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Early Retirement Considerations




New Pricing Model Trends


New System in Abu Dhabi


Preparing for Driverless Cars


Parking Lessons on the Fly




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WAYFINDING JANUARY 2017 | Volume 33 | Number 1


Lessons on the Fly


Managing the conflicting priorities of parking management.

Developing parking managers and teaching kids to fly fish: They’re the same thing.


An Early Out? Not so Fast


How to evaluate an early retirement offer and see if it’s the right move for you.


Profitable Pricing

How new trends in pricing models can benefit the parking industry.



A New System for Abu Dhabi

IPI’s 2016 Year in Review 16 highlights from 2016 that celebrate IPI and its members.


Ditching Drivers What parking professionals need to know now to prepare for a new world of driverless cars.

Editor’s Note


4 Entrance 6 Five Things 8 Consultants Corner 1 0 The Green Standard 1 2 The Business of Parking 1 4 On the Frontline 1 6 Parking Spotlight 1 8 IPI Ask the Experts 4 8 IPI in Action 50 State & Regional Spotlight 5 3 Community Digest 5 9 New and Renewing IPI Members 6 0 Parking Consultants 6 2 Advertisers Index 6 2 Parking Break 6 3 Calendar of Events



’m just going to come out and say it: This month’s cover story is one of my all-time favorites. Daniel Fortinberry, CAPP, has pulled together his love of fly fishing, his feelings of success and challenge being a parent, and his commitment to the parking profession in one amazing piece, and I’m thrilled he wanted to publish it in The Parking Professional. I hope you’ll take some time to settle in and enjoy his words and his gorgeous photos—they’re a treat. Also up this month are several stories designed to help you with the bottom line, both your own and your operation’s. From a feature about early retirement and the considerations to ponder before leaping at an offer to two stories about the best ways to price parking for the greatest results, this issue is chock-full of great advice and firsthand experience that can benefit your company. It’s January, which means New Year’s resolutions are at hand. If one of yours is to keep your finger on the pulse of the industry a little bit more, I have just the thing. Visit parking.org/blog and enter your email into the “subscribe” box for your free subscription to IPI’s daily blog. It’s short, quick, and valuable, with insights every business day from the industry’s leading experts combined with news, trends, and insider information you can only get from IPI—the world’s leading and largest parking association. It’s the perfect way to start your year and a great accompaniment to your morning coffee every day. (I also hope you’ll put a few words together and submit your own posts to us—that’s quick and easy too!). Happy new year to all my friends in the parking industry. We’re looking forward to a terrific 2017! As always, I want to hear from you—shoot me a note at the email address below. Until next month…





ENTRANCE Publisher Shawn Conrad, CAE conrad@parking.org Editor Kim Fernandez fernandez@parking.org Contributing Editor Bill Smith, APR bsmith@smith-phillips.com Technical Editor Rachel Yoka, CAPP, LEED AP BD+C yoka@parking.org Advertising Sales Bonnie Watts, CEM watts@parking.org Subscriptions Tina Altman taltman@parking.org. Graphic Design BonoTom Studio info@bonotom.com Proofreader Melanie Padgett Powers For advertising information, contact Bonnie Watts at watts@parking.org or 571.699.3011. For subscription changes, contact Tina Altman, taltman@parking.org. The Parking Professional (ISSN 0896-2324 & USPS 001436) is published monthly by the International Parking Institute. 1330 Braddock Place, Suite 350 Alexandria, VA 22314 Phone: 571.699.3011 Fax: 703.566.2267 Email: ipi@parking.org Website: parking.org Postmaster note: Send address label changes promptly to: The Parking Professional 1330 Braddock Place, Suite 350 Alexandria, VA 22314 Interactive electronic version of The Parking Professional for members and subscribers only at parking.org/tpp. Periodical postage paid at Alexandria, Va., and additional mailing offices. Copyright © International Parking Institute, 2017. Statements of fact and opinion expressed in articles contained in The Parking Professional are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent an official expression of policy or opinion on the part of officers or the members of IPI. Manuscripts, correspondence, articles, product releases, and all contributed materials are welcomed by The Parking Professional; however, publication is subject to editing, if deemed necessary to conform to standards of publication. The subscription rate is included in IPI annual dues. Subscription rate for non-members of IPI is $120 per year (U.S. currency) in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. All other countries, $150. Back issues, $10. The Parking Professional is printed on 10 percent recycled paper and on paper from trees grown specifically for that purpose.



occasionally get asked how I got into the parking business, especially since I don’t own a car and try to avoid needing to drive. And where I live in San Francisco, good luck finding a parking space! My background is in city and regional planning with a focus in transit planning and operations. I cut my teeth setting up the transportation management associations (TMAs) in Atlanta that dedicate themselves to reducing single-occupancy driving. My job has always been to get people to not use parking. I usually say I started off doing transportation demand management (TDM) but parking is where the money is. I have learned over the years that parking and TDM can achieve great results when they’re managed together. And since IPI helped develop the Parksmart program and through the continuing efforts of the Sustainability Committee, incorporating TDM into a parking program has become an expected professional standard. That is no longer unusual or an outlier. Ensuring access to all modes of transportation and facilitating modal choice should be an expected feature of all our parking programs and services. It was great to see my former colleagues from my first job at the Atlanta Regional Commission, Glenn Kurtz and Peter Lange, last spring at the 2016 IPI Conference and Expo. The three of us have all gone from promoting TDM to managing parking and TDM. Maybe my background is not so unique after all. If anyone asks why I have stayed in parking for more than 16 years, I would have to say it’s the people. The people I work with and those I have met through IPI and other channels have been some of the best people I know. Maybe it’s because we have tough jobs and we have to deal with challenging people and issues. Maybe we take solace in one another, understanding what we all go through. Maybe it’s because our work can be isolating and misunderstood by the public, our customers, and even those to whom we report. I believe those us who end up in parking and choose to stay realize parking people are a special breed. Among my favorite parts of the IPI Conference every year are the Shoptalks that start off the conference. There is a never a lack of folks needing to ask questions and seek advice. And there are always others who can provide an experienced perspective, cautionary tale, or warning. Besides the Conference, the parking camaraderie is felt year-round with IPI’s committees. Consider joining one at the next opportunity and spread the parking love!




BRIAN SHAW, CAPP, is director of parking and transportation at Stanford University and a member of IPI’s board of directors. He can be reached at bshaw2@stanford.edu.




new year has started, but it’s not too early to plan for next holiday season. Parking organizations around the country did good deeds last month with food and toys for fines program that let drivers trade needed items for parking fine forgiveness. Here are five programs that caught our attention.


The granddaddy of all food-for-fines programs is in Lexington, Ky., where drivers can donate 10 cans of food to waive each parking violation they’d like to go away. The program routinely donates thousands of cans every year to a local food pantry, solidifying the Lexington Parking Authority’s place in the community and helping lots of families. Read about it at bit.ly/lexparkfood.




The University of Nebraska Omaha’s parking services division let naughty parkers trade toys or food for tickets last year during its Fill a Need, Fulfill a Ticket drive that ran through early December. Drivers had to donate toys or food equal to at least half the value of their parking fines to have those violations waived. Check it out: bit.ly/NebraskaToys.


The Texas Tech University Transportation and Parking Services first partnered with Toys for Tots 11 years ago. Drivers with university parking violations are invited to pay their fines with new, unwrapped toys that are equal to or greater than the value of their parking tickets. They’ve donated more than $18,000 worth of toys to needy children through the effort. Visit bit.ly/texastechtoys.


There are so many great programs out there, we couldn’t pick a single one for our fifth thing! Want to learn more and launch your own in 2017? Start at bit.ly/IPIfood. And if you have or launch a program, be sure to let IPI know so we can pass on to media—it’s a great local story. Email sullivan@parking.org with details.



Police officers in Fort Worth, Texas, spent a day handing out turkeys instead of tickets to drivers they pulled over for minor violations. The 25 frozen turkeys were donated to the police department, whose officials decided to use them for goodwill instead of their own dinners. Drivers were quite happily surprised by the gesture and the tasty birds. Visit bit.ly/fortworthturkeys.

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everal weeks ago, more than 20,000 architects, engineers, property owners, developers, and other sustainability professionals converged in Los Angeles for the annual Greenbuild conference and expo. Similar to our industry’s IPI Conference, Greenbuild presents an opportunity for professionals throughout the world to connect and learn with a focus on the latest in sustainable building design, construction, and operation. More than 600 exhibitors in attendance shared the latest about a broad range of technologies, including porous asphalt, hydrogen vehicles, solar panels, efficient lighting, and bicycle parking equipment. Sessions throughout the week touched every facet of the sustainability movement, highlighting everything from net-zero energy to health and well-being, to sustainable mobility to green cleaning.

Parking at the Center

TREVYR MEADE, LEED GA, is an associate with GBCI. He can be reached at tmeade@gbci.org.


Thanks to the hard work of many throughout our industry, parking took center stage at the Greenbuild event. The weeklong conference kicked off with a half-day training in Parksmart (formerly Green Garage Certification), the world’s only rating system designed to advance sustainable parking structure design and operation. “It was wonderful to see such excitement around green parking at the conference,” says Rachel Yoka, CAPP, LEED AP BD+C, IPI’s vice president of program development, who delivered the training. “We had a number of sustainability professionals from both the U.S. and abroad attend our training. They were eager to learn how to increase efficiencies and lower the environmental effects of garage design and operation.” The conference also included a celebration of the 2016 Lighting Energy Efficiency in Parking (LEEP) Campaign awards. “Through the LEEP Campaign we’ve recognized more than 550 million square feet of parking space for its transition to energy-efficient lighting,” says Paul Wessel, director of market development for the U.S. Green Building Council. “That represents $14 million in energy savings for participants annually. We enjoyed celebrating this success at Greenbuild with our 2016 award winners, including Kimco Realty, MGM Resorts, CBRE, and 13 others.” In addition to these events, a booth on the expo floor allowed the Parksmart team to directly connect with hundreds of decision-makers in the real estate industry, many of whom had not been previously introduced to Parksmart.


“In creating Parksmart we came together to develop a tool for transforming our industry,” explains John Schmid, CEO of Propark and the visionary behind Parksmart. “At Greenbuild I had the opportunity to speak with architects, engineers, consultants, contractors, and property owners on the expo floor and learn that like us, they are seeking to bring sustainability to the parking they design, build, or own. The conference was an amazing platform for educating the larger green building community about the opportunities that lie in the garage.”

Synergy An initiative to identify synergies between Parksmart, LEED, and the other sustainability rating systems was also highlighted at the conference. Green Building Certification, Inc. (GBCI) and the U.S. Green Building Council are developing a solution that will allow projects on the same site to seamlessly achieve certification points across a number of rating systems simultaneously. “This is the next step in Parksmart’s integration to the U.S. Green Building Council family,” says Wessel. “Parksmart will not only be linked to LEED and the other rating systems conceptually, but we are creating programmatic links as well.” The week concluded with a thoughtful panel discussion on the future of the parking garage. “Technology is evolving rapidly,” says Gary Neff, CEO of Park Assist, who participated in the panel. “It is already changing how we price parking, receive payments, and identify parkers. As we move closer to autonomous vehicles we will see the rate of change accelerate. Further integrating with the real estate and transportation communities, as we have done at this year’s Greenbuild, will grow in importance as we work to cope with the technological advances reshaping our industry.” The 2016 Greenbuild conference and expo was a tremendous opportunity for the parking industry to share our collective sustainability work with the greater green building movement. It has pushed us into 2017 with strong momentum that we look forward to building on in the coming months.

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half a million people in Los Angeles.

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here are many aspects of our parking operations we monitor on a daily basis to ensure that we are providing the best customer service, filling every parking space possible, and creating the best returns on our investments. Every parking operator should be performing facility tours to ensure each facility is being used and cared for in a manner that helps meet organizational goals. During this process, anything that is out of place should be documented and addressed. This is standard operating procedure for most parking operators, and the system works very well to ensure everything is operating correctly. There is one area, though, where repairs generated from these regularly scheduled inspections are costing more than they need to: lighting repair.

All at Once

ANDREW STEWART, CAPP, is superintendent of facilities and lot operations at the University of California, Riverside. He can be reached at andrew.stewart@ ucr.edu.


lamps’ listed life. Just like those ballasts and drivers that consume energy when the lamp fails, older lamps continue to consume the same amount of energy even though they are producing fewer lumens.

The Benefits Group relamping is an approach to lighting maintenance that reduces outages, maintains lumen levels, and ensures the energy you are consuming is productive. Using group relamping, you replace large groups or all lamps at one time. You then schedule their replacements just prior to any significant lumen loss. You may still experience some incidental lamp failures, but those numbers will be significantly less. To determine lamp replacement, divide the lamp’s listed life by the annual average hours per day your lamps are lit. Then divide the service days number you just calculated by the percentage of lamp life during which your lumen production starts to drop off significantly— that’s 80 for high-pressure sodium lamps. The result is your desired usable life for lamps of that type. The type of lamps and fixtures should not change your need to use group relamping; that only changes the date that it needs to happen. If you are in a climate where you can switch to LED-based lighting systems and see significant energy savings, use that scheduled group relamping date as a target and plan for lamp or fixture changes.

