INTERNATIONAL PARKING & MOBILITY INSTITUTE | MAY 2019
22 Curbside Management Managing access to a valuable resource.
Las Vegas takes on the tricky business of managing curb space. 32
Does designing garages toward future re-adaptation make sense? 36
SAYING FAREWELL â€¦ MAYBE
Are parking minimums a thing of the past? 40
ADVANCING PARKING & MOBILITY IPMI committees work on projects, initiatives, and research. 44
WHEN SMART CITIES SPEAK, WE LISTEN. Ask questions, measure trends, and seamlessly integrate your Smart Parking network. Just use your voice. See it in action @ booth #641, IPMI 2019.
Smart City innovation starts here.
VOL. 35 | NO. 5 THE INTERNATIONAL PARKING & MOBILITY INSTITUTE
Managing access to a valuable resource. By Charley DeBow and Mike Drow, CAPP
Curb Management in the Real World
Las Vegas takes on the tricky business of managing curb space. Lessons have already been learned, but there are more to come. By Luis Maldonado
Saying Farewell … Maybe
Does designing garages with an eye—and a budget—toward future re-adaptation make realistic sense? A conversation with industry experts.
Are parking minimums a thing of the past? By Chrissy Mancini Nichols
Advancing Parking and Mobility
IPMI committees work on projects, initiatives, and research.
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Departments 4 ENTRANCE
It’s Good to Talk By Tope Longe
6 FIVE THINGS
About the Curb
8 THE BUSINESS OF PARKING A Legal Framework for AV Implementation: State Regulations By Michael Ash, Esq., CRE
1 0 THE GREEN STANDARD Adapting Transit in an On-demand World
By Megan Leinart, CAPP, LEED AP BD+C
1 2 MOBILITY & TECH Adjusting For and Reacting To Change By Nathan Donnell
1 4 ON THE FRONTLINE How Agile Are You? By Cindy Campbell
1 6 PARKING SPOTLIGHT
Connecting the Very Big Dots: Buildings, Transportation, and (Shared) Mobility
By Rachel Yoka, CAPP, LEED AP BD+C, WELL AP
2 0 ASK THE EXPERTS 4 9 IN SHORT 5 2 IPMI IN ACTION
Gearing Up, Reaching Out, and Giving Back By Michelle W. Jones, CMP
5 4 STATE AND REGIONAL
Managing the Curb
Y ACROSS-THE-STREET NEIGHBORS had their house torn down to build a new, larger one a few years ago. For about nine months, the previously simple task of getting in and out of my driveway became a teeth-grinding exercise in frustration. The lots in my close-in suburban neighborhood are small, which means properties don’t have a lot of curb space to themselves. When the builder brought in dump trucks, heavy equipment on trailers, backhoes, dumpsters, and an assortment of pickups, there simply wasn’t anywhere for all of them to park. Enter blocked driveways and a lot of irritation.
I didn’t know it at the time, but we were dealing with curb management— more specifically, a lack of it. Whoever showed up first got their choice of curb space, and everybody else jostled in for space. Then everybody stayed all day, every day. It was a microcosmic look at what could happen in cities if curb space isn’t thought out and allocated between users, and let me tell you, it was far from pretty. Curb management was identified as a huge concern in a recent IPMI survey and for good reason. This issue presents a look at it from some of the industry’s top experts, explaining the basic concepts and possible tools and strategies and offering a reference you’ll want to keep and share (don’t forget—if your organization is a member, everyone on staff can access and download our digital magazine). I hope you find it useful and would love to hear what you think after you’ve read it, either by getting in touch directly or by starting a conversation on Forum (forum.parking-mobility.org) to hear from your colleagues. Speaking of your colleagues, we’re just a month away from the largest gathering of parking and mobility professionals—it’s IPMI Conference & Expo time! There’s still time to register and join us, and I hope you will. Time and time again, we hear the experience changed our members’ thinking, the way they approach their operation, and their careers, which all seems like a sound investment of a few days (plus we have a lot of fun!). Visit IPIConference. parking.org for details and don’t forget to download the IPMI2019 app from the App Store or Google Play before you take off. As always, I love hearing from you—my email address is below. Hope to see you in Anaheim! Until then…
SPOTLIGHT A New Name, a Redefined Mission By Adele Clements
5 6 AROUND THE INDUSTRY 6 4 PARKING CONSULTANTS
6 6 ADVERTISERS INDEX 6 7 CALENDAR THE PARKING PROFESSIONAL | MAY 2019 | PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG 3
For advertising information, contact Bonnie Watts at firstname.lastname@example.org or 571.699.3011. For subscription changes, contact Tina Altman, taltman@ parking-mobility.org. The Parking Professional (ISSN 0896-2324 & USPS 001436) is published monthly by the International Parking & Mobility Institute. 1330 Braddock Place, Suite 350 Alexandria, VA 22314 Phone: 571.699.3011 Fax: 703.566.2267 Email: email@example.com Website: parking-mobility.org Postmaster note: Send address label changes promptly to: The Parking Professional 1330 Braddock Place, Suite 350 Alexandria, VA 22314 Interactive electronic version of The Parking Professional for members and subscribers only at parking-mobility. org/tpp. Periodical postage paid at Alexandria, Va., and additional mailing offices. Copyright © International Parking & Mobility Institute, 2019. Statements of fact and opinion expressed in articles contained if The Parking Professional are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent an official expression of policy or opinion on the part of officers or the members of IPMI. Manuscripts, correspondence, articles, product releases, and all contributed materials are welcomed by The Parking Professional; however, publication is subject to editing, if deemed necessary to conform to standards of publication. The subscription rate is included in IPMI annual dues. Subscription rate for non-members of IPMI is $120 per year (U.S. currency) in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. All other countries, $150. Back issues, $10. The Parking Professional is printed on 10 percent recycled paper and on paper from trees grown specifically for that purpose.
It’s Good to Talk By Tope Longe
NYONE AWARE OF THE CLASSIC, mid ’90s advertisement by the U.K.’s then-giant telecommunication service provider British Telecom (BT)? BT created a TV and radio campaign featuring the actor Bob Hoskins that encouraged men to chat rather than worry about the cost of calls. It showed the benefits of engaging with friends, and family and networking. Hoskins’ concluding and catchy tagline, “It’s good to talk,” revolutionized telephone usage in the U.K.
“It’s good to talk” remains relevant. Talking to each other is paramount in business, as it is in schools and everyday life. We benefit from networking, sharing ideas and experiences. Relationships grow from engaging in dialogues. Concepts and ideas are developed from discussions, deliberation, and idea showers. Imagine a world of silence or oneway monologic conversation. How effective and quickly can concepts and ideas develop? How can ideas be developed if they are not communicated, discussed, challenged, hypothesized, and tested? How effective will networking programs, conferences, or expos be without good talks, exchanges, and sharing experiences and philosophies? Networking offers an important forum to discuss and address challenges facing the industry. Technological innovation is transforming the industry, and our industry is evolving. With the shift to technology-driven ride-share options now taking center stage and the continued drive for innovation, it is fair to say the dynamics of mobil-
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ity are in transition. New innovative ideas emerge, develop, and evolve with networking. It is reported that BT’s “It’s good to talk” campaign brought in about $500 million in new revenue. An excellent networking experience at the upcoming IPMI Conference & Expo can inspire a first-time attendee to spread the word—and grow the IPMI network even further. A warm welcome and positive engagement with known attendees and acquaintances from previous years can lead to free flow of dialogue, valuable contribution, and the creation of ideas. For the upcoming conference or any other conferences, engagements, or summits, the tagline remains: It’s good to talk. It’s good to welcome new attendees to the conference and embrace the old, for “even the Lone Ranger didn’t do it alone.” TOPE LONGE is specialist,
contract performance management, with Abu Dhabi, UAE, and a member of IPMI’s Board of Directors. She can be reached at temitope.longe@ dot.gov.abudhabi.
SHUTTERSTOCK / HAPPY ART
Publisher Shawn Conrad, CAE firstname.lastname@example.org Editor Kim Fernandez email@example.com Technical Editor Rachel Yoka, CAPP, LEED AP BD+C firstname.lastname@example.org Assistant Editor Monica Arpino email@example.com Contributing Editor Bill Smith, APR firstname.lastname@example.org Advertising Sales Bonnie Watts, CEM email@example.com Subscriptions Tina Altman firstname.lastname@example.org. Publication Design BonoTom Studio email@example.com Proofreader Melanie Padgett Powers
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5THINGS about the Curb
The lowly curb: That largely nondescript strip of raised concrete between street and sidewalk didn’t raise many eyebrows before its linear footage started struggling to make room for everyone who wanted to use it. Curb management has become a thing, but curbs were actually fascinating before that. Check it out:
SHUTTERSTOCK / DANILO ASCIONE
While curbs served most pedestrians well for centuries, they didn’t take people with disabilities into consideration until 1945, when the first curb cut was installed in Kalamazoo, Mich. Large numbers of veterans with disabilities were returning from World War II and finding it impossible to navigate their towns because of curbs. Today, of course, curb cuts are common. Source: americanhistory. si.edu.
SHUTTERSTOCK / VAL LAWLESS
The word “curb” has two meanings: It’s both the raised edge along a street and a verb meaning to restrain or hold back. It comes by both meanings honestly—“curb” comes from the Latin “curvvus,” which describes the shape of an ancient strap that went around a horse’s head to restrain the animal. In the 15th century, that strap was called a curb. Source: vocabulary.com.
Curbs are usually made of concrete, but they’re a bit fancier through much of Washington, D.C. Regular old roads are bordered by curbs made of granite through two-thirds of the city, keeping with regulations that specify the more upscale material on roads that border national landmarks and monuments. Officials say the curbs cost about 15 percent more than concrete at the outset but last for decades instead of the typical 15 years. Source: bizjournals.com/washington.
SHUTTERSTOCK / SIRA ANAMWONG
Scientists sometimes freak out over curbs—it’s true! A curb in Los Angeles, Calif., gained scientific fame and became a popular destination for researchers when an underground fault pulled it out of alignment. From the 1970s forward, it was photographed and visited as a “holy grail” that illustrated seismic forces underneath the ground. An unaware road crew tore out the curb in 2016 while fixing the street, to much mourning and hollering by scientists. Oops. Source: latimes.com.
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SHUTTERSTOCK / ARTVARKFILM
FLICKR / LONEWOLFPICS
Curbs started in ancient Rome, where straight roads wide enough for two vehicles to pass were carefully mapped out and built. Upright stones formed curbs along both sides of the road, protecting pedestrians, keeping horses and carts on the road (they hoped), and helping divert water to drainage systems. Every three to five meters, Roman curbs featured higher, built-in blocks that served as steps for folks to more easily mount horses—combining form and function. Source: ancient.eu.
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THE BUSINESS OF PARKING | LEGAL
A Legal Framework for AV Implementation: State Regulations By Michael Ash, Esq., CRE
UTONOMOUS VEHICLE (AV) DEPLOYMENT will require coordination among different levels of government. Regulatory bodies across multiple jurisdictions will need to work together to create a comprehensive framework for the safe and efficient development of this new technology. While the U.S. Department of Transportation released new federal guidance for automated vehicles in October 2018—“Preparing for the Future of Transportation: Automated Vehicles 3.0” (AV 3.0)—states are following the lead of federal legislators to ensure AVs will be implemented in a way that makes sense for their jurisdictions.
State regulations currently provide for the requirements to ensure safety and standards of mobility on a local basis. State regulations form the basis for licensing drivers, registering vehicles, enacting and enforcing traffic laws, and requiring insurance coverage and liability. If state legislatures do not create a regulatory environment hospitable to emerging AV technology, these critical and practical functions will delay or prevent efficient AV deployment. AV 3.0 has provided guidance on the ways state government can prepare for AVs: ■■ Review laws and regulations that may create barriers to testing and deploying automated vehicles. ■■ Adapt policies and procedures, such as licensing and registration, to account for automated vehicles. ■■ Assess infrastructure elements, such as road markings and signage, so that they are conducive to the operation of automated vehicles. ■■ Provide guidance, information, and training to prepare the transportation workforce and the general public.
Parking and mobility professionals are encouraged to review the AV policies introduced in their home states: bit.ly/stateAVregs. Review AV 3.0 in full at bit.ly/AV30.
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While actual regulations will vary from state to state, some best practices should be considered in adopting new laws. For example, legislatures should draft their laws to be technology neutral—don’t provide a preference to a specific technology platform. Regulations adopted without a technology bias will encourage competition among emerging technologies across jurisdictions. At this early point, states should not impose restrictions that will affect the development of technology in multiple jurisdictions. State regulators are encouraged to review existing traffic laws and make exceptions or provide waivers for AV technology. For example, many states prohibit tailgating by requiring minimum distances between vehicles traveling at speed. These traffic laws can be modified to accommodate truck platoons, in which multiple AVs travel together at close distance but in an automated, safe, and coordinated manner. State legislators should reconsider traffic laws that apply to the safety limitations of traditional vehicles but could be barriers to the new possibilities of AV technology.
Implementation of State AV Regulation
According the National Conference of State Legislatures, as of April 2019, 29 states have adopted laws and regulations to accommodate the implementation of AV technology. In addition, governors in 11 states have introduced AV regulations through executive order. Rather than a wholesale rewriting of motor
SHUTTERSTOCK / PAN ANDRII
Best Practices for State Regulation of AVs
vehicle regulation in each state, legislatures are cautiously exploring AV regulation through the introduction of a committee or task force to evaluate pilot programs for AV technology. The committees are typically tasked to oversee the implementation of AV technology and make detailed recommendations to their respective legislatures to foster AV development. My home state of New Jersey has legislation pending governor approval to implement AV regulations. In a bipartisan resolution, the New Jersey Legislature created the Autonomous Vehicle Task Force to study AVs and make recommendations on the adoption of laws and regulations for AV integration. The AV Task Force will facilitate a collaboration with the New Jersey Department of Transportation and New Jersey Motor Vehicle Commission to establish a pilot program for self-driving cars. The pilot program will seek participation with AV developers to set reasonable parameters for the outline of on-street testing. The Motor Vehicle Commission is also tasked with establishing licensing requirements for AVs and pre-conditions for on-street
testing. The pre-conditions for on-street testing will require compliance with minimum standards for insurance requirements, sensor capabilities, and safety protocols. States legislatures should follow best practices to slowly adopt smart legislation to encourage innovation in AV technology while removing barriers to the transportation and mobility industry. Interested IPMI members are encouraged to review steps taken in their jurisdictions to create a regulatory environment for AV technology. This article is second in a four-part series on the legal challenges presented by emerging technologies; see the February issue of The Parking Professional for the first. MICHAEL J. ASH, Esq., CRE, is partner with Carlin & Ward.
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THE PARKING PROFESSIONAL | MAY 2019 | PARKING-MOBILITY.ORGâ€‚â€ƒ9
THE GREEN STANDARD
Adapting Transit in an On-demand World By Megan Leinart, CAPP, LEED AP BD+C
HROUGHOUT MY CAREER in the parking industry, I have also been involved with a number of commercial real estate and sustainability associations. These organizations have offered me an expanded view of overall development, the ways parking and transportation are viewed from these perspectives, and how parking, transportation, and mobility concepts can affect the planning, design, construction, and sustainability of communities.
