15. ∂´EB_ ∂Á\©Afl ƒ‚¶D

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18. ÿ>Va_mÁ≈ k·ÏflE

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kÚ∫ÔVÈ Ák©A W] A]B {F∆]B› ]‚¶D ´›m E_ÈÁ´ kËÔ›]_ ºÂ´Ω ∂ÕWB x>‹| g•^ ÔV©¨| ºƒÁk kˆ ´›m 22. Ô‚¶Á\©A º\D√V|

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√VmÔV¬Ô©√‚¶ zΩ¿Ï m©A´° kƒ] (Sanitation) ÿ>V¶ÏkıΩ› mÁ≈ ]‚¶∫Ô^ t[ƒV´D º\‚˘Ï, ºƒÈD √z]¬z ÔVsˆ c√ˆ ¿Ï 23. c^·V‚E

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1. x[–Á´ zΩÿƒFkVϬ ˛_ÁÈ √ÚkD \ΩÿƒFm \V™∫ ÔÚ>¬ ÿÔ|Dî á z≈^ zΩ cBÏk>uÔV™ ÿƒB_ ÿƒF˛[≈kϬz cˆB ÔVÈD ®[Æ Œ[Æ ÷_ÁÈ. >[ \V™D ÔÚ]¬ ÔÈ∫˛™VºÈV, √ËBVu≈¬ ÔVÈD k´‚|D ®[Æ ºƒVÏ°¶[ >B¬ÔD ÔV‚Ω™VºÈV zΩ\¬Ôπ[ ÂÈ[ ÊÏzÁÈÕms|D. >tμÂV‚Ω_ 24á4á2014gD ÂV^ ÂÁ¶ÿ√≈ ÷Ú¬˛[≈ ÂV¶V”\[≈› º>Ï>_ >twÔ k´ÈVu§_ tÔ x¬˛B\V™ º>Ï>ÈVzD. ∂˛È ÷Õ]B ∂·s_, ªwo_ cÈÔ ƒV>Á™ √Á¶›> ÷Õ]´V ÔV∫˛´∑ g‚EÁB ∂ÔuÆk>uÔV™ kVF©Á√ ÷Õ>› º>Ï>_ kw∫˛•^·m. >tμÂV‚Ω_ Ô¶Õ> 48 gı|Ô·VÔ ∂]xÔá]xÔ Ô‚EÔº· g”∫Ô‚EBVÔ \‚|t[§, ÂV¶V”\[≈› º>Ï>oKD ÷Õ>¬ Ô‚EÔº· ÿku§ ÿ√uÆ kÕ>™. ∂_Èm ÷Õ>¬ Ô‚EÔπ[ g>´° ÿ√uº≈VÏ ÿku§ ÿ√uÆ kÕ>™Ï. ÷>uz \Vu≈VÔ ∂]xÔ á ]xÔ ∂_ÈV> \VuÆ ∂Ë >M©ÿ√ÚD ÿku§ ÿ√Æk>uÔV™ kVF©Á√ ÷Õ>› º>Ï>_ cÚkV¬˛› >Õm^·m. ÷Õ> k´ÈVuÆ kVF©Á√ Âøks¶¬Ì¶Vm ®™ √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚E cÆ]ºBuÆ^·m. >twÔ›]_ √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚E ∂∫ÔD k˛¬zD º>EB ¤™ÂVBÔ¬ Ì‚¶Ë ÿku§ ÿ√Æk>[ JÈD, ÷Õ]BVs[ >ÁÈÁ\ ∂Á\flƒ´VÔ ]Ú.º´Õ]´ º\VΩ ∂kÏÔ^ º>ÏÕÿ>|¬Ô©√|kVÏÔ^. ∂>[JÈD ÷Õ]B \¬Ô”D >tμÂV‚| \¬Ô”D tÔfl E≈Õ> √È[ÔÁ· ∂Á¶kVÏÔ^; ®_ºÈVÚD ®_ÈV ∂Ω©√Á¶› º>ÁkÔ”D ˛Á¶¬Ô©ÿ√uÆ k·\VÔ kVøD WÁÈ ƒV›]B\VzD ®™ √V.\.Ô. ÂDA˛≈m.

2. √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚E : º>Vu≈D á k·ÏflE á ÿÔV^ÁÔÔ^ ƒJÔ c Ï°D, \¬Ôπ[ ÂÈM_ ∂¬ÔÁ≈•D ÿÔVı¶ \¬Ô^ ÔVkÈÏ \Ú›mkÏ ∂FBV ∂kÏÔ^ \¬ÔÁ· x[MÆ›] √V|√¶¬ÌΩB ŒÚ ∂´EB_ ÷B¬Ô\VÔ √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚EÁB 1989gD gı| WÆs™VÏ ®[√Á> >twÔD Â[z ∂§•D. \¬Ô^ k·ÏflE ∂Á¶•D º√Vm>V[ ŒÚ \VWÈD x[º™≈ xΩ•D ®[√m √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚El[ ∂Ω©√Á¶fl E›>VÕ>D. z§©√VÔ Œ|¬Ô©√‚¶, >Vμ›>©√‚¶, tÔ°D ∏u√|›>©√‚¶, ∏u√|›>©√‚¶ \uÆD EÆ√V[Á\ \¬Ô^, ƒJÔ, ÿ√VÚ·V>V´, Ô_s \uÆD ÔÈVflƒV´ Z]BVÔ k·ÏflE ∂Á¶B ºkı|D. ∂>uÔV™ º√V´V‚¶¬ Ô·›Á> cÚkV¬˛¬ ÿÔV|©√m ÷¬Ô‚El[ ÿƒB_]‚¶\VÔ ∂Á\Õm^·m. >ÕÁ> ÿ√ˆBVÏ, ∂ı_ ∂Dº√›ÔÏ, cÈÔ© º√´§QÏ ÔV´_ \VϬ∑ g˛ºBVˆ[ >›mk∫Ô·V™ ƒJÔ¿], ƒ™ÂVBÔD, ƒ\›mkD, \M>ºÂBD g˛Bku§[ ∂Ω›>·›]_ √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚E ∂Á\¬Ô©√‚|^·m. 5


>ta™© º√V´Vπ \Ú›mkÏ ∂FBV ∂kÏÔπ[ º√V´V‚¶∫Ô·VKD, >[™È\u≈ ºƒÁkÔ·VKD >twÔ \¬Ô”¬z, z§©√VÔ, ∏u√|›>©√‚¶, tÔ°D ∏u√|›>©√‚¶, >Vμ›>©√‚¶, EÆ√V[Á\ \¬Ô”¬z ∞´V·\V™ ƒJÔ© √B[Ô^ ˛Á¶›m^·™ ®[√Á> >twÔ \¬Ô^ c ÏÕ]Ú¬˛≈VÏÔ^.

3. ƒJÔ ¤™ÂVBÔD

(Social Democracy)

ƒx>VB›][ ŒÀÿkVÚ zΩ\Ô–D ∑>Õ]´\V™, ¿]BV™ kVμ¬ÁÔÁB kVw ºkı|D ®[√m>V[ ƒJÔ ¤™ÂVBÔ›][ ∂Ω©√Á¶ gzD. \¬Ôπ[ ∂Ω©√Á¶ cˆÁ\ÔÁ· cÆ] ÿƒFkm ∂´E[ Ô¶Á\. g™V_, ƒ‚¶›][ ˇμ cˆÁ\Ô^ WÁÈÂV‚¶©√‚¶V_ \‚|D º√V>Vm. ∂m ÂÁ¶xÁ≈lKD ÿƒB_ √|›>©√¶ ºkı|D. ®|›m¬ÔV‚¶VÔ, º√fl∑ˆÁ\, ÔÚ›mˆÁ\ÁB ƒ‚¶©√Ω ∂π›>V_ \‚|D º√V>Vm. zΩ\¬Ô^ ∂Õ> cˆÁ\ÁB© √B[√|›> ºkı|D ®[≈V_ ∂>uz ∂kÏÔ^ √Ω©√§Ák© ÿ√u§Ú¬Ô ºkı|D. gÔ, ‘ƒ‚¶›][ x[A ®_ºÈVÚD ƒ\D. ®_ºÈVÚ¬zD ∂Ω©√Á¶ zΩ cˆÁ\Ô^, ∂´EB_ cˆÁ\Ô^ cı|’ ®[Æ ŒÚ ∂´ƒV∫ÔD ∂§s©√º>V| ∂´E[ Ô¶Á\ xΩÕm º√Vkm ÷_ÁÈ. \V≈VÔ, ∂Õ> ∂Ω©√Á¶ cˆÁ\ÔÁ· \¬Ô^ cıÁ\BVÔºk √B[√|›] xøÁ\BV™ kVμ¬ÁÔ kVw ºkı|D ®[≈V_ á \¬Ôπ[ ƒJÔ, ÿ√VÚ·V>V´, ÔÈVflƒV´ cˆÁ\ÔÁ·•D cÆ] ÿƒF>V_ \‚|º\ ∂m ƒV›]B\VzD. ®™ºk, º√fl∑ˆÁ\, ÔÚ›mˆÁ\, {‚|© º√V|D cˆÁ\ \‚|\_È á c|¬Ô cÁ¶, ÷Ú¬Ô ÷¶D, cı c °, Â_È Ô_s, \Ú›mk kƒ] ®™ ®_ÈVkuÁ≈•D \¬Ô^ ∂Á¶kÁ> cÆ] ÿƒFB ºkı|D ®[√m ƒJÔ ¤™ÂVBÔ›][ ÷ȬÔVzD. ƒJÔ ¤™ÂVBÔD ®[√>[ ∂Ω©√Á¶¬ ÿÔV^ÁÔÔ·VÔ x[ Ák¬Ô©√|√Ák : ∑>Õ]´D, ƒ\›mkD \uÆD ¿], ƒJÔ ŒÚÁ\©√V| g˛B™kVzD. ÷Õ]B ∂´EB_ ÷B¬Ô∫Ôπ_ √V.\.Ô. ŒÚ ƒJÔ ¤™ÂVBÔ ∂´EB_ Ô‚EBVÔ ÷B∫zD; ÷B∫˛¬ ÿÔVıΩÚ¬˛≈m.

4. √∑Á\¬ Ô‚E (Green Party) √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚E ŒÚ √∑Á\ ∂´EB_ ÷B¬Ô\VÔ ÿƒB_√|D. Ô‚El_ ®Õ> ŒÚ ÿ√VÆ©A¬zD º>ÏÕÿ>|¬Ô©√|ºkVÏ √›m \´¬Ô[ÆÔÁ· ‚| k·Ï©√m Ô‚¶VBD ®[˛≈ s]xÁ≈ÁB cÚkV¬˛ ÿƒB_√|›] kÚD Ô‚E √V.\.Ô.>V[. ∑uÆflÛw_ √VmÔV©A, \V∑√V‚ΩÁ™ >|›>_, ºk·Vı WÈ›Á>•D ÷BuÁÔfl ÛwÁÈ•D ÔV©√VuÆ>_, ÷BuÁÔ ºk·VıÁ\¬z kakz›>_, \´√b \Vu≈›Á>•D, ∂bƒ¬]ÁB•D ®]Ï›>_, As ÿk©√\Á¶>ÁÈ ®]ÏÿÔV^”>_ á ®™ √È WÁÈ©√V|Ô^ JÈD √V.\.Ô. √∑Á\ ∂´EBÁÈ ÿ>V¶ÏÕm x[ÿ™|©√m¶[ ÿƒB_√‚|¬ ÿÔVı|D ÷Ú¬˛≈m. 6


cÈÔ·VsB √∑Á\ ∂´EB_ ÷B¬Ô∫Ô^ x[Ák›m^· √∑Á\ ∂´EB_ ∏´Ô¶™›Á> (Charter of the Global Greens) √V.\.Ô.°D kaÿ\Va˛≈m. ∂>[ gÆ ÿÔV^ÁÔÔ·V™ ÛwoB_ ∂§° (Ecological Wisdom), ƒJÔ¿] (Social Justice), √∫ºÔuA ¤™ÂVBÔD (Participatory Democracy), k[xÁ≈ ®]Ï©A (Nonviolence), k·∫z[≈V WÁÈ (Sustainability), √[xÔ› >[Á\ÁB \]›>_ (Respect for Diversity) ®[√™kuÁ≈ >twÔ ∂·sKD ÷Õ]B ∂·sKD ÿƒBÈV¬Ô √V.\.Ô. xBKD.

5. >twÔ \¬Ô”¬z √ËkV™ ºkı|ºÔV^ >tμÂV‚Ω[ sÁ´kV™ k·ÏflE, \> Â_o ¬ÔD, ƒV]B ÷ ¬ÔD, ∑uÆflÛw_ √V]¬ÔV> ÿ√VÚ·V>V´ k·ÏflE, \¬Ôπ[ º\D√V‚|¬ÔVÔ ∂Á™›m >´©A \¬Ôπ[ ÂÈ[Ô^ g˛BkuÁ≈ x[MÆ›] \¬Ô”¬z gu§B ºƒÁkBV_ >twÔ›]_ √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚E x>[Á\BV™ ŒÚ ∂´EB_ Ô‚EBVÔ cÚkV˛•^·m. º>EB ¤™ÂVBÔ Ì‚¶Ël_ >tμÂV‚Ω[ 8 ÂV¶V”\[≈› ÿ>Vz]Ôπ_ º√V‚Ωl|D √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚E ºk‚√V·ÏÔ”¬z ‘\VD√wD’ E[™›]_ kV¬Ôπ›m ÿ√ÚkVˆBV™ kV¬z s›]BVƒ›]_ \Ô›>V™ ÿku§ÿ√≈fl ÿƒF•\VÆ >twÔ kV¬ÔV·ÏÔÁ· √V.\.Ô. ºkıΩ ºÔ‚|¬ ÿÔV^˛≈m. ∂ÀkVº≈ Amflºƒˆ ÿ>Vz]l_ º√V‚Ωl|D √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚E ºk‚√V·Ú¬z ‘\VD√wD’ E[™›]_ kV¬Ôπ›m ÿ√ÚkVˆBV™ kV¬zÔ^ s›]BVƒ›]_ ÿku§ÿ√≈fl ÿƒF•\VÆ Amflºƒˆ \VWÈ kV¬ÔV·ÏÔÁ· √V.\.Ô. ºkıΩ¬ ºÔ‚|¬ ÿÔV^˛≈m. ÷º>º√V_ ‘>V\Á´’ E[™›]_ º√V‚Ωl|D √V.¤.Ô. ºk‚√V·ÏÔ”¬zD, ‘x´∑’ E[™›]_ º√V‚Ωl|D º>.x.].Ô. ºk‚√V·ÏÔ”¬zD, ‘√D√´D’ E[™›]_ º√V‚Ωl|D \.].x.Ô. ºk‚√V·ÏÔ”¬zD, ÿÔV∫z ÂV| \¬Ô^ º>EB¬ Ô‚E, ÷Õ]B ¤™ÂVBÔ¬ Ô‚E, A]B ¿]¬ Ô‚E g˛B Ì‚¶Ë Ô‚El™Ú¬z >V\Á´fl E[™›]KD kV¬Ôπ›m ∂Á™kÁ´•D ÿ√ÚkVˆBV™ kV¬z s›]BVƒ›]_ \Ô›>V™ ÿku§BÁ¶Bfl ÿƒF•\VÆ >twÔ kV¬ÔV·© ÿ√Ú\¬ÔÁ· ºkıΩ sÚD∏ ºÔ‚|¬ ÿÔV^˛º≈VD.

6. √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚El[ ÂV¶V”\[≈fl ÿƒB_√V|Ô^ Ô¶Õ> ÔVÈ›]_, √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚El[ ƒVÏ√VÔ› º>ÏÕÿ>|¬Ô©√‚¶ ∂Á\flƒÏÔ”D, ÂV¶V”\[≈ cÆ©∏™ÏÔ”D, ÂV¶V”\[≈›]KD, ∂Á\flƒ´Ák lKD √ËBVu§ ÂV¶V”\[≈›]uz c^º·•D, ÿkπºB•D ÿkzkV™ √V´V‚|ÔÁ·© ÿ√uÆ ÷Ú¬˛≈VÏÔ^. \Ú›mkÏ ∂[A\Ë ÷´V\>V∑ ∂kÏÔ^ ÷Õ]BVs[ 124 ºÔVΩ \¬Ô”Á¶B ÂÈkVμsuÔVÔ ŒÚ A]B √VÁ>ÁB cÚkV¬˛ ÷Ú¬˛≈VÏ. Ô¶Õ> 66 gı| ÔVÈ k´ÈVu§_, ®Õ> \›]B Â_kVμ° \uÆD z|D√ÂÈ› mÁ≈ ∂Á\flƒÚD ÿƒFBV> ∂ˆB ƒV>Á™ÔÁ·fl ÿƒFm, ÷Õ]B \¬Ôπ[, z§©√VÔ ÷Õ]B› >ÁÈkÏÔπ[ √V´V‚Á¶© ÿ√u§Ú¬˛≈VÏ. ∂kÚÁ¶B º>EB ª´Ô Â_kVμ°› ]‚¶xD (NRHM) \uÆD √_ºkÆ A]B ÂÈka› ]‚¶∫Ô”D, ÷[Á≈¬zD ÿ√ˆB ∂·s_ √V´V‚¶©√|˛≈m, Ÿ>Ï ®_ ÿ¶Ïˆ sÚm, ƒÏkº>ƒfl ∑wuƒ∫Ô› >ÁÈkÏ sÚm, cÈÔ ÂÈkVμ°› mÁ≈ 7


WÆk™›][ sÚm (WHO) º√V[≈ sÚmÔÁ·© ÿ√u≈ \Ú›mkÏ ∂[A\Ë ÷´V\>V∑ ∂kÏÔ·V_ cÈÔ ∂´∫˛_ ÷Õ]BVs[ ÿ√ÚÁ\ k·ÏÕm ÷Ú¬˛≈m. 2002ágD gıΩoÚÕm 2009ágD gı| kÁ´, \›]B ∂´E[ ÿ>V¶ÏkıΩ› mÁ≈ ∂Á\flƒÔ›]_ √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚El[ ]Ú.∂.˛.JÏ›] ∂kÏÔ”D, ]Ú. ∂´∫Ô.ºkK ∂kÏÔ”D ∂Á\flƒÏ ÿ√VÆ©∏_ ÷ÚÕ]Ú¬˛[≈™Ï. ∂kÏÔ^ ÿ>V¶ÏkıΩ› mÁ≈l_ Ô ¬˛È¶∫ÔV x[º™u≈© √ËÔÁ· gu§, ÷Úı¶ ÔVÈ›]_ ÷ÚÕ> >twÔ›Á>© ÿ√VuÔVÈ› >twÔ\VÔ cÚkV¬˛, ®_ÈV \¬Ôπ[ ∞ºÔV∏›> k´ºkuÁ√© ÿ√u§Ú¬˛[≈™Ï. ÿ>V¶ÏkıΩ› mÁ≈ x[™V^ ∂Á\flƒÏ ]Ú.∂´∫Ô.ºkK ∂kÏÔ^ ÷w©∏_ ÷B∫˛B ÿ>V¶ÏkıΩ› mÁ≈ÁB ÷ÈV√›]_ ÷B∫Ôfl ÿƒFm tÔ°D √V´V‚¶©√‚ΩÚ¬˛≈VÏ. ∂kÏ >twÔ›]KD, √VıΩflºƒˆlKD ÷Ú¬Ô¬ÌΩB ÿ√ÚD √VÈV™ zÆ˛B ÿ>V¶ÏkıΩ© √VÁ>ÁB ∂ÔÈ© √VÁ>BVÔ \Vu§•D, ÿ>V¶ÏkıΩl_ ÿƒ_KD \¬Ôπ[ kƒ]¬ÔVÔ© √_ºkÆ A]B ÿ>V¶ÏkıΩ ÔÁ·•D ÷B¬˛ ÷Ú¬˛≈VÏ. √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚EÁBfl ƒVÏÕ> ÂV¶V”\[≈ cÆ©∏™ÏÔ^, tÔfl E≈©√VÔ ÂV¶V”\[≈›]KD, ∂kÏÔ”Á¶B ÿ>Vz]ÔπKD √ËBVu§ ÂV¶V” \[≈D \uÆD \¬Ôπ[ Â_ÿÈı ›Á>•D, √V´V‚|>ÁÈ•D ÿ√u§ÚÕ>VÏÔ^.

7. √V.\.Ô.s[ kV¬zÆ]Ô^ ÂV¶V”\[≈› º>Ï>_ ÿku§l[ JÈD √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚E, √VEƒ© º√V¬z, ªw_ \uÆD ∞º>flƒ]ÔV´ ƒ¬]ÔÁ· ¿¬˛, º>EB c Ï°, >tμ ÿ\Va, ÷™ º\D√V|, ƒJÔ¿], \> Â_o ¬ÔD, ƒ\>Ï\ ƒx>VBD, ƒ\B ƒ\´ƒ ÿ§, \›]l_ Ì‚¶V‚E, \VWÈ›]_ ∑BV‚E g˛B >›mk∫ÔÁ· ∂Ω©√Á¶BVÔ¬ ÿÔVı|, ÷Õ]B ÂV‚Ω_ ŒÚ k·\V™ >twÔ›Á> cÚkV¬Ô© √V|√|ºkVD ®[Æ cÆ]Bπ¬˛≈m. tÔ¬ z§©√VÔ, √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚E, ∏[kÚD ÿÔV^ÁÔÔÁ·•D, ]‚¶∫ÔÁ·•D WÁ≈ºku≈ kV¬zÆ] ∂π¬˛≈m.

8. ƒJÔ ¿] \¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_ ÷¶Œm¬ˇ| 8.1

ƒJÔ ¿] ®[√m √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚El[ clÏJfl∑ ÿÔV^ÁÔ. √V.\.Ô. ƒJÔ¿]ÁB ÿk[ÿ≈|©√>uÔVÔ cÚkV¬Ô©√‚¶ ŒÚ \¬Ô^ ÷B¬ÔD. ∂>–Á¶B ʈB xBuEl™V_>V[ >twÔ›]ºÈ tÔ©∏u√|›>©√‚¶ \¬Ô”¬z 25 gı|Ô”¬z x[√VÔºk Ô_slKD, ºkÁÈkVF©∏KD 20 sø¬ÔV| ÷¶Œm¬ˇ‚Á¶© ÿ√uÆ›>´ xΩÕ>m.