To realize the savings possible on lighting repairs, you would need to anticipate the replacement of the lamps and change as many as possible, if not all of them, at one time. This is a concept known as “group revamping,” and it means replacing large groups of lamps at one time and scheduling replacement at the most opportune time to minimize lighting outages. The amount of lumens (light) your lamps produce is an important secondary factor in lamp maintenance. Lumen levels drop during the life of lamps and can be accelerated by several factors, including dust buildup on the lamp. High-pressure Location Run Time/Day sodium lamps, for example, have a large drop-off Interior Lighting 24 in lumens produced at Structure Roof Lighting 12 about 80 percent of the


Lamp Life

Service Days

Output Loss





800 days




1,600 days


The lamp types inside light fixtures can vary, but they all fail. Failed lamps and ballasts create customer concerns about safety and quality of service. Operators quickly repair outages to prevent complaints and keep facilities well-lit. Most of what you pay for when you call an electrician for failed lamps is not the cost of the lamps and installation labor, but rather the cost of mobilization. For an electrician to travel to and from your facility and set up equipment may take an hour. He or she can remove a failed lamp, clean the fixture, and install the new lamp in about ten minutes. With the national average of commercial electricians hovering around $93 hour, you want to make the most of the time you are paying for.

The Perfect Way to Kick Off Your Day

Brighten up your inbox! IPI’s Parking Matters® Blog offers the latest parking news, trends, analysis, and stories—all in the span of a coffee break. And best of all, you can have it delivered right to your email for free. Visit parking.org/blog to catch up on everything you need to know to stay ahead, and click on “Subscribe to Posts” to sign up. We’ll see you in the morning.




hen I write about marketing here, I generally focus on how different communication strategies can help you reach your organizational goals. More often than not, that means selling business, keeping clients happy, and letting the general public know what your organization is up to.


BILL SMITH, APR, is principal of SmithPhillips Strategic Communications and contributing editor of The Parking Professional. He can be reached at bsmith@smith-phillips. com or 603.491.4280.


Parking professionals often face similar issues. Do you design structures that merely adhere to past practice and current trends, or do you introduce innovative elements that will help advance the parking experience? Do you create parking plans that check off a list of requirements presented by a city or town, or do you offer creative solutions that can help them better manage their parking and urban plans and improve the quality of life beyond what city officials may have envisioned? Do you build technologies to solve today’s parking challenges, or do you anticipate tomorrow’s challenges and find ways to overcome them?


And Marketing You may be wondering what this has to do with marketing. Well, the truth is that you can innovate as much as you want, but if you don’t explain to the marketplace—whether government or private entities—why the innovation is important and what benefits it will provide, you won’t get anywhere. Communication is an essential element of every parking organization’s operations. It’s not just about selling new business; it’s an integral part of effectively serving your customers and other key constituencies every day. Donald Shoup understands this. When he developed his pioneering planning theories, he knew merely creating them wasn’t enough. He needed to educate current planners and coming generations of planners about them; he needed to educate municipal leaders about how his approach would benefit their communities; and he needed to educate the public about how they and their communities were being undermined by traditional parking planning thinking. You need to be strategic, developing messages and tactics that will help promote the issues that are important to you and your organization. You should take advantage of all the tactics available to you: Social media and web pages can help reach audiences that already have an interest in your expertise; public speaking opportunities can help you demonstrate your points face-to-face; and publicity can help you reach vast numbers of people who have a vested interest in your work. Together, they can provide a powerful platform for helping you and your people earn recognition as thought leaders and promote your ideas and innovations.


For this column, I’d like to take a slightly different approach and talk about how communication strategies can be an essential part of your day-to-day work and how they can make you more effective. I recently had a conversation with a civil engineer who specializes in roadway and bridge infrastructure. He’s not a parking professional, but I think the issues we discussed are germane. We were having a sort of chicken-or-egg chat about roadway infrastructure development and the different ways people contextualize what we should invest in. He mentioned that some people oppose increasing roadway capacity because it will lead to more pollution-causing vehicles on the roads. His frustration arose from his conviction that in the useful lifetimes of newly developed roads, they will primarily serve low-emission or even emission-free vehicles. He believes solar-powered vehicles are the way of the future and that by investing in new and expanded roads, we will actually hasten the development of these automobile technologies. As a civil engineer, he sees his role as helping to guide society—and his community in particular—toward more positive infrastructure choices by promoting engineering projects that will move us where we should be. He believes engineers must be proactive rather than merely reacting to trends.

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nference & Ex o p IC

Gr or ee t i n Star Exhib To earn a Green Star, companies must meet criteria that support IPI’s Framework on Sustainability and the Parksmart Certification, managed by the GBCI, the certification arm of the U.S. Green Building Council. Each of these can qualify a company as a Green Star Exhibitor! Complete the online application at ipiconference.parking.org/2017. Management


i Shared Parking

i Wayfinding Systems

Technology/ Structure Design

i Transportation Management Association/Organization

i Carshare Program

i Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

i Rideshare Program

i Ventilation Systems

i Recycling Program

i Lighting Controls

i Proactive Operational Maintenance

i Low-emitting and Fuelefficient Vehicles

i Cleaning Procedures

i Alternative Fuel Vehicles

i Roofing Systems

i Building Systems Commissioning

i Bicycle Sharing/Rental

i Renewable Energy Generation

i Construction Waste Management i Reused, Repurposed, or Recycled Materials

i Energy Efficient Lighting Systems




Sound familiar? If you’ve been in this industry for any length of time, you’ve undoubtedly experienced some version of this angry customer interaction. When you hear a complaint like this, do you ever stop and ask yourself, “Are they blind or just slow? Who issued this person a driver’s license? How much more obvious does the sign have to be?” Your assumptions about this individual’s failure to grasp the obvious could be justified, but what if they’re not? Are we forgetting how it feels to be unfamiliar with a setting, trying to take everything in while safely maneuvering the car? Even when we have someone along who may help us with navigation, we can sometimes miss the obvious.

Even Parking Professionals

CINDY CAMPBELL is IPI’s senior training and development specialist. She is available for onsite training and professional development and can be reached at campbell@parking.org.


After airing our mutual frustrations about this type of scenario, I shared a personal story with the group about being out of town at a regional parking conference in a Southern California beach city. I had the pleasure of driving three parking colleagues out to dinner one evening. While Google capably directed us to the restaurant, finding an open parking space nearby became a challenge. I circled the block without success. I was starting to feel somewhat stressed as we were coming close to the time of our dinner reservation. After two more loops around the block, I spotted an open parking space down a long hill adjacent to the oceanfront. As we parked, we noticed the pay station in front of our parking space. We all shared a laugh about how long it took four parking professionals to figure out the parking equipment used in the lot and then, with our transaction successfully completed, we hiked up the hill to dinner.


After a lovely, leisurely meal, we strolled back down to the car, only to now find it behind a locked gate. I felt an immediate wave of panic, as we were many miles from our conference hotel. How in the world was I supposed to know that this particular parking area closed at 9 p.m.? Where were the signs? As I stood there declaring my utter frustration with this unfair situation, one of my dinner companions tapped me on the shoulder. I turned to see him pointing up—about two feet above my head. Right there, on a tall post (you know, adjacent to the gate) was the prominent, completely obvious sign. So how did I miss it? The answer is far more common than we might like to acknowledge with our customers. I wasn’t familiar with the area and in my haste to make it to the restaurant on time, I missed it all—the sign, the gate, everything. Luckily, a very nice parking officer came to our rescue, opening the gate and saving the evening from complete ruin. (He did not find the humor in my witty story about the four parking professionals missing the obvious signs, but that’s another story.) Here’s my point: Situations like this can happen to any of us. It’s important that we keep our assumptions in check. Remember to be empathetic. While a situation may seem obvious to us, we cannot assume everyone else shares our perception. The motivations and personal experience of our customers aren’t always clear. The enforcement of rules is necessary, but it doesn’t have to include passing personal judgment. Whenever you can, try to consider a situation from the customer’s point of view. Ask yourself: Could signs or curb markings be clearer? Does the area need maintenance? Don’t miss an opportunity to determine whether a customer complaint may actually be indicating a bigger issue that you could improve.


uring a recent frontline training session, the group discussion focused on a common frustration we experience in our challenging world of customer service. You know the scenario: An infuriated customer yells out in frustration, “How was I supposed to know that I couldn’t park there? I didn’t see any signs! What a racket! You need to make it clear if you expect people to follow the rules!”




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hen a college or university is running low on available parking for its students and employees—despite its best transportation demand management (TDM) efforts—it can reach a tipping point, and ways to provide more parking must be identified. Building new spaces may not be feasible or able to be completed before that tipping point is reached. As a result, the institution will need to acquire parking spaces from private owners or the surrounding municipality. Leasing spaces can be a solution. Considerations Leasing individual spaces usually means paying the landlord’s market rate, which may not align with your institution’s permit rate schedule. If the rate is lower than that of a comparable university lot, the institution must decide what rate to offer and if the landlord is amicable to the institution making money off its assets. Conversely, the landlord’s rate may be higher than comparable university lots, and the university must decide whether to subsidize the balance or charge its customers a price outside its rate schedule.



University parkers must also adhere to the landlord’s parking rules, which may be more restrictive then the institution’s regulations. Arizona State University (ASU) has student parking in a city parking garage next to its professional baseball stadium. Students cannot park in the city’s garage during games or other special events. Other limitations may include the levels on which parking is permissible (e.g., rooftop only) or pedestrian access in the example of an underground garage. Another consideration in support of leasing is the opportunity to avoid bond debt, according to Robert

Milner, MS, CAPP, director of parking and transportation services at the University of Maryland, Baltimore, which uses excess space in the area. This allows universities to abstain from incurring debt for a new garage while being a good neighbor with other garage owners. The university subsidizes the monthly amount if it is more than its current payroll price; if it is less, the school passes on the savings to the university parker.


Leasing a Lot Leasing an entire surface lot parking facility allows institutions to add and control these spaces within their systems and offers additional latitude in managing the spaces. Universities may be able to enforce their parking regulations in the parking lot and be able to negotiate a service level agreement with the owners to improve and maintain the facilities. Some potential constraints or challenges may be: ●●  Rates may be raised periodically outside the institution’s permit rate increases. ●●  The spaces may only be guaranteed for a short period and then revert to month-to-month thereafter. ●●  Facility maintenance, upkeep, and lighting may not meet the institution’s standards. ●●  There may be contractual challenges with indemnification and insurance requirements if the institution is a public university and self-insured. ●●  When leasing from a municipality, there may be restrictions on visitor and event revenue that the university may generate. ●●  The university must adhere to city ordinances, building processes, and easements.

Reversing the Agreement Some institutions have a surplus of parking spaces or underutilized areas. When this occurs, institutions may have the opportunity to lease their spaces to surrounding businesses or projects. Some institutions have parking facilities that are not convenient to campus services but are closer to non-university buildings and businesses. Some colleges parking.org/tpp

and universities have remote lots with an abundance of availability. When this happens, the institutions may have the opportunity to generate revenue to help cover expenses for the empty spaces. Benefits of leasing spaces to non-university entities include: ●●  The institution’s parking rates may be lower than those of the surrounding area so it may be able to charge the market rate to the non-affiliated parkers. ●●  The institution can also limit access to the parking facilities to keep them available for university events, such as a Pac-12 football game on a Thursday. Another use of excess university spaces is for construction parking. At ASU, there are remote parking facilities that are not used during the week but are used for football game-day parking. We use these for both ASU and non-ASU construction employee parking during the week and then have the lots available for tailgating on the weekend. Some items to consider when leasing university space: ●●  Consideration of non-business related income and remittance of privilege taxes. ●●  Insurance and indemnification requirements; ensure that this covers all subcontractors of the lessee as well. ●●  Access to parking facility, especially during university events. ●●  Ensure that the lessee returns the lot in the same condition. ●●  Services in lieu of payment; for example, offer a reduced rate if the lessee pays to pave and/or stripe the lot, remove old wheel stops, etc.  For many colleges and universities, leasing spaces to ensure a parking inventory that meets the needs of their students and employees has proven to be a worthwhile endeavor. Equally valuable is offering up excess parking near a university setting, which is often seen as a desirable location by surrounding businesses. In either scenario, it is imperative to weigh any restrictions associated with entering into such agreement against the opportunities to augment space availability or to profit from an existing surplus of space.

GABE MENDEZ, CAPP, is strategic support manager for Arizona State University Parking and Transportation Services. He can be reached at arnold. mendez@asu.edu.




What’s your best strategy or tip for pricing parking for greatest efficiency and to balance availability and cost? Associate Director, Transportation Services Texas A&M University It would be nice to always be able to use economic theory to properly price parking, but we often find ourselves in political environments that will not allow it. We have had success by offering a selection of pricing options from which to choose so there is always a lower priced (less convenient) option available for customers. This has allowed us to gain acceptance for charging more for convenience, which helps balance demand and generate revenue.