Through the years, one of the most common topics discussed within these associations has been the future growth of public transit. Many developers, municipalities, and communities have focused on the need for expanded transportation systems and transit-oriented development, not only in dense urban areas but also in surrounding communities, offering residents and commuters even in suburban and exurban communities and neighborhoods an alternative to driving. This has evolved over time with the growing popularity of driverless vehicle technologies, combined with the role of on-demand, transportation network companies (TNCs) such as Uber and Lyft. Many of my colleagues in these associations have asked how I will cope when cars eventually go away and there will no longer be a need for parking. At first, these questions related to a future in which people will primarily get around via public transit. However, in recent years these questions shifted toward anticipating a future in which we are all using on-demand autonomous vehicles.
TNCs or Transit?
As a proud Midwesterner, I’ve always been skeptical of the idea that one day cars will be completely replaced by mass
transit. And my feelings on that subject haven’t changed much as minds have shifted to a world of on-demand driverless vehicles. Time will tell how this will really play out. However, I have reSHUTTERSTOCK / AKHENATON IMAGES cently been led to think ■■ 31 of 35 major metropolitan areas in back over the years of public transit discussions, including all of the research the United States lost passengers in related to the integration, funding, and 2017, singling out TNCs as one reaadaptation of this critical development son. (CityLab, 2019) ■■ For every year after a ride-hailing component. Have we so quickly forgotten about public transit as minds have company enters a market, rail ridshifted to on-demand services and ership can be expected to fall by 1.3 the progress of technology? Will the percent; bus ridership will fall by 1.7 increasing use of ride-hailing services percent. (CityLab, 2019) ■ ■ cause drivers to abandon their vehicles Between 2015 and 2018, Uber and and actually increase vehicle miles travLyft trips grew from 60,000 to nearly eled, congestion, and pollution? 600,000 in New York, N.Y., with subway and bus ridership falling by about The Numbers 580,000 boardings a day. (Graehler, Some quick statistics on the subject Mucci and Erhardt, 2018) based on recent studies: So what can transit agencies and ■■ Ride-hailing services have attracted municipalities do to curb these declining Americans away from bus service numbers, offer better service, and even by 6 percent and light rail service by complement ride-sharing programs to 3 percent. However, they have been enhance service? One example is the imfound to complement commuter rail, plementation of microtransit. Admittedly, showing a 3 percent increase in comthe results of these trials have varied muter rail use. (Forbes, 2017) and will require continued improvement.
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However, Centennial, Colo., recently showed how microtransit can work by launching a first-mile, last-mile program subsidizing Uber and Lyft rides to and from the local light rail station. This has become a cost-effective way to improve transit and rail ridership in that region. (Curbed, 2018) Another interesting, and perhaps unexpected, example of cities improving transit service in the age of convenience is improving bus service. A 2018 ridership data analysis by TransitCenter showed that the seven cities that actually grew transit ridership in the last year had either recently expanded bus service or completely overhauled their bus system in recent years.
Technology Plays a Role
tation, schedule, and route at their fingertips will no doubt continue to go a long way to providing a quality transit experience and encouraging regular use. Public transit still plays an important role in development and will continue to be vital to moving around a growing population. However, as current and future generations become more expectant of instant gratification, convenience and comfort, and cutting-edge technology, it will be important for transit agencies and communities to keep up with these changing demands. MEGAN LEINART, CAPP, LEED AP BD+C, is president of
Leinart Consulting. She can be reached at megan@ leinartconsulting.com.
Of course, technology will continue to play a major role in the future of transit, as it does with anything else. Offering passengers real-time information on their mode of transpor-
THE PARKING PROFESSIONAL | MAY 2019 | PARKING-MOBILITY.ORGâ€‚â€ƒ11
MOBILITY & TECH
Adjusting For and Reacting To Change By Nathan Donnell
GILE, NIMBLE, QUICK, PROACTIVE . These words would not be adjectives to describe today’s typical parking operation. Our industry was born in 1935 and has remained mostly unchanged for roughly 80 years: Park cars and collect money. Yes, I am oversimplifying it. We do much more than that, but change has happened only in small increments the past 84 years.
Parking operations have been slow to change because there wasn’t a dramatic change in the way we needed to operate. Sure, new meters, mobile apps, and real-time occupancy were introduced and made us more efficient and able to deliver a better user experience, but the reality is the mission stayed the same: Park cars and collect money. The world of parking and mobility is changing rapidly. Now it’s park cars, transportation network company (TNC) vehicles such as Uber and Lyft, e-scooters, bikes, delivery vans and trucks, and collect money. New technology arrives every week, but if we’re not agile, nimble, quick, and proactive, does it really matter what technology there is?
Adapt or Die
How Fast Can You Adjust?
This should be a question asked when looking at new business decisions. If you are part of a municipality, you should consider this when writing new ordinances and/or policies. Are your policies flexible enough to adjust in the future to different needs? Are you limiting yourself based on the terms you use? For example, do you use the word “commercial” in loading zone rules? Does commercial simply mean a business vehicle, or a does it require a commercial license plate? Can the loading zone be used for other vehicles during off-peak hours? Do the policy/ordinances allow you to add TNC pick-up and drop-off spaces? Are you able to charge a fee for loading zone use?
How Do You Choose Technology?
With so much technology being introduced, an organization’s ability to keep
SHUTTERSTOCK / YOUR
The “adapt or die” concept started with Charles Darwin. Billy Beane used it to build his baseball team when he was general manager of the Oakland A’s (as shown by Brad Pitt in the movie “Moneyball”). And, it was used in my new favorite TV show, “Billions,” when Taylor Mason used it to describe the fate of a city that faced new challenges. (It was Sandicot for all you Axe fans out there.)
To quote Darwin, “It is not the strongest species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the ones most responsive to change.” Now replace “species” with operation, product, service, or company.
12 THE PARKING PROFESSIONAL | MAY 2019 | PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG
up on the latest and greatest is sometimes difficult. Is there a technology expert on your staff? Should you rely on technology consultants to help you navigate all the latest tech? For private operators, do you make decisions based solely on corporate relationships, or do you look at each individual need for a specific operation and choose the tech that best fits that need? Not every location is operated in the same capacity. Neither is every city or university. You don’t have to do exactly what other cities are doing.
ployees to be creative and have an open forum for them to voice those new ideas? All of these should be a part of your ongoing strategy. You must accept that in the past 10 years, technology has drastically changed our business. You need to consider how you will adapt to the changes we are seeing, and more importantly, what the effect will be on your operation, product, or service if you don’t look ahead. NATHAN DONNELL is chief revenue officer with
CurbTrac. He can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
How Do You React to Change?
How do you manage your product road map? How much time do you spend looking at the next three to five years? Will your core product become obsolete, and if so, how do you innovate to stay relevant? Do you empower your em-
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THE PARKING PROFESSIONAL | MAY 2019 | PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG 13
ON THE FRONTLINE
How Agile Are You? By Cindy Campbell
ET’S FACE IT: THE AGING PROCESS ISN’T FOR WIMPS . You know what I’m talking about— after a certain age, it seems like we discover new aches, pains, and physical limitations at every turn. Medical and fitness experts tell us that to remain physically agile, we’ve got to exercise and maintain core strength. Mind you, I’ll chose the aging process over the alternative of not having the opportunity to age any day, but it sometimes makes me wonder: How did I let this happen and when did I start to lose my agility?
The truth is that it can happen to us gradually. One day, you’re a competitor—a physical force to be reckoned with—and then, over time, unless you are actively engaged in maintaining your physical strength, you’ve probably been relegated to watching the competitions from the sidelines. Does it have to be this way? What can we do to remain agile?
Let’s look at that word, agility. We typically think of agility as being associated with physicality, but it’s so much more than that. The need to remain agile also applies to professional relevance. To maintain our professional viability, we must recognize that
SHUTTERSTOCK / ANDREY_POPOV
14 THE PARKING PROFESSIONAL | MAY 2019 | PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG
our industry is in perpetual motion. Who we are and what we do in parking, transportation, and mobility is constantly evolving. More than ever before, our customers decide if our services remain accommodating and competitive or if we’re destined to be voted off the virtual island. It’s naive to think that the concept of agility applies only to those in the private sector: vendors and suppliers of goods and services. This line of thinking equates to planning your own irrelevance in the workplace. It’s about recognizing what our customers want, even in the public sector, and then preparing ourselves to respond to it.
Maybe you’re still fuzzy on this concept of agility and how it applies to mobility programs. Consider this: 10 years ago, you didn’t have the option of Uber or Lyft. Curb management was a different discussion. Remember when parking meters were all coin-operated and single-space? When transit schedules were only available in printed form? What if your bus was delayed—how would you know? How about when filing an appeal for a citation had to be done in writing and in person? And don’t even get me started on scooter rentals. The point is that these and other service enhancements were introduced in response to what our customers wanted or demanded, and someone listened. Those listeners were practicing professional agility. So how do we go about maintaining our professional agility? For all practical purposes, the first step is exactly the same with physical or professional agility: You’ve got to be willing to stretch.
Who we are and what we do in parking, transportation, and mobility is constantly evolving. More than ever before, our customers decide if our services remain accommodating and competitive or if we’re destined to be voted off the virtual island.
Here are four “stretching exercises” you can start doing today to improve your professional agility: 1. Listen. Professional relevance depends on our willingness to listen, even when we don’t agree. 2. No matter your job title, we were all hired to be problemsolvers. Never confuse purpose with task. 3. Be open to new ideas no matter how many new ideas you hear. Some of them are game changers. 4. Learn at least one new thing every week, about your job, your agency, your community, your industry. You may be surprised by the insight you gain from people and situations you may have previously considered irrelevant.
Professional agility is also about recognizing that we will never arrive at the place where we know everything there is to know, whether it’s about our role within an organization or the services we collectively provide. Just like our industry, it’s all about perpetual motion. Stay agile, my friends. CINDY CAMPBELL is IPMI’s senior training and
development specialist. She is available for onsite training and professional development and can be reached at email@example.com.
THE PARKING PROFESSIONAL | MAY 2019 | PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG 15
PARKING SPOTLIGHT | SHARED MOBILITY
Connecting the Very Big Dots: Buildings, Transportation, and (Shared) Mobility By Rachel Yoka, CAPP, LEED AP BD+C, WELL AP
ET’S START WITH THE (IDEAL) END GAME: Connecting housing, jobs, and transportation is critical to reducing vehicle miles traveled. Connecting housing, jobs, and transportation is critical to reducing congestion—and pollution and wasted time and all its unwanted effects.
Connecting housing, jobs, and transportation is essential to increasing social equity. Social equity may be broadly defined as “equal opportunity in a safe and healthy environment,” according to the U.S. President’s Council on Sustainable Development. This is the third and least well-defined element of the triple bottom line of people, planet, and profit. Mobility is not an end; it is a means. A means to get to work, to school, to play, to travel. This essential fact can easily be lost in the rush. That rush can be competing demands to advance project AT A G L A N C E : Fundamentals of Transportation Demand Management
A T A G L A N C E : FUNDAMENTALS OF TDM Ten Commonly Applied Programs and Policies 1. Data Collection & Benchmarking. Data from surveys, traffic counts, parking utilization, transit ridership, and other programs help determine mode split and program performance. 2. Ride-sharing/Carpool/Vanpool. Carpools have at least a driver and a rider who share a ride. Carpools may be formed by family members, neighbors, co-workers, through app-based programs, or even ad-hoc “slug” lines. Vanpools make use of a five- to 15-passenger vehicle leased through a third party or provided by an employer that uses a volunteer driver(s); riders may pay a monthly fee, while sharing the costs for gas, tolls and/or parking.
Transportation Demand Management (TDM) can be defined as: Programs, policies, and services that help the traveling public make use of alternatives to driving in single-occupancy vehicles (SOVs) and reducing traffic demand. The Federal Highway Administration defines TDM as “a set of strategies aimed at reducing the demand for roadway travel, particularly in single-occupancy vehicles. These strategies address a wide range of externalities associated with driving, including congestion, poor air quality, less livable communities, reduced public health, dependence on oil, reduced environmental health, and climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Some TDM strategies are designed to reduce total travel demand, while others are designed to reduce peak period demand, which may disproportionately contribute to these externalities.”1
DemandBased & Other Pricing Policies
Public Transit & Paratransit
Remote & Flexible Work Arrangements
Biking, Bike-Share, & Scooters
Transportation Network Companies (TNCs) & Taxis
timelines, implement new technology, evaluate key performance indicators, and foster new forms of mobility. Mobility is also a means to greater social equity—access to affordable, convenient transportation enables people greater choices in where to work, where to send their children to school, and how to spend their free time. (The debate over transportation network companies [TNCs] and congestion is, for the most part, an upper- to middle-class problem. For the unbanked or underbanked, it’s a fairly moot point as TNC use is not really an option.)
TDM typically includes the following elements: n
Data collection and benchmarking, including mode split and SOV trips for effective decision-making.
Public transit, intermodal connections, shuttles, and other alternative methods of transportation.
Incentives to use transit, carpooling, and other alternative commuting methods.
Disincentives to driving alone.
or carpooling, or otherwise do not drive to work, i.e. work remotely. 5. Ride-share. Web- or app-based software that helps form carpools. Examples include Scoop, RideAmigos, and Zimride. 6. Pass/Subsidies. Provides reduced-price or free transit passes to employees. Passes can be provided tax-free and/or employees can use pre-tax salary to cover any remaining costs. 7. Provisions for Active Transportation. Walking, bike parking, valet, card access, storage, and provisions of changing rooms/showers and lockers.
3. Car-share. Micro car rental by the hour usually provided through third parties such as Zipcar, Car2Go, and Maven that use an app or smartcard to access the car. Rentals usually include gas and insurance and do not require interfacing with a rental office. This program supports those who use non-drive-alone modes.
8. Guaranteed Ride Home. Providing non-drive-alone commuters with a taxi or TNC (Uber/Lyft) ride home or a car rental at no cost to the commuter. This is typically used for unexpected situations such as illness, child care, home damage, etc., and not for overtime or offsite work trips.
4. Parking Cash Out/Payment in-lieu of Parking. Allows employers to provide a salary increase for the cost of parking instead of providing parking for free. Employees can then use that salary increase for parking, transit, or vanpools tax-free or keep it as a taxable increase if they commute by biking, walking,
9. Ecopass/Occasional Parking. Providing roughly 20 days of parking per year for bad weather days, visitors, special events, etc. This applies to commuters using a mode other than driving alone (transit, carpool, bike, or walk). 10. Remote Parking. Providing shuttle or transit from outside core parking area.
Parking, Mobility, and TDM Parking has a fundamental effect on what happens in cities and towns and how the greater transportation and mobility system functions. Designing and implementing an effective, professionally-managed parking strategy can mean the difference between frustrating and costly traffic congestion and efficient, time-saving traffic flow that is characteristic of smart cities. TDM policies affect parking resources directly and indirectly; appropriately priced on- and off-street parking can work in tandem with other TDM strategies to create desired incentives and outcomes, including but not limited to: n Managing parking demand and meeting parking limitation regulations. n Providing additional programs and services to users and customers. n Documenting Parksmart certification and Accredited Parking Organization (APO) accreditation requirements. n Contributing to a building’s LEED certification. n Reinforcing and expanding an organization’s sustainability efforts. n Growing the customer base to include those who do not drive or those who ride-share.