8.2

ƒJÔ¿]•D, ƒ\›mkxD, ÂV‚Ω[ º\D√V‚ΩuzD ÷ ¬Ô\V™ kVμsuzD ÷[§BÁ\BV>Ák gzD. ÿ√VÚπB_ k·ÏflEBÁ¶Õ> ÂV|ÔÁ·s¶ ∂]Ôfl 8


ƒ\›mkD WÈ°D ÂV|Ôπ_ >V[ \¬Ô^ \˛μflEBVÔ kVμ˛[≈™Ï ®[√m gF°Ô^ JÈD ÿ\F©∏¬Ô©√‚¶ cıÁ\. ®™ºk, ∞u≈›>VμkV™ ÷[Á≈B WÁÈÁB \Vu§ xøÁ\BV™ ƒ\›mk WÁÈÁB ®‚|km √V.\.Ô.s[ ÷ȬÔVzD. ÷Õ]Bfl Ûwo_ >M \M> ∂·s_ ∂_ÈV\_, ∂k´kÏ ƒVÏÕm^· zø¬Ôπ[ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_>V[ ∞u≈›>Vμ° ¿Ω¬˛≈m. ®™ºk, ƒV], \>fl EÆ√V[Á\ g˛B zø ∂Á¶BV·∫Ôº· ∞u≈›>VμÁk ¿¬zk>uÔV™ x>[Á\BV™ ∂·°ºÔVÈVÔ¬ ÿÔV^·©√¶ ºkı|D ®™ √V.\.Ô. ÔÚm˛≈m. ∂Õ> kÁÔl_, ∏[kÚD ¶kΩ¬ÁÔÔÁ· √V.\.Ô. x[MÆ›m˛≈m : 8.3

ƒV]kVˆ \¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ¬ Ô ¬ÿÔ|©A.

8.4

÷¶Œm¬ˇ‚Ω_ 50 sø¬ÔV| ®[≈ cflƒk´DÁ√ ¿¬˛¬ÿÔV^”>_. >tμÂV‚Ω[ 69 ƒ>T> ÷¶Œm¬ˇ‚Á¶ ƒV]Ôπ[ \¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_ 100 ƒ>T>\VÔ cBÏ›mkm.

8.5

÷¶Œm¬ˇ| s˛>VflƒV´›Á> \VWÈ∫Ôπ[ WÁÈÁ\¬ºÔu√ ŒÀÿkVÚ \VWÈxD >Vº™ xΩ° ÿƒFm ÿÔV^· º>ÁkBV™ ∂´EB_ ƒ‚¶ ]Ú›>D ÿƒFkm.

8.6

÷¶Œm¬ˇ| ƒD\Õ>\V™ ∂Á™›mfl ƒ‚¶›Á>•D, ∂´EB_ ∂Á\©∏[ 9gkm ∂‚¶kÁ l_ ºƒÏ›>_.

8.7

º>EB© ∏u√|›>©√‚º¶VÏ gÁ B›]uz ∂]Ô ∂]ÔV´∫Ô^ kw∫z>_.

8.8

ÿ√VÚ·V>V´ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_ ÷¶Œm¬ˇ| ®[≈ ÔÚ›Á> √V.\.Ô. ∂ΩºBV| ®]ϬzD.

>MBVÏ mÁ≈l_ ÷¶Œm¬ˇ| 8.9

∂Á\©A ƒVÏÕ> >MBVÏ mÁ≈Ôπ_ ƒV]kVˆ ÷¶Œm¬ˇ|.

8.10

Ô_s, ºkÁÈ, ÿ>Va_ ÿ>V¶∫Ô c>s, ∂´E[ Œ©√Õ>∫Ôπ_ √∫z c^π‚¶ ∂Á™›]KD ŒÀÿkVÚ ƒV]l™Ú¬zD \¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ ∂·°¬z ∞u√ Œm¬ˇ|.

ƒV] º\D√V‚|¬ z§X| 8.11

÷Õ]B EÆ√V[Á\l™Ï mÁ≈ ∂Á\flƒÔ›][ √[xÔ›>[Á\¬ z§X| (Diversity Index) ∂·T‚ΩÁ™ x[\V]ˆBVÔ¬ ÿÔVı| ƒV] º\D√V‚|¬ z§X| (Caste Development Index - CDI) ®–D ∂·T‚| xÁ≈ÁB ∞u√|›m>_, ÷>[ JÈD ∂Á™›m ƒV]l™ÚD ƒ\ k·ÏflEÁB ®‚¶ ka ÿƒF>_.

8.12

cˆB ∏´]W]›mkD ÷_ÈV> ∏ˆs™Ú¬z x[–ˆÁ\.

\ı¶_zø ∂§¬ÁÔ 8.13

\ı¶_zø √ˆÕmÁ´Ôπ_ ÷[–D ∂\ÈV¬Ô©√¶ ºkıΩB ]‚¶∫Ô^ ∂Á™›Á>•D c¶™ΩBVÔ WÁ≈ºku≈ √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D. 9


8.14

∏[>∫˛BkÏÔπ_ x[º™§BkÏÔ^ (Creamy Layer) ®[≈ ÔÚ›Á> ¿¬z>_.

8.15

√>s cBÏ°Ôπ_ ÷>´ ∏u√|›>©√‚º¶VÚ¬z ÷¶Œm¬ˇ‚|¬ ÿÔV^ÁÔÁB ¿‚Ω›>_.

Â|kı WÆk™∫Ôπ_ ÷¶Œm¬ˇ| 8.16

n.n.Ω., n.n.®D., º>EB ÿ>Va_O‚√ WÆk™∫Ô^, ˜©\Ï \uÆD ∞.n.n.®D.®¸. º√V[≈ \Ú›mk cBÏÔ_s WÆk™∫Ô^ \uÆD ÿ>Va_O‚√© √_ÔÁȬÔwÔ∫Ô^ c^π‚¶ WÆk™∫Ôπ_, ∏u√‚º¶VÏ, >Vμ›>©√‚º¶VÏ \uÆD √w∫zΩl™Ï ÷¶Œm¬ˇ| cˆÁ\ ÿ√Æk>uz c^· >Á¶Ô^ ¿¬Ô©√¶ ºkı|D. …ÁÈ 18, 2013÷_ cflƒ¿]\[≈›][ ∂´EB_ ƒVƒ™ ∂\Ï°, ‘∞.n.n.®D.®¸. (∂˛È ÷Õ]B \Ú›mk sfiQV™¬ ÔwÔD) cBÏ \Ú›mk© º√´VEˆBÏ WB\™›]_ ÷¶Œm¬ˇ| ̶Vm’ ®[Æ ÔÚ›mÁ´ kw∫˛Bm. ÷mº√V[≈ ƒJÔ¿]¬z ®]´V™ >Á¶ÔÁ·› >ÔÏ›ÿ>§B, cˆB ƒ‚¶› ]Ú›>∫ÔÁ·¬ ÿÔVı| kÕm, ÷¶Œm¬ˇ‚| cˆÁ\ÁB WÁÈÂV‚¶°D ¶kΩ¬ÁÔ ®|©º√VD.

¿]›mÁ≈l_ ÷¶Œm¬ˇ| 8.17

¿]√]Ô^ WB\™›]_ ÿkπ©√Á¶› >[Á\•D, ƒJÔ¿]•D WÁÈÂV‚¶©√¶, ∑>Õ]´\V™ ¿]√]Ô^ º>Ï° gÁ BD (National Commission for Judiciary) ∂Á\¬Ô ko•Æ›mºkVD.

9. Ô_s √^π¬ Ô_s (School Education) 9.1

∂Á™›m k·ÏÕ> ÂV|ÔπKD c^·m º√V[Æ, √^π¬Ô_sBV™m xø¬Ô xø¬Ô ∂´E™V_ ¶›>©√|D WÁÈÁB cÚkV¬˛¶ xBuE º\uÿÔV^·©√|D.

9.2

>MBVÏ √^πÔπ_, ∂‚¶kÁ ÷™›>kÏ, \ÁÈkVμ \¬Ô^, tÔ© ∏u√|›>©√‚¶ \¬Ô^ \uÆD ÷>´ ∏u√|›>©√‚º¶VÏ kz©∏™Ú¬z ÷¶Œm¬ˇ| ∂π¬Ô √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D.

9.3

>twÔ›]_ ƒ\flÊÏ Ô_s ®™©√|D ÿ√Vm©√^π xÁ≈ÁB (Common School System) xøTflE_, xø ∂·s_ ÿƒB_√|›>©√¶ √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D. ƒ\flÊϬ Ô_sÁBfl E≈©√VÔ ÿƒB_√|›> ∞mkVÔ, >twÔ›]_ c^· ∂Á™›m© √^πÔπKD Ô‚Ω¶ kƒ]Ô^, kz©√Á≈, Ô_s© ÿ√VÚ‚Ô^, Ôa©∏¶ kƒ], zΩ¿Ï, sÁ·BV|t¶D, gEˆBÏá\V kÏ s˛>D, gEˆBÏ >z] ®™ ∂Á™›mD >´\V™>VÔ ∂Á\Õ]¶ √V|√|ºkVD.

9.4

ÿ√ÚD√VÈV™ k·ÏÕ> ÂV|Ôπ_ c^·m º√V[Æ ∂ıÁ\© √^πxÁ≈ (Neighbourhood School System) c¶™ΩBVÔ ÂÁ¶xÁ≈©√|›> ko•Æ›mºkVD. 10


9.5

>tμÂV‚Ω_ √^π¬Ô_s xøkmD >tμÂV‚Ω[ x>_ ÿ\VaBV™ >tμÿ\Va JÈ\VÔ© √luÆs¬Ô©√¶ ºkı|D ®™ ko•Æ›mºkVD.

9.6

>tμÂV‚Ω_ √^πÔπ_ g∫˛ÈD ÷´ı¶Vkm ÿ\VaBVÔ E≈Õ> xÁ≈l_ Ôu∏¬Ô©√¶ ºkı|D. ∂Á™›m \V kÏÔ”D g∫˛È›Á> xøÁ\BVÔ¬ ÔuÔ cÆ] ÿƒFkm¶[ ÿ\Vafl EÆ√V[Á\l™Ï ∂k´kÏ >VFÿ\VaÁB J[≈Vkm ÿ\VaBVÔ¬ ÔuƬÿÔV^·°D kakÁÔ ÿƒFB √V|√|ºkVD.

9.7

∂Á™kÚ¬zD ‘÷Èkƒ¬ Ô‚¶VB¬Ô_s’ ®[√m 6 x>_ 14 kBm kÁ´ ®[Æ ÷Ú©√Á> 0 kBm x>_ 18 kBm kÁ´ ®[Æ \VuÆk>uz z´_ ÿÔV|©º√VD.

9.8

Ô_s \VWÈ ∂´E[ √‚ΩBK¬z \Vu≈©√¶ ºkı|D ®™ ko•Æ›mºkVD.

cBÏÔ_s (Higher Education) 9.9

\Ú›mkD, ÿ√V§lB_ º√V[≈ √Ω©AÔπ_ ºƒÏk>uÔVÔ OÁw°› º>Ï°Ô^ ¶›> xBuE¬Ô©√‚¶V_, ∂>Á™ √V.\.Ô. ®]ϬzD. ®Õ> ŒÚ kΩk›]KD OÁw°› º>ÏÁk ∂–\]¬Ô \V‚º¶VD.

9.10

ÿ√Vm ºÂV¬z ºÔV‚√V‚Ω[√Ω ∑BW]¬ Ô_ŸˆÔπ[ ¶kΩ¬ÁÔÔÁ· Œø∫z√|›> ºkıΩBm ∂´ƒV∫Ô›][ Ô¶Á\BVzD. ∂ÀkVÆ Œø∫z√|›mD º√Vm ÷¶ Œm¬ˇ| ÿÔV^ÁÔ•D, ƒJÔ¿]¬ ÿÔV^ÁÔ•D cÆ]©√|›> ko•Æ›mºkVD.

9.11

>MBVÏ \uÆD EÆ√V[Á\l™Ï ¶›mD ∑BW]¬ Ô_ŸˆÔ^, ÷¶Œm¬ˇ‚ΩKD, Ô‚¶ D ÿƒK›mk]KD ∂´E[ s]ÔÁ·¬ ÔÁ¶∏Ω¬z\VÆ kuAÆ›>©√|kVÏÔ^.

9.12

>twÔ›]_ c^· n.n.Ω., n.n.n.Ω., n.n.®D., \›]B© √_ÔÁȬÔwÔD, º>EB ƒ‚¶© √^π c^π‚¶ \›]B Ô_s WÆk™∫Ô^ ∂Á™›]KD 50 sø¬ÔV| ÷¶∫ÔÁ· \VWÈ Œm¬ˇ¶VÔ kw∫Ô ºkı|D ®™ √V.\.Ô. ko•Æ›mD.

10. ÂÈkVμ° 10.1

cÈÔ \¬Ô”¬z ∞u√|D Œ‚|ÿ\V›> ‘ºÂVFfl∑Á\l_’ 21 sø¬ÔV| ÷Õ]B \¬Ô”¬z ∞u√|˛≈m. ÷Õ> º\Vƒ\V™ WÁÈÁB \Vu≈ x[™V^ Â|kı ÂÈkVμ°› mÁ≈ ∂Á\flƒÏ \Ú›mkÏ ∂[A\Ë ÷´V\>V∑ ∂kÏÔ^ cÈÔD º√VuÆD º>EB ˛´V\©A≈ ÂÈkVμ°› ]‚¶›Á> x[\V]ˆBVÔ ÿÔVı| kÕ>VÏ. ∂>[ sÁ·kVÔ 2007á09÷_ 212gÔ ÷ÚÕ> º√ÚÔVÈ ÷≈©A s˛>D 2010á2012÷_ 178gÔ zÁ≈Õ>m. ÷mº√VÈ √_ºkÆ ÂÈkVμ°¬ z§X|ÔπKD ÿ√ÚD ƒV>Á™ WÔμ›>©√‚¶m. g™VKD, ÷Õ> k´ÈVuÆ› ]‚¶D Ô¶Õ> nÕ>Vı|Ôπ_ xÁ≈BVÔ ÿƒBÈV¬Ô©√¶ s_ÁÈ. √]º™V´Vkm nÕ>Vı| ]‚¶›]_ Œm¬Ô©√‚¶ W]l_ J[§_ ŒÚ 11


√∫˛Á™ \‚|º\ ÷›]‚¶›]uÔVÔ ÿƒÈs‚¶™Ï. 2012gD gıΩuz^ 24000 g´D√ ∑ÔV>V´ WÁÈB∫Ô^ 24 \Ë ºÂ´xD ÷B∫Ô ºkı|D ®[˛≈ ÷Ȭ˛_, ÿkÆD 8743 ÷¶∫Ôπ_ \‚|º\ ÷ȬÁÔ ®‚Ω™VÏÔ^. ÷ÀkVÆ ∑ÔV>V´› ]‚¶∫Ôπ_ ∞u√‚|^· ∏[™Á¶Ák¬ ÔÁ·B √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D. º>EB c^ÂV‚| cu√›]l_ >uº√Vm ÿkÆD 1.2% ∂·°¬z \‚|º\ ÂÈkVμ°¬ ÔVÔ ÿƒÈs¶©√|D WÁÈÁB \Vu§ 3% x>_ 5% kÁ´ ÂÈkVμ°¬ÔVÔ ÿƒÈs¶© √|D WÁÈÁB ∂Á¶B ko•Æ›mºkVD. 10.2

∑ÔV>V´›m¬ÔV™ ÿƒÈs_ tÔ©ÿ√Ú\·°, ∑\VÏ 70% ÿƒÈsÁ™ >M \M>ÏÔ”D, z|D√∫Ô”º\ ∞uzD ÷[Á≈B WÁÈÁB \Vu§ á \Ú›mkfl ºƒÁkÁB ∂´E[ Ô¶Á\BV¬Ô √V|√|ºkVD. z§©√VÔ, ºkÁÈkVF©A cÆ]fl ƒ‚¶D, Ô_s cÆ]flƒ‚¶D º√V[Æ, \Ú›mkfl ºƒÁkl_ ∂Ω©√Á¶ cˆÁ\fl ƒ‚¶D (Right to health) ÿÔVı|k´©√¶°D, ŒÀÿkVÚ ÷Õ]B¬ zΩ\ÔM[ \Ú›mk› º>Ák Ô”¬zD ∂´ºƒ ÿ√VÆ©º√uzD WÁÈÁB cÚkV¬Ô°D √V|√|ºkVD.

10.3

zΩ\¬Ôπ[ \Ú›mkfl ÿƒÈs_ 70% \ÚÕm© ÿ√VÚ‚Ô”¬ºÔ ÿƒ_˛≈m. c¶_ÂÈ› º>Ák¬ÔV™ \ÚÕm© ÿ√VÚ‚Ôπ[ sÁÈ >VÆ\V≈VÔ ÷Ú©√Á>› >|¬Ô°D, Œº´ \ÚÕm ÿkÀºkÆ ÿ√BÏÔπ_ ÿkÀºkÆ sÁÈÔπ_ suzD WÁÈÁB Œa¬Ô°D, OÔϺkVÏ cˆÁ\ \uÆD ∞Áw, Â|›>´ \¬Ôπ[ ÂÈ[ ÔV¬zD kÁÔl_ ÿ>πkV™ \ÚÕm¬ ÿÔV^ÁÔ cÚkV¬Ô©√¶ √V|√|ºkVD.

10.4

kÆÁ\ Œa©A, \M> º\D√V|, ÂÈkVμ° º\D√V|, ∂Ω©√Á¶ cˆÁ\ÔÁ· ∂Á™kÚD ∂Á¶B kaÿƒF>_ g˛B ÷ȬzÔ”¶[ A›>Vl´\Vı| º\D√V‚| ÷ȬzÔ^ 2000gkm gıΩ_ n.ÂV. ∂ÁkBV_ cÚkV¬Ô©√‚¶m (Millennium Development Goals - MDGs). ÷>Á™ 2015gD gı|¬z^ ®‚¶ ºkı|D ®™ cÈÔ ÂV|Ôπ[ >ÁÈkÏÔ^ cÆ]ºBu≈™Ï. ÷ÕWÁÈl_ ‘2015gD gı|¬z ∏[™VÈV™ º\D√V‚| ÷ȬzÔ^’ (Post-2015 Development Agenda) ®–D A]B ]‚¶›Á> n.ÂV. ∂Ák kz›m kÚ˛≈m. >VF\VÏÔ^ ÂÈD, zwÕÁ>Ô^ c¶_ÂÈD, ÿ>VuƺÂVF› >|©A, Â_È c¶_ÂÈD, ¿ı¶ ÂV^ clÏ kVμ>_ c‚√¶ zwÕÁ> ∏≈©√>uz x[A ÿ>V¶∫˛ kBm x]ÏÕm ÷≈©√m kÁ´ ∂Á™kÚD ÂÈ\VÔ kVw ºkı|D ®[√>uÔV™ A]B º\D√V‚| ÷ȬzÔÁ· xøTflE_ ÿƒB_√|›> √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D.

10.5

∂Á™kÚ¬zD xøÁ\BV™ ÂÈkVμ° kƒ]ÔÁ· ∞u√|›]› >Ú>_; \Ú›mkfl ºƒÁk ∂π©√]_ ÿ√ÚD√z]fl ÿƒÈÁk (75 sø¬ÔV‚ΩuzD Ì|>ÈVÔ) ∂´E[ Ô¶Á\BVÔ g¬z>_; Â_È c¶_ÂÈD ∂Ω©√Á¶ cˆÁ\, ∂>Á™ cÆ] ÿƒFkm ∂´E[ ÿ√VÆ©A ®[˛≈ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_ ∏≈©√>uz x[A >VF\VÏÔπ[ 12


ÂÈM_ ÿ>V¶∫˛, zwÕÁ> ∏≈Õm kVμ¬ÁÔ xøk>uz\V™ ÂÈkVμ°› º>ÁkÔ^ ∂Á™›mD, ∂Á™›m \¬Ô”¬zD xøÁ\BVÔ› >´\VÔ, c¶–¬z¶[ ˛Á¶›]¶fl ÿƒF>_ g˛BkuƬÔVÔ √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D. 10.6

\Ú›mk\Á™Ô^, √|¬ÁÔÔ^, Ô‚¶Á\©A kƒ]ÔÁ· ∂]Ô\V¬z>_, ∂´∑ \Ú›mkÏÔ^ \uÆD ÿƒsoBÏÔ^ ®ıˬÁÔÁB ∂]Ô\V¬z>_, ÂÈkVμ°fl ºƒÁkÁB ∂Ω©√Á¶ cˆÁ\BV¬z>_, \Ú›mk›]uÔV™ x>‹‚Á¶ ∂]Ô\V¬z>_, ∂´∑ kÚkVl_ ∂]Ô W] Œm¬z>_, ÿ√Vmfl ∑ÔV>V´›Á> º\D√|›m>_, \V∑√V‚Á¶› >|›>_ c^π‚¶kuÁ≈ √V.\.Ô. ko•Æ›mD.

10.7

\Ú›mk© √ËBÁ\©Afl ƒ‚¶D (Clinical Establishment Act) ÿƒB_√|›>©√|D. \Ú›mkfl E˛flÁƒÁB \¬Ôπ[ ∂Ω©√Á¶ cˆÁ\BV¬zD ƒ‚¶D ÿÔVı|k´©√|D. ÷>[√Ω ∂kƒ´ E˛flÁƒ º>Ák©√|D ∂Á™›m ºÂVBVπÔ”D ®Õ> ŒÚ \Ú›mk\Á™lKD x>_ 24 \Ë ºÂ´›]uz ÷Èkƒ E˛flÁƒ ∂π©√m Ô‚¶VBD, ∂´∑ \Ú›mk\Á™Ôπ_ >´\V™ E˛flÁƒ¬z c›>´kV>D ®[√m c^π‚¶ ÂÈkVμÁk \M> cˆÁ\BV¬zD ∂Á™›m ¶kΩ¬ÁÔÔ”D º\uÿÔV^·©√|D.

10.8

zwÕÁ>Ô”¬ÔV™ >|©ØE º√V|D xÁ≈ cÈÔ›>´D kVFÕ>>VÔ \Vu≈©√|D. Œº´ >|©ØE JÈD √È ºÂVFÔ”¬ÔV™ >|©ØE º√V|D á Ì‚| >|©ØE (Combination Vaccines) xÁ≈ ÿÔVı|k´ √V|√|ºkVD.