Gregory A. Shumate

Senior Associate DESMAN Make sure the price-point differential between the available parking supply intended for short, moderate, and long-term parkers is substantial enough to motivate users to make parking choices based on their expected stay. Also, be sure to reinforce the pricing strategy with good regulatory signage, easy payment options, and an enforcement presence that is obvious and consistent.

Barbara Chance, PhD

President and CEO CHANCE Management Advisors Assuming you are dealing with a reasonable land use area, if you have a lot of empty spaces, your parking is priced too high (or is in the wrong place). If you have no empty spaces, your parking is priced too low. Forget generalized formulas about parking occupancy or esoteric ones about elasticity of demand. Get out in the field and analyze for yourself what is going on. 

Jennifer Tougas, CAPP, PhD

Director, Parking and Transportation Western Kentucky University Conduct a survey that asks, “Would you be willing to pay $X for this product (what type of parking at what location, amenities, etc.)?” Select a range you are considering. For each person taking the survey, randomly assign the dollar figure they see. You can then run a regression analysis on the outcome (yes or no) that will show you what the market will bear for the product you describe. Works like a charm!

David Hill, CAPP CEO

Clayton Hill Associates Three steps: establish a price for peak use periods and for evenings and weekends and then adjust them seasonally; price each rate segment high enough that you generally have 10–15 percent availability and manage your price to always yield that result; and as a benchmark, your monthly surface lot price should be at least 30 percent greater than transit fare for that same period. If your price is lower than transit, you can remove some parking space or surrender it for development. If your price result is more than 30 percent greater than a transit pass, you should add some space.

Have a question for IPI’s experts? Send it to fernandez@parking.org and watch this space for answers!



The opinions, beliefs, and thoughts expressed by the contributors do not necessarily reflect the opinions and viewpoints of the International Parking Institute or official policies of IPI.

Debbie Hoffmann

APO has raised the bar. How do you measure up?


ind out today. This new program recognizes a comprehensive

standard of excellence based on best practices and industry benchmarks across 14 major categories and more than 150 criteria. Designed for institutional, municipal, medical, university, airport, commercial, private, and other parking programs, both Accredited and Accredited with Distinction criteria will guide you and your organization to greater success and recognition. Relevant and practical as well as goal-oriented and visionary, APO will advance the parking industry and your organization. Required reading: Download the Second Edition of the APO Matrix and Manual for Applicants at parking.org/apo.

2 0 1 7 PA R K I N G S O L U T I O N S C O M P E T I T I O N :


What is this competition? The International Parking Institute (IPI) Parking Solutions Competition

is a design and development parking challenge for college students actively enrolled in an undergraduate institution or actively pursuing a graduate degree.

The Challenge: Find an innovative new way to reduce single-occupant vehicles to maximize land use; increase mobility options; and decrease congestion, emissions, and pollution through parking solutions.

The Prize: $500 prize, a feature in The Parking Professional magazine, plus more.


T h i n k B i g – B e C r e a t i v e – T h e F u t u r e o f P a r k i n g i s Yo u !



What is this competition?


University students actively enrolled in an undergraduate institution or actively pursuing a graduate degree that are 18 years of age or older as of May 18, 2017. The International Parking Institute (IPI) Parking Solutions Competition is a design and development challenge for college students. This inaugural competition is a chance for students to express their rendition of The Next Big Idea in parking. IPI seeks to engage students in a challenging parking solutions exercise based on real-world scenarios. Students can submit independently or form multi-disciplinary teams. Finalists will be selected on the basis of creativity, innovation, realism, applicability, scalability, overall presentation, and the ability to benchmark success and demonstrate return on investment.

Why this challenge:

At first glance, the question posed may not seem to be a parking challenge. However, parking is an essential element of the mobility equation. Parking and transportation go hand-in-hand – one cannot be planned, implemented, and managed effectively without the other. Too often and for far too long, planning and operating parking was an afterthought in the planning and design process for our cities, towns, and campuses. The urban landscape in particular has changed rapidly due to demographics, demand for more livable places and communities, and transformative (and disruptive) technologies. In the face of all this change, parking will play a vital role in the mobility equation – but it, too, will evolve. How can parking adapt, and be resilient and effective while taking advantage of financial, societal, and technological trends? That’s our challenge: to reduce the frequency and reliance on the single-occupant vehicle as the primary mode of transportation and craft more viable mobility solutions for the places we live, work, and play.

The challenge:

Find an innovative new way to reduce the use of single-occupant vehicles and: • Maximize land use. • Increase mobility options. • Decrease congestion, emissions, and pollution through parking solutions.

What’s required: 1 Provide a brief narrative of your big idea – a short description of 2

1,000 to 1,500 words. One of the following applications is required: • Mobile application. • Website or online service. • Plans/drawings/graphics. • 3/D Models/animation. • Video.

Formats include, but are not limited to the list above, and multiple formats may also be combined to illustrate the proposed parking solution. Additional formats may be proposed – contact Stephanie Santoro at santoro@parking.org.

In May 2017, the competition will sponsor one member of each finalist team to travel to the 2017 IPI Conference & Expo in New Orleans, La., to meet international experts and present their innovative idea at the Parking Solutions Competition ceremony, which will be recorded and shared widely on social media. Finalists Receive: • Roundtrip airfare and a two-night hotel stay in New Orleans for one person/team member (arrangements to be made by IPI). Additional participants may attend at their own expense. • Free Conference registration valued at $1,299 for one person/team member. • One complimentary year of student membership in IPI, the world’s leading and largest association for parking professionals. Grand Prize Winner: • $500 prize. • Feature in The Parking Professional, IPI’s award-winning monthly magazine, showcasing your parking solution. • Feature on parking.org. • Press Release and blog posts. • Bragging rights and social media recognition.


Finalists will be notified by March 2017, and travel to IPI’s 2017 Conference & Expo to present on May 23, 2017.



Opening day of competition: December 1, 2016 Submissions due: February 15, 2016


The Parking Solutions competition is part of IPI’s ongoing effort to raise interest and awareness among the professionals of the future about the parking and transportation industries. The competition will address parking development patterns and the need for multidisciplinary solutions to design and development challenges for urban spaces, campuses, and parking and transportation challenges.


Contact Stephanie Santoro at santoro@parking.org. Electronic entry form: surveymonkey.com/r/PBN7MYL.

Our Sponsor:

parking.org/parkingsolutions Finalists will demonstrate the following: n Creativity/Innovation n Realism/Applicability/Scalability n Ability to Benchmark Success n ROI n Presentation

By Daniel Lassiter, CAPP


he ability to develop talented managers for a career in the parking industry can be as challenging as teaching a child to fly fish. Though frustrating at times, I can assure you the rewards from both can be memorable! During 30 years of experience in hospitality and parking management and only half that much time as a parent, I have tackled both with the same passion and goals. The years as a developer of managers and a parent of a fly fisherman (actually a fly fisherwoman) have taught me that neither is born—they are both made. Before you non-fishing readers decide to pass over this article, I ask you to take a moment and remember your own career development and the people whose own careers you most influenced. I am sure you’ve had similar challenges and rewards you draw upon for your own continued development. Each of us acting as teacher and subject matter expert have to adjust to different environments. As the fly fisherwoman must read the stream and select the proper arsenal for a successful time on the water, so must you take great care as the developer of future parking professionals. Learning to Contribute Early on in my career I did not understand young managers or, for that matter, my ­seven-year-old daughter (the fly fisherwoman) when they demanded to be allowed to make a contribution. But managers not only direct and complete tasks, they also make decisions that affect people, businesses, and careers. For her part, the fly fisherwoman must learn to cast so the line, leader, and tippet move effortlessly through the air and land the fly at a precise spot.



As the so-called subject matter expert, I was reluctant to give full scope to individual strength and responsibility. The idea that a manager might make a mistake and embarrass me or the organization in the eyes of customers or clients was unthinkable. I am sure we all have this recurring nightmare! And as a parent, the idea that my daughter might place a well-sharpened hook into herself or me was more than I could chance. Early on, I gave very little freedom to either managers or my fly fisherwoman, and

LESSONS on the FLY Developing parking managers and teaching kids to fly fish: They’re the same thing.

I never understood why the managers didn’t excel or why the fisherwoman lost interest in the sport. My own experiences living, working, and fishing in 11 different states played a large part in my authoritative nature. Through the years I had, in some instances, very little time to settle in and give full attention to all my managers and my fly fisherwoman. In time, it became evident that more time and more freedom would be necessary to excite and engage both groups.

A River Revelation One day as I stood in a stream and remembered my own experiences as a young parking manager and fly fisherman, I recalled having the freedom to convert objective needs into personal goals. My teachers, mentors, and coaches focused on me as a person. Their aim was to enable me to develop my strengths and abilities to the fullest extent and allow me to find individual achievement. Though there were times I struggled, I learned and grew from those situations. The parking manager developed the skills necessary to assess clients’ and customers’ true needs and expectations, adapting to all emergent situations, directing resources where required to meet goals by

One day as I stood in a stream and remembered my own experiences as a young parking manager and fly fisherman, I recalled having the freedom to convert objective needs into personal goals. My teachers, mentors, and coaches focused on me as a person. Their aim was to enable me to develop my strengths and abilities to the fullest extent and allow me to find individual achievement. Though there were times I struggled, I learned and grew from those situations. maintaining well-organized teams, cultivating awareness and self-actualization of personnel, and building increased investment in operations and organization. As for the fly fisherman, having spent countless days catching air, trees, and water, I finally brought fish to hand. It was a revelation. The next day I charted a new course in the development of both future parking professionals and my young fly fisherwoman. Remembering an important and hard lesson once learned, I started from the bottom up. Placing my mantra—you get what you inspect, not what you expect—at the bottom of the page, I crafted a plan for both in hopes of effecting change, all the while mindful I must answer to a higher authority. For the parking manager, it was my own direct supervisor, and for the fly fisherwoman, it was her mother!



Taking a page from both parking and hospitality management, the parking manager’s plan evolved. I share it here in hopes you may select some or all of the elements to advance the careers of future parking professionals: ●●  Build trust. ●●  Develop work standards. ●●  Organize and plan. ●●  Make decisions. ●●  Take action on those decisions. ●●  Delegate responsibility. ●●  Coach. ●●  Align performance for success. The foundation of the program is building trust. The manager must interact with others in a way that gives them confidence in the manager’s intentions. The manager must also operate with integrity, demonstrate honesty, keep and fulfill commitments, and do all of that consistently. The manager must remain open to ideas even when the ideas may conflict with his or hers. The final step for the manager to master building trust is to treat people with dignity and respect. Without a high level of work standards, the parking professional can behave in a way that’s less than professional. Many in our industry had to lay the foundation for respect and acceptance by setting high standards for self and others, assuming the responsibility and accountability for the completion of work, and self-­ imposing standards of excellence instead of waiting and having those standards imposed by others. Remember, there are a great number of us in the parking industry who can see clearer and farther due to the fact we are standing on the shoulders of others! The ability to organize and plan gives meaning to the madness. The ability to establish courses of action for self and others and ensuring work is completed efficiently translates progress. Prioritizing, determining tasks and resources, allocating appropriate amounts of time, leveraging resources, and staying focused allows the manager to tackle complex or multiple projects.

Making Decisions A fundamental element in everyday life is the ability to make decisions. Having the ability to identify and understand issues, problems, or opportunities; gathering information; interpreting the information; generating alternatives; choosing appropriate action; and committing to the action in a timely manner sets the professional manager apart. Teach new parking professionals the lost art of making decisions to ensure their longevity. Once the decision has been made, teach managers to take action. We all have been taught to lead, follow, or get out of the way. Sometimes the concentration must be on the propensity to act versus the quality of the

action. Young parking mangers must be empowered to take independent action instead of waiting for others to request action. Delegating is a simple task for some people, but others struggle with what and how to delegate. Knowing how and when to delegate allows the parking professional to maximize the organization’s and individual’s effectiveness. Managers must be mindful they do not push tasks and responsibilities to others, thinking they have removed themselves from accountability.

Coaches and Leaders Perhaps those who have participated in sports can recall a bad coach. The parking industry is no different. Coaches and leaders have the same traits: They both meet all events—favorable or not—with calmness and composure. The coach should have a love of wisdom and study the general principles of the field of knowledge and the processes governing thought, conduct, character, and behavior. Remember that coaching is much more than exerting authority. The parking manager must provide timely feedback and guidance to help others strengthen the knowledge they need to accomplish tasks or solve a problem. Combining all these elements creates the environment to align performance for success. It is not enough for the parking manager to recite the words and definitions of each element. To become a parking professional, parking.org/tpp

the manager must set performance goals, establish the approach, create a learning environment, track the performance, and provide meaningful evaluation. With a written plan, I returned to the stream to contemplate the implementation. As good fortune would have it, I was able to bring fish to hand and with that, I remembered the other motivation behind my plan: the fly fisherwoman! In my haste to reward myself for finalizing the plan for the parking manager I neglected to develop one for the fly fisherwoman. Later that evening, I tried to do just that. I struggled getting words onto paper. Knowing I had limited time to engage and excite the fly fisherwoman in hopes she would once again take to the stream, I decided to become a student of the parking manger’s plan. Before long, I realized the same plan could be adapted to the fly fisherwoman. The next several years were exciting for the parking managers and the fly fisherwoman. The growth of both aided in my own growth. Remember: Future parking professionals are all around us right now. The future of the parking industry is highly dependent on the growth of managers. Just as the fly fisherwoman one day walked out into the stream by herself, stood in the early morning light, took rod in hand, and began casting with precision and purpose, so will the manager. Develop the managers as you would the fly fisherwoman. The view from the sidelines can be enjoyable and fulfilling.