IPMI’s Fundamentals of Transportation Demand Management can be downloaded at parking-mobility.org/resource-center. Search TDM.
16 THE PARKING PROFESSIONAL | MAY 2019 | PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG
Featured Resources for Additional Research • A Guide to Parking, International Parking Institute, 2018; reference chapter on TDM • IPI Online Course: Transportation Demand Management: Parking Strategies • Sustainable Parking Design & Management: A Practitioner’s Handbook; reference chapter on TDM • Victoria Transportation Policy Institute • Online TDM Encyclopedia • Mobility Lab • Parksmart Certification Manual, Green Business Certification Institute • Integrating Demand Management into the Transportation Planning Process: A Desk Reference, Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Association
For more information, search keyword “TDM” in IPMI’s online Resource Center at parking-mobility.org.
Looking for the Person
As Jon Coleman of Ford Smart Mobility discussed at the Shared Use Mobility Center Summit this March in Chicago, Ill., if someone hands you a diagram or a chart and there is no human in it, go back to the beginning and draw it again. How many times in our industry have you seen a chart or diagram without a human in it? I have seen hundreds, probably thousands, but I can’t be sure. I can’t be sure because I wasn’t looking for the person. (I did not fall out of my chair at that moment, but it was a little shaky there for a second.) At the center of every single-occupant vehicle (SOV), there is an occupant. An actual human. A person who made a choice to drive for a complex web of reasons. This may not come as a surprise to you, but I suggest to our readers that we spend some more time thinking about not just the occupant in an SOV, but the people who need greater access to mobility. That person—we’ll call him Joe— could be a night shift worker who doesn’t have a car but has to get outside the city limits to his job. He has to take two or three buses with long, inconvenient transfer times to do it, meaning his commute sometimes spans greater than three hours total travel time. That person could be a young dad, Evan, who needs to drop his kid, Sylvie, at a daycare in the ’burbs and then faces upwards of an hour of traffic because he misses that travel window day after day.
Shared Mobility Principles for Livable Cities The future of mobility in cities is multimodal and integrated. When vehicles are used, they will be right-sized, shared*, and zero emission. These principles guide urban decision-makers and stakeholders toward the best outcomes for all.
Plan cities and mobility together
Focus on moving people, not cars
Design for equitable access
Encourage efďŹ cient use of space and assets
Engage stakeholders in decision making
Transition toward zero emissions
Deliver public beneďŹ ts via open data
Promote integration and seamless connectivity *Shared vehicles include all those used for hire to transport people (mass transit, private shuttles, buses, taxis, auto-rickshaws, car and bike-sharing) and urban delivery vehicles.
Collaboration initiated by Robin Chase
Automated vehicles must be shared SharedMobilityPrinciples.org #LivableCities #10principles
Seek fair user fees
PARKING SPOTLIGHT | SHARED MOBILITY
That person could be a tween or teen, Melissa, who doesn’t drive but needs to get to a charter school 15 miles from her home. The similarities are numerous, but many of the challenges are the same. And there is a person like Joe, Evan, Sylvie, and Melissa, at the center of every challenge. Some of the challenges people face: ■■ Our houses aren’t located near where we work (if you could walk to work, I bet you would). ■■ Our neighborhoods are cut off from many of the amenities we could really use immediate access to—schools, childcare, health care, and food stores. In particular, this is of great concern in the “food deserts” that characterize many urban communities in big cities. ■■ Public transit is essential but often underfunded and unable to provide the upgrades, routes, or frequency
required to serve urban populations in particular.
■■ Our streets aren’t anywhere near complete. A com-
plete street is safe and accessible for all—drivers, all public transit, cyclists, TNCs, and pedestrians.
How can we, as an industry, shift (and maintain) our focus on the people part of the equation? We have some terrific tools, resources, and programs to build a better (and more complete) foundation for greater mobility and social equity. Here are six great places to start: 1. The Project for Public Spaces. Placemaking strengthens the connection between people and places—creating vibrant and successful environments. pps.org. 2. Transit-oriented development. Building residential and amenities near transit just makes sense. transit.dot. gov/tod. 3. LEED and Parksmart: Both programs start to connect the dots on land use and transportation and multiple modes to get people from where they are to where they need to go. They also focus on creating healthier buildings for occupants—which is of great benefit to us all. 4. Transportation Demand Management. TDM programs compel us to think about mode variety, and the way to benchmark successful programs and build better ones. 5. Shared Mobility Principles for Livable Cities. Check them out here: sharedmobilityprinciples.org. Its resources are open source—take a look at the graphic on page 17 for a place to jump in. 6. For resources on all of these topics and to dive further into these issues, visit the IPMI Resource Center at parking-mobility.org/resource-center. And the next time you get one of those charts or diagrams, make sure there is a human in it. RACHEL YOKA, CAPP, LEED AP BD+C, WELL AP, is
IPMI’s vice president of program development. She can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
18 THE PARKING PROFESSIONAL | MAY 2019 | PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG
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How can parking and mobility professionals define “curb management” and explain its importance to the public and others who aren’t yet familiar?
James Anderson Regional Sales Manager Watson Bowman Acme Corp.
With the evolution of transportation network companies and their connectivity of people and places, efficient curb management has become essential for public safety, access, and departures. Vehicle staging, approach, and departure should be considered in planning curb management.
Isaiah Mouw, CAPP Vice President, Municipal Operations Citizens Lanier Holdings
We are in a unique position to be part of the genesis of defining curb management, and parking professionals must be a part of this discussion as curb management becomes a daily part of city planning vernacular. As mobility technology and curb land use evolve, there is nothing more important to the sustainability of our industry than being part of this sector.
Mark Lyons, CAPP
Parking Manager City of Sarasota, Fla. Like shared parking, curb management proposes gaining the best use of the curbside parking areas. Through effective management of this space, a full range of mobility options is in play for the public and merchant stores, including use by TNCs/ taxis, public parking, scooters, bikes, and commercial deliveries.
HAVE A QUESTION? Send it to email@example.com
Brett Wood, CAPP, PE
Parking Consultant Kimley-Horn Parking and mobility professionals should use business success metrics to define the importance of curb management. Data-driven parking strategies and better policies and practices for loading commercial goods and loading/ unloading passengers should all improve access to business, which should increase productivity and economic performance. Communicating economic growth and community-driven success is the quickest way to define just how important curbside management really is.
Roamy Valera, CAPP CEO PayByPhone
The high demand for the curb in today’s mobility environment presents a number of conflicts between parking, transportation networks, car-sharing, micromobility, pedestrians, bike-share, and others. As a result, it should be managed, monitored, and in many cases, monetized. Cities have the responsibility to make sure the curb is utilized to meet its highest and best use.
and watch this space for answers from the experts.
The opinions and thoughts expressed by the contributors do not necessarily reflect the opinions and viewpoints of the International Parking & Mobility Institute or official policies of IPMI.
20 THE PARKING PROFESSIONAL | MAY 2019 | PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG
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Managing access to a valuable resource.
By Charley DeBow and Mike Drow, CAPP
urbside management is the collection of operating concepts, techniques, and practices that enable a municipality, university, or any entity to effectively allocate the use of their curbs and other high- demand areas. While the curb has been managed for decades, in the past 10 years, it has become more crowded as new users and alternative-transportation services require access to it. Many professionals and consultants have proposed various approaches to manage the curb (in this article we will use the term “curb” to represent any area with a high demand of use.) Many ideas, technologies, and methods are being introduced and tested to support the multitude of curb management needs. In addition, parking and mobility professionals, public transit agencies, city planners, delivery services, transportation engineers, and private businesses are all very interested in ensuring their respective curb access needs are considered and prioritized fairly against others. Why Manage the Curb Now?
The curb has been managed for decades, since long before the concept of curb management even existed. Seventy years ago, the competition for curb access was limited—taxi stands, parking and no-parking zones, and bus stops described the main sources of demand. In the 1980s and ’90s, the growth of package delivery services such as UPS and FedEx dropping off packages in a busy city increased the demand for curb access. In the past five years, the demand for curb access has exploded as many new businesses require access; this includes appbased ride-sharing/hailing services such as Uber and Lyft; shared economy delivery services like UberEats, DoorDash, and GrubHub; the expansion of Amazon into delivery services; the use of private shuttles; and many other kinds of uses. It is not just the street side of the curb either—the sidewalk side has seen a rise in demand from scooters and bikes and from restaurants and cafes expanding their footprints by placing tables on the sidewalk. This demand for access is overloading the curb. The increase in demand highlights several points municipalities, universities, and other operators need to consider to address the overloading:
THE PARKING PROFESSIONAL | MAY 2019 | PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG 23
Figure 1: Sample Mapping the Curb View COORD.CO
■■ Not all curb uses are currently regulated. ■■ The curb has value, but that value is not always collected from
all curb users. ■■ Validating authorized versus non-authorized access to the
curb is a challenge. ■■ Operationally communicating and enforcing regulations to
various curb users is important. Addressing high demand will identify conflicting policies that affect access to the curb and price differentials that create unintended consequences of use (and misuse) of it. As already mentioned, one should not just think of the physical street curb when implementing curb-management practices—any area in high demand can benefit from the same practices and methods. Where might high demand areas exist? Think about the airport terminal with ride-shares, taxis, limos, hotel shuttles, and car rental shuttles dropping off at the terminal entrance; or a hotel driveway with valet, taxis, and ride-shares; a retail parking area with valet, ride-share, and delivery trucks; or event centers with buses, ride-shares, taxis, and limos.
Understand the Curb
The ability to manage a resource effectively requires an understanding of the resource in the first place. In the case of the curb, understanding the resource means mapping the curb (or
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high-demand area), identifying the users, and defining the rules. Mapping the curb is essential to launch any effort to manage it. An effective program starts with collecting an inventory of its curb (high-demand areas) and understanding how it is used. The inventory includes collecting: ■■ Actual location of the curb areas. ■■ Current regulations applied to the curb, such as no-parking zone, loading zone, bus stop, fire hydrants, parking areas, etc. ■■ Signage that exists and the message on each sign (no parking, parking restrictions, delivery zone, etc.). ■■ Existing fixtures (meters, cameras, bus stop shelters, bike lanes, scooter corrals, etc.). ■■ Existing uses (bike stations, parklets, and sidewalk cafe permits). Presenting the collected information in a geographic information system (GIS) (or map) is especially insightful; see Figure 1. Storing the data in a GIS will enable better sharing of the information with third parties that need access to the information. But don’t overlook the potential of a simple spreadsheet to collect basic information on your curb if you are starting from nothing. Just as an entity needs to inventory its curb, it also needs to inventory its users. More specifically, the current users and the future desired users of the curb. Users can be categorized into several types as shown in Figure 2.
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As user types are identified, an entity will want to understand how each user type affects access to the curb. Does the user type need a large section of the curb (food truck versus delivery zone)? Do the user types use the curb for a long time in each visit (park a car versus passenger loading area)? When does the user need access? Does the use create safety hazards for others? Merging user-type needs with the curb inventory information allows an entity to understand how the user types interact and/or conflict with each other. Through this analysis, an entity will determine how the actual use varies by street—one side of a city block can be very crowded while just around the corner, ample curb is available for use. As the user types and their needs are identified, conflicts between their access needs and timing will become apparent. During rush-hour periods, is there a conflict with dedicated bus lanes and identified passenger loading and unloading for ride-share services and taxis? A program may want to determine whether the user type is an on-demand service, corporation, or individual/citizen to influence pricing and how much access is granted to each user type. All the information collected about the user types becomes instrumental in defining policies and regulations as well as defining appropriate allocation of access to various user types. With the inventory of users and curb complete, an entity can define the rules for the curb. The first step is to define the objectives for the overall curb- management program. In many cases, there will be a couple of objectives that require an entity to balance
its approach; include a wide range of professionals and departments in the discussion. If you are a municipality or university, the parking, transit, city planner, event planner, and public safety departments should have a seat in the discussion. As each objective is defined, a measurable and quantifiable target or goal must be set. Without measurable targets, an entity will not be able to manage progress toward the goals or communicate the success of its curb management activities. A few categories to consider: ■■ Mobility objectives: improving traffic flow and/or the ability of people to move from place to place (e.g., reduction in single-occupancy vehicle trips, higher transit ridership, reduced traffic delays). ■■ Parking objectives: the ability to park vehicles in accordance with local user needs (e.g., 85 percent occupancy target for a retail area). ■■ Revenue objectives: efficiently capturing the value of the curb from various user types and meeting budget objectives. ■■ Balanced and fair access objectives: the desire to support users’ ability to access the curb. With objectives defined, an entity should review its current regulations, policies, operating practices, and pricing structures. How many current rules and policies support the defined objectives? Many entities have not recently reviewed their rules, regulations, and policies. In addition, it is very likely that existing rules do not support newly defined objectives. Now is a good time to update those rules and policies to support the objectives and resolve conflicts. During the effort to revise the rules and policies, an entity should try to future-proof its rules, policies, and regulations by making them adaptable so simple updates can be made without significant bureaucratic activity. As an example, when establishing rules or policies related to pricing and payment options, do not include the specific rate or specific method of payment in the rule or policy. Instead, have the rule or policy reference another document that can be changed from time to time. The adaptability allows an entity to more quickly adjust its curb management program to meet changing access demand requirements.
Rome wasn’t built in a day; neither will a curb management program be.
Drivers, both TNC and non-TNC
Parked vehicles and electric vehicle (EV) charging
Bicycles and bicycle infrastructure
Pedestrians and crossing infrastructure
Couriers and delivery vehicles
Transit and transit infrastructure
Taxis, transportation network companies (TNCs), and shuttles
Parklets and streetscape
Figure 2: User Types
26 THE PARKING PROFESSIONAL | MAY 2019 | PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG
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Not a Good Rule:
Parking on Main Street will be charged at $1.25/hour and fees will be collected at the on-street meter.
Options for Future Adaptable Rules:
1. Parking on Main Street will be charged at the rates defined in the City’s Paid Parking Policy Document (attached schedule). Rates may be altered within that schedule by city staff at the discretion of the parking manager. The fees will be collected via means that are accessible to the general public. 2. Parking on Main Street will be charged at a rate between $1 and $4 based on the discretion of the parking manager. The chosen rate will be based on a review of data and the goal of managing demand to maintain open space availability during peak conditions. The fees will be collected via means that are accessible to the general public. When developing a program’s objectives, try not to take on too much too early. Instead, start simple with a few critical objectives and build success. As the saying goes, Rome wasn’t built in a day; neither will a curb management program be. When curbs are mapped (inventoried), users and their needs are identified, and objectives are defined by collaborating with various groups, it is time to start managing the curb. Users Neighborhood Residents Visitors Shopper Business Owner Truck Driver Auto User Transit Vehicle Pedestrian Bicyclist
Modes Car Truck Bus Pedestrian Bicycle Motorcycle
Space Paid On-Street (Passenger) Paid On-Street (Commercial) Loading Zones Unmetered / Residential Restricted Special-Use (i.e. Disability) Dedicated Use Temporary Use
Value/Trade Off Convenience
Figure 3: Curb Management
Manage the Curb
The results generated from understanding the curb are critical to establishing a program to effectively manage the curb. The curb is a programmable, fluid space within the larger transportation system where multiple users, modes, and governing practices are at play with
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each other. As parking and mobility professionals, it is our duty to manage this chaotic space. Figure 3 depicts what curb management is balancing. The goal is to effectively and efficiently provide access to the identified users, who access the specific curb areas using different modes of transportation. The program’s ultimate purpose is to distribute curb access considering the value or trade-off that varies for each combination of user/mode/area. As an example, a delivery service that wants to use a specific curb on a busy street during rush hour may not be permitted to do so as it will impede traffic flow during rush hour. However, if the delivery service were permitted to perform delivery services on the busy street, a specific area may need to be defined to minimize impact to traffic flow while charging the delivery service a premium fee for that access. If the delivery service were to use a side street one block away from the busy street, fees for access may be much less or eliminated altogether. Similarly, a person parking all day in an area where high parking turnover is desired will likely have to consider the cost of staying too long at the risk of paying exorbitant fees. The intent of the high cost is to dissuade the person from staying longer than the desired parking objectives. Figure 3 also identifies the various value and tradeoffs curb management programs consider when evaluating users’ access needs. By understanding the value and trade-off considerations for a specific user, a management program can balance the desire for access to the curb with cost and convenience to ensure a proper allocation of the access occurs to all users. Knowing the user types, their access needs, and their value and trade-off considerations, an entity can implement a curb management program to achieve defined objectives. A typical program will contain the following components: 1. Allocate use. 2. Integrate fragmented data. 3. Monitor use. 4. Communicate the rules. 5. Enforce the curb. 6. Report and analyze.