10.9

ÿ>VÁȃV>™ \Ú›mkfl E˛flÁƒ› ]‚¶›][ JÈD ÿ>VÁÈ#´ Á\B∫Ôπ_ c^· ºÂVBVπÔ^ >´\V™ \Ú›mk gºÈVƒÁ™ÔÁ·•D E˛flÁƒÔÁ·•D ÿ√≈ kakz¬Ô©√|D. E›>V c^π‚¶ \VuÆ \Ú›mk xÁ≈¬z ª¬ÔD ∂π¬zD kÁÔl_ Ô‚¶Á\©A kƒ]Ô^ ∂Á\©√º>V| ∂Ák ÷_ÈV> ÷¶∫Ôπ_ cÚkVk>uz© A]B Ô‚¶Á\©A kƒ]Ô^ ∞u√|›> ko•Æ›mºkVD.

10.10

ÿ>Vu≈V> ºÂVFÔ^ >|©A› ]‚¶D (NCD Action Plan) ŒÚ ÔVÈ›]_ tÔ©ÿ√ˆB g√›mÔ·VÔ ÷ÚÕ> ÿ>VuƺÂVFÔ^ ÷©º√Vm ÿ√Ú\·° Ô‚|©√|›>©√‚¶™. g™V_, >uº√Vm ÿ>Vu≈V> ºÂVFÔ^ tÔ©ÿ√ˆB g√›>VÔ \V§ kÚ˛[≈™. \M>M[ √w¬Ô kw¬Ô›]KD, kVμ¬ÁÔ xÁ≈lKD ∞u√‚|kÚD ÂkÂVÔZÔ \Vu≈∫Ô·V_ ÷Õ> º√´V√›m cÚÿk|›m^·m. ÷©º√V¬ÁÔ› >|¬zD ºÂV¬˛_ ‘sˆkV™ ÿ>Vu≈V> ºÂVFÔ^ ÿƒB_]‚¶D’ (Non Communicable Diseases Action Plan) ÿƒB_√|›> xBuE ®|©º√VD.

10.11

1. ÷Ú>B ºÂVFÔ^, 2. ¿ˆa°, 3. AuƺÂVF, 4. Jfl∑¬zw_ ºÂVFÔ^ g˛B ÂV[z kÁÔBV™ ÿ>Vu≈V> ºÂVFÔº· ∂]ÔD √V]©∏Á™ ∞u√|›mD ºÂVFÔ·VÔ cÚÿk|›m^·™. 1. AÁÔlÁÈ, 2. >k≈V™ c °©√w¬ÔD, 3. c¶KÁw©A 13


zÁ≈>_, 4. \m©√w¬ÔD á ÷ÁkºB ÿ>Vu≈V> ºÂVFÔ^ ∂]Ôˆ¬Ô¬ ÔV´ D ®™ cÈÔ ÂÈkVμ° ∂Á\©A (WHO) ÌÆ˛≈m. ÷›yB √w¬Ô∫ÔÁ· xu§K\VÔ¬ Ô‚|©√|›], ÿ>Vu≈V> ºÂVFÔÁ· kÚx[ >|¬zD ºÂV¬˛_ ÷›]‚¶D ÿƒB_√|›> z´_ ÿÔV|©º√VD. AuƺÂVF Ôı|∏Ω©A \uÆD E˛flÁƒ¬z >M Ôk™D ÿƒK›>©√|D. AuƺÂVF E˛flÁƒ¬z tÔ ∂]Ô ÿƒÈ° ∏Ω©√>V_, ∞Áwá®πB \¬Ô^ √B[ÿ√ÆD kÁÔl_ AuƺÂVF E˛flÁƒ¬ÔVÔ >M ∑w_ W] WÆk©√|D. ÷>[ JÈD AuƺÂVBV_ √V]¬Ô©√‚¶ ∞Áwá®πB \¬Ô”¬z >´\V™ ÷Èkƒ E˛flÁƒ ∂π¬Ô ko•Æ›mºkVD.

10.12

11. \m \uÆD AÁÔlÁÈ Œa©A 11.1

\m√V™D ÿkÆD kËÔ© ÿ√VÚ^ ∂_È; ∂m ŒÚ º√VÁ>© ÿ√VÚ^. zΩ©√w¬ÔD ÿkÆD √w¬ÔD ∂_È; ∂m ŒÚ ÿÔVΩB ºÂVF. \m zΩ©√kÁ´ \‚|\_È, Œ‚|ÿ\V›> z|D√›]™Á´•D √V]¬zD ÿ√ÚÕyÁ\. ®™ºk, ÂV”¬z ÂV^ ∂]Ôˆ›mfl ÿƒ_KD \m©√w¬Ô›]Á™ xu§K\VÔ Œa›m¬Ô‚|D kÁÔl_ √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚E ÷Õ]B ∂·s_ \m Œa©A¬ ÿÔV^ÁÔÁB¬ ÿÔVı| kÚk>uz ∂Á™›m xBuEÔÁ·•D ®|¬zD. \ÔV›\V ÔVÕ], √ıΩ> ºÂÚ, >ÕÁ> ÿ√ˆBVÏ, ÿ√ÚÕ>ÁÈkÏ ÔV\´VƒÏ, º√´§QÏ ∂ı V, J>§QÏ ÷´VƒVE º√V[≈ ÿ√ÚÕ>ÁÈkÏÔπ[ cBÏJfl∑¬ ÿÔV^ÁÔBV™ \msȬÁÔ ÿƒB_√|›mkm √V.\.Ô.s[ >ÁÈBVB ºÂV¬Ô\VÔ ÷Ú¬zD.

AÁÔlÁÈl_ÈV ÷Õ]BV 11.2

÷Õ]B ÂV| xøkmD gı|¬z 10 È‚ƒD º√Á´ √o kV∫zD AÁÔlÁÈ© √w¬Ô›Á> Œa©√>uz x[™V^ Â|kı ÂÈkVμ°›mÁ≈ ∂Á\flƒÏ \Ú›mkÏ ∂[A\Ë ÷´V\>V∑ ∂kÏÔ^ ys´ ¶kΩ¬ÁÔÔ^ ®|›>VÏ. ∂>[ √B™VÔ ÂV| xøkmD AÁÔlÁÈl[ ºÔ|Ô^ Ô˃\VÔ¬ Ô‚|©√¶› mk∫˛•^·m. \¬Ôπ[ c¶_ÂÈ›Á>© √VmÔV¬Ô°D, clˆw©Á√› >|¬Ô°D ÷Õ]B© AÁÔlÁȬ Ô‚|©√V|fl ƒ‚¶D (COTPA) ys´\VÔfl ÿƒB_√|›>©√|D. cÈÔ ∑ÔV>V´ WÆk™D kz›m^· MPOWER kaÔV‚|>o[√Ω ÷Õ]BVÁk ‘AÁÔlÁÈl_ÈV ÂV¶VÔ’ \Vu≈ √V|√|ºkVD.

12. ∑uÆflÛw_ 12.1

∑uÆflÛw_ WÁÈ›]Ú¬zD >[Á\ ÷Õ]B ÂV‚Ωuz ÷[§BÁ\BV>m. ÷Õ]B \¬Ôπ[ ÷[Á≈B º>ÁkÔÁ· ~|ÿƒF•D ∂º> ºÂ´›]_, ∂|›m kÚD >ÁÈxÁ≈l™Ï ∂kÏÔ·m º>ÁkÔÁ· WÁ≈° ÿƒFm ÿÔV^”D kÁÔl_ á ÷BuÁÔ k·∫Ô^ √VmÔV¬Ô©√¶ ºkı|D. 14


¿Ï, WÈD, ÔVuÆ g˛B™ \V∑√¶V\_ >|©√mD, clˆ©√[\B k·D √VmÔV¬Ô©√|kmD, WÈk·xD, ¿Ïk·xD º\D√|›>©√|kmD, ÔVÈWÁÈ \Vu≈›][ ®]ÏsÁ·°ÔÁ· x[Ì‚ΩºB ]‚¶t‚|fl ƒ\Vπ©√mD ÔVÈ›][ Ô‚¶VBD gzD. ®™ºk, ÿ>VauƒVÁÈ \V∑√V‚ΩÁ™ xu§K\VÔ› >|›>_, ÷>uÔVÔ kÚx[ ÔV›>_, \V∑√|›]Bkº´ ÿ√VÆ©º√u≈_ g˛B ÿÔV^ÁÔÔÁ·¬ Ô‚¶VB\VÔfl ÿƒB_√|›>_, ÔV™Ô© √z]Ô^ ∂·sÁ™ 33 sø¬ÔV¶VÔ ∂]Ô\V¬z>_, clˆ© √[\B x>[Á\© √z]ÔÁ·© √VmÔV›>_, Ôa°© ÿ√VÚ‚ÔÁ·fl ƒ\Vπ©√]_, ∑aB¬ Ôa° (Zero waste) xÁ≈ÁB© ∏[√uÆ>_, \Áw¿Ï ºƒÔˆ©A¬zD, ¿Ïk·© √VmÔV©∏uzD, WÈk·›Á> \ÆÊ´Á\¬Ô°D ¶kΩ¬ÁÔ ®|›>_, ÔVuÆ \V∑√V‚Á¶¬ Ô‚|©√|›m>_, ∂bt[ ]‚¶∫ÔÁ· 2020gD gıΩuz^ J|>_, √´kÈV¬Ô©√‚¶, Am©∏¬Ô©√‚¶ t[ cu√›]ÁB ª¬zs›>_, \´√b \Vu≈›Á> xu§K\VÔ› >|›>_, ÔVÈWÁÈ \Vu≈›Á> ®]ÏÿÔV^”D >ÔkÁ\©A› ]‚¶∫ÔÁ· kz›mfl ÿƒB_√|›m>_ c^π‚¶ ∑uÆflÛw_ √VmÔV©A ¶kΩ¬ÁÔÔÁ· ko•Æ›mºkVD. 12.2

WÈD, ¿Ï, ÔVuÆ g˛B™ \V∑√‚|, ÷[Á≈¬z ÷BuÁÔ k·∫Ô^ ∂aÕm kÚ˛[≈™. ÷Õ>© º√V¬z ®]ÏÔVÈ›]–Á¶B© ÿ√VÚ·V>V´ k·ÏflEÁBºB √V]›ms|D. ®™ºk, ÿ√VÚ·V>V´ k·ÏflE¬zD, ∑uÆflÛwK¬zD ŒÚ ƒ\WÁÈÁB cÚkV¬Ô ºkıΩBm ∂´E[ Ô¶Á\BVzD. ∂>uÔVÔ WÁÈ›m WuzD k·ÏflE¬ ÿÔV^ÁÔ (Sustainable Development) ∏[√u≈ ko•Æ›mºkVD.

skƒVB›Á> ∂a¬zD *›º>[, ®ˆkV• zwVF ]‚¶∫Ô^ ´›m 12.3

Œ[Æ√‚¶ >fiÁƒ \Vk‚¶›]_ c^· WÈ∫Ô”¬z¬ ˇºw AÁ>Õm ˛¶¬zD WȬԈ© √Ω\∫Ôπ_ ÷ÚÕm ®ˆkV•› º>ÁkÔ”¬ÔVÔ *›º>[ kV• ®|¬zD ]‚¶›Á>, ÷Õ]B ∂´E[ ÿ√‚º´VoBD \uÆD ÷BuÁÔ ®ˆkV• ∂Á\flƒÔD cÚkV¬˛ •^·m. ÷>uÔV™ cˆ\D ŒÚ >MBVÏ WÆk™›]uz \›]B ∂´ƒV_ kw∫Ô© √‚|^·m. ÔVsˆ √Vƒ™© √z]Ôπ_ ∑uÆflÛwÁȬ ÿÔ|›m, WÈ›>Ω ¿Á´ xu≈VÔ ÿkπºBu§, Ô¶_¿ÚD c^º· OÁwÕm, ∑\VÏ ŒÚ È‚ƒ›m 66 gl´›m 210 ∞¬ÔÏ sÁ·WÈ∫ÔÁ·© √VwV¬zD kÁÔl_ ÿƒB_√|›>©√¶ ÷Ú¬zD *›º>[ ®ˆkV• ®|¬zD ]‚¶›Á> ´›mÿƒFB ¶kΩ¬ÁÔ ®|¬Ô© º√V´V|ºkVD.

12.4

ºÔ´· \VWÈD ÿÔVflEl_ ÷ÚÕm ÔÏÂV¶Ô \VWÈ›][ \∫ÔjÚ¬z, >tμÂV‚Ω[ ºÔVÁk, ]Ú©ØÏ, ~º´V|, ÂV\¬Ô_, ºƒÈD, >Ú\Aˆ, ˛Úi ˛ˆ g˛B ∞ø \Vk‚¶∫Ô^ kaBVÔ, skƒVlÔπ[ ®]Ï©Á√ Œm¬˛› >^πs‚|, skƒVlÔ^ ÂÈ[ÔÁ· *§, sÁ·WÈ∫Ôπ[ ª¶VÔ¬ ÿÔVı| ÿƒ_È xÁ™•D \›]B ∂´E[ ‘ÿÔl_ ÷Õ]BV’ ]‚¶›Á> ´›m ÿƒFB ko•Æ›mºkVD. 15


ÔVÈWÁÈ \Vu≈D (Climate Change) 12.5

kπ\ı¶È ÔˆBtÈ kV• ∂¶Ï›] ∂]Ôˆ©√>[ sÁ·kVÔ Asl[ º\u√´©A ÿk©√D ∂]Ô\Vk>V_ ÔVÈWÁÈl_ \Vu≈D ∞u√‚|^·m. ÷>™V_ ∂]ÔD √V]¬Ô©√|D ÂV|Ô”^ Œ[≈VÔ ÷Õ]BV c^·m. ÔVÈWÁÈ \Vu≈›Á>¬ Ô‚|©√|›mk>uÔVÔ 1992gD gı| cÚkV¬Ô©√‚¶ n.ÂV. ÔVÈWÁÈ \Vu≈ √Ë›]‚¶© º√´Ákl[ (UNFCCC) JÈD 2015gD gıΩ_ A]B c¶[√V| ®‚¶©√|D Ûw_ c^·m. ÔVÈWÁÈ \Vu≈›m¬z ÔV´ \V™ ÂV¶VÔ ÷_ÈVs‚¶VKD, ∂>Á™ ®]ÏÿÔV^k>u ÔVÔ ÿ√VÚ·V>V´ ÂÈ[ÔÁ· ]BVÔD ÿƒFm ÔˆBtÈ kV• ÿkπBVkÁ> ÷Õ]BV Ô‚|©√|›mD ®[˛≈ WBVB\u≈ c¶[√V‚Ωuz 2011gD gıΩ_ ∂©º√VÁ>B ÷Õ]B ÔV∫˛´¸ g‚E ƒD\>D ÿ>ˆs›m^·m. ÷ÕWÁÈl_, WBVB\V™>VÔ°D, Asÿk©√\Á¶k>uz ÔV´ \V™ k·ÏÕ> ÂV|Ôº· ∂>uÔV™ ÿ√VÆ©AÔÁ·•D ∞uzD kÁÔlKD, ∂º> ºÂ´›]_ As ÿk©√\Á¶kÁ> cıÁ\BVÔºk >|¬zD ∂·°¬z koÁ\BV™>VÔ°D ŒÚ cÈÔ·VsB c¶[√Ω¬ÁÔ 2015gD gıΩ_ ®‚¶©√|D kÁÔl_ ÷Õ]B ∂´∑ ÿƒB_√¶ ko•Æ›mºkVD.

A]B A›>Vl´\Vı| º\D√V‚| ÷ȬzÔ^ (Post-2015 Development Agenda) 12.6

n¬˛B ÂV|Ô^ ∂ÁkBV™m 1992gD gıΩ[ ˆºBVáΩáÿ¤Mº´V, 2002gD gıΩ[ ÿ¤VÔ™¸√Ϭ, 2012gD gıΩ[ ˆºBVáΩáÿ¤Mº´V g˛B J[Æ As cflE \VÂV|ÔπKD Asl_ \M> kVμ¬ÁÔ ¿Ω›]Ú¬Ôfl ÿƒFk>uÔV™ ‘k·∫z[≈V º\D√V‚|’ ÿÔV^ÁÔÁB x[Ák›>m (Sustainable Development). ‘®]ÏÔVÈ› >Á��xÁ≈l™ˆ[ º>ÁkÔÁ· ∂kÏÔ^ ∂Á¶k>uz √V]©∏_ÈV> kÁÔl_ ÷[Á≈B› >ÁÈxÁ≈l™ˆ[ ∂Á™›m º>ÁkÔÁ·•D WÁ≈° ÿƒFB ºkı|D’ ®[√m ÷>[ ÔÚ›>VzD. ∑uÆflÛw_ √VmÔV©A, ÿ√VÚ·V>V´ k·ÏflE, ƒJÔ º\D√V| g˛B™ ÷>[ ∂∫Ô∫Ô^ gzD. ÷º>º√V[Æ kÆÁ\ Œa©A, \M> º\D√V|, ∂Ω©√Á¶ cˆÁ\ÔÁ· ∂Á™kÚD ∂Á¶B kaÿƒF>_ g˛B ÷ȬzÔ”¶[ A›>Vl´\Vı| º\D√V‚| ÷ȬzÔ^ 2000gkm gıΩ_ n.ÂV. ∂ÁkBV_ cÚkV¬Ô©√‚¶m (Millennium Development Goals - MDGs). ÷>Á™ 2015gD gı|¬z^ ®‚¶ ºkı|D ®™ cÈÔ ÂV|Ôπ[ >ÁÈkÏÔ^ cÆ]ºBu≈™Ï. ÷ÕWÁÈl_ ‘k·∫z[≈V º\D√V|’, ‘A›>Vl´\Vı| º\D√V‚| ÷ȬzÔ^’ ®™ ÷Ák ÷´ıÁ¶•D ÷Á ›m 2015gD gı|¬z ∏[™VÈV™ º\D√V‚| 16


÷ȬzÔ^ (Post-2015 kz›m kÚ˛≈m.

Development Agenda)

®–D A]B ]‚¶›Á> n.ÂV. ∂Ák

÷Õ> A]B º\D√V‚| ÷ȬzÔ^ ÿƒBK¬z kÚDº√Vm á cÈÔ ∂·s_ ÷[–D º\D√V| ∂Á¶BV\_ ÷Ú¬zD \¬Ô^ tÔ ∂]Ô\Vº™VÏ kVøD ÂV¶VÔ ÷Õ]BVºk ∂Á¶BV·D ÔV ©√|D. ÷Õ]B ÂV‚| \¬Ô^ º\D√V| ∂Á¶BV\_ cÈÔD º\D√V‚| ÷ȬzÔÁ· ∂Á¶B xΩBVm ®[˛≈ WÁÈ ∞u√|D. ®™ºk, ‘2015gD gı|¬z ∏[™VÈV™ º\D√V‚| ÷ȬzÔ^’ ®–D n.ÂV. ]‚¶›Á> kz©√]KD, ∂>Á™ tÔ› ys´\VÔ ÿƒBÈV¬zk]KD ÷Õ]B ∂´∑ xøTflE_ ÿƒBÈVu≈ √V.\.Ô. ko•Æ›mD. ̶∫z·D, Ô_√V¬ÔD ∂b cÁÈ 12.7

∂b cÁÈ ∂≈ºk º>Ákl_ÁÈ ®[√º> √V.\.Ô.s[ WÁÈ©√V|. ̶∫z·D \uÆD Ô_√V¬Ô›]_ ∂b cÁÈÔÁ· xu§K\VÔ J¶°D, ÷M A]>VÔ ∂b cÁÈÔ^ ÿ>V¶∫zkÁ> xu§K\VÔ ÁÔs¶°D, ÷Õ]BV°D >tμÂV|D ∂bƒ¬] ÷_ÈV> ÂV¶VÔ s·∫Ô°D √V.\.Ô. z´_ÿÔV|¬zD.

]Úkı V\ÁÈ Ô°›] \uÆD ºkΩB©√[ \ÁÈ 12.8

]Úkı V\ÁÈ \Vk‚¶ \¬Ôπ[ kVμkV>V´\VÔ c^· \ÁÈÔπ_ x>[Á\ BV™Ák Ô°›] \ÁÈ \uÆD ºkΩB©√[ \ÁÈÔ^ gzD. ÷©√z]l_ >MBVÏ WÆk™›m¶[ ÷Á Õm 325 ®¬º¶Ï √´©∏_ ÷ÚDA› >Vm ®|¬Ô >tμÂV| ∂´∑ Œ©√Õ>D ÿƒFm^·m. È‚ƒ¬Ô ¬ÔV™ \´∫Ô^ ∂a¬Ô©√|km¶[ ∑\VÏ 50 ˛´V\ \¬Ô^ ªÁ´¬ ÔVo ÿƒFm c^ÂV‚| ∂Ô]Ô·V¬Ô©√|D g√›>V™ ]‚¶D ÷mkVzD. º\KD ∑uÆflÛwKD, √_KlÏflÛwKD, \Vk‚¶ \¬Ôπ[ kVμ kV>V´xD Ô|Á\BVÔ √V]©√Á¶Bfl ÿƒF•D ÷Õ>› ]‚¶›Á> >|›m WÆ›], \¬Ôπ[ ÂÈ[ ÔV¬Ô √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D.

12.9

˛w¬z¬ Ô¶uÔÁ´ \Vk‚¶∫Ôπ_ >MBVÏ WÆk™∫Ô·V_ ∂Á\¬Ô ]‚¶t¶© √‚|^· √_ºkÆ ∂™_t[ ]‚¶∫Ô·V_, >twÔ›][ ˛w¬z¬ Ô¶uÔÁ´ \Vk‚¶∫Ôπ[ ∑uÆflÛw_ Ê´a¬Ô©√|kÁ>•D \¬Ôπ[ kVμkV>V´D √V]¬Ô©√|kÁ>•D >|›m WÆ›> √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D.