DANIEL LASSITER, CAPP, is director of business development for Allpro Parking LLC. He can be reached at dlassiter@ allproparking.com.



An Early Out?


How to evaluate an early retirement offer and see if it’s the right move for you.



By Mark A. Vergenes


n today’s corporate environment, cost cutting, restructuring, and downsizing are the norm, and many employers are offering their employees early retirement packages. But how do you know if the seemingly attractive offer you’ve received is a good one? There’s a simple answer: By evaluating it carefully to make sure the offer fits your needs.

SO FAST. What’s the Severance Package?

Most early retirement offers include a severance package that is based on your annual salary and years of service at the company. For example, your employer might offer you one or two weeks’ salary (or even a month’s salary) for each year of service. Make sure the severance package will be enough for you to make the transition to the next phase of your life. Also, make sure you understand the payout options available to you. You may be able to take a lump-sum severance payment and then invest the money to provide income or use it to meet large expenses. Or you may be able to take deferred payments during several years to spread out your tax bill on the money.

How Does this Affect Pension?


If your employer has a traditional pension plan, the retirement benefits you receive from the plan are based on your age, years of service, and annual salary. You typically must work until your company’s normal retirement age (usually 65) to receive the maximum benefits. This means you may receive smaller benefits if you accept an offer to retire early. The difference between this reduced pension and a full pension could be large, because pension benefits typically accrue faster as you near retirement. However, your employer may provide you with larger pension benefits until you can start collecting Social Security at age 62. Alternately, your employer might boost your pension benefits by adding years to your age, length of service, or both. These types of pension sweeteners are key features to look for in your employer’s offer, especially if a reduced pension won’t give you enough income.




If you don’t think you can afford early retirement, it may be better not to accept your employer’s offer. The longer you stay in the workforce, the shorter your retirement will be and the less money you’ll need to fund it.

What about Health Insurance? Does your employer’s early retirement offer include medical coverage for you and your family? If not, look at your other health insurance options, such as COBRA, a private policy, or dependent coverage through your spouse’s employer-sponsored plan. Because your health care costs will probably increase as you age, an offer with no medical coverage may not be worth taking if these other options are unavailable or too expensive. Even if the offer does include medical coverage, make sure you understand and evaluate the coverage. Will you be covered for life or at least until you’re eligible for Medicare? Is the coverage adequate and affordable (some employers may cut benefits or raise premiums for early retirees)? If your employer’s coverage doesn’t meet your health insurance needs, you may be able to fill the gaps with other insurance.

What about Other Benefits?

MARK A. VERGENES is president of MIRUS Financial Partners and chair of the Lancaster (Pa.) Parking Authority. He can be reached at mark@mirusfinancial partners.com.


Some early retirement offers include employer-sponsored life insurance. This can help meet your life insurance needs, and the coverage probably won’t cost you much (if anything). However, continued employer coverage is usually limited (for example, one year’s coverage equal to your annual salary) or may not be offered at all. This may not be a problem if you already have enough life insurance elsewhere or if you’re financially secure and don’t need life insurance. Otherwise, weigh your needs against the cost of buying an individual policy. You may also be able to convert some of your old employer coverage to an individual policy, though your premium will be higher than when you were employed. In addition, a good early retirement offer may include other perks. Your employer may provide you and other early retirees with financial planning assistance. This can come in handy if you feel overwhelmed by all of the financial issues that early retirement brings. Your


employer may also offer job placement assistance to help you find other employment. If you have company stock options, your employer may give you more time to exercise them. Other benefits, such as educational assistance, may also be available. Check with your employer to find out exactly what its offer includes.

Can You Afford It? To decide if you should accept an early retirement offer, you can’t just look at the offer itself. You have to consider your total financial picture. Can you afford to retire early? Even if you can, will you still be able to reach all of your retirement goals? These are tough questions that a financial professional should help you sort out, but you can take some basic steps yourself. Identify your sources of retirement income and the yearly amount you can expect from each source. Then, estimate your annual retirement expenses (don’t forget taxes and inflation), and make sure your income will be more than enough to meet them. You may find that you can accept your employer’s offer and likely still have the retirement lifestyle you want. But remember, these are only estimates. Build in a comfortable cushion in case your expenses increase, your income drops, or you live longer than expected. If you don’t think you can afford early retirement, it may be better not to accept your employer’s offer. The longer you stay in the workforce, the shorter your retirement will be and the less money you’ll need to fund it. Working longer may also allow you to build larger savings in your IRAs, retirement plans, and investments. However, if you really want to retire early, making some smart choices may help you overcome the obstacles. Try to lower or eliminate some of your retirement expenses. Consider a more aggressive approach to investing. Take a part-time job for extra income. Finally, think about electing early Social Security benefits at age 62, but remember that your monthly benefit will be smaller if you do this.

Finding a New Job You may find yourself having to accept an early retirement offer even though you can’t afford to retire. One way to make up for the difference between what you receive from your early retirement package and your old paycheck is to find a new job, but that doesn’t mean you have to abandon your former line of work for a new career. You can start by finding out if your former employer would hire you as a consultant. Or, you may find that you would like to turn what was once just a hobby into a second career. Then there is always the possibility of finding full- or part-time employment with a new company. For the employee who has 20 years of service with the same company, the prospect of job hunting may be terrifying. If you have been out of the job market for a long time, you might not feel comfortable or have experience marketing yourself for a new job. Some companies provide career counseling to assist employees re-entering the workforce. If your company does not provide you with this service, you may want to look into corporate outplacement firms and nonprofit organizations in your area that deal with career transition. Many early retirement offers contain noncompetition agreements or offer monetary inducements on the


condition that you agree not to work for a competitor. However, you’ll generally be able to work for a new employer and still receive your pension and other retirement plan benefits.

What If You Say No? If you refuse early retirement, you may continue to thrive with your employer. You could earn promotions and salary raises that boost your pension. You could receive a second early retirement offer that’s better than the first one. But you may not be so lucky. Consider whether your position could be eliminated down the road. If the consequences of saying no are hard to predict, use your best judgment and seek professional advice. But don’t take too long. You may have only a short window of time, typically 60 to 90 days, to make your decision. Investment Advisor Representative offering securities and advisory services offered through Cetera Advisor Networks LLC., member FINRA/ SIPC. Cetera is under separate ownership from any other named entity. MIRUS Financial Partners nor Cetera Advisor Networks LLC. give tax or legal advice.



P R O F I TA B L E Pricing power has strong impact on profits Average profit margin of last three years (index) Companies with high pricing power


Pricing power increases profits by

33% All others


Source: Simon-Kucher & Patners Global Pricing Study 2012

How new trends in pricing models can benefit the parking industry.

PRICING By S alon i Fira sta V astan i, Ph D


arren Buffet, in an interview with the Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission in 2011, said, “The single most important decision in evaluating a business is pricing power. If you’ve got the power to raise prices without losing business to a competitor, you’ve got a very good business. And if you have to have a prayer session before raising the price by 10 percent, then you’ve got a terrible business.” Why is price so important? A study conducted by Hinterhuber in 2004 shows that a small increase in price can increase or decrease profitability by 20 to 50 percent. That seems like a lot, but let’s think about it. If you are selling a product for $1,100 and relevant costs are $1,000, it results in earnings before interest and tax (EBIT) of 10 percent. If you increase the price by 10 percent without loss in volume, your resulting profit is $210, or a 21 percent EBIT or doubled profitability with a 10 percent increase in price. This is a really simplistic example, but, slight differences in price can have a significant effect on profitability.

Trends in Pricing Strategy The rhetoric in pricing evolved significantly in 2016. Pricing has been in the news, not just because of the fluctuating oil prices or the scandals of drug pricing by pharmaceuticals, but for overall pricing strategy to increase profitability. The pricing for products and services now more than ever is critical and determines success in the marketplace. Companies that think of pricing models as an afterthought or do not adapt to the new evolving pricing paradigm may find it difficult to survive. parking.org/tpp



Let’s take Uber as an example. The entire company is based on a pricing model. Prices increase or decrease based on availability of drivers and are increased to entice more drivers to come out to match demand. There’s a similar model at jet.com, where smart pricing algorithms govern the shopping cart of the company. In the last couple of years, “uberization” of prices spread to several industries and to large and small companies. Customers have become more accepting of these changing prices that were for decades reserved for the airline industry. The hotel industry is following suit quickly, but other industries, such as entertainment, are catching up too. Disney recently announced that its

The impact of small price increases on profits





GE 16%

FORD 25%

DELL 48%




Impact of a 2% price increase on operating profits (% improvement) Note: based on latest available financial data

Inter-Connectedness of Price Business Strategy Product Perception


Price Sales





parks’ tickets prices will be demand-based. Even sports arenas are using pricing analytics to improve sales. For example, Atlanta’s baseball team, the Braves, confirmed it earns 12 percent higher revenue by using peak and off-peak pricing for game tickets. The parking industry is also joining this movement. In the past few years, many parking companies have explored and enacted dynamic pricing. Additionally, city and state governments are beginning to experiment with changing prices for everything from use of HOV lanes to on-street parking. In addition to uberization of prices, personalization of prices is entering the marketplace. The digital marketplace is vibrant and dynamic when it comes to personalized pricing. Currently, many online retailers are adjusting prices based on inventory, customers’ attributes, past purchase history, and other factors. Companies such as Lexis-Nexis and Amazon are already exploring personalized pricing strategies and personalized promotion tactics. As consumers move to the online marketplace, companies have access to more data about the purchase behavior of each individual based on prior purchases and history. Big data and analytics give companies not only access to huge amounts of data that were not possible to view earlier but also ways to understand and use it. Personalization works because each of us has different prices at which we would stop buying the product, and it’s based on several factors. With access to data and sophisticated predictive and data analytics, it is now possible to model the threshold at an individual level as a function of firm, relative competition and specific customer attributes. The impending entrance of fully automated and connected cars will further influence the ways consumers will buy parking. We are at the beginning of an era with more personalization in every aspect, including pricing in the digital world.

Increasing Price Performance Even before you implement dynamic pricing or personalized pricing, there are several aspects to be considered and optimized to realize the full effect of new pricing trends. In fact, increasing the price performance should be embraced regardless of whether you are embracing new pricing tactics or holding on to the existing pricing strategies. Implementing an increasing price performance program improves revenue on an average by 1 to 3 percent without introducing any additional costs. Price is multi-functional and multi-dimensional in nature. Hence multiple functions and different aspects of a business operation are linked to price. When these aspects are not managed well, the added benefits of pricing tactics are not fully realized. Often, companies are not able to absorb the full benefits of increasing prices or new pricing strategies due to what are called “price leaks.” A price leak is an unintentional or not perceived

In the past few years, many parking companies have explored and enacted dynamic pricing. Additionally, city and state governments are beginning to experiment with changing prices for everything from use of HOV lanes to on-street parking. price decrease. Unnecessary promotions, inaccurate billing, inaccurate recording, systems issues, and lack of communication are some areas in which price leaks may be located in an organization. Hence, a good pricing strategy should not only include consumer research but also an understanding of functions such as legal, audit, accounting, promotions, operations, and IT. You may develop a fantastic pricing strategy, but are your IT systems able to handle it? Do legal contracts with your landlord have some revenue-sharing clause that kicks in once you cross a certain revenue threshold? Do operational costs increase at certain production or occupancy levels that throw off the cost curve? All these considerations are an important aspect of developing a pricing strategy that directly benefits the bottom line. Both the back-end systems and employees in the front should be aligned with the overall strategy.