Allocating curb access to various users is accomplished with the distribution of permits. A permit is
not necessarily a physical credential; it is when an entity grants access to a specific curb (or area) at a specific time of day for a specific use and collects a fee as appropriate. Sometimes this is done through a monthly (or other period) permit issuance process, or the allocation may be managed with an on-demand transaction capability, similar to a meter. The need to future-proof regulations is key, especially in how payments could be collected. For example, FedEx may have a permit to park in a loading zone but pay a fee for each curb interaction. This could be done in real time with a parking app, auto-billing through license plate recognition (LPR) or directly from FedEx technology. Loading zones could be priced based on time of day or location. As an entity’s curb program expands, it will migrate from static allocation methods to more dynamic ones, where a system is monitoring the current availability on the curb and demand for access from various users and reallocates access to users to achieve the entity’s objectives. The rise of virtual credentials, LPR systems, RFID capabilities and other means to identify users, along with electronic and mobile payments, will make it easier for a program to allocate access to the curb on a variable basis.
User ■■ Car (SOV)
Integrating Fragmented Data
As parking and mobility professionals know, the amount of data available to manage an operation is growing in leaps and bounds. The challenge is the ability to collect the data, analyze it, and make decisions that improve operational performance. An effective curb management program requires the ability to collect data from many different sources, not all of which are in the control of the parking and mobility professional. Figure 4 shows a high-level architecture of systems involved in curb management. A curb management program will need the ability to share data with its users to communicate status of activity (FedEx delivery truck location and status, Uber/ Lyft driver activity, parking pay station and mobile payment activity), share information about changes to the curb (construction, etc.), and confirm access permissions. There will be third-party partners with data that are valuable to managing the curb program, such as weather, construction status, mass transit status, and traffic flow information, to name a few. This type of information will allow a curb management program to optimize and adjust its allocation of access to the users based on changing conditions.
Central Mobility Session Database
Enforcement Enforcement Tools
■■ Delivery Zones
■■ Fixed Camera
■■ TNC Zones
■■ Mobile LPR
■■ Financial Tracking
■■ Visual (PEO)
■■ Mobility Session Tracking
Citation Management ■■ Auto Generate
The Future Curb
■■ Visual (PEO)
Other Vendors ■■ Permit
■■ Fleet Management (scooters, bikes, TNCS, etc) ■■ Other Manual “Permits”
Figure 4: High-level Curb Management Architecture
The goal is to reduce citations by smarter policies that allow better payment options for all users.
THE PARKING PROFESSIONAL | MAY 2019 | PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG 29
Figure 5: Common Data Integrations ■■ Parking Access
Revenue Control Systems (PARCS) ■■ Parking Meters ■■ Transit Management ■■ Parking Guidance ■■ Occupancy Counts ■■ Enforcement Handhelds ■■ Booting / Towing
■■ Mobile Payment
■■ Contract Parking
Recognition (LPR) ■■ Merchant Validations ■■ Analytics ■■ Sensors (Video pucks, BLE) ■■ Reservation Services
■■ Delivery Services
■■ License Plate
■■ App-Based Ride
■■ Bikes / Scooters ■■ Map Apps ■■ OEM
■■ Charging Station ■■ Signage
The well-known management axiom “what gets measured gets managed” holds true for curb management programs. When the curb management program has allocated access to various users, it needs to monitor activity to ensure efficient operation. Luckily, there are many technologies and methods available to support monitoring: ■■ Manual logging: simple activity of a person with a clipboard counting vehicles and activity events at the curb. How many ride-share vehicles used the passenger loading zone? How many cars are parked on the street? What is the average length of stay for a delivery? While manual logging does not provide consis-
30 THE PARKING PROFESSIONAL | MAY 2019 | PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG
tent data, the data sample can provide useful insight to a curb management program just getting started. ■■ Derived monitoring: taking data from various payment methods to approximate current activity at a curb. An example is assuming that a paid transaction at a meter or via a payment app is equal to a parking or curb event. This allows a curb program to gain more real-time data on actual activity at the curb. It is not perfect, but it does provide more visibility than manual logging. ■■ Actual monitoring: using a variety of technology methods to detect the presence of vehicles and activity. Technology methods such as space sensors to detect stopped vehicles, cameras connected to video analytics, LPR, RFID, or Bluetooth to validate virtual permits are just a few examples.
Communicate the Rules
The most well-planned curb management program will be ineffective unless the users and general public understand the rules and steps necessary to access the curb. Communicating the rules, pricing, and expectations is critical. In the beginning, users may be concerned about their ability to obtain access to the curb or frustrated that they have to pay for access. Each curb management program needs to have a clear communication plan to the users and the general public explaining the objectives of the program and how a user can access the curb (how to receive permission). Specific messages should focus on the various rules and policies, various curb restrictions, how to obtain permission to access the curb, and payment methods. It is worthwhile to also explain the value and trade-off considerations for various user types so they understand how their activity affects others. The communication plan should leverage websites, mobile platforms, and curb signage. While mobile apps
In addition, a curb management program needs to share its data with other platforms and technology; consider digital signage to communicate current operating restrictions or pricing. An entity may share data with a mapping app to communicate real-time status or changes to users. Figure 5 provides a sample of common data integrations. In an effort to reduce the amount of investment and time necessary to integrate various data sources, IPMI is working with the Alliance for Parking Data Standards (APDS) to develop a global standard to share parking related data. APDS is developing a consensus-built, international standard that establishes a common language for data elements and definitions in the parking, transportation, and mobility sectors. More information about the standards, including access to the data standard documents and the mission of APDS, can be obtained at allianceforparkingdatastandards.org.
and phone-based mapping services can provide detailed customized instructions to each user, signage is still a very effective way to communicate. With physical signs the information is always present when the users arrive at the curb. As programs are launched, having a plan to ensure your rules, practices, and pricing are clearly communicated is critical.
Enforce the Curb
Enforcement is vital to ensure the rules are followed. During the past several years, many technologies have been deployed that enable the enforcement of rules and policies related to curbs. This includes video analytics technology to support automated red-light enforcement systems and vehicle speed enforcement on roadways, LPR tools to verify credential holders are in the proper parking areas, and Bluetooth and RFID tags. These same technologies can be deployed to support the enforcement of your curb regulations. The changing technologies also highlight another reason to establish adaptable rules and policies. Consider the opportunity to send citations electronically via email, rather than paper tickets, which many municipalities require to be placed on the vehicle at the time of the violation. Another potential change is how users pay for access: What if a delivery truck service that currently receives five tickets a week for illegal parking were able to prepay for monthly access to a specific section of the curb? The program benefits by better controlling where the delivery truck stops, and the delivery service reduces its costs in processing the fees. (Paying five tickets per week is more administrative work than buying one permit per month). In addition, though enforcement technology, the curb program will be able to track compliance and report issues to the delivery service when it needs to adjust driver behavior or risk losing access to the curb for abusing access. Which technology best fits the needs will depend on the users, how the program allocates access to the curb, and the program’s objectives.
curb, or more global changes in policies and rules. As changes are made or new ideas tested, the reporting system will provide visibility into performance and results to determine if the changes are successfully moving the program toward its objectives. A reporting capability will also identify changing user trends and access demand. Being aware of changing needs will enable a program to adapt to its users’ needs more quickly. The downside of modern reporting tools is the vast access of data and reports. The program should focus on the critical metrics to achieve your objectives; be careful not to become overwhelmed with thousands of reports and millions of data points. Refer back to your objectives and identify the critical metrics that inform whether the program is progressing toward success. When developing a curb management program to manage a street face, hotel driveway, airport garage or roadway, event site, or even a downtown parking facility, remember the following five points: 1. Map the curbs—where are they and what rules currently exist? 2. Define the objectives of the curb management program and the desired uses of the curb. 3. Inventory the potential users, their needs, and the trade-off/value propositions. 4. Implement tools to allocate access, monitor use, collect fees, and enforce the curb program. 5. Be flexible—look at the data and results and adjust to achieve the curb management program’s objectives. Good luck and don’t forget to share what you learn. We are all learning curbside management best practices and methods together. This article is a summary of the information shared in the 2019 IPMI Technology Committee presentation focusing on curb management, offered at #IPMI2019 and state and regional associations around the country.
CHARLEY DEBOW is CEO/co-founder of
CurbTrac and a member of the IPMI Technology Committee. He can be reached at charley@ curbtrac.com.
As previously mentioned, what gets measured gets managed. Each curb management program needs to report on its performance against its objective goals. If objectives are not being achieved, adjustments should be made to improve performance. This may require a change in pricing, how users are allocated access to the
MIKE DROW, CAPP, is senior vice president,
sales and corporate development, with T2 Systems and co-chair of the IPMI Technology Committee. He can be reached at michael.drow@ t2systems.com.
THE PARKING PROFESSIONAL | MAY 2019 | PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG 31
Las Vegas takes on the tricky business of managing curb space. Lessons have already been learned, but there are more to come.
B y Lu
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URB SPACE MANAGEMENT —have you heard a lot about it lately?
Brace yourself: This newish responsibility for parking managers is here to stay. As with many large municipalities and universities across the nation, Las Vegas, Nev., is experiencing increasing challenges because of transportation network companies (TNCs), as well as taxi services, limousine services, private bus services, and other vehicles/uses congesting the public right-of-ways and curb space as they do business within the downtown. Because of the volume of TNCs operating in the city and the behavior of some TNC drivers, the downtown often experiences traffic congestion and traffic hazards. Unsafe driving activity creates a dicey pedestrian and vehicular environment, traffic delays, and increased vehicle emissions that reduce air quality and can ultimately result in an unpleasant experience for guests to our city. In response to this issue, we researched how other municipalities were dealing with this problem and last spring, the city’s parking operation division formed a task force. The task force brought together heavy community involvement, including the mayor, affected city council members, city department heads, business associations, business leaders, downtown project developers, TNC managers, taxi managers and companies, the Taxi Authority, police, pedi-cab companies, and the Regional Transit Commission. “The support from the community for this project was overwhelming,” says Brandy Stanley, Las Vegas manager of parking services.
Areas of Concern
With the goals of reducing traffic/curb congestion, improving the guest experience, and improving pedestrian and passenger safety, the task force identified several areas to explore: ■■ Active loading and unloading (ALU) zones. ■■ Pedi-cab staging areas. ■■ Smart-city request for information to find technology solutions. ■■ Monetization of curb space. ■■ Identification of off-street TNC staging areas. ■■ Installation of dynamic regulatory signage. ■■ Licensing TNC drivers.
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Increasing use of transportation network companies, ride-share services, delivery vehicles, and micro-mobility has led to an increased need to share curb space.
■■ Managing off-app, rogue ride services. ■■ Public education. ■■ Pairing TNC areas with shuttle stops. ■■ Working with TNCs to black out areas of the city. ■■ Designating alleys for TNC queuing.
Unfortunately, some of these suggestions are just not doable, and others are difficult to achieve. For instance, Nevada law does not allow local governments to impose fees on TNCs that are not imposed on regular private vehicles, making monetization of the curb space difficult. Also TNCs keep their data (ridership numbers, number of drivers, most popular stops, etc.), close to the chest, making it difficult to plan for volume.
Recognizing that many of the items listed above would require changing Nevada law and/or local ordinances, there were areas where we could move quickly. Here are a couple of examples: ■■ Pedi-cabs were given their own zones. This not only removed pedi-cabs from curb space, but gave them safe areas in which to solicit business. Streets that are currently closed to pedi-cab use will be opened up, providing pedi-cab operators with more routes and greater exposure. ■■ We established a pilot ALU zone. Taking an area of curb (about seven parking spaces) that included a commercial zone, passenger-loading zone, and a taxi
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zone, we created an area available to all drivers. To enforce and monitor this area, during peak times we staffed the zone with a parking enforcement officer (PEO) and a taxi starter to coordinate taxi activity. Having staff onsite also gave us the ability to gather stats on the use of the ALU zone. The ALU pilot proved successful in many ways. Statistics showed that up to 800 cars per day were using the ALU zone. Uber reported that driver cancelations were down 46 percent, and both Uber and Lyft reported increased customer satisfaction thanks to the dedicated zone. Unfortunately, we were writing too many tickets, which is not what we were trying to do, but removing the PEO from the zone would cause the system to fall apart. We knew from the beginning that the staffing model was not sustainable. Therefore, we began to explore a technology-based solution.
The Technology Solution
The city’s parking services division issued a request for information (RFI) soliciting parking and traffic monitoring systems that could be used for curb-space management specific to our needs in Las Vegas. Vegas is unique: It is a 24/7 gambling and tourist center, and traditional methods of managing the curb such as payby-phone, space reservations, and vehicle tracking are not as effective in reducing curb congestion as they are in other areas. We needed a way to alert drivers, effect legal maneuvers, and communicate with those in violation without necessarily writing a ticket. The city received 21 responses to the RFI. Later this year, we will begin piloting a technology solution that combines space sensing, artificial intelligence, vehicle identification, vehicular movement sensing, dynamic signage, photo enforcement technology, geo-fencing, and back-end noticing. Will it all work? Time will tell. LUIS MALDONADO is management specialist
with the City of Las Vegas, Nev. He can be reached at email@example.com.
PLANNING PARKING CREATING PLACES HELPING PEOPLE
Smart City Planning Drives Access & Mobility www.timhaahs.com
$ense Does designing garages with an eye—and a budget—toward future re-adaptation make realistic sense? A conversation with industry experts.
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IKIPEDIA DEFINES adaptive reuse as “the aesthetic process that adapts buildings for new uses while retaining their historic features. Using an adaptive reuse model can prolong a building’s life, from cradle to grave, by retaining all or most of the building system, including the structure, the shell, and even the interior materials.” Alternatively, ThoughtCo.com defines it as “the process of repurposing buildings—old buildings that have outlived their original purposes—for different uses or functions while at the same time retaining their historic features.” Although most parking garages won’t qualify for the historic part, adaptive reuse has become part of our everyday vernacular. And though we have seen a smattering of successful (and creative) examples, our industry remains at a crossroads. Trying to plan ahead from a long-term real estate perspective isn’t straightforward. How do you design a building for a 30- to 50- (or even 75-) year lifespan when we anticipate massive shifts in demand for the building type? And hey, when are those shifts going to happen anyway?