\´√b \Vu≈D \´√b \Vu≈D ÿƒFB©√‚¶ √lÏÔ·V_ \M> c¶_ÂÈD, clˆ©√[\BD, sÁ> ÷Á≈BVıÁ\, c °© √VmÔV©A, √ıÁ kVμkV>V´D, ∑uÆflÛw_ ®™ ∂Á™›m¬zD √V]©A ∞u√|D ®[√>V_, \´√b \Vu≈D ÿƒFB©√‚¶ √lÏÔÁ· ÷Õ]BVs_ ∂≈ºk ∂–\]¬Ô¬ ̶Vm ®™ ko•Æ›mºkVD. ∞uÔ™ºk,

12.10

17


∂–\]¬Ô©√‚¶ ∏.Ω.√Ú›]BV_ ∞u√‚¶ √V]©AÔ^ z§›m xÁ≈BV™ gF° ¶›>°D √V]¬Ô©√‚¶ skƒVlÔ”¬z ÷w©¨| ÿ√uÆ›>´°D ko•Æ›mºkVD. \´√b \Vu≈D ÿƒFB©√‚¶ ∂ˆE, ºÔVmÁ\ c^π‚¶ 200 kÁÔBV™ √lÏÔÁ· kB_Ôπ_ √lˆ‚| ºƒV>Á™ ¶›mk>uz ÔV∫˛´¸ Ô‚E g‚El_ \›]B ∑uÆflÛw_ ∂Á\flƒÔD ∂π›m^· ∂–\]ÁB A]>VÔ ∂Á\•D ∂´∑ c¶™ΩBVÔ ]ÚD√©ÿ√≈ ko•Æ›mºkVD.

12.11

÷Õ]BV°¬z^ ÷≈¬z\] ÿƒFB©√|D c °© ÿ√VÚ‚Ô^ ®]KD \´√b \Vu≈©√‚¶ c °© ÿ√VÚ^ ÔÈ©√¶D ÷_ÈV> WÁÈÁB ∞u√|›>°D, ∂>uÔV™ cˆB ºƒV>Á™ xÁ≈ÔÁ· cÚkV¬Ô°D ko•Æ›mºkVD. ÷Õ]BV°¬z^ \´√b \Vu≈D ÿƒFB©√‚¶ c °ÔÁ· x[ ∂–\]l[§ ÷≈¬z\] ÿƒFBÈVD ®[˛≈ 2007gD gıΩ[ (>uÔVoÔ\VÔ ÷Á¶WÆ›>©√‚|^·) ÷Õ]B ∂´∑ c›>´Ák xu§K\VÔ ]ÚD√©ÿ√≈ ko•Æ›mºkVD.

12.12

\´√b \Vu≈D ÷_ÈV> c °© ÿ√VÚ‚ÔÁ· OÔϺkVÏ ÿ√ÆkÁ> cÆ] ÿƒF•D kÁÔl_, \´√b \Vu≈D ÷_ÈV> c °© ÿ√VÚ‚Ô”¬ÔV™ x›]Á´ ÷|D xÁ≈ÁB ÂT™\V¬˛, zw©√t[§, cÆ]BVÔ ÿƒBÈV¬Ô¬ ºÔVÚºkVD.

12.13

13. \M> cˆÁ\Ô^ >|©A¬ÔVk_ ƒ‚¶∫Ô^ 13.1

n.ÂV. \M> cˆÁ\Ô^ ∏´Ô¶™D \uÆD √[™V‚| \M> cˆÁ\ c¶[√Ω¬ÁÔ ÔÁ·© ∏[√u§, zΩ•ˆÁ\Ô^, ∂´EB_ cˆÁ\Ô^ \uÆD ÿ√VÚ·V>V´, ƒJÔ, ÔÈVflƒV´ cˆÁ\Ô^ xøkm\VÔ √VmÔV¬Ô©√¶ √V|√|ºkVD. ∂´E[ ÿƒB_√V|Ô^ ∂Á™›]KD \M> cˆÁ\Ô^ z§›> Ôk™›m¶[ ÿƒB_√|›>©√¶ ko•Æ›mºkVD. z§©√VÔ, ∂Ω©√Á¶ \M> cˆÁ\Ô”¬z ®]´VÔ c^· º>EB© √VmÔV©Afl ƒ‚¶D, zı¶Ï ƒ‚¶D º√V[≈ >|©A¬ÔVk_ ƒ‚¶∫Ô^ ÔıxΩ›>™\VÔ √VFflƒ©√|kÁ> ∂ΩºBV| Œa¬Ô √V|√|ºkVD. ¿] sƒV´Á ÷[§ ∂´∑ WÏkVÔ›]™º´ ∂©√VsÔÁ· EÁ≈l_ ∂Á¶¬Ô kaÿƒF•D ÷›>ÁÔB >|©A¬ÔVk_ ƒ‚¶∫Ôº· º>Ákl_ÁÈ ®[√m>V[ √V.\.Ô.s[ WÁÈ©√V¶VzD.

k[ÿÔV|Á\fl ƒ‚¶D 13.2

k[ÿÔV|Á\ >|©Afl ƒ‚¶›][ >k≈V™ √B[√V‚¶V_ ∞´V·\Vº™VÏ √V]¬Ô© √‚|^·>VÔ¬ zu≈flƒV‚|Ô^ ®øÕm^·™. ®¸.E./®¸.Ω. k[ÿÔV|Á\› >|©Afl ƒ‚¶›>V_ ∂©√Vs \¬Ô^ √V]©√Á¶BV kı D, W´√´V]ÔÁ· √VmÔV¬zD ºÂV¬˛_, ÷flƒ‚¶D >k≈VÔ© √B[√|›>©√|kÁ>› >|¬Ô cˆB ƒ‚¶]Ú›>D ÿƒF]¶© √V|√|ºkVD. 18


\VuÆ› ]≈™VπÔ^ cˆÁ\ 13.3

\VuÆ› ]≈™VπÔπ[ cˆÁ\ÔÁ·¬ √VmÔV¬Ô √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D. \VuÆ› ]≈™VπÔπ[ cˆÁ\ÔÁ·© √VmÔV¬Ô 2006gD gıΩ_ ÿÔVı|k´©√‚¶ n.ÂV. c¶[√Ω¬ÁÔl_ 2007gD gıΩ_ ÷Õ]BV ÁÔÿBV©√t‚| ∞uÆ^·m. (UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities) g™V_, ∂>[ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_ \VuÆ› ]≈™VπÔπ[ cˆÁ\ÁB ÷[™xD ƒ‚¶\V¬Ôs_ÁÈ. (Persons with Disabuilities Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full

ƒJÔ›][ ∂Á™›m WÁÈÔπKD \VuÆ› ]≈™VπÔÁ· c^·¶¬˛B s>›]_ ∂kÏÔ·m ∂Ω©√Á¶ cˆÁ\Ô^ ∂Á™›Á>•D ∂∫ˇÔˆ›m xøÁ\BVÔ WÁ≈ºkuÆD kÁÔl_ n.ÂV. \VuÆ› ]≈™VπÔ^ c¶[√Ω¬ÁÔl[ s]Ô^ ÷Õ]BVs_ xøÁ\BVÔ ÿƒB_√|›>©√¶ √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D. Participation Act).

14. ÷Õ]BVs[ √[xÔ› >[Á\ÁB© √VmÔV©º√VD 14.1

÷Õ]BVs[ koÁ\ ∂>[ ŒuÁ≈› >[Á\l_ ÷_ÁÈ. ÷Õ]B ÂV| ®[√m ®©º√Vmº\ ŒÚ √[xÔ› º>ƒ\VÔºk ÷ÚÕm kÕm^·m. ∂m>V[ ÷Õ]B ÂV‚Ω[ koÁ\ ®™ √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚E ÂDA˛≈m. ‘ºkuÆÁ\l_ ŒuÆÁ\’ ®[˛≈ xw¬Ôº\ ÷Õ]BVs[ ŒÚÁ\©√V‚ΩuzD k·ÏflE¬zD, ∂Á\]¬zD kakz¬zD. √È ÷™ \¬Ô^, √È ÿ\Va º√∑ºkVÏ, √È \>∫ÔÁ·© ∏[√uƺkVÏ kVøD ÷Õ]B ÂV‚Ω_ ®_ºÈVÚD ∂k´kÏ √ı√V‚|, ÔÈVflƒV´ cˆÁ\ÔÁ·© ∏[√u≈°D, ®_ºÈVÚD xø \M> cˆÁ\•¶[ kVw°\V™ ŒÚ ÛwÁÈ cÚkV¬Ô √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D.

14.2

÷™D, ÿ\Va, \>D ®™ ®>[ ∂Ω©√Á¶lKD ŒÚ ∏ˆs™Á´ \uÿ≈VÚ ∏ˆs™Ï Œ|¬Ô xB_kÁ>ºBV, ÷™D, ÿ\Va, \> ∂Ω©√Á¶lÈV™ cˆÁ\ÔÁ· √§©√Á>ºBV √V.\.Ô. ŒÚº√VmD ∞uÔVm. ŒuÁ≈ \>D, ŒuÁ≈ ÿ\Va, Œº´ ÷™D ®[˛≈ \M> cˆÁ\Ô”¬z ®]´V™ ÔÚ›mÔÁ· √V.\.Ô. ®]ϬzD. ®_ÈV ∏ˆ° \¬Ô”D ®_ÈV \M> cˆÁ\Ô”¶–D xøÁ\BV™ kVμ¬ÁÔ kVμk>uÔVÔ √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D.

ÿ√Vm Es_ ƒ‚¶D º>Ákl_ÁÈ 14.3

√È \>∫ÔÁ·•D \VÆ√‚¶ √w¬Ô kw¬Ô∫ÔÁ·•D ÿÔVı¶ ÷Õ]B ÂV‚Ω_ ®_ºÈVÚ¬zD Œº´ s>\V™ ÿ√Vm Es_ ƒ‚¶D º>Ákl_ÁÈ ®[√m √V.\.Ô.s[ WÁÈ©√V¶VzD. ŒÀÿkVÚ ∏ˆ°D >›>\m \> ÂD∏¬ÁÔÔÁ· ∏[√uÆD kÁÔl_ \VÆ√‚¶ Es_ ƒ‚¶∫ÔÁ· ∏[√uÆkm cÈ˛[ √È ÂV|Ôπ_ ÂÁ¶xÁ≈l_ c^· ŒÚ ∂Ω©√Á¶ cˆÁ\>V[. ÷Õ> cˆÁ\ ÔV¬Ô©√¶ √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D.

19


cÈ˛[ x[™Ë \> kaÔV‚Ω ±_Ô^ ‘ƒ\›mkD, ¿], WBVBD’ (equality, justice and fairness) g˛BkuÁ≈ ∂Ω©√Á¶BVÔ¬ ÿÔVıº¶ ∂Á\Õm^·™. g™V_, \> ƒ‚¶∫Ô”¬z >´©√|D \VÆ√‚¶ s·¬Ô∫Ô·V_ ŒÀÿkVÚ ÂV‚ΩKD ŒÀÿkVÚs> \V™ Es_ ƒ‚¶ ÂÁ¶xÁ≈ WÈ°˛≈m. ŒÀÿkVÚ ∏ˆs™Ú¬ÔV™ >M Es_ ƒ‚¶xD ∂Õ>Õ> ∏ˆs™ˆ[ ∂Á™›m cÆ©∏™ÏÔ”¬zD ƒ\ cˆÁ\ ∂π©√>VÔ°D, √Vo™ √Vz√V| ÷_ÈV> kÁÔl_ ∂Ω©√Á¶ \M> cˆÁ\ÔÁ· ∂∫ˇÔˆ¬zD kÁÔlKD ∂Á\B ºkı|D. z§©√VÔ, zwÕÁ>Ô^, ÿ√ıÔ^, ÂokÁ¶Õº>Vˆ[ \M> cˆÁ\ÔÁ· cÆ] ÿƒF•D kÁÔl_, ŒÀÿkVÚ ∏ˆs™Ú¬z\V™ Es_ ƒ‚¶∫Ô^ ∂Á\B √V.\.Ô. ko•Æ›mD. ÷Õm ]Ú\ fl ƒ‚¶D \uÆD zwÕÁ>Ô^ ]Ú\ Œa©Afl ƒ‚¶D g˛Bku§_ c^· zÁ≈√V|ÔÁ·¬ ÔÁ·B°D, √Vo™ √Vz√V‚Á¶ ∂Ôu≈°D, zwÕÁ>Ô^ cˆÁ\ÔÁ·¬ ÔV¬Ô°D √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D. ∂˛È ÷Õ]B ∂·s_ ∑B\ˆBVÁ> ]Ú\ ›Á> ƒ‚¶©√Ω ∂∫ˇÔˆ¬Ô ko•Æ›mºkVD.

15. ∂´EB_ ∂Á\©Afl ƒ‚¶D A]B ∂´EB_ ∂Á\©A 15.1

ŒÚ k·ÏÕm k´¬ÌΩB ƒx>VB›]_, ∂´EB_ ∂Á\©Afl ƒ‚¶D ®[√m, ÔVÈ›]uzD, º>Ák¬zD ∞u√ \Vu≈›]uz c^·V¬Ô©√¶ ºkı|D. ®™ºk, ÷>uÔVÔ© A]B ∂´EB_ ∂Á\©A WÏ Bfl ƒÁ√ (New Constituent Assembly) Œ[Æ cÚkV¬˛, >uº√Vm^· ÷Õ]B ∂´EB_ ∂Á\©Afl ƒ‚¶›]_ \Vu≈∫Ô^ ÿÔVı| k´© √V|√|ºkVD. ∞uÔ™ºk, ¿]B´ƒÏ ÿk∫Ô¶VƒÈFBV ∂kÏÔ^ >ÁÈÁ\l_ ∂Á\¬Ô©√‚¶ ∂´EB_ ∂Á\©Afl ƒ‚¶ \Æ gF° zøs[ ∂§¬ÁÔl[ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_ A]B ∂´EB_ ∂Á\©A cÚkV¬Ô©√¶ ºkı|D.

E§B \VWÈ∫ÔÁ· cÚkV¬z>_ 15.2

\VWÈD ÿ√ˆB>VÔ ÷Ú©√m ®[√m, ŒÚ ∏´VÕ]B›][ Ê´V™ \uÆD sÁ´kV™ k·ÏflE¬z ŒÚ >Á¶BVÔ ÷Ú¬˛≈m. gÁÔl™V_, Â_È g”Á\ÁB•D, ]≈Á\ÁB•D ∞u√|›mk>uz ÿ√ˆB \VWÈ∫ÔÁ·fl E§B \VWÈ∫Ô·VÔ© ∏ˆ¬zD ¶kΩ¬ÁÔÔÁ· √V.\.Ô. g>ˆ¬zD.

16. \VWÈ∫Ô”¬z^ ∞u≈›>Vμ° 16.1

>tμÂV‚Ω[ tÔ tÔ ∏[>∫˛B© √z]BVÔ >tμÂV‚Ω[ k¶¬z \Vk‚¶∫Ô^ ÷Ú¬˛[≈™ (ÿƒ[Á™, ÔVfiEA´D, ]Úk^jÏ ¿∫ÔÈVÔ). >Ú\Aˆ, Ô¶ŸÏ, 20


sø©A´D, ]Úkı V\ÁÈ, ºkŸÏ, ˛Ú‚Ω ˛ˆ, ÂVÔ©√‚Ω™D, ∂ˆBŸÏ, ÿ√´D√ŸÏ, ºƒÈD c^π‚¶ ÷Õ> k¶ >tμÂV|>V[ >tμÂV‚Ω[ tÔ© ∏[>∫˛B \Vk‚¶∫Ô·VzD. \M> º\D√V| ®[√Á> ‘\¬Ô”¬ÔV™ kVF©AÔÁ· sˆkV¬z>_’ ®[Æ kÁ´BƬ˛[≈™Ï. ÷>[√Ω kVμÂV^, c¶_ÂÈD, Ô_s, ÔıËB\VÔ kVμk>uÔV™ JÈ k·∫ÔÁ·© ÿ√Æ>_ g˛B™ x>[Á\BV™ º>Ák gzD. g™V_, ÷Ák ∂Á™›]KD >tμÂV‚Ω[ \u≈ √z]ÔÁ·s¶ k¶ \Vk‚¶∫Ô^ ÿ√Ú\·s_ ∏[>∫˛•^·™. ÿ√VÚπB_ z§X|Ô^, ÂÈkVμ°¬ z§X|Ô^, Ô_s¬ z§X|Ô^ ®™ \M> º\D√V‚Ω[ ®_ÈV ∂·°ÔπKD k¶¬z \Vk‚¶∫Ô^ ∏[>∫˛•^·™. √›>VD kz©A, √[Mÿ´ı¶VD kz©A º>Ï°Ôπ_ ÷Õ> k¶¬z \ı¶ÈD>V[ tÔ°D t[>∫˛•^·m. >tμÂV¶·s_ tÔ ∂]Ô\Vº™VÏ zΩÁƒl_ kVμkmD ÷∫z>V[. ÂÔÏ©A≈∫ÔÁ·s¶ ª´Ô© √z]Ôπ_ ∂]Ô\V™ \¬Ô^ kVμkmD ÷∫z>V[. kÆÁ\l[ z§X¶VÔ c^· ºk·VıÁ\ÁB ƒVÏÕm ∂]Ô\V™ \¬Ô^ cw_kmD ÷Õ> \ı¶È›]_>V[. \VWÈ›m¬z c^º·ºB WÈ°D ÷›>ÁÔB ºkÆ√V|ÔÁ· ¿¬Ô √V|√|ºkVD.

17. ºk·VıÁ\ cwkÏ kÚkVF¬zø 17.1

ºk·VıÁ\l_ ~|√|D skƒVlÔ”¬zD ºk·Vı ÿ>VaÈV·ÏÔ”¬zD ºÂ´ΩBVÔ ª]BD ∂π©√m, ºk·Vı cu√›]© ÿ√VÚ‚Ô”¬z cˆB sÁÈ ˛Á¶¬Ôfl ÿƒFkm c^π‚¶ ]‚¶∫ÔÁ· g´VFÕm ÿƒB_√|›> √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D. ∂>uÔVÔ ‘cwkÏ kÚkVF¬zø’ (Farmers Income Commission) ∂Á\¬Ô √V.\.Ô. kaÿƒF•D. ∂¬zø cwkÏÔπ[ WÁÈ, ºk·Vı ÿƒÈ°Ô^, kÚkVF ˛Á¶¬zD ∂·° º√V[≈kuÁ≈ g´VFÕm, gı|º>VÆD ºk·VıÁ\fl ƒVÏÕº>VÚ¬z¬ ˛Á¶¬Ô ºkıΩB kÚkVF ∂·° z§›m √ˆÕmÁ´¬zD. ∂›>ÁÔB© √ˆÕmÁ´Ô^ ∏[kÚD J[Æ º>ÁkÔÁ· c^·¶¬˛B>VÔ ∂Á\•D.

∂. ºk·VıÁ\ sÁ·ÿ√VÚ”¬z WBVB\V™ sÁÈ : ºk·Vı ÷|ÿ√VÚ^ ÿƒÈ°Ô^, cwkÏÔπ[ ÿƒVÕ> cÁw©A, WÈ›][ \]©A g˛B ∂Á™›Á>•D Ô ¬˛‚| kÚD ÿ>VÁÔ•¶[ Ì|>ÈVÔ 50 sø¬ÔV| ÷ÈV√›Á>fl ºƒÏ›m skƒVB sÁ·ÿ√VÚ‚Ôπ[ sÁÈ yÏ\VM¬Ô©√¶ ºkı|D. g. ºk·VıÁ\l_ ~|√|ºkVÚ¬z ºÂ´Ω ª]BD : ºk·VıÁ\ÁB ÷ÈV√Ô´ \V™>VÔ \Vu≈ ºkı|D. kÆÁ\ÁB ∂Ôu≈ ºkı|D. ÷MkÚD >ÁÈxÁ≈ 21


l™ÚD ºk·Vı ÿ>Vao_ ~|√¶ x[k´ºkı|D. ÂV‚Ω[ c °© √VmÔV©Á√ cÆ] ÿƒFB ºkı|D á ÷ÁkÿB_ÈVD ÂÁ¶ÿ√≈ ºk·VıÁ\l_ ~|√|ºkVÚ¬z ºÂ´ΩBVÔ ª]B\VÔ cwkÏ kÚkVF¬zø √ˆÕmÁ´¬zD ŒÚ ÿ>VÁÔ ∂π¬Ô©√¶ ºkı|D. ÷. ºk·VıÁ\ ƒVÏÕº>VÚ¬z {F∆]BD \uÆD ÔV©¨| : ∂´∑ ªaBÏÔ”¬z c^·mº√V[Æ, √lÏ ÿƒF•D cwkÏÔ”¬zD, ºk·Vı ÿ>VaÈV·ÏÔ”¬zD {F∆]BD, ÔV©¨| c^π‚¶ kƒ]Ô^ ÿƒFm >´©√¶ ºkı|D. ºk·Vı W]W]ÁÈ ∂§¬ÁÔ 17.2

skƒVB› mÁ≈l[ k·ÏflE¬z kaÿƒF•D s>›]_ skƒVB›]uÔVÔ ‘>M W] WÁÈ ∂§¬ÁÔ’ ÿkπl¶ ko•Æ›mºkVD.

\ÔV›\V ÔVÕ] ª´Ô ºkÁÈ cÆ]Bπ©A› ]‚¶D 17.3

ª´Ô ºkÁÈ cÆ]Bπ©A›]‚¶›Á> ºk·VıÁ\© √ËÔ”¬zD ¿‚Ω›>_: ÷Õ]B ∂´∑ ±Æ ÂV^ ºkÁÈ cÆ]Bπ©A› ]‚¶›]Á™ ª´Ô© √z]Ôπ_ ÂÁ¶xÁ≈©√|›] kÚ˛≈m. ÷›]‚¶D >uº√Vm ÿ√Vm©√ËÔ”¬z \‚|º\ √B[√|›>©√|˛≈m. ÷>Á™ ºk·VıÁ\ √ËÔ”¬zD ¿‚Ω¬Ô©√¶ ºkı|D. º\KD, ÷›]‚¶›][ ˇμ ºkÁÈ ÂV‚Ô^ ∂]Ô\V¬Ô©√¶°D, ª]BD cBÏ›>© √¶°D √V.\.Ô. ko•Æ›mD.

17.4

ª´Ô ºkÁÈkVF©Á√ ∂]Ô\V¬z>_ : ª´Ô© √z]Ôπ_ ∂ÆkÁ¶¬z© ∏ÕÁ>B ÿ>Va_ÔÁ· √´kÈV¬zk>[ JÈD ª´Ô ºkÁÈ kVF©AÔÁ· ∂]Ôˆ¬Ô xΩ•D. ºk·Vı cu√›]© ÿ√VÚ‚ÔÁ· √B[ Ì‚¶©√‚¶ ÿ√VÚ‚Ô·VÔ \VuÆk>[ JÈD kÚkVF ∂]Ô\VzD. ®™ºk, ∂ÆkÁ¶¬z© ∏ÕÁ>B EÆ ÿ>Va_Ô^ ]‚¶t‚| k·Ï¬Ô©√|D.