Starting Points So where should you start? The accounting department is a good place to uncover price leaks. Average price paid at a channel level may provide a clue to where the problems are located. Understand the composition of an average price at a channel level. Do the various prices at each channel, such as corporate channel, monthly customer, or social media, align with what you have on the price sheet? Also, analyze the pricing waterfall at a channel to see where the highest percent of discounts exists. You can further divide that by region or location to pinpoint the exact point of the leakage. The next stop is the audit department. Here you can further trace down some clues you have uncovered in the accounting group. The audit group knows what each customer paid, how they paid, what coupons they used, how much discount was given, etc. Take sample data of actual transaction-level detail. The devil is truly in the details here. Compare the actual price during the time with the price each customer paid or what he or she should have paid versus what was actually collected. Next, look at the service that was provided—were there other charges such as expedited service, valet parking, or a car wash whose charge was missed? Close these leaks. Understand the process that caused the leak so it can be prevented from taking place in the future. The sales group is an important department in which to ensure that price performance is high. From reviewing corporate contacts to having an open dialogue, engage with the sales team about how it is structuring each deal. parking.org/tpp

Follow a deal process to ensure that prices are coded in correctly or that volume-based discounts accurately correlate to existing customer volumes. Ideally, the pricing team should be separate from the sales department in a organizational chart. The pricing team, when empowered and managed well, does a marvelous job in realizing a high price performance. The next functional department that is key to price realization is marketing and promotions. Aligning promotions to pricing strategy is critical. Scan all promotions in the market. Do they align with the new/existing pricing strategy? Are they producing the desired results or simply discounting customers you already have? Is there a way they can be set up to align with the broader objective and customer-acquisition tactics? Lastly, evaluate the pricing strategy in light of corporate constraints. Pricing strategy is as great as it can be implemented. Technology has become a business driver now, not just a support function. If your strategy includes dynamic pricing but the systems cannot support it effectively, it will not work. If huge technology investments are needed that erode the revenue maximization that would have been received from the pricing strategy it does not make sense to pursue it. Another constraint that comes up often is people resources. Any pricing strategy may require additional resources in other functional areas. For example, marketing resources may be needed to be available to redesign the materials; the last thing you want to do is increase or decrease prices without appropriate communication to customers. Ensuring that the other departments have the human resources to execute on the pricing strategy will lead to improved implementation, particularly as you introduce new products such as dynamic pricing. Although pricing has a direct effect on the bottom line, only 15 percent of companies globally have a dedicated pricing team. It is a strong lever, and slight changes can make a big difference to profitability and revenue performance. Often, in the parking industry particularly, a few years go by before someone reevaluates pricing for a location. Even in cases when the price is optimized regularly, the other internal departmental factors are not considered and aligned to realize the full benefits. An understanding of the inter-connectedness of price across the various functions, all the way to its impact on brand image and consumer perception of a product or service, is crucial to unleash the true impact of pricing power.

SALONI FIRASTA VASTANI, PhD, is managing partner of Intellisiv LLC. She can be reached at saloni. vastani@intellisiv. com.








arking pricing remains an important aspect

of parking management. The need to set prices at a level that is effective for road space management and to redress the gap between parking demand and supply is paramount. So too is the requisite to offset the cost of providing parking and its associated services through revenue generated from paid parking. The primary focus of a public-sector parking authority is the provision of parking as a public service to its people—residents and businesses. This includes the reduction of parking-related congestion, the mobility of goods and services, and the enhancement of safety and security. Traditionally in Abu Dhabi, the public sector is responsible for the provision and delivery of goods and services accomplished through organizations owned and run by the government (central or local). The organizations are operational for the purpose of providing those public services that are often free at the point of delivery and are deemed to be better provided by the sector. Public sector activities range from the administration of urban planning, organizing national defenses, public transport and roads, and parking management, to mention a few. In providing parking management, though the provision of public service is the primary focus, the aim of generating revenue for the government or authority remains underlying. parking.org/tpp



A Strategic Approach From 2,387 parking bays in October 2009, the Abu Dhabi Parking Division currently regulates and operates more than 100,000 parking bays (multistory and onstreet parking). A strategic approach seeks to redress the imbalance between parking demand and supply. The shortage of parking bays in Abu Dhabi city was estimated through assessment and monitoring of the supply and demand for parking spaces in each sector of the central business district. The appropriate parking management approach was based on the assessment of demand and supply where: Demand (vehicles) < Supply (parking bays) = Parking management control ( free parking with illegal parking control) The conflicting priorities of providing a public service while aiming for revenue generation remain a challenge for public-sector parking management authorities; Abu Dhabi parking management is no exception. This article presents the strategic approach adopted by Abu Dhabi parking in managing the conflicting priorities through its implementation of a simple, yet considered, pricing strategy.

Overview To put the scope of the service into perspective, a synopsis of Abu Dhabi parking is necessary. The emirate of Abu Dhabi (Abū Zabī), capital of the United Arab Emirate, launched its parking management program (ADPMP) Oct. 4, 2009. The ADPMP, also referred to as MAWAQiF (the Arabic term for parking), commenced with as little as 2,387 parking bays in two sectors of the central business district of Abu Dhabi. Prior to that point, the enforcement of illegal parking in Abu Dhabi was minimal, which led to congestion and associated environmental and safety issues. Recent years in Abu Dhabi have seen significant growth in the economy due to vast development and modernization projects that were implemented in line with the capital’s vision of becoming a world-class city. The capital experienced increasing immigration primarily due to expatriate workers moving to the country to execute the projects. As a culture that is heavily reliant on private vehicle ownership (due to inadequate public transportation and pedestrian facilities), the registration of private vehicles proportionately increased due to the increase in population. This had an expected knock-on effect on parking demand. Available surface parking in the capital was free, and enforcement of illegal parking activities was minimal. Consequentially, illegal and obstructive parking practices were widespread across the capital. Congestion and difficulty in accessing some areas and accidents sites threatened public safety, introduced environmental issues, and encouraged deterioration of the urban quality of life.



In areas where parking demand is less than the supply, parking is free but enforced to ensure illegal parking is eliminated. Demand (vehicles) > Supply (parking bays) = Paid parking management In areas where the parking demand is between 10 and 30 percent more than the supply, paid parking is implemented to ensure efficient use of parking bays. Demand (vehicles) > Supply (parking bays) = Provide extra parking and implement the paid parking program. In areas where parking demand is more than 30 percent more than supply, the strategy adopted was to assess and implement initiative(s) to create additional paid parking bays. The initiatives for creating supply include: ●●  Traffic rerouting and parking bays redistribution. ●●  Utilizing empty areas as surface parking. ●●  Building temporary parking structures. ●●  Building permanent parking structures (as a longterm solution). The initiatives implemented are sector-specific based on shortages in supply, parking expansion, future planned alternative transport initiatives, and other planned smart road use initiatives that are expected to eventually reduce the demand for parking space. Such initiatives include: ●●  Re-habitation of sectors. ●●  Increased public transport ridership. ●●  Public transport improvement. ●●  Implementation of the parking ratio in new buildings.

Pricing Strategy Supply and demand is considered the most fundamental concept in setting the price for parking. The relationship between these two concepts of economics (the price

A carefully thought-out pricing system coupled with a campaign to get the word out led to a new parking system that works for Abu Dhabi.

elasticity of demand) drives pricing, all other factors remaining the same. The responsiveness of parking demand to the introduction or increase in the fee for paid parking fee is dependent on the price elasticity of demand. With the introduction of paid parking, as with parking price increases, parking demand decreases. The degree to which demand changes in response to price is the price elasticity of parking demand. Price elasticities of parking demand vary from city to city depending on the makeup of land use, demography, alternative transportation options, and other characteristics. With paid parking being newly introduced in the capital, the responsiveness of parking demand to price was unknown. However, with the rollout of paid parking and enforcement in new sectors of the city, the demand for parking at the locations shifted. With the absence of historic data and a confirmed degree of elasticity, reliance was on a common price elasticity of demand of 0.3, which is prevalent for cities in the U.S. The elasticity of 0.3 implies that for a 10 percent increase in price, there would be a 3 percent decrease in parking demand. Price elasticity of demand in Abu Dhabi is subsequently assessed through monitoring exercises that assess a series of before and after parking studies that generally measure how much parking demand has decreased in response to the introduction of paid parking in sectors of the capital.

The economic vitality of the three groups are analyzed this way: The social goals address the needs of all users of transportation and parking and consider how changes may affect them. Environmental goals consider how changes to parking policy may reduce the vehicle emission, deterioration of urban quality of life, and therefore support environmental protection. The pricing strategy focuses on managing the conflicting economic and social goals. The approach considers: ●●  Analysis of parking demand versus parking supply. ●●  Sensitivity analysis for various price elasticities of parking demand. ●●  Cost of living. ●●  Various economic issues of parking pricing at individual, business, and government levels. ●●  Analysis of parking operation costs and projected potential revenue based on pricing and predicted use. ●●  Cost-benefit analyses to ascertain breakeven and profit margin. ●●  Assessment of social and environmental issues of parking pricing. The conflicting priorities of parking management are evident in the primacy to implement and maintain revenue-generating, self-financing parking service that benefits the economy, environment, and service users who, predominantly, would advocate for parking at minimal or no cost.

Parking Priorities The policy of paid parking in Abu Dhabi carefully considers demand and supply, the elasticity of demand, as well as a number of priorities relating to the economic, social, and environmental goals of the capital. This is to ensure the policy benefits the emirate and its population. The economic goals consider the impact of paid parking on residents, businesses, and government in relation to the underlying goal of having a parking management scheme that is self-financing and revenue generating. parking.org/tpp



Calculated as: C  ompliance factor = [1- (PVT/Total Users)] percent where PVT is total number of parking violation tickets issued 100.0%



97.0% 96.0% Jan ‘15

Mar ‘15

May ‘15

Jul ‘15

Compliance Rate

Fee Structure Strategy

MOHAMMED AL MUHAIRI is general manager, parking, of the Abu Dhabi Parking Division. He can be reached at mohammed. almuhairi@dot. abudhabi.ae.

TOPE LONGE is a specialist, contract performance management, with the Abu Dhabi Parking Division. She can be reached at temitope. longe@dot.abudhabi. ae.


Abu Dhabi Parking Division currently operates a simple two-fee structure. The simplicity of the structure has many benefits: ●●  Ease of understanding for users. ●●  Low administrative cost due to uniform processing, organization, and understanding of users and enforcement staff. ●●  Ease of planning and policy implementation. ●●  Fewer signs required to define the start and end of the different rate zones, thereby leading to minimal cost of signage and line-marking. The current paid parking fee structure is AED2 ($0.54) per hour for standard spaces, AED15 ($4.01) per day and AED3 ($0.82) per hour for premium parking spaces. A maximum of four hours is permitted at premium parking locations. The standard parking is more affordable and well-suited for daily parking. The premium parking is set to enable higher turnover of vehicles. The simplicity of the fee structure is significant to the planning and management of the priorities. Whilst a simple fee structure has obvious benefits, a slightly more complicated tiered fee structure is being considered for the future to ensure parking demand is met in an even more efficient way.

Success Factor The parking program operates an effective simple parking fee structure. The economic returns led to the achievement of breakeven within three years of the launch of the operation. The enforcement of paid parking also saw the realization of sustained compliance to the paid


Sep ‘15

Nov ‘15

Acceptance of scheme

parking regulations. This is measured through the compliance factor, which consistently averages at more than 98 percent.

Lessons Learned Empirical experience demonstrates that the following are key to the success of a parking management scheme: ●●  The implementation of a carefully analyzed and planned parking pricing strategy. ●●  Comprehensive demand management, which should be reviewed through continual monitoring to assess the supply-and-demand ratio and effectiveness of existing parking prices. ●●  Planned alternative transport systems and solutions must be available. With predicted population growth, global warming, and the general need for environmental friendly alternative mode of transport, the drive is toward smarter solutions. ●●  Balance of economic growth, social needs, and environmental sustainability in parking management pricing. This requires an integration of urban, transport, and parking decisions through parking master planning. The work and review for effectiveness is ongoing. The next phase is expected to look at a multi-tiered parking fee structure. While a simple fee structure worked effectively and provided desired benefits, a multi-tiered structure may be necessary to ensure more efficient use of the parking spaces. This may not be a replacement of the current fee structure but the introduction of varying fees at different locations to further improve space use efficiency and readdress imbalances in demand and supply. It is a continual process.


LOOKING BACK ON 2016, it’s clear the International Parking Institute (IPI) is leading the charge in advancing the parking profession. As the largest association of parking professionals, IPI is focused on supporting the industry’s growth and the critical role parking plays around the world. From exceptional trainings and enhanced digital offerings to regional and international partnerships, IPI provides more opportunities than ever to connect with the tools, resources, and colleagues you need to get the job done.

From the IPI Board of Directors It is hard to believe two years have passed and my time as Chair will end in May at the 2017 IPI Conference & Expo in New Orleans, La. Many thanks to the IPI Board, committee members, staff, and all of our many volunteers who continue to help make all IPI initiatives, partnerships, and programs a reality. I could not be prouder of the work IPI accomplished in 2016 and hope you enjoy our year in review.

Kim Jackson, CAPP Chair, IPI Board of Directors Director, Transportation and Parking Services Princeton University

Here are 16 highlights from 2016 that celebrate IPI and its members. Tech Tune-up • Access the new Resource Center—a robust, highly searchable database featuring articles from The Parking Professional magazine, Parking Matters® Blog posts, IPI and related publications and research, events, and educational and networking opportunities.

@IPIparking on Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, and Instagram. You’ll find the same fun and informative updates in fewer characters. Follow us there for the latest parking news and events.

• Pitch your article idea for The Parking Professional. • Use the Career HQ page to post your resume or an opening for your organization.