We have lots of questions and we know you do, too. So we asked some of our close personal friends (and IPMI subject matter experts) what’s on the horizon and how best to plan for the future. When do you think transportation network companies (TNCs) and autonomous vehicles (AVs) will start to have a significant enough effect on parking demand that clients will need to look at converting a portion of their parking structure to another use?
Matt Davis, Associate Principal, Watry Design, Inc.
TNCs have already had an impact on parking demand, especially at hotels and off-airport parking. AVs have not affected parking yet, but the technology is expected to begin to be rolled out in the next five to 10 years, and we anticipate them to continue to develop and begin to have an impact around 2040. Because of this, some of our clients are already considering adaptive reuse concepts in their new parking facilities to provide more flexibility moving forward.
John Bushman, PE, President and CEO, Walker Consultants
That depends on the use. Some hotels and entertainment facilities are feeling the effects of TNCs now. Hotels may need to strategize on how to fill empty spaces with other parkers or uses in the next couple of years. Office parking may not see a significant reduction for another 10 years. It will be at least 20 years before AVs will have an impact on parking demand.
James Anderson, Regional Sales Manager, Watson Bowman Acme Corp.
We are currently at the cusp of a technology and transportation evolution with artificial intelligence (AI), alternative fuels, and mobility network choices altering the metropolitan landscape. It is difficult to predict and plan for the effects of these multifaceted advances with any degree of certainty. Nevertheless, it is essential to recognize and monitor the potential of these advancements and their implications to your circumstances with a possible three-, five-, or 10-year assimilation horizon.
Michael App, AIA, LEED AP, NCARB, Director of Architecture, TimHaahs
We believe owners and operators need to begin considering these issues now. The degree of their effects will vary greatly based on locality, with more impact in downtown urban areas than in suburban areas. While the future is uncertain about what will happen, we believe that this tipping point will not happen for many years. What are the challenges in converting an existing parking structure that was originally not designed for adaptive reuse?
Jonathan Brown, Regional Manager, SP+:
One of the biggest issues will be building the structure to spec for residential compliance. Ceiling height comes to mind as well as infrastructure for plumbing and electrical. Also, exterior openings that will fit windows/doors. External appearance with the installation and heating/cooling. THE PARKING PROFESSIONAL | MAY 2019 | PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG 37
Matt Davis, Watry Design, Inc.
The challenges in converting an existing parking structure that was not designed for adaptive reuse are that the clearances will not be appropriate for occupied space; the elevated decks, foundations, and lateral-force resisting systems will need to be strengthened; and additional stairs and exit width will need to be provided. In addition, the parking decks are most likely sloped to drain instead of being flat.
John Bushman, PE, Walker Consultants
The floor-to-floor height is usually the biggest challenge. Unless there is at least 14 feet floor-to-floor, it is pretty much a non-starter. Even with high floor-tofloor heights, it typically is only feasible to convert the ground level.
Michael App, AIA, LEED AP, NCARB, TimHaahs
Similar to the planning required for creating an adaptive-ready new garage, an existing garage will need to be surveyed to confirm headroom clearances, confirm capacity of the structural slab, identify locations for vertical utility chases, confirm egress capacity, etc. A plan will need to be created for remediation of any of the shortcomings.
John Hammerschlag, President, Hammerschlag & Co., Inc.
Building a garage for the future instead of today may result in a flat floor design when sloping floors (think double helix) would provide a superior functional design. Also, the floor-to-floor depth would be greater, resulting in steeper ramps, which lower the service level, and extra facade, causing higher construction costs. What are the challenges in designing new parking structures to be converted to another use in the future?
Matt Davis, Watry Design, Inc.
There are many challenges associated with designing new parking structures to have the flexibility to be converted to another use in the future. Foremost among the challenges are the need for 15-foot clearances for office uses along with flat floors. Parking structures usually have approximately seven- to eight-foot clearances with floors
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that slope to drain. In addition, parking structure elevated decks are designed to support half the loads of an office, and the exiting demands for occupied space are greater than for a parking use. So these challenges equate to significant added upfront cost.
John Bushman, PE, Walker Consultants
No one wants to spend the money on it! It likely will be more economical to design it so a portion can be torn down in the future and provide a site for a new building.
Jeremy Rocha, PE, Senior Project Manager, WGI, Inc.
The major challenge of designing new parking structures to be converted to another use in the future is the unknown. Planning five years out is a challenge because of the ebbs and flow of parking. Within five years, tweaks to parking operations, incorporating valet, or changing parking rates can completely change parking dynamics. This plays a major role in determining how the garage will be converted in the future. What is the cost premium and which clients are willing to pay for it?
Jeremy Rocha, PE, WGI, Inc.
The cost premium could be significant depending on the project constraints (footprint, site, height restrictions, etc.). The majority of cost premium comes from tweaks of the structure design and upgrading the MEP systems to meet occupied space code requirements. For example, general structural clearance heights for a garage are seven feet; in occupied spaces they are around 10 or higher depending on the use. The clients most likely willing to pay for this cost premium are owners that will retain the parking asset for the life of the structure—educational institutions, health care facilities, and municipalities.
Jonathan Brown, SP+
From what I am experiencing, clients are more reluctant to invest in the speculative notion that this is happening sooner than later. If there was a more concrete date associated with this change, we may have more buy-in.
Matt Davis, Watry Design, Inc.
The cost premium varies depending on how far a client wants to go but could be anywhere from 10 to 25
Our Panelists James Anderson percent. We have seen forward-looking clients such as technology companies show interest in this as well as some municipalities.
John Bushman, PE, Walker Consultants
Designing a new parking structure to accommodate future conversion to another use can easily be a 20 to 30 percent cost premium. This is too big of a gamble for even most institutional clients.
Michael App, AIA, LEED AP, NCARB, TimHaahs
Our studies, as well as studies by our vendors and cost-estimating partners, are showing that the cost premiums to make the garage adaptable could conservatively result in an increase to the base construction cost estimate of between 25 and 30 percent. What are you recommending clients do to prepare for the future?
Jeremy Rocha, PE, WGI, Inc.
We let owners know the full implications of designing structures for future conversions. We allow the conversation to run from full to limited conversation (limited means converting maybe only the top levels). The goal of the conversation is not to deter owners from exploring adaptive reuse but to better inform and prepare them.
Matt Davis, Watry Design, Inc.
Due to the high cost of engineering all elevated decks to support occupied space and the impracticality of building all levels to have 15 feet of clear space, we recommend that clients who want flexibility to adapt to parking demand changes in the future consider providing a tall ground level with 15 feet
clear. Assuming the ground level is slab on grade, this is easily accommodated structurally, and the exiting concerns are easily addressed. This adds less than 10 percent to construction cost. As a bonus, this would provide the client with the flexibility to add mechanical lifts on the ground level to either densify existing parking or increase capacity should parking demand rise, which is very possible for office, restaurant, or entertainment uses.
John Bushman, PE, Walker Consultants
Plan for parts of the facility to be converted such as the grade level, not the upper floors. For a large structure, provide an expansion joint so that a portion of the structure can be torn down, providing a site for another building.
Michael App, AIA, LEED AP, NCARB, TimHaahs
With our clients, we are discussing the potential for conversion of the ground tier and possibly planning for an overbuild/top-tier conversion. We are following the trend of the greater use of electric vehicles and are recommending over- investment in electric-vehicle charging stations. We are also recognizing the renewed emphasis on multi-modal transit networks and are encouraging our clients to make facilities that serve more transportation options than just the personally owned vehicle.
Regional Sales Manager Watson Bowman Acme Corp.
Michael App, AIA, LEED AP, NCARB Director of Architecture TimHaahs
Jonathan Brown Regional Manager SP+
John Bushman, PE President and CEO Walker Consultants
Associate Principal Watry Design
John Hammerschlag President Hammerschlag & Co., Inc.
Jeremy Rocha, PE
Senior Project Manager WGI, Inc.
Special thanks to the IPMI Planning, Design, and Construction Committee for its expertise and contributions on this article—as well as the committee’s work throughout the committee season.
Jonathan Brown, Regional Manager, SP+:
We are bringing this into the discussion with new parking structures. The common rebuttal is the additional cost associated with the construction and planning. It’s difficult to plan for something you don’t have all the details for just yet. THE PARKING PROFESSIONAL | MAY 2019 | PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG 39
SAYING FAREWELL… 40 THE PARKING PROFESSIONAL | MAY 2019 | PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG
…MAYBE. By Chrissy Mancini Nichols
Are parking minimums a thing of the past?
ARKING MINIMUMS have been a part of the urban planning playbook since the
dawn of the automobile age. The first minimum parking requirement was established in 1923 in Columbus, Ohio. By the 1950s, parking minimums had become deeply rooted in planning regulations and city codes—a direct reflection and enabler of how the automobile was to define America and the shape of its cities. The point was to ensure that parking on public streets for neighborhood businesses wouldn’t be overwhelmed by the private vehicles. In recent years, though, parking minimums have rightfully come under increasing scrutiny. Developers often find them inflexible, frustrating, and costly; minimums tie their hands and limit their choices for developing projects by forcing them to devote substantial land and money to parking. Many in the planning community oppose parking minimums out of a concern they perpetuate an auto-centric nature of American cities that dedicates more land to cars than people, housing, and quality design, negatively af52 fecting city policy goals. Transportation planners ELE T K/ OC ST point out that parking minimums increase the distance ER T UT SH between destinations, making cities and towns less walkable and perpetuating a cycle that decreases viable transit and mobility options. Add to that changing consumer preferences for more options than simply driving and parking. Data shows teens are waiting longer to get their driver’s licenses. Use of transportation network companies (TNCs), of which Uber and Lyft are most prominent, grows annually. Even dockless scooters have had a big effect in just one year. As a result, urban planners are increasingly seeing that parking minimums don’t necessarily promote their communities’ planning values and economic development goals.
Many in the planning community oppose parking minimums out of a concern they perpetuate an auto-centric nature of American cities that dedicates more land to cars than people, housing, and quality design, negatively affecting city policy goals. Cities are beginning to respond in a meaningful way. San Francisco, Calif., and Minneapolis, Minn., both recently announced the elimination of parking minimums, joining Buffalo, N.Y., and Hartford, Conn. Chicago, Ill., gravitated in that direction, reducing parking requirements within a half-mile of transit stations and major bus routes. The trend is even happening in smaller cities, with Fargo, N.D.; New Orleans, La.; Pittsburgh, Pa.; and other cities eliminating parking minimums in downtown districts. Many cities also allow developers to satisfy parking requirements by paying a per space parking in-lieu fee instead of building parking. Funds from the parking in-lieu fee then pay for infrastructure that supports transit, walking, and biking as well as building and maintaining public parking for use by everyone. THE PARKING PROFESSIONAL | MAY 2019 | PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG 41
Changing Mobility Factors
Cities have typically eliminated parking minimums to meet planning and sustainability goals, such as reducing congestion on roadways, cutting emissions, and freeing up more land for the development of housing. But impending technology will also reduce the need for parking minimums. Autonomous vehicles are expected to reduce parking demand, particularly in urban communities, between 10 and 40 percent in the next few decades. Even a low-end scenario means millions of vehicles will not park in spaces they use today. Instead self-driving shared cars will drop off visitors and then pick up the next ride. People who own personal self-driving vehicles will send them to park at a less-expensive parking facility outside busy urban areas. Others will take a shared autonomous vehicle to their nearest transit station—an approach that is the most promising for increasing access and mobility. The way America gets around is changing. For parking planners, this is a potentially earth-shattering proposition. Not only will urban parking demand drop significantly, but new areas, including the curb, will have to be designed and managed to handle the dramatic increase in pick-ups and drop-offs. It’s easy to see why these trends and the impending arrival of the self-driving age are causing city planners to rethink the need for parking minimums.
Making It Work
While there’s clearly a trend of reducing parking requirements underway, there is no general template for making it work. That’s because every community is unique. What works in San Francisco may not work in Chattanooga, Tenn. It’s a matter of right-sizing parking to meet the distinctive needs of a particular community. If you are going to eliminate parking requirements, you need strategies in place to ensure that the parking supply will be able to satisfy demand. The question is how much is needed and how it will be provided. The good news is that there are reliable tools and parking planning strategies that can help ensure that communities (and developers within those communities) are building the right amount of parking so commerce can thrive. At the same time, these strategies can manage the existing parking supply efficiently and effectively. Not only is this approach more cost-effective, but it also ensures that valuable land can be used for more appropriate uses.
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If you are going to eliminate parking requirements, you need strategies in place to ensure that the parking supply will be able to satisfy demand. First, any policy of reducing or eliminating parking minimums must be combined with data-backed pricing, regulation, and enforcement of the on- and off-street public supply—the three most powerful strategies for influencing parking behavior. Charging a premium for the most in-demand spaces and less for parking outside of these areas can encourage employees and other long-term parkers to use periphery parking, saving closer-in spaces for customers. Time limits and tiered pricing increase parking capacity by encouraging parking turnover, increasing the total number of vehicles accommodated in the system. These types of strategies can further reduce the need for mandated parking (parking minimums) in select locales within a city. Along with parking regulations, cities must also manage the growing demand for the curb to efficiently allocate time among the increasingly diverse users competing for space. Between TNCs, bicycles, scooters, delivery vehicles, and private cars, there is a lot more going on at the curb than just a couple of years ago! Cities must use the tools at their disposal, including curb access fees and regulations, to better manage curbside resources and provide funding to make the necessary infrastructure investments. Shared parking can also play a vital role in providing more parking, more flexibly, and less of it. Shared parking relies on property owners with varying needs
TO C K
sharing parking resources. The mechanism leverages complementary land uses’ variations in times of peak demand in parking usage, allowing different users to share the same parking spaces. For instance, an office building, which primarily requires parking spaces during business hours, can share parking facilities with residential buildings, which typically need to provide most of their parking during evenings and weekends. Private buildings can also open up their parking to the public during off hours, providing needed supply and eliminating the need to build more public parking. A successful transit system can be an important factor in a city’s ability to remove parking requirements. The benefits move in both directions, though, because parking management can generate revenue to fund mobility options, such as transit, bicycle, and pedestrian infrastructure, further reducing the need for parking minimums. For example, parking revenues in San Francisco and Portland, Ore., fund transit service. Good pedestrian infrastructure can also effectively increase the parking supply by making it easier to walk to more destinations from existing parking facilities. In the long run, using parking funds for other modes of transportation is likely to help reduce the amount of parking a community needs.
While eliminating parking minimums provides cities and developers much more flexibility, it’s important to make these decisions in an informed manner. Understanding how much parking is needed by a development, neighborhood, or entire city requires up-to-date market data and analysis. There are a number of ways to get this data. While old-fashioned parking studies that manually count utilization during key days and times are the most
tried and true, the data must be applied with city-wide goals and the future of travel in mind. Modern technology also can help with this process. Several popular technologies, including parking guidance systems and frictionless parking suites combining access and revenue control, license plate recognition, and automatic vehicle identification, can be set up to keep a running count of parking facility occupancy rates. This data can be combined with the data produced by the parking study to help determine a reasonable number of spaces for a particular site. Cities as different as Davis, Calif., and Houston, Texas, are using these technologies to better manage and gain efficiencies in their existing parking before making costly or unnecessary new investments. These same technologies, working independently or in conjunction with cellphone apps, can provide real-time availability information that can be used to improve performance to maximize existing land uses dedicated to parking.