18. ÿ>Va_mÁ≈ k·ÏflE 18.1

ƒJÔ ∞u≈›>Vμ°Ô^ \Á≈B°D, ∂]Ô ∂·s_ ºkÁÈkVF©AÔ^ ∞u√|›>©√¶°D EÆ \uÆD Â|›>´ ÿ>Va_Ô^ ∂]Ô ®ıˬÁÔl_ cÚkV¬Ô©√¶ ºkı|D. ÷Á> \™]_ ÿÔVı| >twÔ›]_ EÆ \uÆD Â|›>´ ÿ>VauƒVÁÈÔÁ· ∂]Ô ®ıˬÁÔl_ ÿ>V¶∫Ô \›]B ∂´∑ JÈD √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚E ¶kΩ¬ÁÔ ®|¬zD.

18.2

∂´∑D, ÿ>Va_mÁ≈•D Œ[§Á Õm ÂV‚Ω_ ºkÁÈkVF©AÔÁ· cÚkV¬zD kÁÔl_ ÿ>Va_ k·ÏflE cÚkV¬Ô© √V|√|D.

18.3

ÿ>Va_ mÁ≈l_ k·ÏÕmkÚD º>Ák¬z ∞u√ ÿ>Va_ √luE© √^πÔ”D, ÿ>Va_O‚√© √luE WÆk™∫Ô”D, A]B √V¶›]‚¶∫Ô”D, √luE xÁ≈Ô”D 22


º>EB ∂·s_ cÚkV¬Ô© √¶ºkı|D. ]≈Á\t¬Ô ÿ>VaÈV·ÏÔÁ· cÚkV¬zD kÁÔl_, √luE WÆk™∫ÔÁ· ŒÚ∫˛Á ›m› ÿ>Va_ k·ÏflEºBV| ∂]Ô\V™ ºkÁÈkVF©AÔÁ· Â|kı ∂´∑ cÚkV¬Ô ºkı|D. cÈÔfl ƒÕÁ>l_ º√V‚Ωl|D ∂·suz ÷Õ]B› ÿ>Va_ ]≈[, º√V‚Ω› ]≈[, >´D cBÏ›>©√¶ ºkı|D. cÈÔ \Õ>D \uÆD cÈÔ\B\V¬Ô©√‚|^·>V_ ®u√‚ΩÚ¬zD E¬Ô_ÔÁ·fl ƒˆBVÔ gF° ÿƒFm, ∂Ák ÷Õ]B› ÿ>Va_ mÁ≈ÁB© √V]¬ÔV> kÁÔl_ ¶kΩ¬ÁÔÔ^ ®|¬Ô©√¶ ºkı|D. 18.4

EÆ \uÆD zÆ ÿ>Va_Ôπ[ k·ÏflE¬ÔV™ ∂Á™›m c>sÔÁ·•D \›]B ∂´∑ ÿƒFB ºkı|D. ÿ>Va_O‚√›Á> cBÏ›>, ÿ>Va_O‚√sB_ √luE \uÆD ÂT™© √|›>_ ®[≈ W] Œ[§Á™ \›]B ∂´∑ ∞u√|›> ºkı|D. ∂ÁkÔ”¬Ô› º>ÁkBV™ Ô¶[ kƒ]Ô^, su√Á™fl ƒÕÁ>Ô^, ∞uÆ\]¬ÔV™ kƒ]Ô^, x>‹‚| \VMB W] g˛BÁk cÚkV¬Ô ºkı|D.

18.5

ÿ√Vm› mÁ≈ WÆk™∫Ô^ >MBVÏ\BD g¬Ô©√¶¬ ̶Vm. >uº√Vm^· ÿ√Vm›mÁ≈ WÆk™∫Ôπ_ c^· ∏´flƒÁ™ÔÁ· g´VFÕm, ∂Ák Ê´Á\¬Ô ºkı|D. ∂ku§[ cu√›]› ]≈–D, ÷ÈV√xD ∂]Ôˆ¬Ô¬ÌΩB ¶kΩ¬ÁÔÔ^ º\uÿÔV^·©√¶ ºkı|D. >uº√Vm^· Âk´›]™V ÿ>Va_Ô^, ÿ√Vm› mÁ≈lºÈºB Ák›]Ú¬Ô©√¶ ºkı|D. ÂokÁ¶Õ]Ú¬Ô¬ÌΩB ÿ√Vm›mÁ≈ WÆk™∫ÔÁ·fl Ê´Á\©√>uÔV™ ¶kΩ¬ÁÔÔ^ ∞u√|›> ºkı|D. ÿ√Vm›mÁ≈ WÆk™∫Ô^, >∫Ô”Á¶B k·ÏflE¬z› º>ÁkBV™ W]ÁB JÈ>™ ∂∫ÔVΩÔπ oÚÕm ÿ√uƬ ÿÔV^k>uz ∂–\] ∂π¬Ô ºkı|D. ÷mº√V[≈ ºÂV¬Ô∫Ô^ WÁ≈ºk≈ √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D.

19. ∂Á\©AflƒV´V› ÿ>Va_ k·ÏflE 19.1

÷Õ]BVs_ ºk·VıÁ\¬z ∂|›>>VÔ ∂]Ô\V™ \¬Ôπ[ kVμ°¬z ∂Ω©√Á¶BVÔ ÷Ú©√m ∂Á\©AflƒV´V> ÿ>Va_Ô^>VD. ∂´∑ ºkÁÈÔ”D, ∂Á\©√V¬Ô©√‚¶ ÿ>Va_Ô”D tÔfl EÈÚ¬z›>V[ ºkÁÈkVF©Á√› >Ú˛[≈™. ÷Õ]B cÁw¬zD kB]™ˆ_ 92 sø¬ÔV‚Ω™Ï ∂Á\©AflƒV´V> mÁ≈l_ √ËAˆ˛[≈™Ï.

19.2

∂Á\©AflƒV´V> ÿ>Va_ ÿƒFºkVÏ \uÆD ÿ>VaÈV·ÏÔ^ kÚ\V™›Á> ∂]Ô\V¬z>_ √V.\.Ô.s[ ÷ȬÔVzD. ÷>uÔVÔ, cÁw¬zD kB]™ˆ[ ]≈[ º\D√V|, ∂Á\©AflƒV´V> ÿ>Va_Ô”¬z ∂]Ô¬ Ô¶[ kƒ], Ô¶[ kw∫zD ÂÁ¶xÁ≈ÁB ®π>V¬z>_, EÆ, zÆ ÿ>Va_ÔÁ·› ÿ>V¶∫zD ƒ‚¶ ÂÁ¶xÁ≈ ÔÁ· ®π>V¬z>_, ∂Á\©AflƒV´V> ÿ>Va_Ô”¬zD ∂´E[ ÂÁ¶xÁ≈Ô”¬zD ÷Á¶ºB ÁÔR‚Á¶ xu§K\VÔ Œa›>_, ºk·VıÁ\ ƒVÏÕ> \]©A¬ Ì‚|› ÿ>Va_ÔÁ· k·Ï›>_, ºk·VıÁ\ ƒV´V> ª´Ô› ÿ>Va_ k·ÏflE, ºkÁÈ 23


cÆ]Bπ©A› ]‚¶›Á> º\D√|›m>_, Ì‚|≈° ∂Á\©AÔÁ· kKkV¬z>_, ÿ>Va_O‚√ º\D√V‚Á¶© √´kÈV¬z>_, E≈©A› ÿ>Va_ √z]ÔÁ· (Cluster based growth poles) ∞u√|›m>_ g˛B ºÔVˆ¬ÁÔÔÁ· ko•Æ›mºkVD.

20. ÿ>VaÈV·Ï ÂÈ[ 20.1

ÿ>VaÈV·ÏÔπ[ ÂÈÁ™© √VmÔV¬Ô› º>ÁkBV™ ∂Á™›m› ÿ>VaÈV·Ï ÂÈfl ƒ‚¶∫ÔÁ·•D ÷Õ]B ∂´∑ Ê´Á\¬Ô ºkı|D. ∂kÏÔ”¬z© √Ë© √VmÔV©A, ]≈[ cu√›], ƒD√· xÁ≈Ô^, {F∆]B xÁ≈Ô^ º√V[≈kuÁ≈ c^·¶¬˛B>VÔ ÷Õ>fl ƒ‚¶∫Ô^ ∂Á\B ºkı|D. ÿ>VaÈV·Ï WÏkVÔ c≈°Ô^, Ì‚| xBuEºBV|D, ÔÚ›ÿ>VuÆÁ\ºBV|D √´V\ˆ¬Ô©√¶ ºkı|D. ÿ>VaÈV·Ï ÿ>V¶ÏAÁ¶B ∂Á™›m ¶kΩ¬ÁÔÔπKD ÿ>VauƒVÁÈ cˆÁ\BV·Ï, ÿ>Vau ƒ∫ÔD g˛Bkuº≈V| x›>´©A¬ ÔÈÕ>VºÈVƒÁ™ ¶›], \›]B ∂´∑ c>s ÿƒFB ºkı|D. ÿ>VaÈV·Ï º\ÈVıÁ\ c≈°Ô^ kK©√|›>©√¶ ºkı|D.

20.2

>twÏÔ^ ∂]Ô ∂·s_ √ËBVuÆD \ºÈEBV, E∫Ô©ØÏ, kÁ·z¶V ÂV|Ô^, \VÈ›y°Ô^ º√V[≈ ÂV|Ôπ_ c^· ÷Õ]B› #>´Ô∫Ôπ_, >tμ ∂]ÔVˆÔÁ· WBt¬Ô \›]B ∂´∑ ¶kΩ¬ÁÔ ®|¬Ô ºkı|D. ÷ÁkÔ^ WÁ≈ºk≈ √V.\.Ô. xøTflE_ √V|√|D.

21. kÚ\V™ kˆfl ƒKÁÔ 21.1

>MÂ√ÏÔ”¬z gı|¬z 6 È‚ƒ ‘√VF kÁ´lÈV™ kÚkVF¬z kÚ\V™kˆ sȬz ∂π¬Ô ºkı|D ®[Æ \›]B ∂´Áƒ √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚E ko•Æ›mD. \ÔπÚ¬z 20 sø¬ÔV|D, J›>¬ zΩ\¬Ô”¬z 25 sø¬ÔV|D Ì|>_ kÚ\V™kˆ sȬz ∂π¬Ô √V.\.Ô. ¶kΩ¬ÁÔ ®|¬zD.

21.2

>M Â√ÏÔπ[ ºƒt©A *m ‘. 2 È‚ƒD kÁ´ kÚ\V™ kˆ sȬz ∂π¬Ô \›]B ∂´Áƒ √V.\.Ô. ko•Æ›mD.

21.3

c^Ô‚¶Á\©A kƒ]ÔÁ· ∞u√|›mk>uÔVÔ Â¶©A nÕ>Vı|› ]‚¶›]_ ‘. 32.5 ÷È‚ƒD ºÔVΩ W] º>Ák©√|D. ÷]_ √V]B·° W] ÿkπloÚÕm ]´‚¶©√¶ ºkıΩ•^· WÁÈl_, ÷>uÔVÔ c^Ô‚¶Á\©A W] √›]´∫Ô^ ÿkπl¶©√‚|, ∂]_ ÿƒFB©√|D x>‹|Ô”¬z xøÁ\BV™ kˆ sȬz kw∫Ô Â¶kΩ¬ÁÔ ®|¬Ô √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D.

kÚ∫ÔVÈ Ák©A W] 21.4

∂´∑ ªaBÏÔ^ \uÆD >MBVÏ WÆk™ ªaBÏÔ^ kÚ∫ÔVÈ Ák©A W]l_ ÿƒF•D x>‹|Ô”¬z gı|¬z 12% k‚Ω ˛Á¶¬Ô kÁÔ ÿƒFB© √V|√|D. 24


21.5

kÚ∫ÔVÈ Ák©A W]B›]_ c^· ÿ>VÁÔÁB √∫z ƒÕÁ>l_ x>‹| ÿƒFBÈVD ®[≈ ºBVƒÁ™ÁB ÁÔs|D√Ω \›]B ∂´Áƒ √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚E ko•Æ›mD.

A]B {F∆]B› ]‚¶D ´›m 21.6

\›]B ∂´∑ ∂§xÔ©√|›]•^· A]B {F∆]B› ]‚¶D J›> zΩ\¬Ô”¬z √VmÔV©√u≈ ®]ÏÔVÈ›Á> ∞u√|›]s|D. ®™ºk, A]B {F∆]B xÁ≈ÁB ÷´›m ÿƒFms‚|, ∞uÔ™ºk ÂÁ¶xÁ≈l_ c^· √ÁwB {F∆]B› ]‚¶›Á>ºB ÿ>V¶ÏÕm ÿƒB_√|›mD√Ω \›]B ∂´Áƒ √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚E ko•Æ›mD.

E_ÈÁ´ kËÔ›]_ ºÂ´Ω ∂ÕWB x>‹‚|¬z ®]Ï©A 21.7

E_ÈÁ´ kËÔ›]_ ºÂ´Ω ∂ÕWB x>‹‚Á¶ ∂–\]›m n¬˛B xuº√V¬z¬ Ì‚¶Ë ∂´∑ ∏≈©∏›m^· gÁ >tμÂV‚Ω_ c^· ŒÚ ºÔVΩ E_ÈÁ´ kËÔÏÔ”¬zD, ÷Õ]BV xøkmD 20 ºÔVΩ E_ÈÁ´ kËÔÏÔ”¬zD ~|ÿƒFB xΩBV> ÷w©Á√ ∞u√|›]s|D. ®™ºk, √_kÁÔ› >´©ÿ√BÏ ÿÔVı¶ E_ÈÁ´ kËÔ›]_ ºÂ´Ω ∂ÕWB x>‹‚Á¶ ∂–\]¬zD gÁ ÁB ÷´›m ÿƒF•D√Ω \›]B ∂´Áƒ √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚E WÏ√Õ]¬zD.

g•^ ÔV©¨| ºƒÁk kˆ ´›m 21.8

g•^ ÔV©¨‚Ω[ *m ºƒÁk kˆ s]©√Á>¬ ÁÔs¶ √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D. g•^ ÔV©¨| ®[√m, ŒÚ ƒJÔ √VmÔV©A ]‚¶\VzD. ŒÀÿkVÚ zΩ\Ô–¬zD ∂›]BVkEB g•^ ÔV©¨| º>ÁkBVÔ c^·m. ÷Õ]BVs_ g•^ ÔV©¨| z§›> sa©A Ï°, ÷[–D xø ∂·s_ k·ÏflE ÔV V> WÁÈl_, ÷›mÁ≈l_ ºƒÁk kˆ s]©√m √V>Ô\V™ sÁ·°ÔÁ· ∞u√|›mD. ®™ºk, g•^ ÔV©¨‚Ω[ *m ºƒÁk kˆÁB ¿¬Ô ºÔVÚºkVD.

22. Ô‚¶Á\©A º\D√V| 22.1

ÿ√VÚπB_ k·ÏflE¬zD, \M> º\D√V‚|¬zD ∂Ω©√Á¶¬ Ô‚¶Á\©AÔ^ ÷[§BÁ\BV>Ák. ƒVÁÈ kƒ], º√V¬zk´›m, t[ƒV´D, >ıßÏ, m©A´° c^π‚¶ ∂Á™›m ∂Ω©√Á¶¬ Ô‚¶Á\©A› º>ÁkÔ”D c¶™ΩBVÔ º\D √|›>©√¶ ºkı|D ®™ √V.\.Ô. ÔÚm˛≈m. ÷>uÔVÔ ∂Ω©√Á¶¬ Ô‚¶Á\©AÔ”¬ÔV™ x>‹‚Á¶ ∂]Ô\V¬z>_, ∂Ω©√Á¶¬ Ô‚¶Á\©AÔ^ º√bk]_ ∂]Ô¬ Ôk™D, t[™Vu≈_ T VkÁ> xu§K\VÔ› >sÏ›>_, t[ƒV´ kVˆB∫ÔÁ· Ê´Á\›>_, koÁ\BV¬z>_, √´kÈV¬Ô©√‚¶ t[ cu√›], Am©∏¬Ô›>¬Ô t[™Vu≈ÁÈ ∂]Ô\V¬z>_, ∂Á™›m ˛´V\∫Ô”¬zD >´\V™ ƒVÁÈ, º√V¬zk´›m kVÔ™∫Ôπ[ ÷B¬ÔD ∂_È; \¬Ô^ \uÆD 25


ÿ√VÚ‚Ôπ[ √B D ®[˛≈ WÁÈÁB cı¶V¬z>_, ÿ√Vm© º√V¬zk´›]Á™ x>[Á\©√|›m>_, ∂Á™kÚ¬zD #B zΩ¿Ï, ∂Á™kÚ¬zD m©A´° kƒ]Ô^, xøÁ\BV™ ƒVÁÈ© √VmÔV©A g˛BkuƬÔVÔ √V|√|ºkVD. √VmÔV¬Ô©√‚¶ zΩ¿Ï 22.2

∂Á™kÚ¬zD º√Vm\V™ √VmÔV©√V™¬ zΩ¿Ï ÷Èkƒ\VÔ¬ ˛Á¶©√>uz kakÁÔ x>[Á\ √ËBVÔ¬ ÿÔVı| ÿƒB_√|ºkVD.

22.3

zΩ¿Ï ŒÚ \M> cˆÁ\. >ıßÏ sWºBVÔ›]uz sÁÈ Ák©√Á>ºBV, >ıßÏ sWºBVÔ›Á>› >MBVÏ kƒD s|kÁ>ºBV √V.\.Ô. ∞uÔVm. zΩ¿Ï >MBVÏ\B \V¬zkÁ> ®]Ï©º√VD.

22.4

ÂÔÏ©A≈∫Ôπ_ \Áw¿Ï ºƒÔˆ©º√V| W[Æs¶V\_, >ıßÏ› º>ÁkÁB WÁ≈° ÿƒFB √B[√|›>©√‚¶ ¿Á´ *ı|D √B[√|›mD kÁÔl_ \Æ∑wuE xÁ≈ÁB Az›>°D, ÂÔÏ©A≈∫Ôπ_ c^· ∞ˆ z·∫ÔÁ· ¿Ïk· º\D√V‚Ωuz √B[√|›>°D ¶kΩ¬ÁÔ ®|¬Ô ko•Æ›mºkVD.

22.5

˛´V\©A≈∫Ôπ_ zΩ\´V\›m xÁ≈ JÈD ¿´V>V´∫ÔÁ·© √VmÔV›m© √B[√|›> ka kÁÔ ÿƒFºkVD.

m©A´° kƒ] (Sanitation) 22.6

Ôa©∏¶ kƒ]ÔÁ·© ÿ√Ú¬˛› >Úk>uz ∂Á™›m ¶kΩ¬ÁÔÔÁ·•D √V.\.Ô. º\uÿÔV^”D. ]≈Õ>ÿkπÔÁ· Ôa©∏¶\VÔ √B[√|›mD WÁȬz xuÆ©A^π Ák¬Ô √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D.

ÿ>V¶ÏkıΩ› mÁ≈ ]‚¶∫Ô^ 22.7

ÿ>V¶ÏkıΩ› mÁ≈ ]‚¶∫ÔÁ· ÿƒB_√|›mk]_ >tμÂV| √È gı|Ô·VÔ A≈¬Ôˬԩ√‚| kÕ>m. √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚EÁB ºƒÏÕ>kÏÔ^ ÿ>V¶ÏkıΩ› mÁ≈ ∂Á\flƒÏÔ·VÔ ÿ√VÆ©º√u≈ ∏[™Ï>V[ >twÔ›]uz A]B ÿ>V¶ÏkıΩ› ]‚¶∫Ô^ ∂§s¬Ô©√‚¶™. >twÔ›]_ c^· ∂Á™›m *‚¶ÏºÔÎ √VÁ>ÔÁ·•D ∂ÔÈ ´l_ √VÁ>Ô·VÔ \Vu≈ Œ©A>_ ∂π¬Ô©√‚¶m, √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚EÁBfl ºƒÏÕ>kÏÔ^ ÿ>V¶ÏkıΩ› mÁ≈ ∂Á\flƒÏÔ·VÔ ÷ÚÕ> ÔVÈ›]_ >V[. ÷Õ> ÔVÈÔ‚¶›]_>V[ ÿ>V¶ÏkıΩ›mÁ≈ ]‚¶∫Ô”¬z Ì|>_ W] Œm¬ˇ| ÿƒFB©√‚¶m. g™V_, Ô¶Õ> 5 gı|Ôπ_ ÿ>V¶ÏkıΩ› mÁ≈ ]‚¶∫Ôπ_ >twÔD *ı|D A≈¬Ôˬԩ√|D WÁÈ ∞u√‚|s‚¶m. ÷Õ> WÁÈÁB \Vu§, >twÔ›]_ >uº√Vm WKÁkl_ c^· ∂Á™›m ÿ>V¶ÏkıΩ› ]‚¶∫ÔÁ·•D ∂|›> 3 gı|Ôπ_ ÿƒB_√|›] xΩ¬Ô √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚E ¶kΩ¬ÁÔ ®|¬zD. 26


22.8

ÿ>V¶ÏkıΩ kÁ´√¶›]_ >Ú\Aˆ ÂÔÁ´ ºƒÏ¬Ô ¶kΩ¬ÁÔ ®|¬Ô©√|D. >Ú\Aˆl oÚÕm ÿƒ[Á™, ºƒÈD, ºÔVÁk, ÿ√∫ÔjÏ g˛B ÂÔ´∫Ô”¬zD, ÿ>uz \uÆD \›]B \Vk‚¶∫Ô”¬zD ºÂ´ΩBVÔ ÿ>V¶ÏkıΩÔÁ· ÷B¬Ô √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚E √V|√|D.

22.9

ÿƒ[Á™loÚÕm º¤VÈVϺ√‚Á¶, ˛Úi ˛ˆ kaBVÔ ÿ√∫ÔjÚ¬z ÿ>V¶Ï kıΩÔÁ· ÷B¬zD kÁÔl_ A]B ÿ>V¶ÏkıΩ© √VÁ>ÔÁ· ∞u√|›m>_... ¿ı¶ÔVÈ\VÔ ˛¶©∏_ º√V¶©√‚|^· ˛w¬z Ô¶uÔÁ´ºBV´ ÿ>V¶ÏkıΩ© √VÁ> ∂Á\¬zD ]‚¶›Á> ÿƒB_√|›] ÿƒ[Á™loÚÕm \V\_ÈA´D, Amflºƒˆ, Ô¶ŸÏ kaBVÔ E>D√´›]uz ÿ>V¶ÏkıΩÔÁ· ÷B¬z>_...