• Find your next big opportunity in the RFP Portal.

Your New Home Page

IPI is proud of our new and redesigned website (parking.org). Created with parking professionals in mind, it’s chock full of new features and resources, making it a go-to source for information on the parking industry. The interactive, userfriendly site enables you to: • Submit news releases and blog posts that appear on the home page. • Access the full calendar of conferences, meetings, events, and trainings, including face-to-face classes and webinars. • Take an online course—available at your desk, at your pace, anytime.


Your New Membership Center

The new and improved IPI dashboard allows you and your staff to update contact information, renew subscriptions, register for classes, and view the latest issues of The Parking Professional online. Making sure your profile is correct and complete is the best way to stay in the know on IPI happenings.



A Brighter, Smarter Inbox

The Parking Matters Blog features leading voices in the parking industry (parking.org/blog). And now these daily blog posts are featured front and center on the revamped IPI home page. Used by both parking professionals and news media, the blog provides members with the latest on the industry and the trends that will shape our future. What will you contribute in 2017?

Getting A Handle on Things

IPI and parking – they just go together. That’s why IPI is now

A Supplement to The Parking Professional.


Just Published

IPI Goes Spanish IPI debuted its Spanish-language magazine, Industria del Estacionamiento. Published twice a year, the free electronic magazine brings news, trends, case studies, and analysis to Spanish-speaking readers with articles that are important to Latin American parking professionals. Big Data, Big Insights IPI launched “Parking Analytics: An Industry Snapshot,” a survey of parking organizations that collects, aggregates, and publishes data to develop meaningful Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). Add your data to the mix at parking.org/KPIs and help advance our understanding of the parking industry.

Case Studies IPI expanded its collection of project and program case studies, shining a light on some of the parking industry’s best work. The profiles are submitted by IPI members and explore the costs, goals, challenges, and solutions behind technology, planning, design, and other improvements. View the case studies and submit your own in the IPI Resource Center. EMV and You Now that the EMV fraud liability shifts are in place, IPI and the Smart Card Alliance updated the white paper, “EMV and Parking,” to provide current information on the technology and refreshed scenarios.

The Definitive Parking Index The 2016 IPI Parking Buyers Guide and Consultants Directory is the best way to keep your finger on the pulse of technology in the industry. This “yellow pages” catalog contains nearly 90 pages of products and services available to the parking profession. Practice Makes Perfect For those studying for CAPP certification—respected worldwide as the leading credential in parking—IPI released a new Online CAPP Practice Exam designed to simulate and prepare you to take the CAPP examination. The CAPP Certification Program Resource Guide (Version 2.0) now includes a full practice exam in addition to study guidance and sample questions.

For all these resources and more, visit parking.org or search the online Resource Center by keyword.


Public Service

In addition to generating positive media coverage about parking, IPI created goodwill by focusing on public service. Safe Parking at Every Age IPI produced a tipsheet on safe parking for senior drivers and collaborated with the nonprofit B.R.A.K.E.S. (Be Responsible and Keep Everyone Safe) to promote teen safety driving programs.

one of their parking facilities. Developed in collaboration with leading suicide experts, “Suicide in Parking Facilities: Prevention, Response, and Recovery,” was published to help organizations that design, manage, or operate parking garages address the issue of suicide.

7 Heatstroke Prevention IPI enhanced its collection of public-service tools about child vehicular heatstroke. Share IPI’s new 30-second video or downloadable radio PSA. For the first time, IPI created a publicservice ad that addresses the dangers of leaving pets in hot parked cars. Find these and more resources at parking.org/safety.

Why IPI? Members Say it Best

IPI produced two videos to educate those outside the industry about what the association does and why Parking Matters. Members share their stories in “Why IPI?” describing how the IPI community has helped them learn, solve problems, advance their parking careers, and develop lifelong friendships. Parking, transportation, and planning experts explain what


Suicide Prevention According to a 2016 survey of IPI members, half the organizations had experienced a suicide or suicide attempt at

parking means to customer service, sustainability, economic development, and so much more in, “Why Parking Matters.” Watch the videos for some familiar faces and good advice on speaking about the profession.

Certification Standards





The association elected two new members to the existing CAPP Certification Board in its first election. Irma Henderson, CAPP, and Brian Scoggins, CAPP, joined Chair Wayne Mixdorf, CAPP; Becca White, CAPP; and Melinda Alonzo, CAPP, on the Board.

The Accredited Parking Organization (APO) designation continues to set the benchmark for industry excellence. IPI launched a series of APO Spotlights in which organizations reveal what it’s like

to go through the APO process. Several members added APO Site Reviewer to their resumes at IPI trainings throughout the year. The next APO Site Reviewer training will take place in May at the 2017 IPI Conference & Expo in New Orleans, La.



The U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) and IPI partnered to offer LEEDaccredited professionals valuable continuing education credits through IPI’s professional development programs. IPI also trained Parksmart Advisors to lead clients through the certification process for sustainable parking structures. Join IPI for online, instructorled trainings throughout the year and in-person Parksmart Advisor training at the 2017 IPI Conference & Expo.

Parking’s Best Education


On-Demand and On Point

IPI added three new courses to its set of nine online learning opportunities: Technology Trends in Parking (Version 2.0), Foundations of Finance, and Greening Communities Through Parking, an online quiz utilizing our magazine. Sustainability in Parking, one of the association’s most popular online learning courses, now qualifies for valuable credits to maintain a LEED credential.


Interesting and In-Person

IPI’s on-site training program is growing by leaps and bounds. Cindy Campbell, IPI’s senior training and development specialist, trained thousands of professionals from the municipal, university, airport, commercial operator, hospital, vendor, supplier, and consultant sectors. Topics include conflict resolution, customer service, tactical communications, and parking industry fundamentals. Intended for everyone from frontline staff to seasoned managers, the classes are a great way to invest in your organization’s most valuable asset — its employees. Contact campbell@parking.org to learn more and register.

and technology opportunities. With five education tracks and more than 40 sessions including exciting pre-Conference trainings, spirited IGNITE sessions, and TECHtalks right on the show floor, there was something for everyone. The new, more powerful Conference mobile app kept participants buzzing with activity, while the 4 million-square-foot Gaylord Opryland Resort & Convention Center kept everyone on their toes.



Connecting with China

IPI continued to collaborate with several different Chinese parking associations to share IPI’s professional development programs and accreditations. Plans for a parking conference in China are on the horizon.

GPALs Summit

Parking leaders representing 12 different countries met at the 2016 IPI Conference & Expo as part of the annual Global Parking Association Leaders (GPALs) Summit. The group discussed the Parksmart certification program and international efforts to promote sustainability, as well as IPI’s initiative to collect Big Data on the industry.

Onward and Upward The Best is Yet to Come You can count on IPI in 2017 for even more resources, engagement opportunities, and member benefits as we continue to support parking professionals in creating vibrant and successful communities. Look out for the IPI member survey for another opportunity to weigh in on the fastchanging parking profession.

Conference and Community 13

IPI Conference & Expo


International Parking Conference

Participants from six countries joined IPI in São Paulo, Brazil, in October for the sixth annual International Parking Conference & Expo.

Jazzed Up for #IPI2017 IPI looks forward to seeing you at the 2017 IPI Conference & Expo, May 21-24, New Orleans, La., for even more networking, education, exhibits, and fun. Save $300 when you register before April 30, 2017. Visit IPIConference.parking.org for details.

Many Thanks

The 2016 IPI Conference & Expo in Nashville, Tenn., proved once again that the annual show is the must-attend event in the parking industry. More than 3,000 parking professionals and 230 exhibitors convened for top education, networking,

IPI can’t thank its members and the parking community enough for inspiring, supporting, and leading the association this year. IPI’s greatest resource is truly its numerous and talented volunteers. Our next call for volunteers and Board of Director candidates will happen this spring—don’t miss out on a unique opportunity to learn, network, and serve the parking community. Visit parking.org and learn how to keep IPI’s important work going.


Take advantage of online, on-site, and professional development opportunities to improve your knowledge and advance your career.

Professional Development Access training and certifications for individuals, organizations, and buildings.


Get the most up-to-date information on parking events around the world.

Resource Center

new site. more info. parking.org

Explore the comprehensive database for parking pros searchable by keyword, source, and category.


Search, read, and submit articles, blog posts, and more.


Tap into the largest, most active, vibrant, and dedicated community of parking professionals in the world.

Introducing IPIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s new website â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a new look, easier navigation, robust resource center, more features, more fun. Advancing the parking profession


Feature 6 PARKING FOR PRIVATELY-OWNED AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES. The parking on the left shows a traditional self-parked row of cars; the parking on the right shows autonomous vehicles more tightly spaced.



What parking professionals need to know now

TAXIBOT PARKING STRUCTURE. A fleet of driverless cars that are not individually owned might line up in a “first in, first out” scenario that allows dramatic efficiency improvements.


ow will parking differ in the future? If you are investing right now, given 30 to 50 years of building use, what should you consider to improve the useful life of your investment? Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s start by envisioning the city of the future. Imagine a city with wide sidewalks, lush landscape, and pedestrian-friendly hardscape. All of the acres of pavement used for on-street parking have been converted to public spaces. This will all be possible with the advent of the driverless car.


to prepare for a new world of driverless cars

Two types of self-driving cars exist in this imagined future. Some believe the future will consist of a fleet of taxibots endlessly driving from destination to destination. Others believe that car ownership will remain, as it has for decades, a truly American right. In either case, the automobile industry will be transformed in many ways. Very likely, our nation will consist of a segment of the population who gives up car ownership completely while another segment chooses to own individual self-driving cars. Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s picture it: Your car drives you to work with a quick stop at your favorite coffee shop. Although there are many vehicles on the road, traffic flow is light because all the vehicles are perfectly synced together. During your relaxing commute, you eat a snack, check emails, and call a friend. You are dropped off right at the front door of your office building. parking.org/tpp



Your car parks itself in a nearby parking structure and will wait to pick you up again at the front door when you are ready to return home. Perhaps you don’t even own a car and just jump in the nearest taxibot and let it drive you to and from work. These self-driving taxis are always available to take you where you want to go. To have enough vehicles on the road to accommodate peak demand, there will be many excess cars during off-hours, such as while most of us are asleep. Rather than wasting valuable energy having these vehicles endlessly circling, a new kind of parking structure will be needed. Parking structures will not become a thing of the past but will evolve to meet the changing needs of transportation. As the world of self-driving cars becomes a more practical reality, parking structures will evolve. It’s all about the drop-off! If your car takes you directly to the front door of the facility instead of to the garage, major upgrades to the loading and unloading zone will be required. In a typical office with a 1,000-space garage, approximately half that number of cars might arrive during a peak hour. This means approximately 40 cars will try to drop off their passengers every five minutes. The same idea will apply to retail centers, medical centers, and other buildings. In short, the loading and unloading infrastructures will have to be significantly redesigned to make way for the new era of vehicle use.

Some believe the future will consist of a fleet of taxibots endlessly driving from destination to destination. Others believe that car ownership will remain, as it has for decades, a truly American right. The Parking Structure Driverless cars can drop off and pick up passengers at a passenger loading zone and then proceed to store themselves in the parking structure. This driverless parking will be much more exact than human driving and will not require doors to open while in the parking structure. For these two reasons, much less square footage will be required to park each car. For example, a 2016 Toyota Camry is roughly 6 feet wide. The most common traditional parking space width is 8.5 feet to account for car width, maneuvering room, and door opening. A parking facility designed for driverless cars can streamline some of that space, likely parking five driverless cars in every four traditional parking spaces. This is probably a very low estimate, depending on the development of the cars. Many ideas might lead to even better efficiency; driverless cars might not have side mirrors at all, which would reduce the width needed to



park. Driverless cars might also park in the drive aisle and simply communicate with each other to move out the way when a trapped car needs to exit. The driverless car facility will require less area per parking space. However, it will require a more extensive passenger loading and unloading area closer to the user’s final destination, such as the front of the office building or near stairs and elevators.

The Taxibot Parking Structure If a parking structure is designed purely to serve as taxibot storage, the efficiency will dramatically improve compared with today’s self-park structures. Typical structures today use about 320 square feet for every car, including drive aisles and pedestrian circulation requirements. A “first in, first out” taxibot storage facility could be nearly twice as efficient. Building code issues involving stairs, elevators, lights, and sprinklers have not been resolved, but in theory, some of these elements could be removed from the structure entirely as human beings will not have to be in this building on a regular basis.