A final consideration when removing parking minimums is public perception. People are generally inclined to think that parking resources are inadequate, so when they see that minimums are being eliminated, they become concerned. They assume it will be more difficult to find parking or that they’ll need to walk farther from their parked vehicles to their ultimate destinations. When implementing new policies like this, it’s essential to communicate clearly and widely what the new policy is, what it means for the community, and how it will or will not affect people’s lives, highlighting the overall benefits to the community. Transparency generally assuages concerns before they have a chance to get out of hand. Reducing or eliminating parking minimums, combined with parking management strategies, supports a less automobile-centric place by reducing the amount of unnecessary private parking. This preserves the scale and quality of existing urban design, frees up land for housing and reduces housing costs, and provides flexibility for businesses to meet parking requirements. CHRISSY MANCINI NICHOLS is a planner
and policy expert with Walker Consultants. She can be reached at cmancini@ walkerconsultants.com.
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and Mobility IPMI committees work on projects, initiatives, and research.
PMI COMMITTEE MEMBERS are the heart of the association’s initiatives and programs, offering research, expertise, and their time to make projects successful and advance the profession. From awards programs to working to reduce accessible parking abuse, their volunteer efforts make a huge difference to both the industry and IPMI. Here, we present a short summary of the work they’ve undertaken so far this year. Interested in getting involved? A call for volunteers will go out in August—keep your eyes peeled for your chance to join one or more committees! Accessible Parking Coalition Advisory Council Board Liaison: Gary Means, CAPP The Accessible Parking Coalition (APC) Advisory Council operates somewhat differently from an IPMI committee in that small groups of subject matter
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experts are assigned to specific tasks to be accomplished within a three- to four-month period. APC Advisory Council tasks will directly relate to the Board-approved 2019 APC Communications Blueprint. This year, assigned groups will research and develop an industry best practices guide to eliminating
E TOCK / CO LORLIF SHUTTERS
placard abuse and addressing issues related to making parking more accessible, produce a consumer do’s and don’ts about accessible parking, host an IPMI webinar (the recording is available at parking-mobility.org/ webinars), create topic visibility at the IPMI Conference & Expo, craft messages for a national publicity campaign, and review proposed exemptions to U.S. Access Board regulations, among other projects. Later in the year, we’ll lay the groundwork for an online training course to be released in 2020. Visit the APC website at accessibleparkingcoalition.org, list your organization as a friend, and share resources. Would you like to be part of the APC Advisory Council? Email Helen Sullivan at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Awards of Excellence Committee Chair: Tope Longe The Awards of Excellence (AOE) Committee evaluates entries in the AOE Program in seven distinct categories; award winners will be recognized at the 2019 IPMI Conference & Expo in Anaheim, Calif. The committee completed the difficult task of evaluating entries in this competition and looks forward to honoring these projects in June during the General Session on Wednesday, June 12. The committee also reviewed and updated the awards criteria to integrate aspects of both transportation and mobility throughout the categories. This included the creation of a new category: Mixed- or MultiUse Garage or Transportation Facility. This category signifies an important distinction between stand-alone THE PARKING PROFESSIONAL | MAY 2019 | PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG 45
garages and mixed-use facilities that incorporate at least one other major building type, including residential, office, retail, and more. The committee also broadened the scope of the Innovation Category to include transportation and mobility programs in addition to parking programs. Along with these updates, the committee updated the criteria to reflect trends in smart cities, technology, sustainability, and more. Do you know of an amazing project that should be entered in the Awards of Excellence competition? Drop us a note at email@example.com and we will send you all the details when the awards open again this fall.
Committee to Advance Parking & Mobility (formerly Parking Matters®) Co-chairs: Mike Estey and Vanessa Solesbee, CAPP Members have created a road show presentation, “How to Sell Your Role in the Revolution: Why Parking & Mobility Matter Now More Than Ever,” to be presented at the 2019 IPMI Conference & Expo, at state and regional parking meetings, and at related industry conferences. Work is also underway to generate publicity about the value of parking and mobility expertise in several trade publications, including those covering real estate, building and construction, universities, municipalities, airports, and sustainability/green building. A priority project in 2019 will be development of the 2020 Emerging Trends in Parking and Mobility Survey. Do you know of a forum, state, regional, or chapter meeting where our road show can be presented? Ideas for articles in magazines? Suggestions for questions on the 2020 Trends Survey? Email Helen Sullivan at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Education Development Committee Co-Chairs: Josh Cantor and Tom Wunk, CAPP The Education Development Committee (EDC) is responsible for generating valuable, relevant, and timely education for IPMI members across a variety of
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platforms, including online, on-demand, and instructor-led courses. The committee has launched two new courses in 2019: the Off-Street Parking course and the Parksmart Series modules 1–4. The Parksmart Series education modules offer participants “micro-learning,” which dives into the elements in the Parksmart Certification Standard. These courses meet U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) requirements for Parksmart education as part of our strategic partnership. The committee is working on creating an Introduction to the Parking & Mobility e-learning course. The EDC creates micro-learning education monthly as part of the Moving Forward professional development newsletter. Also new this year, look for the updated CAPP Resource Guide; this document guides CAPP candidates through available resources as they pursue the career-changing certification. Invest today in your professional development. Download micro-learning segments at parking-mobility.org/education.
Membership & Community Building Committee Co-Chairs: Mark Lyons, CAPP, and Lynne Lancaster, CAPP Committee members are invited to blog on a regular basis and continue to be engaged in the Forum online member community. Committee members reach out with a welcome call or email to all new IPMI members. Members will help staff the Community Center at the 2019 IPMI Conference & Expo, taking shifts throughout Expo hall hours. Members will also attend and facilitate the First-Timer Orientation. We are using our new, rebranded IPMI member brochure as a new-member recruitment tool, welcome kit for new members, and reminder to current members of all the programs and activities IPMI is engaged in that serve to benefit members. Download your copy at parking-mobility.org/membership.
Parking Research Committee Co-Chairs: Bridgette Brady, CAPP, and Brett Wood, CAPP, PE The Parking Research Committee continues to take a deeper dive into trends that affect the parking, transportation, and mobility industry. Committee members volunteer to offer short presentations or information sessions of their choice and facilitate discussion throughout the year on these topics; to date, the committee has tackled best practices and policies for electric vehicles, key performance indicators (KPIs) and benchmarking, the WELL building standard, 5G,
Vision Zero initiatives, and automated parking. Members write throughout the year for the Mobility & Tech column in The Parking Professional. In addition, the committee is generating an At-A-Glance document on best practices in curb management to be shared in conjunction with a new presentation by the IPMI Parking Technology Committee. The committee has just launched the Parking Data Analytics survey designed to benchmark the industry, providing valuable KPIs. This time it will offer a supplier survey. The committee has also reviewed and provided subject matter expertise on the Accredited Parking Organization (APO) matrix. Want to know more? Check out the previous Parking Data Analytics at parking-mobility.org/kpis.
Parking Technology Committee Co-Chairs: Mike Drow, CAPP, and Blake Laufer, CAPP The Parking Technology Committee has prepared the tenth in the series of presentations on technology and curb management. The presentation was offered as a webinar in February and will be shared live at the 2019 IPMI Conference & Expo. Developed to educate members and address cutting-edge topics that affect parking, transportation, and mobility professionals,
this presentation will be offered to all state and regional associations through spring 2020. In addition, the committee provided a feature article on the topic in this issue of The Parking Professional. The committee is focused on generating valuable, technology-related content through the IPMI Blog as well as the Mobility & Tech column in the magazine. The committee provides review and feedback on the Alliance for Parking Data Standards on an ongoing basis. Their subject matter expertise has proved to be critical to the development of the standard. The committee has also reviewed and provided subject matter expertise on the Accredited Parking Organization (APO) matrix. Check out the curb management webinar (as well as many others) at parking-mobility.org/webinars.
Planning, Design & Construction (PDC) Committee Co-Chairs: Jim Anderson and John Bushman, PE The Planning, Design, & Construction Committee includes experts in planning, design, and construction from all industry segments, including public and academic sectors as well as commercial operations. Members contribute to the Mobility & Tech column and post regularly on Forum and the IPMI Blog to
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educate industry professionals and raise awareness of issues related to planning, design, and construction. The committee provides valuable feedback on the codes and standards (including the International Building Code), Alliance for Parking Data Standards, Parksmart, and the Accredited Parking Organization program. The committee is finalizing a new at-aglance piece for the Resource Center at parking-mobility.org on shared parking and will provide subject matter expertise on the Accredited Parking Organization matrix this spring. Do you have an issue you would like to propose for discussion by the committee? Email email@example.com.
Professional Recognition Committee Co-Chairs: Maria Irshad, CAPP, and Allen Corry, CAPP The Professional Recognition Committee evaluates entries in the Professional Recognition Program (PRP) in categories that include Organization of the Year, Parking Professional of the Year, Emerging Leader of the Year, and more. Awardees will be recognized at the 2019 IPMI Conference & Expo in Anaheim, Calif. The committee completed the difficult task of evaluating entries in this competition and looks forward to honoring our best and brightest in June during the General Session on Wednesday, June 12. The committee reviewed all categories during 2018 to make revisions and updates with the ongoing shift toward transportation and mobility and updated the PRP categories accordingly. Do you know of a parking, transportation, or mobility professional or organization that deserves this outstanding recognition? Email us at firstname.lastname@example.org, and we will reach out when the awards open again in fall 2019.
Safety & Security Committee Co-Chairs: Robert Milner, CAPP, and Victor Hill, CAPP, MPA The Safety & Security Committee has focused on key subject areas, including frontline safety and emergency preparedness. Projects include a feature article on frontline safety. Be on the lookout for an updated Emergency Preparedness Manual as well. The committee will also provide subject matter expertise on the Accredited Parking Organization matrix. Download the Emergency Prepardness Manual and more at parking-mobility.org/resource-center.
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State and Regional Association (SRA) Committee Co-Chairs: Larry Cohen, CAPP, and Rob Maroney, CAPP The SRA Committee is comprised of volunteers from SRA boards and volunteers who serve in a liaison role. The committee’s goal is to support and encourage communication among IPMI and all the SRAs. The committee conducts monthly updates and focused discussion to share successes, best practices, and challenges, with the intent to elevate each organization. The committee provides monthly State & Regional Spotlight columns in The Parking Professional, sharing what’s happening around the country in our industry. The committee recently hosted the next installment in the TME (Thirty Minutes of Education) series on marketing and member engagement. These quick-hitting, educational sessions provide best practices and useful information on topics of interest to the SRAs, including marketing membership, designing sponsorships, and developing content and branding. Want to know more? Check out all the SRA happenings on the online events calendar at parking-mobility.org/calendar.
Sustainability Committee Co-Chairs: Brian Shaw, CAPP, and Josh Naramore The Sustainability Committee engages in a number of continuous projects that include Parksmart and generating new content to inform and educate members through a variety of platforms. The committee writes the monthly Green Standard column in The Parking Professional and provides an annual, week-long blog series around Earth Day in April. The committee supports Parksmart and initiatives related to Parksmart and LEED. Its presentation on adaptive reuse has been selected for the 2019 IPMI Conference & Expo. December’s issue of the magazine drills down on numerous sustainability topics, including the WELL building standard and case studies provided by IPMI members. Next up, the committee will take the materials from that issue to develop a new online educational offering for the USGBC strategic partnership. The committee has provided subject matter expertise on the Accredited Parking Organization matrix to support the next version of the program. Download the new At-A-Glance handout on Transportation Demand Management from parking-mobility.org/resource-center.
Highlights from the IPMI Blog
PARKING THE FRIENDLY SKIES: HOW AIRPORTS ARE HUMANIZING THE PASSENGER EXPERIENCE By Michelle Wendler and Michael Pendergrass
Whether it’s parking, renting a car, or finding a ride-share, air travel begins and ends with ground transportation. So how can parking design mitigate stress and create a smoother, more enjoyable experience? Functional design such as reducing congestion to creating a streamlined car rental process or revamping parking layouts to accommodate for ride-sharing pick up and drop off can have a significant effect on the passenger experience by making it easier for travelers to get where they need to be. Technology that allows users to reserve parking spaces in advance facilitates faster entry and exit and takes the stress out of finding a space by pointing users directly there, not only make parking more sustainable by reducing emissions, but also creating a smoother, more efficient experience. In addition to convenience, elements such as public art, pedestrian gateways, and scenic views provide a means for travelers to relax, take a deep breath, and get to know the places they’re visiting. Want to learn more? At this year’s IPMI Conference & Expo, we will be part of an exciting panel featuring Bob Bolton, director of airport design and construction, San Diego International; and Bob Lockhart, deputy director of operations, Mineta San Jose International. Discover how they have used customer-first airport parking to enhance and extend the passenger experience. MICHELLE WENDLER is principal and MICHAEL PENDERGRASS
is associate principal with Watry Design, Inc. They will present on this topic at the 2019 IPMI Conference & Expo, June 9-12 in Anaheim, Calif.
Ready for more? Read IPMI’s blog every business day in your daily Forum digest email (10 a.m. Eastern) or at parking-mobility.org/blog. Have something to say? Send post submissions to editor Kim Fernandez at email@example.com.
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ESSENTIAL SERVICES: PARKING ENFORCEMENT IN THE NEW WORLD By Shawn McCormick
Parking enforcement is taking on many new functions not considered five or 10 years ago: the increase of transportation network companies (TNCs) in urban and suburban areas, homelessness, e-scooters, e-bikes, the what’s-next mobility option, event management, and traffic management to name a few. Maintaining relevance in the workforce requires parking enforcement professionals to explore additional opportunities to remain relevant. During a session at the 2019 IPMI Conference & Expo, we will explore tools and methods to deal with these new challenges from a parking enforcement officer’s perspective: ●● Officer safety strategies while enforcing and managing traffic. ●● Maintaining focus on the mission and goal of parking enforcement services. ●● Managing priorities while improving services and opportunities as new mobility options present themselves. Adjusting to enforcement options that are outside the job title currently applied to parking enforcement officers can be frustrating and challenging. Staying relevant as the world around us changes or prepares to change soon is imperative to job sustainability. SHAWN MCCORMICK is director, parking enforcement and traffic, sustainable streets division, San Francisco Municipal
Transportation Agency. He will present on this topic at the 2019 IPMI Conference & Expo, June 9-12 in Anaheim, Calif.