22.10

22.11

∂ˆBŸˆoÚÕm >fiƒV∆Ú¬z A]B ÿ>V¶ÏkıΩ ÷Á ©A© √VÁ> ∂Á\›>_...

22.12

ÿƒ[Á™ á Ô[MBVz\ˆ ÷Á¶ºB ÷´‚Á¶© √VÁ> ∂Á\¬Ô ¶kΩ¬ÁÔ ®|›>_...

22.13

]ÚflE ÿ√V[\ÁÈl_ A]B ÿ>V¶ÏkıΩ© ÿ√‚Ω ÿ>VauƒVÁÈ ∂Á\›>_...

ÿ>V¶ÏkıΩ› mÁ≈ ƒVÏ∏_ >twÔ›]_ kVF©A^· ÷¶∫Ôπ_ \Ú›mkD \uÆD ÿ√V§lB_ Ô_ŸˆÔÁ·› ÿ>V¶∫z>_...

22.14

>twÔ›]_ c^· ∂Á™›m ÿ>V¶ÏkıΩ© √VÁ>ÔÁ·•D >tμÂV‚Ω_ c^· ÿ>V¶ÏkıΩ¬ ºÔV‚¶∫Ôπ[ WÏkVÔ k´DA¬z^ ÿÔVı| kÚ>_...

22.15

>twÔD ÿ>Va_ k·ÏflEl_ x[º™≈ ºkı|ÿ\M_ ÿƒ[Á™áÿ¶_o, ÿƒ[Á™áxDÁ√, ÿƒ[Á™áÿÔV_Ô›>V g˛B ÷¶∫Ô”¬z >M kÏ›>Ô ´l_ √VÁ> ∂Á\›>_...

22.16

÷mº√V[≈ >twÔ ÂÈ[ ƒVÏÕ> ÿ>V¶ÏkıΩ›mÁ≈ ]‚¶∫ÔÁ· ÿƒB_√|›> √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D. t[ƒV´D >tμÂV‚Ω_ ˛¶©∏_ º√V¶©√‚|^· t[ ]‚¶∫ÔÁ· sÁ´Õm xΩ¬Ô ko•Æ›mºkVD. ÿ√Vm›mÁ≈ JÈ\VÔ A]B t[ ]‚¶∫ÔÁ·› ÿ>V¶∫Ô°D, º>EB t[ Ô‚¶Á\©∏_ ÷ÚÕm >tμÂV‚|¬z t[ƒV´D ÿÔVı|kÚD ka›>¶›Á> º>ÁkBV™ ∂·s_ cÚkV¬Ô°D √V|√|ºkVD. >tμÂV‚Ω_ \›]B ∂´E[ t[ cu√›] WÁÈB∫Ôπ_ cu√›]BVzD t[ƒV´›Á> xøkm\VÔ >tμÂV‚|¬ºÔ ∂π¬Ô ko•Æ›mºkVD.

22.17

º\‚˘Ï, ºƒÈD √z]¬z ÔVsˆ c√ˆ ¿Ï º\‚˘Ï ∂Á c√ˆ ¿Á´ º\flºƒˆ, ºƒÈD, g›#Ï √z]Ô”¬z √B[√|›>fl ÿƒF•D E≈©A› ]‚¶›Á>¬ ÿÔVı|k´ √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D. º\KD, >Ï\Aˆ \uÆD

22.18

27


ºƒÈD \Vk‚¶ \¬Ô^ ∂Á™kÚ¬zD xøÁ\BVÔ zΩ¿Ï ˛Á¶¬Ôfl ÿƒFB°D √V.\.Ô. kakz¬zD.

23. c^·V‚E ˛´V\©A≈ º\D√V| 23.1

˛´V\©A≈ k·ÏflE ÷_ÈV\_ ÂÔÏ©A≈∫Ô^ \‚|º\ k·Ïkm k·ÏflE gÔVm. ∂m T¬Ô\VÔºk xΩ•D. ®™ºk, ˛´V\© √z]Ô^ ÷mkÁ´ A≈¬Ôˬԩ√‚¶>uzD ºƒÏ›m, ˛´V\© √z]Ô^ A›>V¬Ô›]uz ka ÿƒF>_. ˛´V\© √z]Ôπ_ kVμºkVÏ ®Õ> kÁÔlKD ÂÔÏ©A≈ kVμsuz¬ zÁ≈BV> WÁȬz kƒ] kVF©AÔÁ· ∂]Ô\V¬z>_ g˛BkuƬÔVÔ √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D.

23.2

˛´V\ k·ÏflEºB ÂV‚Ω[ k·ÏflE ®[√Á> ÔÚ›]_ ÿÔVı| ˛´V\›][ zΩ¿Ï, ÿ>Ús·¬z, ƒVÁÈkƒ], t[ƒV´D, Ô_s, ∑ÔV>V´D, º√V¬zk´›m, >Ôk_ ÿ>Va_O‚√D º√V[≈ ∂Ω©√Á¶ kƒ]ÔÁ·¬ Ô‚¶Á\¬Ô √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D. ºk·VıÁ\ ƒVÏÕº>Vˆ[ kÚkVÁB ∂]Ô\V¬z>_, ÿ>Va_O‚√ k·ÏflEÔÁ·¬ ˛´V\© √z]Ô”¬z© √´kÈV¬z>_, ºk·VıÁ\ ƒV´V> ÿ>Va_ÔÁ· k·Ï›>_, ˛´V\© √z] ÷Á·QÏÔπ[ ]≈[ º\D√V|, ˛´V\ á ÂÔ´© √z]Ô”¬z ÷Á¶ºB ŒÚ∫˛Á ©A, T|º>VÆD Ôa©√Á≈ kƒ] g˛BkuƬÔVÔ z´_ÿÔV|©º√VD.

23.3

∂Ω›>·›m ∂´ƒVÔ ÷Ú¬Ô¬ÌΩB c^·V‚E ∂Á\©AÔ^, ˛´V\©A≈ \¬Ô”¬z ∂´EB_ cˆÁ\ÔÁ·© ÿ√uÆ› >Úk]KD, ∂kÏÔ”Á¶B ∏´flƒÁ™ÔÁ·› yÏ©√]KD E≈©√VÔfl ÿƒB_√¶ xΩ•D ®[√Á> √V.\.Ô. c Ï˛≈m. ÷Õ]B ∂´EB_ ∂Á\©∏_ ÿƒV_ȬÌΩB √fiƒVB›m¬Ô”¬ÔV™ ∂]ÔV´∫ÔÁ·•D, ÂÔ´V‚EÔ”¬ÔV™ ∂]ÔV´∫ÔÁ·•D c^·V‚E ∂Á\©AÔ”¬z xøÁ\BVÔ ∂π¬Ô √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D.

23.4

c^·V‚E ∂Á\©∏[ ∂Ω›>· g>V´\VÔ ˛´V\ ƒÁ√Ô^ s·∫Ô ºkı|D ®[√Á> √V.\.Ô. >[ ÷È‚EB sÚ©√\VÔ¬ ÿÔVı|^·m. ˛´V\fl ƒÁ√ÔÁ· kK©√|›> ºkıΩB ∂Á™›m ¶kΩ¬ÁÔÔÁ·•D √V.\.Ô. x[ÿ™|¬zD.

23.5

˛´V\©A≈ √Ω›> ÷Á·QÏÔ”¬z ºkÁÈkVF©∏_ x[–ˆÁ\ ∂π¬Ô©√|D.

ÂÔÏ©A≈ º\D√V| 23.6

÷Õ]B ÂV| ºkÔ\VÔ ÂÔ´\B\V˛ kÚ˛≈m. ÂÔ´∫Ôπ[ º>ÁkBV™ º√V¬zk´›m, T‚|kƒ], zΩ¿Ï, m©A´°, ]¶¬Ôa° º\ÈVıÁ\, ƒVÁÈ kƒ], ∑uÆflÛw_ √VmÔV©A ®™ ∂Á™›]KD º\D√‚¶ WÁÈÁB ∂Á¶B ºkı|D. ÂÔÏ©√z]Ôπ_ kVμºkVÁ´ ∂©A≈©√|›mkm >|¬Ô©√¶ ºkı|D. ÂÔ´© √z] c^·V‚E ∂Á\©AÔ”¬z ∂]ÔV´D √´kÈV¬Ô©√¶ ºkı|D ®[√™ x>[Á\› º>ÁkÔ·VzD. 28


∂Õ> kÁÔl_, º√ÚÕm, ÂÁ¶√VÁ> c^π‚¶ ÿ√Vm© º√V¬zk´›m kƒ]ÔÁ· ∂]Ô\V¬z>_, ¿Ω›]Ú¬zD º√V¬zk´›m xÁ≈ÁB ∞u√|›m>_, sÁȬz kV∫Ô©√|D A‚Ω >ıßÁ´ s¶ º\ÈV™ >‚|©√VΩ_ÈV> #B zΩ¿Á´¬ zwVF JÈD ∂Á™›m T|Ô”¬zD ∂π›>_, xøÁ\BV™ m©A´° kƒ]ÔÁ· ∞u√|›m>_, ]¶¬Ôa° º\ÈVıÁ\l_ ∑aB¬z©Á√ (Zero waste) xÁ≈ÁB¬ Ô‚¶VB\V¬z>_, ÔVuÆ \V∑√V‚Á¶ xu§K\VÔ› >|›>_, >ıßÏ \Æ∑wuE ∂Á\©Á√ ∞u√|›m>_, ¿ÏWÁÈÔÁ·•D WÈ›>Ω ¿Ïk·›Á>•D º\D√|›m>_, ÂÔÏ©A≈© √∑Á\© √z]ÔÁ·© √VmÔV›>_, sÁ·BV‚|› ]¶_, Ø∫ÔV º√V[≈ ÿ√Vm ÷¶∫ÔÁ· ∂]Ô\V¬z>_, ÂÔÚ¬z^ kVøD cˆÁ\ÁB© √VmÔV›>_, ÂÔ´ WÚkVÔ›]_ ÁÔR‚| á ªwÁÈ Œa›>_, ÷BuÁÔ ÷¶Ï©√V|ÔÁ·fl ƒ\Vπ¬zD Ô‚¶Á\©Á√ ∞u√|›m>_, >‚|©√VΩ_ÈV> kÁÔl_ t[ƒV´D kw∫z>_ c^π‚¶kuÁ≈ ÿƒBÈV¬Ô© √V|√|ºkVD. 23.7

ÂÔÏ©A≈ k·ÏflEl[ ∏´flƒÁ™ÔÁ· ÂÔ´ c^·V‚E ∂Á\©AÔπ[ c>sºBV| yÏ›m Ák¬Ô ys´ xBuEÔ^ ®|¬Ô©√|D. \VÂÔ´V‚EÔ^ \uÆD ÂÔ´V‚EÔÁ· ª¬zs›m ÂÔÏ©A≈ k·ÏflElÁ™ º\D√|›> ∞u√V|Ô^ ÿƒFB ¶kΩ¬ÁÔ ®|¬Ô ko•Æ›mºkVD.

23.8

÷Õ]B ∂´EB_ ∂Á\©A› ]Ú›>›]ºÈºB ÿ√ÚÂÔ´∫Ôπ_ ]‚¶∫ÔÁ· cÚkV¬z k]KD, ÿƒB_√|›mk]KD c^·V‚E ∂Á\©AÔ”¬z ∂]ÔV´\π¬Ô ka ÿƒFB©√‚|^·m. 74gkm ÊÏ]Ú›>›][ ∏ˆ° 243á÷[ √Ω, \VWÈ ∂´∑, ÿ√Ú ÂÔ´› ]‚¶¬zø (Metropolitan Planning Committee - MPC) ®–D ∂Á\©∏Á™ cÚ kV¬Ô ºkı|D ®™ z§©∏¶©√‚|^·m. ®™ºk ÿ√Ú ÂÔ´∫Ôπ_ ÿ√ÚD√VKD c^·V‚E© ∏´]W]ÔÁ·¬ ÿÔVı¶ ∂Á\©√VÔ© ÿ√ÚÂÔ´› ]‚¶¬zø ∞u√|›> gºÈVE¬Ô©√|D.

∂Á™kÚ¬zD cÁ≈s¶D 23.9

T¶u≈ ∂Á™kÚ¬zD T| ∂π©√>uÔV™› ]‚¶›Á>fl E≈©A¶[ WÁ≈ºku§ ∂Á™kÚ¬zD cÁ≈s¶D ®[≈ ÿÔV^ÁÔ WÁ≈ºku≈©√¶ √V.\.Ô. mÁ WuzD. ÿƒVÕ>t_ÈV> ÷¶∫Ôπ_, T| Ô‚Ω kVμÕmkÚD zΩÁƒkVμ \¬Ôπ[ kVμs¶ cˆÁ\Ô^ ÔV©√Vu≈©√|D. g¬˛´t©A ∂Ôu≈D ®[≈ ÿ√Bˆ_ ∂kÏÔ·m T|Ô^ ÷Ω¬Ô©√|k>uz xuÆ©A^π Ák¬Ô©√¶°D, \VÂÔ´∫ÔπKD, ÂÔÏ©A≈∫ÔπKD, zΩÁƒ© √z]Ôπ_ kE¬zD \¬Ô^ ÿ>V¶ÏÕm ÂÔÚ¬z^º·ºB ∂Á™›m ∂Ω©√Á¶ kƒ]Ô”¶[ kVμk>uÔV™› ]‚¶D kz¬Ô©√‚|fl ÿƒB_√|›>©√¶°D, ÷>[ JÈD, zΩÁƒkVμ \¬Ô^ ÂÔÚ¬z^ kVμk>uÔV™ cˆÁ\ (Right to the City) ∂∫ˇÔˆ¬Ô© √¶°D √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D.

23.10

29


24. EÆ√V[Á\l™Ï ÂÈ[ 24.1

>tμÂV‚Ω_ \‚|t[§, Œ‚|ÿ\V›> ÷Õ]BVsKD EÆ√V[Á\l™Ú¬z ∂´ VÔ ÿ√ÚD√V[Á\l™Ï ]Ôw ºkı|D ®[√m >V[ √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚El[ WÁÈ©√V| gzD. ÷>uºÔu≈ kÁÔl_ >V[ √V.\.Ô.s[ Ô¶Õ> ÔVÈ ÿƒB_√V|Ô^ ∂Á\Õ]Ú¬˛[≈™. >twÔ›]_ Ô‚¶VB \>\Vu≈› >Á¶flƒ‚¶D ÿÔVı|k´©√‚¶ º√Vm, ∂m EÆ√V[Á\l™Ú¬z ®]´VÔ >k≈VÔ √B[√|›>©√¶¬Ì|D ®[Æ ko•Æ›] º√V´V‚¶∫ÔÁ· ¶›]Bm¶[, ∂flƒ‚¶D ]ÚD√© ÿ√≈©√|k>uz ÔV´ \VÔ ÷ÚÕ>m √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚E >V[.

24.2

÷¸ÈVtBÏÔ^ \uÆD ˛§›>kÏÔ^ c^π‚¶ ∂Á™›m EÆ√V[Á\l™Ú¬z ∂kÏÔπ[ \¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔ¬z ∞u√ ÷¶Œm¬ˇ| kw∫Ô Â¶kΩ¬ÁÔ ®|¬zD√Ω \›]B ∂´Áƒ© √‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚E ko•Æ›mD.

24.3

÷¸ÈVtBÏÔπ[ ÂÈ[ ÿ>V¶Ï√V™ ¿]√] ´∫ÔÂV› t¸´V \uÆD ¿]√] ´Vº¤Õ]´ ƒflƒVÏ zø¬Ôπ[ √ˆÕmÁ´ÔÁ· ÿƒB_√|›> √V.\.Ô. ¶kΩ¬ÁÔ ®|¬zD.

24.4

\>D \V§B ˛§¸>kÏÔ^ \uÆD ÷¸ÈVtBÏÔ”¬zD ÷¶Œm¬ˇ| kw∫zD kÁÔl_ ∂´EB_ ƒ‚¶›]_ ]Ú›>D ÿÔVı|kÚD√Ω \›]B ∂´Áƒ √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚E ko•Æ›mD.

25. >Vμ›>©√‚º¶VÏ \uÆD √w∫zΩl™Ï ÂÈ[ 25.1

>Vμ›>©√‚º¶VÏ \uÆD √w∫zΩl™ \¬Ô^ ÂÈ[ ÔV¬Ô √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚E ∂Á™›m ¶kΩ¬ÁÔ•D º\uÿÔV^”D. ƒJÔ, ÿ√VÚ·V>V´, Ô_s º\D√V‚|¬ ÔV™ E≈©A› ]‚¶∫ÔÁ· º\uÿÔV^· ko•Æ›mºkVD. ÷Õ>© ∏ˆs™Ú¬ÔV™ E≈©A¬ÌÆ ]‚¶D xøÁ\BVÔ ÿƒB_√|›>©√|kÁ> cÆ] ÿƒFºkVD. Ô_slKD ºkÁÈkVF©∏KD ÷¶Œm¬ˇ| xøÁ\BVÔ ∂π¬Ô©√|˛≈>V ®[Æ ÔıÔVË›m ¶kΩ¬ÁÔ ®|¬Ô kakÁÔ ÿƒFºkVD. ∂‚¶kÁ © ∏ˆs™Ï \uÆD √w∫zΩl™ \¬Ô”¬z ∂π¬Ô©√|D ∂Á™›m cˆÁ\Ô”D \>D \V§BkÏÔ”¬zD ∂π¬Ô©√¶ koÆ›mºkVD.

26. ƒJÔ© √VmÔV©A 26.1

kÆÁ\ WÁÈ Œa¬Ô©√¶ ºkı|D. ∂Ω©√Á¶› º>ÁkÔπoÚÕm ŒÚkÚD Œm¬Ô©√¶¬ ̶Vm. ®™ºk, √u≈V¬zÁ≈BV™ kÚ\V™D ÿ√ÆD WÁÈlºÈV, kÚ\V™D ÷_ÈV> WÁÈlºÈV ®kÚD ÷_ÁÈ ®[˛≈ WÁÈ cÚkV¬Ô©√¶ ºkı|D. ∂›>ÁÔB kÚ\V™D zÁ≈kV™ ∂_Èm º>ÁkÔÁ· ~|ÿƒFB xΩBV>kÏÔπ[ º>ÁkÔÁ· ~|ÿƒFkm ∂´E[ ÿ√VÆ©√VzD. 30


26.2

ŒÚ >ÁÈxÁ≈loÚÕm ∂|›> >ÁÈxÁ≈¬z kÆÁ\ ÿ>V¶Ïkm, ƒVÏÕ]Ú¬zD ƒJÔ›][ ÔV´ \VÔºkV, kVøD ÷¶›][ ÔV´ \VÔºkV cˆB kVF©AÔÁ·© ÿ√≈V\_ ÷Ú›>_, sÁÈkVE ∞u≈›Á> ®]ÏÿÔV^· xΩBV> WÁÈ ®™© √V]¬Ô©√|√kÏ ºÂ´ΩBVÔ¬ ÔV´ \VÔV> E¬Ô_ÔπoÚÕm \¬ÔÁ·¬ ÔV©√m ∂´E[ Ô¶Á\ gzD ®™ √V.\.Ô. ÔÚm˛≈m.

26.3

kÆÁ\ WÁÈ ŒÚ >ÁÈxÁ≈loÚÕm ∂|›> >ÁÈxÁ≈¬z¬ Ô¶›>©√|kÁ> x§BΩ¬zD kÁÔl_ ºÂ´Ω W]Bπ©A› ]‚¶D (Conditional Cash Transfer - CCT) ÿƒB_√|›>©√¶ ºkı|D. g™V_, Ô_s, ÂÈkVμ°, ∂Ω©√Á¶¬ Ô‚¶Á\©AÔ^, ÿ√Vm kw∫Ô_ ]‚¶D c^π‚¶ ∂´E[ √ËÔ”¬z ºÂ´Ω W] ∂π©A \VuÆ ∂_È. ®™ºk, ºkÆ ]‚¶∫ÔÁ·¬ zÁ≈›m ºÂ´Ω W] ∂π©A› ]‚¶›Á>fl ÿƒB_√|›>¬ ̶Vm. kÆÁ\ Œa©∏uz ÷m \VuÆ›]‚¶D ∂[Æ. Ì|>_ ]‚¶D \‚|º\. ®™ºk, ºkÆ ®Õ> ]‚¶›Á>•D zÁ≈¬ÔV\_ >M©√‚¶ ]‚¶\VÔ ºÂ´Ω W]Bπ©A› ]‚¶›Á> ÿƒB_√|›> √V.\.Ô. ko•Æ›mD.

c °© √VmÔV©A 26.4

÷Õ]BVs_, ÿ√ÚD√VÈV™ \¬Ô”¬z¬ zÁ≈Õ>√‚ƒ c ° ∂·kV™ ŒÚ ÂVÁ·¬z 2800 ÔºÈVˆ ̶¬ ˛Á¶©√]_ÁÈ. ÷Õ]B \¬Ôπ_ 32 ºÔVΩ º√Ï zÁ≈Õ> c ° ÿ√Æ˛[≈™Ï. ÷Õ]B¬ zwÕÁ>Ôπ_ 6 ºÔVΩ zwÕÁ>Ô^ ª‚¶flƒ›m© √u≈V¬zÁ≈BV_ √V]¬Ô©√‚|^·™Ï. ÿÔVΩB kÆÁ\ \uÆD √‚ΩMBV_ √V]¬Ô©√‚|^· ∂kÏÔ”¬z© º√Vm\V™ c Ák kw∫˛© √VmÔV©A ∂π©√m ∂´E[ x¬˛B Ô¶Á\BVÔ ÷Ú¬Ô ºkı|D. ∂Á™kÚ¬zD c °© √VmÔV©A ∂π¬zD kÁÔl_, c ° tÔ¬ zÁ≈kVÔ¬ ˛Á¶¬Ô¬ÌΩB ÷¶∫Ôπ_ >VMB k∫˛ÔÁ· Â|kı ∂´∑ cÚkV¬Ô°D, ÷Õ]B c °¬ ÔwÔ›]–Á¶B ÿƒB_√V|Ô^ º\D√|›>©√¶°D, ÿ√Vm sWºBVÔ xÁ≈l[ JÈ\VÔ c ° ƒˆBVÔ kw∫Ô°D, WÁÈBV™ sÁÈ WÈ°k>uÔV™ ¶kΩ¬ÁÔÔÁ· ®|¬Ô°D, c °© √VmÔV©A cÆ] ÿƒFB©√¶°D √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D.