The Near Term The question, then, becomes what to do with the extra parking capacity area? You may be able to lease your extra parking area to a taxibot operator or a nearby facility with insufficient parking supply. Maybe a partnership is formed in which a nearby old parking structure is demolished to allow for new development and that parking demand is absorbed into your structure. The extra space could be used for a non-vehicular use. Any facility that is being designed and built in the near future should consider this question. It is prudent to consider building design issues that would be affected by a change in use in the future. As an example, picture a 1,000-space traditional parking facility built today. This type of garage would take approximately 320,000 to 400,000 square feet. For simplicity, assume a 350,000-square-foot parking garage. If five cars can now fit where previously four could, you may have 70,000 square feet of capacity for another use. This is probably a conservative number, as widths of drive aisles and other maneuvering areas can probably be reduced due to vehicle movement accuracy and coordination between vehicles. To make use of this imagined 70,000 square feet, the building will have to be designed and built in such a way that the new use is viable. Here are some design considerations as we enter a potential era of transition from traditional cars to a new paradigm: ●●  Loading and unloading zones will have to be updated. Floor-to-floor height will change. Parking structures generally have a lower ceiling height than uses such as office or lab space. Making an investment in a higher

Residential Office Retail Landscaping Roadway

Today, parking structures are located based on walking distances. In the world of autonomous vehicles, these distances may be increased, as they will be based on driving distances instead.

floor-to-floor height will greatly increase your ability to use your asset in other ways. ●●  Air quality and ventilation will change. We typically spend little time in parking areas, but if the space may become an occupied use, the air supply system must be more robust to allow for a comfortable work space. ●●  Light quality. Depending on the potential use of the space, lighting infrastructure must account for increases in light density and quality. ●●  Egress and pedestrian pathways. The code-defined occupant loads for parking areas can be much less than other uses. The number of and width of egress pathways, stairs, and elevators must account for a future use. This must be carefully considered as the cost of stairs, escalators, and elevators are significant and the space requirements are large. ●●  Vibration and acoustics. Sensitivity to the movement of structural slabs is very low in a traditional parking facility. A little bit of bouncing and noise is not a big deal. However, if the space may become office or lab, this requirement may change dramatically. This issue requires significant study as slab spans, column grids, and concrete thickness are major cost considerations. ●●  Structural loading. Although this seems counterintuitive, vehicle storage loading is actually fairly low. Required structural loading for an office space, for example, might be double that of a parking structure. This is because although vehicles are heavy, they have fairly large footprints. ●●  Plumbing. If a parking area is changed to office or another use, the plumbing for bathrooms, kitchens, or any other common use must be accommodated. ●●  Drainage and floor flatness. Parking structures are generally sloped to drain and are not flat. If this space is to be converted to office, for example, how does the floor become appropriate for that use? Will a new topping parking.org/tpp

slab be added in the future? Can the existing floor be flat, with alternative drainage concepts? ●●  Protection from weather and water infiltration. Parking areas are usually non-sensitive to weather in comparison to other uses. A bit of water leakage or rain in an open parking structure may not be a big deal. If this space is later an office, the water becomes critical. Baseline waterproofing may need to be more robust or a future waterproofing concept may need to be designed. The future of parking structure design will likely include a smaller number of much larger facilities. If our cars are able to park themselves and pick us up at our whim, then localized parking and, more specifically, street parking will become far less important or even obsolete. A very large parking structure, which serves many types of uses, is a much more effective use of land than numerous small parking facilities throughout a neighborhood. The large facility might include robotic parking, standard self-park slabs, or some combination, but in any case will feature a large capacity so that all cars in the area can get themselves off the street. Expanded functionality such as electric charging and vehicle washing are also likely in this type of facility. A world without cars is still a dream, and some are very reluctant to accept a future with computers at the wheel. Last year’s tragedy involving a death of a passenger in an autonomous car adds to the concern, although driving records of test vehicles have been exceptional in general. An urban core with large parking facilities that replace seas of asphalt lots opens up a myriad of exciting urban design possibilities. Because parking structures are such a large investment of money and land, taking some time to consider their evolution is critical to successful land development as we move into the automated driving future.

JESS MCINERNEY, SE, is a principal at Watry Design, Inc. He can be reached at jmcinerney@ watrydesign.com.






he demand for industry-specific professional development continues to grow. The good news: In response, IPI offers a number of face-to-face courses that come directly to you!

IPI experienced a dramatic increase in the number of frontline training courses presented to parking organizations throughout North America in 2016. This is an exciting trend, and we remain committed to partnering with our members so they can reach their organizational professional development goals. Most managers and administrators would give anything to spend less time on issues related to customer complaints and customer conflict. It’s a great goal, but how do you accomplish it? The most effective way is offering training and development to your staff. Frontline staff are frequently the only individuals with whom a customer will interact from your agency. Teaching staff a consistent, professional approach is a positive step to reducing complaints and improving the agencies professional image.

Why Training Matters

CINDY CAMPBELL is IPI’s senior training and development specialist. She is available for onsite training and professional development and can be reached at campbell@parking.org.


We get it—it’s a busy time of year. Who has time to think about staff training, let alone schedule it? Consider this: When you provide training opportunities for your team, they acquire new skills and approaches that can help them be more effective representatives for your organization. There are other benefits to professional development you may not have previously considered: ●●  Improved morale. Individuals who regularly participate in professional development programs are happier at work and more loyal to the organization. The overall morale of the organization improves as does individual self-esteem. Engaged, motivated employees are more likely to stay, reducing employee turnover. ●●  Better productivity/value added. Trained employees are typically more efficient in task completion and can be more responsive and adaptable, adding value and depth to the organization. ●●  Employee independence. Less supervision is needed when employees are self-motivated. ●●  Improved organizational knowledge. Well-trained employees are more prepared to be organizational ambassadors. ●●  Training makes better supervisors and managers. Training can lead to improved opportunities for promotion. Good employees are usually promoted because they show an aptitude for management but must be trained on effective coaching, discipline, and performance-management skills.


You’ve Got Options IPI offers several face-to-face courses designed to assist you in addressing your organizational professional development goals: ●●  Parking Industry Fundamentals for Frontline Staff offers an entry-level overview of the purpose, objectives, and services of parking programs. Topics include current industry technologies, citation review and adjudication processes, and a broader understanding of the role we play in our organizations. ●●  Customer Service provides attendees with basic concepts related to the delivery of customer service. Topics include the dimensions of customer service, customer acknowledgment, effective communication, and techniques that can be applied when interacting with difficult customers. ●●  Conflict Resolution presents attendees with concepts related to workplace conflict. Discussions focus on sources of workplace conflict, personal motivations that contribute to conflict, and an assessment of attendees’ personal communication styles as they relate to conflict. ●●  Tactical Communication 101: Dealing Effectively with Difficult & Aggressive Behavior is an interactive course designed to help defuse and de-escalate conflict. It provides tools to effectively address aggressive behaviors and challenging situations. ●●  Tactical Communication 201: Setting the Tone through Effective Communication is designed to assist frontline staff in the delivery of excellent customer service. Attendees learn more about how their moods may contribute to communication challenges.

One Last Thought Thousands of parking and transportation professionals participated in IPI’s face-to-face training sessions last year. The ability to offer training courses onsite gives you the opportunity to meet your organization’s professional development goals while maintaining sufficient operational staffing for continuity. I encourage you to make the commitment to bring face-to-face training to your organization in 2017. We can help you make this resolution a reality. Let’s chat about it!



YOUR CAPP CREDENTIAL New CAPP Resource Guide and sample CAPP exam questions available today at parking.org!

Have you considered earning your CAPP? It’s the world’s leading credential in parking and a pathway to personal accomplishment and career opportunities. Good news: It’s now more convenient to prepare for the CAPP credential and find an exam testing center near you. Take the first step. Start here: parking.org/CAPP

CAPP is a rigorous certification program that covers seven topic areas: I. General Knowledge II. General Management III. Operations Management IV. Financial and Operational Auditing V. Federal, State, and Local Laws VI. Marketing and Public Relations VII. Analysis and Application of Technology




s many of us rush around trying to meet the immediate needs of our customers, some professionals have been busy figuring out how we are to be successful in a future that seems to be changing overnight. Most parking and transportation professionals have come to grips with the fact that autonomous vehicles are no longer a futuristic fantasy. Many have already pondered how this will change our future plans, how we will need to rethink our strategies, and how all of that will affect the behavior of the customer. Uber and Lyft have become the new way of hailing a ride and have definitely taken a huge bite out of taxi services’ financials. In some cities, Uber and Lyft are restricted from airport pickups, but they’re in full force in many others. Lower costs and greater convenience have won. We have a new behavior from society that is becoming a concern for both the economy and parking agencies. Millennials are defying the traditions of vehicle ownership by choosing not to drive at all—they don’t have to. Instead, they have made it hip to not own a vehicle, in some cases not get a driver’s license, and use transit options that are becoming more and more abundant. Downtown residents have embraced rentals, whether vehicles or bicycles, that are readily available around town. All these changes affect how we plan our budgets and how we change or update our technology, use our equipment, or make plans for our future purchases,



polices, and projects. That is why it is important to be a part of your local regional and state association. As with any association, the Texas Parking and Transportation Association (TPTA) is working aggressively to provide benefits and value to our members that will assist them through education, sharing industry knowledge, and developing their skills.

Strategic Plan In 2016, TPTA developed a strategic plan based on the framework laid out the previous year. The goal was to take our membership a step further by including parking professionals who did not have a local association available to them. Through the insight and coordination of our past president, Liliana Rambo, CAPP, and our current president, Dean Ahmad, our Texas association now reaches out to Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Louisiana. During the past two years, we held several roundtable and networking sessions in Louisiana so professionals

there could attend. These one-day educational and networking seminars are held for the benefit of our members to send their frontline staff, share resources with our professionals, and provide alternatives for those not able to attend the annual conference. Several roundtables and networking sessions were held in 2016, and we have many to plan this year. In addition to these one-day educational resources, TPTA included a networking event the night before the roundtable with additional time to meet and greet members, which is also at no cost to the attendee.

Conference The TPTA Annual 2016 Conference and Tradeshow was held at A&M College Station in April. As always, the A&M Transportation Services team and host committee did an amazing job. In addition, TPTA had the privilege of partnering with the Association for Commuter Transportation’s Red River Chapter. Our conferences are always jam-packed with outstanding presenters, and this year was exceptional. We want to thank all our presenters: ●●  Casey Jones, CAPP, SP+ Corporation, “TaxiBots and AutoVots: What Autonomous Vehicles May Mean for Parking.” ●●  Dr. Richard Goodwin, Fybr, “Smart Cities: The Next Step in Smarter Transportation and Parking.” ●●  Randy Davidson and Justin Tippy, Texas A&M University Transportation Services, “Data Driven Transit.” ●●  Blake Laufer, CAPP, T2 Systems, “Apples to Apples: Standard Measures Yield the Benefits of Benchmarking.” ●●  Cindy Campbell, International Parking Institute, “Tactical Communication: Dealing Effectively with Anger and Off-Topic Dialogue.” ●●  Jeff Nethery, Cale America, Inc., “A Roadmap for EMV Payments and Unattended Terminals.” ●●  Debbie Hoffmann and Doug Williams, Texas A&M University Transportation Services, “Campus Accessibility, Achieving Compliance, Delivering Results.” parking.org/tpp

Michael Uldrich, McCarthy Building Companies, “How to Incorporate Lessons Learned in Construction to Your Next Parking Garage.” ●●  Maira Irshad, CAPP, MA, ParkHouston; Rachel Yoka, CAPP, LEED AP BD+C, International Parking Institute; and Liliana Rambo, CAPP, Winpark, “Accredited Parking Organization: Is Your Organization Up for the Challenge?” ●●  Peter Lange, Texas A&M University Transportation Services, “Parking 2.0: It’s a Connected World.” The closing event was full of A&M tradition and fun. We got a rare up-close-and-personal performance by the Texas A&M University Yell Leaders, who have embodied the unique Aggie Spirit for more than 100 years. The other surprise was the performance of the Aggie Wranglers. After a fun meal and great conversation, we all enjoyed a crazy evening of games. ●●  



Outstanding Project

MARY B. MABRY, CAPP, is product manager, parking solutions, with Cardinal Tracking, Inc. She can be reached at mmabry@ cardinaltracking.com.


TPTA held its Third Annual Awards Competition recognizing outstanding parking-related projects in parking design, equipment, operations, and construction. The Pennsylvania Parking Association Board of Directors judged the entries, and our appreciation goes out to them for their time and professional assistance. The winners in each of the categories were: ●●  Parking Structure New: Chesapeake Energy Corporation Car Park Four, Walker Parking Consultants. ●●  Parking Structure Restoration: Civic Center & Tranquility Underground Parking Garages, Walker Restoration Consultants. ●●  Parking Program: Texas State University Integrated Transportation System, Texas State University. ●●  Parking Technology and Equipment: Co-winners: Smart Connections Project, City of Dallas Police Department and Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport Terminal D Parking Garage Parking Guidance System, Parking Guidance Systems, LLC. ●●  Parking Employee: Co-winners: Lauren Nelson, Winpark; and Reginald Randolph, Houston First Corporation, Theater District Parking. The 2016 Distinguished Service Award was award to Chuck Reedstrom, CAPP, senior practice builder, Kimley-Horn & Associates. Projects for which he has been responsible include the design and implementation of parking revenue control systems; ground transportation systems for controlling and tracking vehicles through hospitals, airports, and large municipal building complexes; and municipal and campus parking guidance systems. Reedstrom has taken his extensive experience and become a leader, not only on a project level, but in the industry. He has been able to transition his project experience into planning mentorship, making his legacy second to none. Read more at texasparking.org.