TRANSPORTATION KEY TO COSTA RICA’S GREEN NEW DEAL By Paul Wessel
Costa Rica wants to be the little country that could by becoming fossil-fuel-free by 2050. Its greatest challenge? Transportation. Transportation is the largest single source of Costa Rica’s greenhouse gas emissions. The number of cars and motorcycles on the roads is growing fast, according to a survey by nongovernmental group State of the Nation. The average car in the country is 17 years old. Congestion is a huge problem; morning traffic in the San José metropolitan area moves at an average of less than 10 miles per hour. Afternoons are worse. So we learn in the New York Times: Tiny Costa Rica Has a Green New Deal, Too. It Matters for the Whole Planet: Revamping transportation is expensive and so it will require tackling things that have little direct connection to climate change — fixing the country’s fiscal health, for one, to be able to secure big foreign loans to fund such an ambitious project, and lowering unemployment, which is a pressing political demand. It also means addressing the aspirations of its upwardly mobile people. The story goes on to describe the two-hour commute ordeal of a furniture company manager. Her goal to improve her quality of life? Save up enough to buy a used Suzuki subcompact. It’s worth reading the full story, enjoy the wonderful photos, and chuckle at the first-world zinger at the very end. PAUL WESSEL is director, market development at the U.S. Green Building Council.
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The must-attend event for parking, transportation, and mobility professionals
IPMI IN ACTION | 2019 IPMI CONFERENCE
Catching Up, Reaching Out, and Giving Back By Michelle W. Jones, CMP
T THIS YEAR’S IPMI CONFERENCE & EXPO , there will be no shortage of opportunities to catch up, reach out, and give back. Whether you’re looking to reminisce with old friends, make new professional connections, or give a few minutes of your time to thank those who serve, you can do it all (and more!) in Anaheim, Calif., in June.
You will still find Conference staples you have come to expect and enjoy. On Sunday morning, the annual William Voigt CAPP Classic Golf Tournament will take place at the Tustin Ranch Golf Club, bringing together more than 100 golfers to have fun while raising money for a worthy cause. Sunday afternoon, Shoptalks will provide you the opportunity to discuss current issues with members from the same sector. And we will offer facility tours, courtesy of our local Host Committee. Are you new to IPMI? Monday morning we invite you to attend the First Timers’ Breakfast Bootcamp. Use this event to make a new friend and learn how to navigate the IPMI Conference & Expo like a veteran.
Of course we always have new activities! Sunday morning we will offer the SoCal Course & Climb Challenge. Climb the rock wall, or navigate the giant inflatable obstacle course. This activity combines fitness and fun. Sunday night you won’t want to miss the opening welcome event—The Light the Night Block Party is unlike any IPMI event you’ve attended. The unique venue, food, and entertainment will light up the night and awaken your senses. Tuesday evening we encourage you to join us for a night of baseball and networking as the Anaheim Angels
take on the Los Angeles Dodgers. Take me out to the ball game! It’s sure to be fun night.
In the spirit of giving, we have teamed up with Operation Gratitude, an organization dedicated to thanking those who serve our nation, including troops, veterans, recruits, first responders, etc. We invite you to spend just a few moments—perhaps between education sessions—to assemble small care kits that will become part of larger care packages for these heroes. We’ll have a counter set up to do this on Sunday, Monday, and Tuesday. Your hands-on effort will surely brighten someone’s day. In addition to the nearly 60 education sessions—including Game Changers—and the world-famous Expo, there is no shortage of activities and events to keep you engaged, connected, and energized during the IPMI 2019 Annual Conference & Expo. *Note: Some events require pre-registration and/or separate fees. Visit IPIConference.parking.org to sign up. MICHELLE W. JONES, CMP, is IPMI’s director of
convention and meeting services. She can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
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YOU COULD SPEND HOURS SEARCHING THE INTERNET FOR PRODUCTS & SERVICES ...
Or you could save valuable time by accessing the brand new IPMI ONLINE BUYERS GUIDE, the industry’s most robust directory for products and services including consultants and commercial operators. Easy-to-use navigation allows you to search by keywords, product category or company name. Plus see the latest articles and press releases from industry suppliers. IPMIOnlinebuyersguide.com Industry suppliers can showcase their company information and products annually and feel confident they are reaching targeted audiences through IPMI’s global community.
Interested in Advertising? Email us at IPMI@IndustryVantage.com.
STATE AND REGIONAL SPOTLIGHT | PARKING AND TRANSPORTATION ASSOCIATION OF GEORGIA
A New Name, a Redefined Mission By Adele Clements
REAKING NEWS! The Parking Association of Georgia has redefined its mission and is now known as PTAG—the Parking and Transportation Association of Georgia. Traditional parking-centric organizations no longer meet all the needs of our member institutions, agencies, universities, and business partners. Parking, transit, and mobility have converged, and one cannot be separated from the other. Just as IPI rebranded to IPMI last year, PTAG recognizes that the future of parking is mobility and that the future of transit and mobility requires parking operational planning and strategies.
Conferences and Events
PTAG has conducted transit-focused sessions and roundtable discussions at our annual conference for the past four years. Our 2017 Fall Symposium focused on smart cities and included experts on intelligent transportation systems, parking data, and sustainability. Most recently at our 2018 Annual Conference, the board of directors proposed to the membership that the organization rebrand and add mobility to the mission. The vote was unanimous,
and PTAG was born. PTAG amended the bylaws to include an official transportation committee, named a chair, and staffed the committee with willing and ambitious volunteers. Just as IPMI recognizes the dependencies of transportation and parking, our association recognizes the future of mobility as a shared vision for the parking and transportation industry. We’re looking forward to sharing new ideas and challenging our members to redefine how we think of parking at our agencies and institutions. The PTAG 2019 Conference & Expo was held April 23-26 at the Lodge at Callaway Gardens in beautiful Pine Mountain, Ga. Presentation abstracts from industry veterans and subject matter experts were submitted at a record pace. The quality and breadth of content helped make this year’s event one of the most comprehensive and informative conferences the organization has ever held. ADELE CLEMENTS is
senior director, transportation, parking, and fleet services, with Emory University in Atlanta, Ga. She can be reached at adele. email@example.com.
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BOARD OF DIRECTORS AND COMMITTEE CHAIRS PRESIDENT Adele Clements Emory University PAST PRESIDENT Diane Hale Georgia Building Authority VICE PRESIDENT Mike Martindill TimHaahs TREASURER Brett Munkel, CAPP SP+ SECRETARY Jeffrey Smith Kimley-Horn AT-LARGE MEMBER Sam Tupman ITR
AT-LARGE MEMBER, EDUCATION CHAIR Glenn Kurtz Georgia Institute of Technology CONFERENCE CHAIR Becky Smyth City of Rome TECHNOLOGY CHAIR Paul Reeves Emory University TRANSPORTATION CHAIR Mitch Skyer Passio Technologies MARKETING CHAIR Brooke Feldman Parkmobile AWARDS CHAIR David Santa Ana Augusta University
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Around the Industry ParkCloud Brings Sata Azores Airlines Partnership into Land ONE OF PORTUGAL’S LEADING AIRLINES, Sata Azores Airlines, is the latest international carrier to choose ParkCloud to market its parking services online for its global network of passengers. As the European leader in its field with an excess of 22 airline collaborations, ParkCloud is well-situated in the market to support Sata Azores Airlines’ ancillary product expansion, with its extensive car park inventory currently spanning 42 countries worldwide. Through a newly developed co-branded website, airline passengers will be able to browse and book a range of parking products to complement their flight booking at 295 car parks in 41 locations across Europe, Canada, and the U.S. Customers will also be able to compare individual car park features, prices, and consumer reviews via the platform’s intuitive search engine capabilities. In addition to the expertise ParkCloud employs to boost the
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visibility of its partners’ parking offers, the reservation specialist also provides customer service support, enabling fluidity at every stage for a growing network of customers looking for simple yet reliable online booking services. ParkCloud Brand Partnership Manager Nicola Pilling says, “With intelligent travel solutions advancing all the time, collaborations such as our recent agreement with Sata Azores Airlines demonstrate how likeminded companies are planning for flexibility in terms of the availability and reach of desired services. “Helping to bring the itineraries of passengers full-circle dovetails perfectly with ParkCloud’s ongoing commitment to streamlining the parking process in order to create a more personalized approach to the overall travel experience.” Centrally situated from headquarters in São Sebastião, Ponta Delgada, Sata Azores Airlines also operates nine domestic routes throughout the Azores, as well as flying internationally.
ParkHub Announces $13 Million Series B Funding PARKHUB, a B2B parking technology provider, announced it has completed its series B financing. Led by Santa Monica-based Arrowroot Capital, a leading growth equity firm specializing in B2B software, the investment will enable ParkHub to continue development of its growing suite of software solutions for a wide array of event-based facilities and beyond. The funding is the first institutional capital for the company, validating the vision supported by Jerry Jones, Bruce Williams, and Van Taylor, among ParkHub’s angel investors. As part of the transaction, Kareem El Sawy, partner at Arrowroot Capital, will be joining the board. “We are thrilled to have gained Arrowroot’s investment and support,” says George Baker Sr., founder and CEO of ParkHub. “Over the past few years, our team has worked tirelessly to attract major accounts, form strategic partner-
ships, and refine our product offering while maturing as a service provider and company. This partnership will undoubtedly accelerate our growth, and we feel privileged to work closely with Arrowroot’s team of software experts.” “ParkHub has positioned itself squarely within the broader mobility
movement, seeing an attractive opportunity to build a platform that connects across transportation, commerce, asset management, and smart cities in general,” El Sawy says. “We are excited to partner with George and his team to scale their offerings and services in this evolving sector.” ParkHub’s subscription-based solutions help parking professionals improve
customer experience and drive revenue with streamlined operations and real-time insight. The company’s customers include premier professional sports teams and entertainment clients, and the technology integrates with major parking and ticketing providers, such as SpotHero, Parkmobile, ParkWhiz, Ticketmaster, and tickets.com. During the past year, ParkHub has made significant strides increasing its foothold and has more than doubled its client base. The company executed a multi-year agreement with Live Nation, expanded on a growing list of venue and university partners, and began to penetrate the state and national park verticals. In January 2019, ParkHub acquired the mobile point-of-sale division of SpotHero and formed a long-term partnership designed to improve the overall consumer parking experience.
SWARCO Celebrates 50th Birthday with Range of New Products SWARCO IS CELEBRATING ITS 50TH anniversary by bringing all of its portfolio of solutions together in one place for the first time in the U.K. and reflecting its mission to improve quality of life by making the travel experience safer, quicker, more convenient, and environmentally sound. Experts in parking systems, electric-vehicle (EV) charging solutions, signage and safety systems, and traffic control and management will be discussing how its solutions are meeting their clients’ objectives. There will be a particular focus on new product launches, notably around SWARCO’s VeriPark and APT Skidata parking solutions, including the new pay-by-phone offer. There will also be an opportunity to learn how the SWARCO eVolt EV chargers can integrate seamlessly
with its parking systems to deliver a complete parking and charging solution, as well as the chance to discover more about SWARCO E.CONNECT, a Europe-wide payment and networking solution for all EV-charging stations. On the same stand, SWARCO will also be showcasing its SignPost range of passively safe poles and non-illuminated bollards, as well as its latest signal heads, incorporating detection and air quality monitoring. SWARCO will also be exhibiting its intelligent traffic technology, including its remote monitoring solutions for warning signs (e.g., to warn against floods and other hazards), as well as Zephyr, its hosted sign and car park management system. These will be shown alongside SWARCO’s best-in-class full-color variable message signs.
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Around the Industry
WGI Welcomes New Mobility and Smart City Innovator Expert Lisa Nisenson WGI CEO David Wantman proudly announced that national thought leader Lisa Nisenson joined the firm as vice president of new mobility and connected communities. This addition to the team solidifies WGI’s leadership in helping communities harness the benefits of emerging mobility options and smart/ connected city technology. “Lisa is a national leader in emerging planning technologies and innovations— from green infrastructure to transit-oriented development. Her background in sustainable community design further
confirms WGI’s commitment to successful placemaking that is supported by smart-city technology and emerging transportation options such as shareduse mobility and autonomous vehicles. Adding this resource to WGI is part of our strategic plan,” says Michael Davis, WGI senior vice president and chief strategy officer. Nisenson’s experience spans work in the private, nonprofit, and public sectors, including federal and local government agencies. At the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, she developed pioneering policy for sustainable community design, including guides and regulatory support for low-impact development and redevelopment. She brings a practical approach to helping clients through new planning methods, interactive public engagement, zoning code reform, and best practices that deliver multiple benefits. WGI clients are aware of both the potential, and challenges, associated with technology-related disruption and change. Nisenson helps demystify trends, engaging clients to develop both long-range scenarios and near-term road maps. This helps cities of all sizes incorporate new technology into existing planning efforts while anticipating potential and probable changes in transportation and land use. Nisenson serves on national workgroups creating new models for future-proofing planning, policy, and project design. She has conducted national training in smart-city technology, as well as courses on first-last mile access to transit and corridor planning. As a board member of the Consortium for Scenario Planning, she is developing sample
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scopes of work to help communities and clients easily procure next-generation planning models. She is also working on research projects to develop checklists for autonomous vehicle pilot projects through the Transportation Cooperative Research Board and the American Planning Association. “I have had the pleasure of working with Lisa through Smart City Works. She is an extraordinarily talented and visionary thinker. With her expertise, we will be able to help cities better plan and position for the future using technology to leverage efficiency and effectiveness,” says WGI President Greg Sauter. Nisenson will be working from WGI’s South Florida headquarters on the strategy team. In her role she will work with all WGI service lines, including transportation, planning, geospatial, and parking. She will work closely with WGI’s urban and community planning team and continue to provide thought leadership on emerging technology, sustainability, and resilient community design, helping clients get in front of rapid change.
FlashParking’s Enterprise Platform to Power Parkway Corporation’s Garage Portfolio Parkway and FlashParking announce the parking industry’s first enterprise-wide partnership through which FlashParking has become the exclusive parking technology provider for Parkway Corporation’s owned garage portfolio. By standardizing with FlashParking’s enterprise platform, Parkway will improve customer experience through consistent operations and analytics across its portfolio. The company will leverage FlashParking’s real-time, cloudbased intelligence to help ease urban congestion in its operational markets, positioning the companies as leaders in the transition to integrated, mobility-as-a-service technologies and services. During the next six months, FlashParking’s operations team will deploy hundreds of entry/exit and pay-on-foot kiosks to replace Parkway’s current PARCS equipment from legacy providers. FlashParking’s proven direct-installation model ensures that installations stay on schedule and budget while ensuring consistent quality and standardized on-boarding processes without disrupting operations. Within six months, Parkway’s leadership will have a 360-degree, real-time holistic view of all the company’s owned parking assets. Access to real-time metrics—such as supply, revenue, transactions, occupancy, and more—will allow the company to proactively make better operational decisions on both a site- and portfolio-wide level. Parkway will also capitalize on FlashParking’s future-ready system that can
expand and support new capabilities as technology and customer demands evolve. Parkway’s customers will experience a high-quality, frictionless parking experience with FlashParking’s FlashBeacon technology. “As a business who has the ability to influence urban mobility significantly, it was imperative for us to work with a technology partner that could help us innovate to solve the growing congestion issues facing urban populations,” says Robert Zuritsky, CEO of Parkway Corporation. “Partnering with FlashParking at an enterprise-level will allow cities, like our hometown of Philadelphia, to benefit from the real-time data and business intelligence that can help win the war on congestion.” “We are leading the transition to the future of parking, which is a key element in the urban mobility industry, a concept which Parkway’s CEO, Robert Zuritsky, keenly understands. Zuritsky’s strategic decision to engage in an enterprise-wide technology solution will help Parkway not only achieve significant cost-savings and efficiencies, but it will further position the company as a leader in the urban mobility landscape,” says Juan Rodriguez, CEO of FlashParking. “FlashParking and Parkway, two American companies, working together will deliver an ecosystem of future-ready mobility solutions that will evolve with technologies like driverless cars, ride-share services, and frictionless access to better serve urban communities.”