27. ÿ√ıÔ^, zwÕÁ>Ô^, ÷Á·QÏÔ^ ÂÈ[ 27.1

ÂV¶V”\[≈›]KD, \VWÈfl ƒ‚¶\[≈∫ÔπKD \ÔπϬz J[§_ ŒÚ √∫z ÷¶Œm¬ˇ| ÿƒF•D \ºƒV>V c¶™ΩBVÔ WÁ≈ºku≈©√¶ ºkı|D. ∂]_ >Vμ›>©√‚º¶VÏ, √w∫zΩl™Ï, ÷>´ ∏u√|›>©√‚º¶VÚ¬ÔV™ ÷¶Œm¬ˇ|D ÷¶Dÿ√≈ ºkı|D. \Ôπˆ[ Ô_s, ƒJÔ \uÆD ÿ√VÚ·V>V´ k·ÏflE¬ÔV™ ®_ÈV ]‚¶∫Ô”D ƒˆBV™ xÁ≈l_ ÿƒB_√|›>©√¶ ºkı|D ®™ √V.\.Ô. ko•Æ›mD.

ÿ√ıÔ”¬z© √VmÔV©A 27.2

÷·D ÿ√ıÔ”¬z √VmÔV©∏_ÈV> Ûw_ ∂]Ôˆ›m kÚ˛≈m. z|D√ x[º™u≈D \uÆD kVμkV>V´›Á> ÔÚ›]_ ÿÔVı| √^π, Ô_ŸˆÔ”¬zD, ºkÁȬzD 31


ÿƒ_KD ÿ√ıÔ^ g√Vƒ ∂ÏflƒÁ™Ô·VKD, √VoB_ ∂›m*≈_Ô·VKD √V]¬Ô©√|˛≈VÏÔ^. √^π, Ô_Ÿˆ ÿƒ_KD \V sÔ^ gÁƒ kVÏ›Á> ̧ ∂§BV> kB]_ ∞\Vu≈©√‚|, º\VƒD ÿƒFB©√|˛[≈™Ï. ÿ√ıÔ”¬z ®]´V™ ∂Á™›m s>\V™ √VoB_ Êı¶_ÔÁ·•D, k[ÿÔV|Á\ÔÁ·•D ∂ΩºBV| Œa¬Ô°D, ÿ√ıÔ^ xøÁ\BV™ √VmÔV©A¶[ kVøD ÛwÁÈ cÚkV¬Ô°D √V|√|ºkVD. ]Ú\ ›m¬z ÿ√uº≈VÏ Œ©A>_ 27.3

E∫Ô©ØÏ, ∏o©Á√[¸, ¤©√V[, ∏º´E_ c^π‚¶ ÂV|Ôπ_ ÷·D kB]™ˆ[ ]Ú\ ›m¬z ÿ√uº≈Vˆ[ Œ©A>_ Ô‚¶VBD ®[˛≈ s] ÂÁ¶xÁ≈l_ c^·m. ÷Õ]BVs_ ÔÏÂV¶Ô cBÏ¿]\[≈xD ÷>Á™ ko•Æ›]•^·m. tÔ ÷·D kB]_ ÂV¶Ô¬ ÔV>ÈV_ ÷·D ÿ√ıÔ^ ∞\Vu≈©√|kÁ>› >|¬Ô°D, z|D√ ∂Á\©Á√¬ ÔV¬zD kÁÔlKD, k·ˆ·D √Úk›]™ˆ[ ®]ÏÔVÈ ÂÈ[ ÔV¬Ô°D 21 kBm¬z ˇwV™kÏÔπ[ ]Ú\ ›m¬z ÷Ú>´©A ÿ√uº≈Vˆ[ Œ©A>ÁȬ Ô‚¶VB\V¬Ô ka ÿƒFºkVD. (÷Õ]BVs_ ƒ‚¶©ØÏk ]Ú\ kBm gb¬z 21, ÿ√ıb¬z 18 ®[√m z§©∏¶›>¬Ôm).

÷Á·QÏ ÂÈ[ 27.4

÷ÕÂV‚Ω[ \¬Ô^ ÿ>VÁÔl_ 43 ºÔVΩ º√´VÔ ÷Ú¬Ô¬ÌΩB 15 x>_ 34 kBm kÁ´lÈV™ ÷Á·QÏÔ^, \¬ÔπB_ ÷ÈV√© √∫z ®[Æ z§©∏¶©√|˛[≈™Ï. ÷kÏÔ^, Â\m ÂV‚Ω[ ®]ÏÔVÈ›Á>› yÏ\VM©√kÏÔ·VÔ ÷Ú©√>V_, ∂kÏÔÁ·› º>EB WÏ\V ›]_ ®_ÈV kÁÔÔπKD c√ºBVÔ©√|›mD kaxÁ≈Ô^ Ôı¶§B©√|D. ÷Á·QÏÔ^ ºkÁÈkVF©Á√ ®π>VÔ© ÿ√Æk>uz c>°D kÁÔl_, Ô_s ∂Á\•D. ÿ>Va_ Ô_s \uÆD √luE, ÿ>Va_ xÁ™ºkVÏ º\D√V| g˛BÁk, √^π \uÆD cBϬÔ_s xÁ≈Ôπ_ ÷Á Õ> >[Á\BVÔ ÷Ú¬zD. ÷Á·QÏÔπ[ ]≈Á™ º\D√|›mk]™V_ \‚|º\ ºkÁÈ kVF©AÔÁ·› >´ ÷BKD ®[√Á> c ÏÕm, ÿ√Vm ∂§°, ÔËM ∂§°, g∫˛È›]_ Â[≈VÔ© º√∑D ]≈[ \uÆD ºÂÏxÔ› º>Ï°Ôπ_ √∫ºÔuzD ]≈[ g˛BkuÁ≈ ÷Á·QÏÔ^ ÿ√≈ Â|kı ∂´∑ ka ÿƒFB ºkı|D. ÿƒVÕ>\VÔ› ÿ>Va_ ÿ>V¶∫Ô sÚD∏™V_, ∂kÏÔ”¬zfl E≈©A© √luE•D, Ô¶–>s•D, º>ÁkBV™ ∏≈ kƒ]Ô”D ˛Á¶©√>uzD √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D.

sÁ·BV‚| 27.5

sÁ·BV‚| ®[√m, {Ï gu≈_ kVFÕ> √ı√V‚|fl ƒ¬] ®[√>V_, sÁ·BV‚| ¶kΩ¬ÁÔÔπ_ ÷Á·QÏÔÁ·© √∫ºÔuÔ kaxÁ≈Ô^ ÂÁ¶xÁ≈©√|›>©√|D. Ô_s› ]‚¶∫Ôπ_, sÁ·BV‚Á¶fl ºƒÏ©√º>V|, >M©√‚¶ xÁ≈lKD ∂>Á™ 32


ª¬zs¬Ô ®_ÈV ¶kΩ¬ÁÔÔ”D ®|¬Ô©√|D. sÁ·BV‚Ω[ JÈD ÷Á·QÏÔ^, ∑B¬ Ô‚|©√V‚Á¶•D, xΩÿk|¬zD ]≈Á™•D, º√V‚Ω› >z]ÁB•D º\D√|›> Â|kı ∂´Áƒ √V.\.Ô. ÿ§©√|›mD. 27.6

sÁ·BV‚|› ]≈[ k·ÚD kÁÔl_, sÁ·BV‚| ∂Ô¬Ô‚|\V™∫Ô^ ˛´V\∫ÔπKD, ÂÔÏ©A≈∫ÔπKD cÚkV¬Ô ºkı|D. c¶_ √luE WÁÈB∫Ô^, sÁ·BV‚| T´ÏÔ^ >∫˛© √luE ÿ√ÆD √luE s|]Ô^, sÁ·BV‚| ∂´∫Ô∫Ô^, ÂV‚Ω[ √È √z]ÔπKD cÚkV¬Ô Â|kı ∂´Áƒ √V.\.Ô. ko•Æ›mD.

zwÕÁ>Ô^ ÂÈ[ 27.7

W]WÁÈ ∂§¬ÁÔl_ ‘zwÕÁ>Ô^ W]WÁÈ ∂§¬ÁÔ’ c^·¶¬Ô ko•Æ›mºkVD. ÷>[ JÈD ÷Õ]B ∂´E[ W] Œm¬ˇ‚Ω_ 10 sø¬ÔV| zwÕÁ>Ô”¬ÔVÔ Œm¬Ô©√¶°D, ∂Á™›m› mÁ≈Ôπ[ ]‚¶∫Ôπ_ zwÕÁ>Ô^ ÂÈ[ cˆB ∂·s_ ÷¶Dÿ√≈°D ko•Æ›mºkVD.

27.8

zwÕÁ>Ô^ kBm ÿ>V¶Ï√V™ zw©√›Á> >sϬzD kÁÔl_ 18 kBm¬z ˇwV™ ®_ºÈVÚD zwÕÁ>Ôº· ®™ kÁ´BƬ԰D, y∫ÔV™ ÿ>Va_, y∫Ôu≈ ÿ>Va_ ®[˛≈ √Vz√VΩ[§ ®_ÈV ÿ>Va_ÔπKD ºƒÁkÔπKD zwÕÁ>› ÿ>Va_ xÁ≈ÁB xu≈VÔ Œa¬Ô°D √V|√|ºkVD.

27.9

>VF\VÏÔ^ \uÆD zwÕÁ>Ô”¬ÔV™ g´D√ ∑ÔV>V´ cˆÁ\ÁB ∂Ω©√Á¶ cˆÁ\BV¬Ô √V|√|ºkVD. ª‚¶flƒ›m, ÂÈkVμ° √ˆºƒV>Á™, ºÂVF› >|©A \ÚÕmÔ^, \wÁȬ Ô_s, ∑ÔV>V´¬ Ô_s c^π‚¶ ∂Á™›m zwÕÁ>Ô^ ÂÈ›]‚¶∫ÔÁ·•D koÁ\BV¬Ô°D, zwÕÁ>Ô”¬z ®]´V™ k[xÁ≈ÔÁ· ∂≈ºk Œa¬Ô°D √V|√|ºkVD. ∂Á™›m √^πÔ”D xø ∑ÔV>V´\VÔ ∂Á\B°D, ∂Á™›m √^πÔπKD ÿ√ı zwÕÁ>Ô”¬z >M Ôa©√Á≈ ∂Á\¬Ô©√¶°D ko•Æ›mºkVD. Ô‚¶ t_ÈV Ô‚¶VB¬ Ô_s cˆÁ\fl ƒ‚¶›Á> xøkm\VÔ ÿƒB_√|›> √V|√|ºkVD. Ô_s cˆÁ\¬ÔV™ kBm 6 á 14 ®[Æ ÷Ú©√Á> 0 á 18 ®™ \Vu≈¬ ºÔVÚºkVD.

27.10

ƒ\flÊϬ Ô_s xÁ≈ \uÆD ∂ıÁ\© √^π xÁ≈ ÂV| xøkmD ÿƒBÈV¬Ô© √¶°D, √^π¬ Ô_sÁB xøkm\VÔ ∂´∑Á¶Á\BV¬Ô°D, √^π¬ Ô_s¬ÔVÔ z|D√›]™Ï ÿƒÈ°fl ÿƒFkÁ> xøkmD >sϬzD kÁÔl_ ∂Á™›m© √^π¬ Ô_s ÿƒÈ°ÔÁ·•D ∂´ºƒ ∞uÔ°D, √^π¬ Ô_s¬ÔV™ Ô‚¶Á\©AÔÁ· xøÁ\BVÔ ∞u√|›>°D √V|√|ºkVD. zwÕÁ>Ô^ ÿ√V] ∑\¬zD kÁÔl_ ÷©º√Vm ÷Ú¬zD √^π¬ Ô_s xÁ≈BV™m ∑Á\l_ÈV>>VÔ ∂Á\B ko•Æ›mºkVD.

27.11

33


28. \›]B \VWÈ c≈°Ô^ 28.1

A]B>VÔ ∂Á\BsÚ¬zD ÷Õ]B ∂´∑ >tμÂV| ∂´ºƒV| ∑JÔ\V™ c≈Ák k·Ï›m >twÔ›]uz ºkıΩB ∂Á™›m c>sÔÁ·© ÿ√ÆD kÁÔl_ c≈°ÔÁ· º\D√|›> √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D. z§©√VÔ ∏[kÚD kÁÔl_ ÷Õ> c≈°Ô^ º\D√¶ √V.\.Ô. ko•Æ›mD.

28.2

\VWÈ ∂´∑Ô^ E≈©√VÔfl ÿƒB_√|›mD √ËÔ”¬z \›]B ∂´∑ kas‚| ª¬Ô©√|›> ºkı|D.

28.3

\›]B ∂´ƒV_ √ˆÕmÁ´¬Ô©√|D ]‚¶∫Ô”¬z \›]B ∂´∑ ±Æ sø¬ÔV| W] c>s ∂π¬Ô ºkı|D.

28.4

\›]B ]‚¶¬zø°D, nÕ>Vı|Ô”¬z ŒÚxÁ≈ WBt¬Ô©√|D W]¬ Ôt≠–D ŒÚ∫˛Á Õm ÿƒB_√¶ ¶kΩ¬ÁÔÔ^ º\uÿÔV^· ºkı|D.

28.5

W]¬ Ôt≠[ ŒÚ W´Õ>´ ∂Á\©√VÔ cÚkVÔ ºkı|D. \›]B ∂´E[ ÿ\V›> kÚkVl_ 50 ƒ>s˛>›Á> \VWÈ∫Ô”¬z √˛ÏÕ>π¬Ô ºkı|D. º\KD ºƒÁk kˆl[ JÈ\VÔ \VWÈ∫ÔπoÚÕm ˛Á¶¬zD kÚkVÁB \VWÈ∫Ô”¬ºÔ ]Ú©∏ kw∫Ô ºkı|D ®™ ko•Æ›>©√|D.

28.6

ÿ√Vm\¬Ô^ ºƒÁkl_ ~|√‚| kÚD º√V¬zk´›m, t[mÁ≈, ÿ√Vm sWºBVÔD º√V[≈ mÁ≈ÔÁ·› >MBVÏ\B\V¬ÔV\_ ÿ>V¶ÏÕm ÿ√Vm›mÁ≈ WÆk™∫ Ô·VÔºkfl ÿƒB_√¶ ºkı|ÿ\™ √V.\.Ô. ko•Æ›mD.

29. Â]¿Ï √∫ˇ| 29.1

ÔÏÂV¶ÔV, ºÔ´·V, gÕ]´V º√V[≈ \VWÈ∫ÔπoÚÕm >twÔ›]uz ¿Ï ˛Á¶©√]_ c^· ∏´flƒÁ™Ô·V_ >twÔD ÿ√ˆmD √V]¬Ô©√‚|^·Á> √V.\.Ô. c Ï˛≈m. ÷©∏´flƒÁ™ÔÁ·fl ƒ‚¶©ØÏk\VÔ°D, \›]B ∂´E[ >ÁÈX‚º¶V|D º√fl∑kVÏ›Á>Ôπ[ JÈ\VÔ°D yÏ›m Ák¬Ô √V.\.Ô. xÁ™©º√V| ÿƒB_√|D.

29.2

÷Õ]B ∂´∑ gÆÔ^ º>EB\B\V¬Ô©√|>_ ºkı|D ®™ cflƒ¿]\[≈D ko•Æ›]BÁ> √È gı|Ô·VÔ √‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚E ko•Æ›] kÚ˛≈m. ®™ºk c¶™ΩBVÔ \VWÈ∫Ô”¬z ÷Á¶ºBBV™ Â]Ô^ º>EB\B\V¬Ô ºkı|D ®[Æ √V.\.Ô. ko•Æ›mD.

29.3

ÔVsˆ Â|kÏ \[≈›][ ÷Æ]› yÏ©A \›]B ∂´E>a_ ÿkπl¶©√‚ΩÚ¬˛≈m. ÷Á>© √B[√|›] ÔVsˆ ¿ˆ_ >twÔ›][ cˆÁ\ÔÁ· √VmÔV¬Ô ¶kΩ¬ÁÔ ®|¬Ô©√¶°D, ÷>uÔVÔ ÔVsˆ º\ÈVıÁ\ kVˆB›Á>•D, ÔVsˆ ¿Ï Œø∫zxÁ≈ zøÁk•D c¶™ΩBVÔ ∂Á\¬zD√Ω•D \›]B ∂´Áƒ √V.\.Ô. ko•Æ›mD. 34


29.4

ÿ>K∫z á Ô∫ÁÔ› ]‚¶D ÿƒB_√V‚|¬z kÕm 15 gı|Ô^ g™º√V]KD, ÷m ÿ>V¶Ï√V™ Œ©√Õ>›]_ z§©∏¶©√‚|^·kVÆ, ÷[ÆkÁ´ ŒÚxÁ≈̶ gı|¬z 12 Ω.®D.E. >ıßÏ ˛Á¶¬Ôs_ÁÈ. ÷>Á™ ÿƒB_√|›> √V.\.Ô. √V|√|D.

29.5

ÿ√ˆBVÆ ∂Á l_ >uº√Vm 142 ∂Ω >ıßÁ´ º>¬˛ Ák›m¬ ÿÔV^·ÈVD ®[Æ cflƒ¿]\[≈D yÏ©A ∂π›m^·m. ®™ºk, ÿ√ˆBVÆ gÁ l_ 142 ∂Ω kÁ´ ¿Á´› º>¬˛ Ák¬Ô°D ºÔ´·V A]B ∂Á Ô‚|kÁ> >|›m WÆ›>°D cˆB xBuEÔÁ· √V.\.Ô. º\uÿÔV^”D.

29.6

√VÈVu§[ zƬºÔ z©√D ∂ÚºÔ Ôº ƒA´›]_ ∂Á ¬Ô‚|kÁ> >sÏ›m ºkÆ ÷¶›]_ Ô‚¶©√¶ c^·>VÔ gÕ]´ ∂´∑ ∂§s›m^·>V_ ∂>Á™ >|›m WÆ›> º√VϬÔVÈ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_ cˆB ¶kΩ¬ÁÔÔÁ· √V.\.Ô. º\uÿÔV^”D.

30. >tμÿ\Va g‚E ÿ\Va 30.1

÷Õ]B ∂´EB_ ƒ‚¶›][ ®‚¶Vkm ∂‚¶kÁ l_ ÷¶Dÿ√uÆ^· >tμÿ\Va c^π‚¶ 22 ÿ\VaÔÁ·•D ÷Õ]B ∂´∑, g‚Eÿ\VaÔ^ g¬˛¶ ºkı|D. ∂>uÔV™ ∂´EB_ ƒ‚¶›]Ú›>D ÂV¶V”\[≈›]_ WÁ≈ºku≈© √V|√|ºkVD.

30.2

÷Dÿ\VaÔÁ· g‚E ÿ\VaBV¬zkm z§›m √ˆÕmÁ´©√>uÔVÔ 2003gD gıΩ_ ∂Á\¬Ô©√‚¶ zø ÿƒBowÕms‚¶ WÁÈl_, ÷m ÿ>V¶Ï√VÔ A]B zøÁk ∂Á\›m ∂>[ √ˆÕmÁ´ÔÁ· ÿƒB_√|›> ºkı|D ®[Æ Â|kı ∂´Áƒ ko•Æ›mºkVD.

ÿƒDÿ\Va WÆk™D 30.3

÷Õ]B ∂´E[ \M>k· º\D√V‚| ∂Á\flƒÔ›][ ˇμ ÿƒB_√‚|kÚD ÿƒDÿ\Va› >tμ gF° \›]B WÆk™›][ ÷B¬zÂÏ ÿ√VÆ©∏_ >z] kVFÕ> ŒÚkÁ´ xøºÂ´ ÷B¬z´VÔ √Ë ∂\Ï›>°D, √ËBV·ÏÔπ[ ºÔVˆ¬ÁÔÔÁ· WÁ≈ºku§› >´°D √V.\.Ô. ko•Æ›mD.

º√V‚Ω› º>Ï°Ôπ_ >tμ 30.4

º>EB ∂·s_ ÂÁ¶ÿ√ÆD ∂Á™›m º√V‚Ω› º>Ï°Ô^ \uÆD OÁw°› º>Ï°ÔÁ·•D >tμ c^π‚¶ ®‚¶Vkm ∂‚¶kÁ l_ ÷¶D ÿ√uÆ^· ∂Á™›m ÿ\VaÔπKD ®ø> ∂–\]¬zD√Ω \›]B ∂´Áƒ √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚E ko•Æ›mD.

35


cBÏ¿]\[≈›]_ >tμ 30.5

ÿƒ[Á™ cBÏ¿]\[≈›][ kw¬ÔV| ÿ\VaBVÔ >tÁw ∂§s¬Ô ºkı|D ®[≈ yÏ\V™D 06á12á2006 ∂[Æ >twÔ ƒ‚¶©º√´Ákl_ ÿÔVı|kÕm WÁ≈ºku≈© √|k>uz ÔV´ \VÔ ÷ÚÕ>m √V‚¶Vπ \¬Ô^ Ô‚E >V[. g™VKD, >tÁw kw¬ÔV| ÿ\VaBV¬Ô ºkı|D ®[≈ >twÏÔπ[ Ô™° ÷[–D ™kVÔs_ÁÈ. >twÔ ƒ‚¶©º√´Ákl_ WÁ≈ºku≈©√‚¶ yÏ\V™›][ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_ ÿƒ[Á™ cBÏ¿]\[≈›][ g‚E ÿ\VaBVÔ >tÁw ∂§s¬zD√Ω \›]B ∂´Áƒ √V.\.Ô. ko•Æ›mD.

30.6

ÿ\‚´V¸ cBÏ¿]\[≈›][ ÿ√BÁ´ ÿƒ[Á™ cBÏ¿]\[≈D ®[Æ ÿ√BÏ \Vu≈D ÿƒFB°D √V.\.Ô. º√V´V|D.