Allpro Parking CEO Richard Serra Receives Vistage Lifetime Achievement Award VISTAGE, a highly regarded executive coaching organization, awarded Allpro Parking CEO Richard Serra with the 2019 Vistage Lifetime Achievement Award in the Buffalo, N.Y., market. Vistage was founded 60 years ago and has grown tremendously by driving its members to outperform the competition. “I am honored to receive the Vistage Lifetime Achievement Award,” Serra says. “I have been a member for more than 10 years. They have helped me become a better leader and to learn from mistakes. I am a Vistage member for life.” Serra has learned a great amount about peer mentorship as a Vistage member and makes sure to share his wisdom with Allpro employees. He has prioritized employee development at Allpro through emotional intelligence and exemplifies what a mentor should be.
Around the Industry
Banc Of California Stadium Teams Up with ParkWhiz Los Angeles Football Club (LAFC) and Banc of California Stadium announced a partnership with ParkWhiz, allowing ticket holders to find, reserve, and pay for parking spaces in advance of attending stadium events. “We are committed to creating the best entertainment experience in Los Angeles,” says LAFC President and Co-owner Tom Penn. “We recognize that parking has been a challenge at Exposition Park and Banc of California Stadium, and we will continue to work together in implementing traffic and parking solutions for all our members and fans. We are excited that ParkWhiz provides the ability to make the LAFC experience even better.” The integration of ParkWhiz at Banc of California Stadium gives fans and supporters the opportunity to reserve a parking space in advance, streamlining the parking experience at Exposition Park. This improved parking system will help reduce congestion around each entrance, directing those with reserved parking to their exact parking lot entrances with a digital parking pass that will be displayed on smartphones for easy validation and scanned on ParkHub scanners.
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“We know parking is really a means to an end—the thing you need to do before watching the game,” says Dan Roarty, president and COO of Arrive, ParkWhiz’s parent company. “We are excited to partner with Banc of California Stadium and LAFC to help fans save time and effort, so that they can enjoy the match just a little bit more.” LAFC season-ticket members will be able to reserve season parking in advance for all 17 MLS home matches at a discounted rate of $25 per space per match or they may purchase parking in advance for individual matches at $35 per game. Guests may reserve parking through the LAFC mobile app, Ticketmaster, the ParkWhiz website and app, or the Banc of California Stadium website. “Partnering with ParkWhiz allows us to enhance the experience for our customers at Banc of California Stadium to ease the strain of finding a parking space before a game or event. This is a service our fans will not only find useful and convenient, but it will elevate their overall experience when attending events at the stadium,” says Steve Tadlock, executive vice president and general manager of Banc of California Stadium.
Paris Site Furnishings Introduces Animal-proof Receptacles PARIS SITE FURNISHINGS introduced innovative animal-proof waste or recycling containers. Constructed of galvanized steel, these durable receptacles will keep out raccoons, birds, squirrels, even bears, while dual streams allow for source separation of waste. The containers are available as model BPLR1—single, 32-gallon capacity units—or as BPLR2—doubles with 64-gallon capacity. Dual streams allow users to separate garbage from recycling, organics from plastics, or even pet waste from general waste. Paris Site Furnishings’ BPLR models are an ideal waste storage solution for golf courses, campgrounds, parks, apartments, communal sharing by a group of property owners, small businesses, fire departments, community centers or anywhere durable, wildlife-resistant waste containers are needed. These proven receptacles are available in a variety of standard colors, with a textured powder coat to offer style and durability. With a mounting system built into the bottom of the bin’s base, BPLR units can be mounted to an optional precast concrete pad. All Paris Site Furnishings products are manufactured in Princeton, Ontario, Canada, and available factory direct or
through distributors and dealers throughout North America. Paris Site Furnishings and Outdoor Fitness manufactures a broad range of aesthetically pleasing, comfortable, functional, and durable site furnishings. Their benches, waste and recycling receptacles, picnic tables, shade structures, planters, bollards, and bike racks are available in varied materials, including steel, hardwood, aluminum, and recycled plastic. In addition to standard products and designs, custom designs are available to suit any need. Whether custom or standard, Paris Site Furnishings create lasting impressions within parks, streetscapes, schools and universities, retail and corporate environments, public venues, transit facilities, sports venues, green spaces, and more. In addition to site furnishings, the company manufactures a full line of outdoor fitness equipment, providing a revolutionary way to exercise outdoors. All products are manufactured with a combination of modern technology and personal craftsmanship, using the finest materials and adhering to strict standards.
Moovit Partners with SpotHero Moovit, the leading mobility-as-a-service provider and urban mobility app, announced a partnership with SpotHero, a mobility platform for off-street parking. The partnership will make it even easier for Moovit users to drive, park, and ride public transit on their daily commutes using SpotHero’s network of parking facilities. The San Francisco Bay Area in California is the first market for the partnership. According to a survey of Moovit users in the suburbs of San Francisco; Los Angeles, Calif.; New York, N.Y.; and Washington, D.C., 58 percent of commuters who drive as part of their daily commute say they spend more than five minutes looking for parking. Of those same commuters, 73 percent say parking at transit stations is “frustrating.” The survey validates the observation that searching for parking in the first mile of a commute contributes to traffic jams in and around urban transit stations and demonstrates the need for a smart parking solution. Bay Area commuters using Moovit’s Trip Planner can find parking facilities nearest to their transit stations and plan a route to their final destination, eliminating the need to circle for parking. The solution is powered by SpotHero’s parking
mobility platform, which gives Moovit users access to the largest parking marketplace in North America. “Moovit is committed to simplifying urban mobility with our app as the one stop for all your stops, and we believe parking is a critical piece of the mobility puzzle,” says Moovit Chief Growth and Marketing Officer Yovav Meydad. “Commuters can help reduce congestion simply by parking at transit hubs and riding public transit for the last mile of their trip. SpotHero is an ideal partner for Moovit to help users drive, park, and ride, instead of bringing another car into congested city centers.” “Parking sits at the intersection of the biggest trends in urban mobility,” says Mark Lawrence, SpotHero CEO. “We are excited to partner with Moovit to help commuters who need parking en route to a public transit stop reduce stress, cut down commute times, and improve traffic flow around busy transit stations.” Together, SpotHero and Moovit are easing the burden of parking for multi-modal commuters, making streets less congested and cities more accessible. Following the San Francisco launch, Moovit will integrate SpotHero’s network of parking facilities across the United States.
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Around the Industry
Ficosa Turns 70, Leading the Race Toward the Automobile of the Future Ficosa, a top-tier global provider devoted to the research, development, manufacturing, and marketing of vision, safety, connectivity, and efficiency systems for the automotive sector, is celebrating its 70th anniversary with a firm commitment to new technology for more assisted driving, autonomous cars, connected cars, and e-mobility to lead the current transformation of the automobile. The history of Ficosa began in 1949 when Josep Pujol Sucarrats supported his son and current president of the company, José María Pujol, in founding a small workshop in Barcelona with José María Tarragó, called Pujol y Tarragó, which manufactured mechanical cables for the spare parts market. Over the following seven decades, a firm commitment to innovation and internationalization have made Ficosa a global benchmark in the automotive and mobility sector, with more than 10,500 employees in 19 countries in Europe, North and South America, Asia, and Africa. Javier Pujol, Ficosa CEO, says, “One of the keys to our success lies in our ability over the years to anticipate future changes, in conjunction with our clear commitment to innovation. This has led us to transform the company to get out ahead of changes, whether, for example, being pioneers in going beyond Spanish borders in the 1970s or diversifying our line of products to meet market needs. Likewise, the secret of our success can also be found in our philosophy of doing a lot with very little; our solid human values of humility, hard work, and entrepreneurship; and the great team that has made up this company at the various points throughout its history.” The new technological products
aimed at more assisted driving, autonomous cars, connected cars and e-mobility have become the pillars of Ficosa’s growth. In recent years, the company has implemented a significant plan for investment in new technology, which will be further bolstered with an additional 500 million euros over the next four years, in order to fuel its leadership in areas that are decisive for the automobile of the future. The company, which saw 1.28 billion euros in revenue in 2017 and invested nearly 8 percent of its sales in research and development, expects revenue from technology systems to go from 100 million euros to 800 million euros in the next five years. Ficosa has developed and manufactured the Audi e-Tron’s digital rear-view system, the first vehicle to market with this technology that is composed of cameras and screens instead of the conventional exterior mirrors. This project is a turning point in the technological transformation of the company and reaffirms its leadership in vision systems, marking a milestone in the automotive industry worldwide. In late 2018, Ficosa reaffirmed its commitment to electromobility by inaugurating its new e-Mobility Hub, a pioneering center in Spain and the world electric mobility technology. Located in
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Viladecavalls, Spain, (near Barcelona), it employs 120 engineers and will become a global benchmark laboratory in the development of electromobility systems for hybrid and electric vehicles. Pujol says, “As part of our DNA, Ficosa’s evolution has always been closely tied to the transformation of the automobile. Some years ago, we set our sights on technological products with high value added for the automobile and made a firm commitment to our transformation. The digital rear-view system and the new e-Mobility hub are clear examples that, once more in Ficosa’s history, we have known how to anticipate and make the right decision. We’ve come a long way in the past 70 years, but the race towards the car of the future is frenetic, which is why we are stepping on the accelerator to push innovation in the company and stay at the front of the pack.” The efforts to capitalize on innovations and the latest advances have also led to a significant growth of the engineering team focused on these new technological products, reaching a record number of more than 1,170 engineers worldwide. More than 700 of them work at the Technological Centre in Viladecavalls, the group’s most important engineering center, where 160 engineers were hired in 2017.
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Advertisers Index Aims Parking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 aimsparking.com 800.886.6316
International Parking Design, Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64 ipd-global.com 818.986.1494
Southland Printing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 southlandprinting.com 800.241.8662
CHANCE Management Advisors, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . .65 chancemanagement.com 215.564.6464
IPS Group Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C2 ipsgroupinc.com 858.404.0607
TIBA Parking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tibaparking.com 855.901.8883
Designa USA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 designausa.com 888.262.9706
Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . .25, 64 kimley-horn.com/parking 919.653.6646
Timothy Haahs & Associates, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . .35, 65 timhaahs.com 484.342.0200
DESMAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64 desman.com 877.337.6260
Leonardo/ELSAG LPR Solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 leonardocompany-us.com 877.773.5724
TNR Industrial Doors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 tnrdoors.com 705.792.9968
Ecocruise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 ecocruise.com 206.979.6255
Meypar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 meypar-usa.com 281.404.1667
Toledo Ticket. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C4 toledoticket.com 800.533.6620
Flexpost. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 flexpostinc.com 888.307.6610
PayByPhone Technologies, Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C3 paybyphone.com 877.610.2054
Walker Consultants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 walkerconsultants.com 80 0.860.1579
Flowbird. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 flowbird.group 800.732.6868
Rich & Associates, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64 richassoc.com 248.353.5080
Walter P Moore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 walterpmoore.com 800.364.7300
Hörmann High Performance Doors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 hormann-flexon.com 800.365.3667
Scheidt & Bachmann. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 scheidt-bachmann-usa.com/en 781.272.1664
WGI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 WGInc.com 866.909.2220
Knowledge is Power. Shared Knowledge is…
MAGIC The Parking Professional is IPMI’s award-winning monthly magazine, featuring articles and insights from industry experts on the latest in technology, design, and management. If your company is an IPMI member, your entire staff receives a digital subscription. Read now at parking-mobility.org.
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Watch Your Assets! How to Monetize Most Effectively IPMI Webinar parking-mobility.org/webinars
Pennsylvania Parking Association Spring Conference & Tradeshow Philadelphia, Pa. paparking.org
Shared Mobility and Technologies’ Effects on Parking Design and Curbside Management IPMI Webinar parking-mobility.org/webinars
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII SEPTEMBER 18
To Email, Text or Meet? That is the Perpetual Question! IPMI Webinar parking-mobility.org/webinars
2019 IPMI Conference & Expo Anaheim, Calif. ipiconference.parking.org
Southwest Parking and Transportation Association Fall Conference Las Vegas, Nev. southwestparking.org
SEPTEMBER 29–OCTOBER 2
Parksmart Advisor Online, Instructor-Led Training begins parking-mobility.org/parksmart
Pacific Intermountain Parking & Transportation Association 2019 Conference & Expo Boise, Idaho pipta.org
How to Cater Excellent Customer Service on a Multi-building Property by Maximizing Shuttle Routes IPMI Webinar parking-mobility.org/webinars
Campus Parking and Transportation Association University of Missouri, Columbia cptaonline.org
Abrapark International Conference Sao Paulo, Brazil abrapark.com/br
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII NOVEMBER 16
Transportation Network Companies: The Uber/Lyft Effect at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport IPMI Webinar parking-mobility.org/webinar
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII DECEMBER 2–6
Florida Parking and Transportation Association Conference & Tradeshow Clearwater Beach, Fla. flapta.org
Campus Cruzin’: Everything You Need to Know to Operate a Successful Scooter and University Partnership IPMI Webinar parking-mobility.org/webinars
OCTOBER 3 –4
IPMI Leadership Summit Pittsburgh, Pa. parking-mobility.org/100
Parksmart Advisor — Online, Instructor-Led Training begins parking-mobility.org/parksmart
Parking Association of the Virginias 2019 Annual Fall Workshop and Tradeshow Williamsburg, Va. pavonline.org
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. PARKING -MOBILITY. ORG
In Case You Missed It... ON THE BLOG ➚➚Robotics: The Future of Parking or Future Nightmare? By David Feehan. ➚➚Debunking Common HR Myths. By Andi Campbell. ➚➚Follow the Leader. By Tiffany Smith. ➚➚The Fundamentals of Wayfinding. By John Hammerschlag. ➚➚Carbon Fiber Brings Heat to Concrete Pavement. By L. Dennis Burns, CAPP these and more (and submit your own posts) at parking-mobility.org/blog and in your daily ➚➚Read Forum email. AT THE FORUM ➚➚Level 1 EV charging? ➚➚Pre-tax parking benefit. ➚➚Parking enforcement of 18-wheelers. ➚➚LPR data retention and storage. ➚➚APO brings recognition. your own questions, offer your expertise, and network with colleagues from around the world at ➚➚Ask forum.parking-mobility.org. ON THE #IPMI2019 WEBSITE ➚➚2019 IPMI Conference & Expo full schedule of events. ➚➚Register for TransportationCamp with IPMI and Mobility Lab—only 100 seats! ➚➚Tours, golf tournament, and opening event. ➚➚Schedule your education sessions. ➚➚Learn about autonomous vehicle guru Lawrence Burns, PhD.—our keynote speaker. ➚➚Interactive Expo Hall map and list of exhibitors. ➚➚Attendance justification toolkit ➚➚Don’t miss it. IPIConference.parking.org All from your desk, on your time, at parking-mobility.org. 68 THE PARKING PROFESSIONAL | MAY 2019 | PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG
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MAY 2019 The Parking Professional ● CURBSIDE MANAGEMENT ● ADAPTIVE RE-USE ● ARE PARKING MINIMUMS DONE? ● IPMI COMMITTEES ADVANCE THE INDUSTRY