31. ~w›>twÚ¬z ¿] 31.1

÷È∫ÁÔ ÷™flE¬Ôo_ ÷Õ]B ∂´E[ WÁÈ©√V| kÚ›>\π¬zD kÁÔl_ ÷ÚÕm kÚ˛≈m. ÷È∫ÁÔ¬z ∂Ú˛_ c^· \VWÈD ®[≈ kÁÔlKD, k´ÈVuÆ Z]BVÔ°D ÷™, ÿ\Va ∂Ω©√Á¶lKD >tμÂV‚| \¬Ô^ ~w›>twÏÔ”¶[ Œ[≈VÔ ∂Á¶BV·D ÔV ©√|√kÏÔ^ ®[≈ kÁÔlKD, >tμÂV‚| \¬Ôπ[ c Ï°ÔÁ· ÷Õ]BV >™>V¬˛¬ ÿÔVıΩÚ¬Ô ºkı|D. g™V_, ÷Õ]B ∂´∑ ÷È∫ÁÔl[ E∫Ô· º√ˆ™kV> ∂´∑¬z g>´kVÔ ÷ÚÕm kÚ˛≈m. ÷Õ> WÁÈ \V≈ºkı|D.

31.2

÷Õ]BVs[ √VmÔV©∏_ tÔ x>[Á\BVÔ ÷Ú©√m ÷Õ]B© ÿ√Ú∫Ô¶_>V[. ÷Õ]B© ÿ√Ú∫Ô¶o_ ∂ÕWB ƒ¬]Ô”¬z ÷È∫ÁÔ ÷¶D ÿÔV|›ms¶¬ ̶Vm. ÷È∫ÁÔl[ Ô¶ºÈV´© √´©∏_ J[§_ ÷´ı| √∫z ÷¶›]Á™ ~w›>twÏÔ^ ÿ√uÆ^·™Ï. ®™ºk, ~w›>twÏÔÁ· xøÁ\BVÔ g>ˆ©√>[ JÈD ÷Õ]B© ÿ√Ú∫Ô¶ÁÈ ÷Õ]BV Ô‚|√|›> xΩ•D. ÷m ÷Õ]BVs[ √VmÔV©∏uzD, >twÔ ÂÈ–¬zD ÿ√ÚD √È\VÔ ∂Á\•D ®™ √V.\.Ô. ÂDA˛≈m.

31.3

÷È∫ÁÔl_ >twÏÔ”D, E∫Ô·ÏÔ”D kVw¬ÌΩB© √z]Ô^, ÔVÈD ÔVÈ\VÔ ÷´ı| >M›>M ÂV|Ô·VÔ› >V[ ÷ÚÕm kÕ>™. g∫˛ºÈBÏÔπ¶tÚÕm s|>ÁÈ ÿ√ÆDº√Vm>V[ ÷È∫ÁÔ Œº´ ÂV¶VÔ g¬Ô©√‚¶m. ÷Õ> >uÔVoÔ ∂Á\©A ÁÔs¶©√‚| ∂∫z ØÏTÔ\VÔ >twÏÔ^ kVøD √z]Ô^ ŒÚ∫˛Á ¬Ô© √‚| ‘>t—wD’ ∂Á\B ºkı|D. >t—wD ∂Á\B ÷Õ]B ∂´∑ mÁ WuÔ ºkı|D.

÷È∫ÁÔ *>V™ n.ÂV. sƒV´Á ¬zø ÷Õ]BVs_ sƒV´Á ¶›> ∂–\] 31.4

÷È∫ÁÔl_ ~w›>twÏÔ”¬z ®]´VÔ ÷Áw¬Ô©√‚¶ ƒÏkº>ƒ¬ zu≈∫Ô·V™ º√VϬzu≈D, \M>zÈ›m¬z ®]´V™ zu≈D, ÷™©√|ÿÔVÁÈ ÿ>V¶Ï√VÔ ŒÚkÚD 36


sƒVˆ¬Ô©√¶ºkV, >ıΩ¬Ô©√¶ºkV ÷_ÁÈ. ®™ºk, ÷È∫ÁÔ ∂´∑ >™¬z›>Vº™ sƒV´Á ¶›], zu≈D ÷Áw›º>VÁ´› >ıΩ¬Ô ºkı|D ®™ 2012 \uÆD 2013gD gı|Ôπ_ n.ÂV. \M> cˆÁ\© º√´Ák yÏ\V™D WÁ≈ºku§Bm. ÷Õ>› yÏ\V™∫ÔÁ· g>ˆ›m ÷Õ]BV kV¬Ôπ›>m. n.ÂV. \M> cˆÁ\© º√´Ákl[ yÏ\V™∫ÔÁ· ÷È∫ÁÔ ∂´∑ E§>·°D WÁ≈ºku≈V> WÁÈl_ 2014 \VÏfl \V>›]_, ÷È∫ÁÔl_ ¶Õ> ÿÔV|∫zu≈∫Ô^ ÿ>V¶Ï√VÔ n.ÂV. \M> cˆÁ\ gÁ BÏ ∂KkÈÔD ŒÚ √[™V‚| sƒV´Á ¶›>¬ ºÔVÚD yÏ\V™D WÁ≈ºku§Bm. g™V_, yÏ\V™›Á> g>ˆ›m ÷Õ]BV kV¬Ôπ¬Ôs_ÁÈ. \V≈VÔ, yÏ\V™›m¬z Ô|D Ôı¶™D ÿ>ˆs›>m. √[™V‚| \M> cˆÁ\ÔÁ·•D, >twÔ \¬ÔÁ·•D, >twÔ ƒ‚¶\[≈› yÏ\V™›Á>•D \]¬ÔV\_ ÷Õ]BV ÿƒF> \Vÿ√ÚD ∏Áw ÷mkVzD. ÔV∫˛´∑ ∂´∑ ÿƒF> ÷Õ> ∂¿]BV™ k´ÈVuÆ© ∏Áw¬z \V≈VÔ, A]B>VÔ ∂Á\•D ÷Õ]B ∂´ƒV∫ÔD á n.ÂV. \M> cˆÁ\© º√´Ák› yÏ\V™›Á> WÁ≈ºku≈ Œ›mÁw©A ∂π¬Ô ºkı|D. z§©√VÔ, n.ÂV. \M> cˆÁ\ gÁBÏ ∂KkÈÔD ¶›> ÷Ú¬zD √[™V‚| sƒV´Á¬z ÷Õ]BV xø Œ›mÁw©A ∂π¬Ô ºkı|D. EˆBV ÂV‚Ω[ *m n.ÂV. \M> cˆÁ\© º√´Ák sƒV´Á ¶›> gÁ l‚¶ º√Vm, ∂Õ> sƒV´Á ¬zø°¬z EˆBV ÂV| ∂–\] ∂π¬ÔV> WÁÈl_ á EˆBVs[ ∂ıÁ¶ ÂV|Ôπ_ c^· AÈDÿ√BÏÕ> \¬Ôπ¶D sƒV´Á ¶›>© √‚¶m. ∂mº√VÈ >uº√Vm ÷È∫ÁÔ *>V™ n.ÂV. sƒV´Á ¬ zøÁk ÷È∫ÁÔ ÂV| ∂–\]¬Ô \Æ›m^· WÁÈl_, ÷È∫ÁÔl[ Œº´ ∂ıÁ¶ ÂV¶V™ ÷Õ]BV, n.ÂV. sƒV´Á¬ zøs™Ï ~w›>twÏÔπ¶D sƒV´Á ¶›> ÷Õ]BV suz^ ∂–\]¬Ô ºkı|D. ∂Áw©A s|¬Ô ºkı|D ®™ √V.\.Ô. ko•Æ›mD. Ôflƒ›yÁk *‚º√VD 31.5

÷È∫ÁÔ¬ Ô¶u√Á¶l™Ï, Â\m *™kÏÔÁ·¬ ÔıJΩ›>™\VÔfl ∑‚|¬ ÿÔV_˛[≈™Ï. Ô¶Õ> EÈ gı|Ôπ_ 578¬zD º\u√‚¶ >twÔ *™kÏÔÁ· ÷È∫ÁÔ¬ Ô¶u√Á¶l™Ï ∑‚|¬ ÿÔV[§Ú¬˛≈VÏÔ^. ÷Õ> ∂›m *≈_Ô^ WÆ›>©√¶s_ÁÈ. gÔºk, >twÔ *™kÏÔÁ·¬ ÔV©√Vu≈ ºkı| ÿ\[≈V_, Ôflƒ›yÁk *‚√m \‚|º\ ŒÚ yÏkVÔ ÷Ú¬Ô xΩ•D. ÷¬ºÔVˆ¬ÁÔÁB› ÿ>V¶ÏÕm ko•Æ›], ÷Õ]BV ÷È∫ÁÔ¬z¬ ÿÔV|›> Ôflƒ›yÁk *ı|D ÿ√uÆ› >twÔ *™kÏÔπ[ cˆÁ\ÔÁ·© √VmÔV¬Ô √V|√|ºkVD. 37


32.ÿkπÂV| kVμ >twÏÔ^ 32.1

ÿkπÂV|Ôπ_ √ËAˆ•D ÷Õ]B¬ zΩ•ˆÁ\ ®[˛≈ ŒuÁ≈¬ zΩ•ˆÁ\ÁB \‚|D ÿÔVıΩÚ¬zD zΩÿ√BÏ ÿ>VaÈV·ÏÔπ[ kV¬Ôπ¬zD cˆÁ\ÁB WÁÈÂV‚¶© √V|√|ºkVD.

32.2

ÿkπÂV|Ôπ_ √ËAˆ•D >twÏÔπ[ ∏´flƒÁ™Ô”¬z c¶–¬z¶[ yÏ° ÔV °D, sÁ´Õm ¶kΩ¬ÁÔ ®|¬Ô°D ∂B_ÂV| kVμ ÷Õ]BÏ ÂÈ›mÁ≈l[ \ı¶È ∂KkÈÔ›Á> ÿƒ[Á™l_ ]≈¬Ô ko•Æ›mºkVD. >twÏÔ^ ∂]ÔD kVøD ÂV|Ôπ_ c^· ÷Õ]B› #>´Ô∫Ôπ_, #mkÏÔ·VÔ› >twÏÔÁ· WB\™D ÿƒF]¶ ko•Æ›mºkVD.

32.3

cÈÿÔ∫zD kVøD >twÏÔπ[ ÷™, ÿ\Va, √ı√V‚| ∂Á¶BV·∫ÔÁ·© º√Ë© √VmÔV¬Ô, ÷Õ]B ∂´EB[ ƒVÏ∏_ ŒÚ∫˛Á Õ> ÿ>V¶ÏA›mÁ≈ Œ[Á≈ WÆs¶¬ z´_ ÿÔV|©º√VD.

33. Â_È g”ÁÔ 33.1

ÿkπ©√Á¶› >[Á\, ÁÔR‚| á ªw_ Œa©A, \¬Ô^ √ËÔπ_ ∂´E[ Ô¶Á\© ÿ√VÆ©Á√ WÁÈÂV‚|>_, ∂]ÔV´© √´kÈV¬ÔD c^π‚¶Ák Â_È g”ÁÔ¬z ∂Ω©√Á¶BVzD. z§©√VÔ, ∂´∑ ÷BÕ]´D Ô‚E¬ Ôıº V‚¶›]oÚÕm s|s¬Ô©√¶ ºkı|D. ‘∂´∑ ∂KkÈÏÔ^ s]Ô”¬z \‚|º\ Ô‚|©√‚¶kÏÔ^, ∂´EB_kV]Ôπ[ ∞kÈV‚Ô^ ∂_ÈÏ. ÔVk_mÁ≈ ƒ‚¶›]uz \‚|º\ Ô‚|©√‚¶m, g”D Ô‚El[ ∞k_mÁ≈ ∂[Æ’ ®[˛≈ WÁÈ cÚkVÔ ºkı|D. ∂Õ> kÁÔl_, \VWÈ ∂·s_ ‘ºÈV¬ g•¬>V’ ∂Á\›>_, ∂´∑ ∂KkÈÔ∫Ô^ ∂Á™›]KD ‘\¬Ô^ ƒVƒ™›Á>’ ÿƒB_√|›m>_, >Ôk_ ∂§•D cˆÁ\fl ƒ‚¶›Á> ŒÀÿkVÚ mÁ≈•D >V\VÔ x[kÕm xøkm\VÔfl ÿƒB_√|›m>_, ÁÔR‚| á ªwÁÈ xu§K\VÔ Œa›>_, t[™b á ÔËM ka WÏkVÔ›Á>› ys´\V¬z>_, ∂KkÈÏÔπ¶tÚÕm √B™VπÔ”¬z¬ ˛Á¶¬Ô ºkıΩB √ËÔ”¬ÔV™ ÔVÈk´DÁ√¬ Ô‚¶VB\V¬z>_, ∂]ÔV´¬ zs©Á√› >|›m ∂]ÔV´›Á>© √´kÈV¬z>_, ∂Á™›m WÁÈlKD ∂´∑ ∂Á\©AÔπ[ ]≈Á™ º\D√|›m>_, ∂´E[ ÿƒB_√V|ÔÁ· ‘c^·V‚EÔ”D, \¬Ô^ zø¬Ô”D’ ÔıÔVˬÔfl ÿƒF>_ c^π‚¶ Â¶kΩ¬ÁÔÔÁ· ko•Æ›mºkVD.

33.2

∂´E[ ÿ√Vmfl ºƒÁkÔÁ· zΩ\¬Ô^ z§›> ÔVÈ›]_ ∂Á¶•D kÁÔl_, ∂´∑ ªaBÏÔπ[ \¬Ô^ √ËÔÁ· cÆ] ÿƒF•D ºÂV¬˛_ ∂´∑ ºƒÁk cˆÁ\fl ƒ‚¶D (Rights to Public Service Act) ÿÔVı|k´©√¶ √V|√|ºkVD.

38


34. Â_È ∂´EB_ 34.1

\¬Ô”¬ÔV™ Â_Ⱥ>VÏ ∂´EB_ cÚkVÔ ºkı|ÿ\M_ ÷´ı| kÁÔBV™ º>ÁkÔ^ c^·™. x>ÈVk>VÔ, ∂´EB_ Ô‚EÔ^ ÿƒB_√|D xÁ≈l_ tÔ©ÿ√ˆB \Vu≈D º>Ák. ∂|›>>VÔ, >uº√Vm ÂÁ¶xÁ≈l_ c^· \¬Ô·V‚E xÁ≈lKD z§©∏¶›>¬Ô \Vu≈D º>Ák ®™ √V.\.Ô. ÂDA˛≈m.

34.2

\M> ÷™›][ √ΩWÁÈ k·ÏflEl_ cflƒWÁÈ ®[√m ∂´EB_>V[. ∂´EB_>V[ \M> kVμs[ ®_ÈV› º>ÁkÔÁ·•D yÏ\VM¬˛≈m. \ÆA≈D >M©√‚¶kÏÔπ[ ∂´EB_ Ô‚E ®[Æ ®m°D ÷_ÁÈ. ®Õ> ŒÚ Ô‚E ®|¬zD ®Õ> ŒÚ xΩ°D ®_ÈV \¬Ô·m kVμsKD >V¬Ô›Á> ∞u√|›>¬ ÌΩB>VÔ ÷Ú¬˛≈m. ®™ºk, Ô‚EÔ^ ®[√Ák ÿ√Vm ∂Á\©AÔº· gzD. ∂Õ> kÁÔl_, Ô‚EÔπ[ ¶kΩ¬ÁÔÔ^ z§›m© ÿ√Vm\¬Ô^ s™V ®ø©√ xΩ•D ®™ √V.\.Ô. ÔÚm˛≈m.

34.3

÷Õ]B ÂV‚Ω[ ∂´EB_ Ô‚EÔ^ Â_È ∂´EB_ ÛwÁÈ ∞u√|›mk>uz¬ zÁ≈Õ>m J[Æ Â¶kΩ¬ÁÔÔÁ· º\uÿÔV^· ºkı|D. ∂Áká Ô‚EÔ”¬z ÷Á¶ºB Â_K≈°, Ô‚E¬z^ ƒ™ÂVBÔD, Ô‚EÔπ[ k´°áÿƒÈs_ ÿkπ©√Á¶› >[Á\ ÷Õ> J[Á≈•D z§©∏‚¶ ÔVÈ›]_ ®_ÈV¬ Ô‚EÔ”D Œ[§Á Õm ®‚¶ ºkı|D ®™ ko•Æ›mºkVD.

35. º>Ï>_ ÊÏ]Ú›>D {‚| su√Á™ Œa©A 35.1

{‚| su√Á™ ®[√m ∂´EBÁÈ ¨Ω›> AuƺÂVF. kV¬ÔV·ÏÔ”¬z ∂´EB_ Ô‚EÔ^ √ D ÿÔV|¬zD ÷aÿƒB_ ‘∂Á™›m ªw_Ôπ[ >VF’ (Vote buying Mother of all corruption) ®[Æ ∂Áw¬Ô©√|˛≈m. ÔÚ©A© √ ›Á>•D, ÿ√ÚD ªw_ÔÁ·•D, ÷BuÁÔ k·¬ ÿÔV^Á·ÁB•D {‚|¬z© √ D ÿÔV|¬zD Ô‚EÔ^ ª¬zs¬˛[≈™. ¤™ÂVBÔ ÂV‚Ω[ tÔ x¬˛B\V™ WÔμ° º>Ï>_>V[. º>Ï>o[ JÈD \¬Ô^ >DÁ\ g”D ∂]ÔV´›Á> ŒÚ EÈÚ¬z ∂π›m, ∂Õ> ŒÚEÈÏ JÈD >\¬ÔV™ ∂´ƒV∫Ô›Á> \¬Ôº· WÆ°˛[≈™Ï. ∂>Vkm, >DxÁ¶B >ÁÈÿBø›Á> >Vº\ yÏ\VM¬zD tÔtÔ x¬˛B›mkD kVFÕ> WÔμkVÔ º>Ï>_ ∂Á\Õm^·m. \¬Ôπ[ ∂Ω©√Á¶ cˆÁ\Ôπ_ tÔ x>[Á\BV™m kV¬Ôπ¬zD cˆÁ\. ÷>Á™¬ ÔV∑¬z suzD tÔ¬ ÿÔVΩB √w¬ÔD >tμÂV‚Ω_ k·Ï¬Ô©√‚|^·m. >tμÂV‚Á¶ g‚E ÿƒF> ∂.].x.Ô., ].x.Ô. Ô‚EÔ·V_ ºÂÏÕ> tÔ©ÿ√ˆB ºÔ|Ôπ_ ÷m°D Œ[≈VzD. >tμÂV‚Ω[ Œ‚|ÿ\V›> ®]ÏÔVÈ›Á> zaº>VıΩ© AÁ>¬zD tÔ©ÿ√ˆB yÁ\ ÷mkVzD. ÷Õ> \Vÿ√ÚD yÁ\ÁB ∂ΩºBV| Œa¬Ô √V|√|ºkVD. 39


ÿkπÂV|Ôπ_ √ËAˆºkVÏ #>´Ô∫Ôπ_ kV¬Ôπ¬Ô cˆÁ\ 35.2

ÿkπÂV|Ôπ_ c^· zΩÿ√BÏ ÿ>VaÈV·ÏÔ^ ∂k´kÏ ÿƒVÕ> ªÏ kV¬zflƒVkΩ kV¬ÔV·Ï √‚ΩBo_ >\m ÿ√BÁ´© √]° ÿƒFB >uº√Vm kVF©√π¬Ô©√‚|^·m. g™V_, ∂kÏÔ^ ºÂ´ΩBVÔ kV¬zflƒVkΩ¬z kÕm kV¬Ôπ¬Ô ºkı|D ®[˛≈ ÂÁ¶xÁ≈fl ƒV›]Bt_ÈV> s]xÁ≈ c^·m. ÷>uz \V≈VÔ, ÷Õ]BVs[ ®Õ> ŒÚ ÿ>Vz]ÁBfl ºƒÏÕ> zΩÿ√BÏ ÿ>VaÈV·ÚD, ∂k´kÏ √ËAˆ•D ÂV‚Ω_ c^· ÷Õ]B› #>´Ô›]_ kV¬Ôπ¬ÔÈVD ®[˛≈ WÁÈÁB cÚkV¬Ô© √V|√|ºkVD.

s˛>VflƒV´ xÁ≈l_ º>Ï>_ 35.3

x>o_ kÕ>kº´ ÿku§ ÿ√u≈kÏ (First Past The Post - FPTP) ®[˛≈ ÷Õ]BVs[ º>Ï>_ xÁ≈l_, ÿ\V›> kV¬zÔπ_ ∑\VÏ 30 sø¬ÔV| ÿ√ƺkVÏ Ì¶ ÿku§ ÿ√uÆs|˛[≈™Ï. ÿ√ÚD√VÈV™ º>Ï>_Ôπ_ g‚EÁB© ∏Ω¬zD Ô‚E ÿ\V›> kV¬zÔπ_ √V]¬zD zÁ≈kV™ kV¬zÔÁ·© ÿ√uÆ g‚EBÁ\¬˛[≈m. ÿ√ÚD√V[Á\ \¬Ôπ[ g>´° ÷_ÈV\ºÈ Ô‚EÔ^ g‚EÁB© ∏Ω¬zD ÷Õ>› º>Ï>_ xÁ≈ ¤™ÂVBÔ›m¬z ®]´V™>VzD. ®™ºk, º>Ï>o_ Ô‚EÔ^ ÿ√Æ˛[≈ kV¬zÔπ[ ∂Ω©√Á¶l_, ÂV¶V”\[≈D, ƒ‚¶\[≈∫Ôπ_ ÷¶∫ÔÁ· Œm¬z˛[≈ kÁÔl_, ‘s˛>VflƒV´ ∏´]W]›mkD’ (Proportional Representation) ˛Á¶›]¶, \¬Ô^ ∏´]W]›mkfl ƒ‚¶›]_ ]Ú›>D ÿÔVı|k´ ¶kΩ¬ÁÔ º\uÿÔV^ºkVD.

36. Amflºƒˆ \VWÈD 36.1

÷Õ]B RMB[ ∏´º>ƒ\V™ Amflºƒˆ¬z› >M \VWÈ >z] ∂π¬Ô ºkı|D ®[Æ ko•Æ›mºkVD. Amflºƒˆ >M \VWÈ\VÔ g™VKD ∂>[ k·ÏflEÁB ª¬Ô©√|›mD kÁÔl_ ÷Õ]B ∂´EB_ ƒVƒ™›][ 275gD ∏ˆs[ ˇμ E≈©A \VWÈ >z] (Special Category Status) kw∫Ô¬ ºÔVÚºkVD. º\KD \›]B ∂´∑¬z AmÁk \VWÈD ∂π¬Ô ºkıΩB Ô¶[ ÿ>VÁÔÁB› >^”√Ω ÿƒFB ko•Æ›m ºkVD.

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Pmk manifesto 2014