Our thanks also go out to our vendors and sponsors as TPTA would not be able to provide all these awards, events, and educational sessions if it was not for the support of our valued vendors. 2016 sponsorships included: ●●  Sapphire: Toledo Ticket Company, Associated Time & Parking Controls. ●●  Platinum: ABM Parking Services; Xerox; Parkeon; Linebarger Goggan Blair & Sampson, LLP; Weldon; Williams & Lick, Inc.; WALTER P MOORE; Mitchell Time & Parking, SP+; T2 Systems; Cale America, Inc. ●●  Gold: Walker Parking, Texas Bird Services, WPS USA Corp. ●●  Silver: I3 Concepts, Parkmobile LLC, T2 Systems, New South Parking, TransCore. ●●  Bronze: CivicSmart Inc., Linebarger Goggan Blair & Sampson LLC. ●●  Friend of TPTA: Southland Printing Company, Inc.; NuPark; New South Parking; Weldon; Williams & Lick, Inc.; OTW Safety; Nguni Parking Solutions; Midwest Parking Solutions; Carl Walker; Parkmobile LLC; NuPark. Five new board members were elected along with one returning member. Dean Ahmad, will continue his final year as president, and Peter Lange continues as vice president. Jacob Gonzalez is new to the board and will serve as treasurer, and Maria Irshad, CAPP, also new to the board, will serve as secretary. The past president is Liliana Rambo, CAPP, and at-large directors are Dennis Delaney, CAPP; Marcus Denson; Peter Elliott; Michelle Morris; Paul Stresow; Casey Wagner; and Jane Wilcox. Join us for the 2017 TPTA Conference & Tradeshow in Downtown Fort Worth, April 3–6.

2017 IPI Conference & Expo May 21-24 | New Orleans, La.




potHero announced that Trish Lukasik joined the company as chief operating officer. As COO, Lukasik will focus on accelerating the growth of SpotHero’s parking marketplace. During the past two decades, she built a distinguished career within the consumer packaged goods industry, most recently serving as chief consumer officer for a $10 billion division of PepsiCo with a brand portfolio including Gatorade, Tropicana, Naked Juice, IZZE sparkling beverages, and Quaker Foods and Snacks. Well-versed in solving for consumer needs at scale, Lukasik will apply her consumer expertise to the increasingly diverse transportation space and SpotHero’s drivers and partners as they evolve. “ S p o t He r o nurturing personnel with my deep expertise is experiencing a in enabling organizational growth to help period of dramatic SpotHero provide easy and affordable parking growth, and we are thrilled to have Trish to an expanding number of drivers.” join us as we scale,” says Mark Lawrence, Lukasik serves on the board of Sargento co-founder and CEO of SpotHero. “Trish will Foods and is active in The Chicago Network, use her 20+ years of experience solving for The Executives’ Club of Chicago, The Comreal-world, consumer problems to elevate mittee of 200, and The Economic Club of the online parking marketplace.” Chicago and is a Henry Crown Fellow of the “SpotHero has an incredibly talented team Aspen Institute. She completed her undersolving everyday consumer problems using graduate studies at Miami University and technology,” says Lukasik. “I’m looking forward holds an MBA from the Goizueta Business to combining my passion for building and School of Emory University.

FlexPost Welcomes New People, Products FlexPost, Inc., a manufacturer in flexible and durable signposts and bollards, has added two new members to its teams. In charge of FlexPost’s operations is Michael Thompson. All FlexPost’s shipments, inventory, and receiving will be overseen through Thompson and his team. Before joining FlexPost, Thompson was a photographer for six years. To help with its social media and digital marketing, FlexPost has hired Nathan Long as a marketing intern. Long, a current Hope College student, will focus on building relationships and reaching new audiences through FlexPost’s Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter pages. FlexPost also has introduced two new types of signposts to its product line. The new FlexPost-SM is a lighter-duty version


of the original FlexPost signpost. Although the FlexPost-SM is slightly smaller and lighter, it can offer the same 360-degree impact recovery as the original product. Within the FlexPost-SM product line are guide posts and delineator paddles that showcase the durability and flexibility that FlexPost promises. The new FlexPost-XL is the largest signpost available, and it is comprised of all steel components. The XL version of the signpost is able to withstand the most extreme impacts possible. As with any FlexPost product, these new signposts will remain flexible, durable, and customizable to fit any customer need. FlexPost also offers XL versions of its FlexBollard and FlexBollards with a signpost attachment.

LEARN From Parking Experts and Thought Leaders

Attend diverse and varied education sessions on the most important topics facing today’s parking landscape. With more than 50 education sessions and pre-Conference workshops, you’ll leave with actionable insights and valuable new connections.

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LAZ Parking Chairman & CEO Alan Lazowski Honored


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Dinner, where guest speakers included Katie Couric and Lieutenant-General Romeo Dallaire (Ret), commander of the 2,600-member international peacekeeping force during the Rwandan genocide. The dinner also featured a special tribute to Museum Founding Chairman Elie Wiesel. More than 500 people attended the dinner, which raised $2.6 million to support the museum’s national campaign, Never Again. What You Do Matters, which will ensure that the museum can make the critical investments to keep the Holocaust memory alive as a relevant, transformative force in the 21st century. “Alan is an incredible supporter and advocate for the museum’s mission, and we are proud to recognize him with this honor,” says Andi Barchas, director of the museum’s Northeast regional office. “The commitment of individuals like Alan allows the museum to continue to confront hatred, antisemitism, and genocide today.” “I am humbled by this recognition from the U.S. Holocaust Museum. As the son of Holocaust survivors, it is an honor to


support the museum and to be a part of its valuable cause,” says Lazowski. “The museum is not just a memorial to one of the worst tragedies in history; it exists so that we never forget the atrocities of genocide and work hard to prevent them from happening again.” Lazowski’s parents survived the Nazi occupation of Poland, and the importance of fighting hate was instilled in him at an early age. Rabbi Philip Lazowski, Alan’s father, who narrowly escaped death in Poland as a young man, wrote about his story in Faith and Destiny. Now well-known in the Greater Hartford Jewish community, Philip Lazowski immigrated to America and became a prominent rabbi in Bloomfield, where Alan grew up. A Hartford native, Lazowski co-founded LAZ Parking with two friends in 1981. LAZ Parking is the second largest and fastest growing parking company in the United States. In 2014, President Obama appointed Lazowski to the museum’s Memorial Council, where he serves on the education committee.


HE UNITED STATES HOLOCAUST Memorial Museum has honored Alan Lazowski, chairman and CEO of LAZ Parking and member of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Council, with its National Leadership Award for his dedication to the museum and its mission against genocide. The award was presented at the museum’s annual “What You Do Matters” New York Tribute

2017 IPI Conference & Expo May 21-24 | New Orleans, La.



IRCONTROL, which manufactures parking technology that includes electric vehicle chargers, recently announced its reorganization into two divisions. CirPark, the division dedicated to mobility and efficiency in car parks, and CirCarLife, dedicated manufacturer of electric vehicle charging stations, will be two independent divisions with complete

equipment dedicated to the product design and commercialization. This change aims to offer more innovative products, adapted to the needs of the market by providing the divisions with a more specialized staff. This internal division does not intend to untie the two different teams; on the contrary, it aims to make them work together to achieve a better and more specialized final service. CirCarLife will continue developing products that fit all market needs by offering a wider range of charging solutions and load management systems, a key point in a growing market such as emobility. CirPark will continue to innovate to achieve an increasingly efficient global car park management system that integrates traffic management, lighting, and software.



ASHINGTON DULLES International Airport, ranked as the 28th busiest airport in the United States, recently awarded HUB Parking Technology the contract to update and replace its parking access and revenue control system. There are five parking facilities at the airport with more than 23,000 parking spaces serving both transient and contract parkers. The PARC system will comprise 82 lanes of HUB equipment, including 19 entry stations, 24 express exit stations, 10 fee computers, and 15 credit-card-only, pay-on-foot paystations. An extensive LPR system will include two cameras per lane, allowing for post-capture at entry and pre-capture at exit. Together with handheld LPI units and LPR-equipped


vehicles, the LPR System will enhance customer service and enable accurate entry times for lost tickets. A level count system utilizing variable message signs at the main entries of each parking garage, as well as level counts within the garages, will help customers find available parking spaces quickly. Serving over 21.5 million passengers annually, the Washington Dulles International Airport will utilize an integrated parking reservations and pre-booking system to provide greater service and convenience to its customers. This program is integrated with the HUB Parking Technology parking management system, which will control any additional revenue collection that is required and all reports.

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University Boulevard in Tucson powered by the sun, communicate with a computerized central management system, and allow customers multiple means of payment, including the new GoTucson app. ●●  Collaborated with Sun Link and Sun Tran to expand Park Tucson’s parking meter payment app, GoTucson, to include streetcar and bus fare purchases. GoTucson is the first app in the world to allow customers to pay for both parking and transit. ●●  Collaborated with the Fourth Avenue Merchants Association, individual businesses, and three adjacent neighborhood associations to install smart meters in the Fourth Avenue Business District—the first meters ever to be installed there. ●●  Collaborated with the city’s finance and information technology departments and court to implement a new hardware and software enforcement system that allows the division to collect fines through multiple payment options. This new system also contributed to the mayor and council’s reduction of all parking ticket fines by 29 to 34 percent by allowing Park Tucson to collect on-time payments and not charge processing fees. ●●  Collaborates with the City of Tucson Economic Initiatives Office, Visit Tucson, and Gem Show operators to bring a seamless parking and shuttle system (GemRide) to buyers and sellers at Tucson’s largest economic event, the Tucson Gem, Mineral, and Fossil Showcase. Conveniently located parking is linked to the shuttle system, which has seen steady increases in ridership each year since its launch in 2012. ●●  Collaborates with representatives of its 15 neighborhoods that participate in its residential parking permit program, as well as businesses, Tucson Unified School District, and the University of Arizona, through a task force process to develop recommendations for improving the program, including strategies for making better use of restricted parking areas near business districts. The Metropolitan Pima Alliance is dedicated to advocating responsible development in the Pima County metropolitan area and furthering the interests of the real estate and development industry through education, public policy advocacy, and networking.


ARK TUCSON, the City of Tucson’s parking division, was the recipient of a 2016 Common Ground Award from the Metropolitan Pima Alliance (MPA) at MPA’s 12th annual Common Ground Awards ceremony. The awards recognize community leaders, development projects, and special programs that succeed by overcoming great obstacles through collaboration. Park Tucson won for collaborating to promote economic development in Tucson’s emerging urban center. Park Tucson collaborated with a host of organizations, neighborhoods, businesses, and individuals to improve and communicate the availability, convenience, and value of city-managed parking in Tucson’s urban center; become more financially sustainable; and enforce parking regulations in a manner that complements and supports the downtown’s economic resurgence and growing popularity. Park Tucson: ●●  Overhauled the access and revenue control systems at its five public garages, creating a simplified, more convenient and customer-oriented garage parking system. ●●  Replaced outdated coin-only parking meters in the downtown area and university/main gate areas with smart meters that are

WALTER P MOORE Appoints New Leaders Of Award-Winning Parking Group


ALTER P MOORE recently announced that Brian Lozano, an 18-year industry veteran, will lead the firm-wide parking services group. In a simultaneous announcement, Armen Megerdoomian was named leader of the firm’s West Coast parking services practice.

A principal of the firm, Lozano has been instrumental in the growth of the firm’s parking services team into one of the industry’s strongest. He has established a reputation as an expert in creating parking solutions across

a variety of sectors, including health care, aviation, sports and entertainment, municipal, and mixed-use projects. “Our parking solutions are intertwined with many of our other services, including traffic, structural engineering, and structural diagnostics. We take a holistic, lifecycle approach to each project, benefiting owners, operators, and end users alike,” says Lozano. Megerdoomian joined WALTER P MOORE last fall and helped establish the firm’s parking presence on the West Coast. He has 21 years of diversified parking experience in all market sectors with a specialty in the design of parking structures for major mixed use developments. He is a sought-after speaker and noted author on a wide variety of parking topics. “Parking is the first and last experience for patrons who drive to almost any event or appointment— and we believe it should be a good one,” he says. “Savvy owners understand that parking cannot be overlooked and may drive major development decisions.”

SOUTHAMPTON CITY COUNCIL DEPLOYS NEW VEHICLE THE SOUTHAMPTON CITY COUNCIL in England took delivery of a new Videalert mobile enforcement vehicle to support multiple traffic enforcement and community safety applications simultaneously. It

will be used in conjunction with Videalert’s hosted Digital Video Platform that was recently installed as part of a project to introduce closed-circuit television enforcement of bus lanes in key areas of the city. According to John Harvey, highway manager at Southampton City Council, “This new vehicle is easy and cost effective to deploy as it integrates with our existing Videalert enforcement infrastructure. It parking.org/tpp

will be used strategically across the city to enforce a range of parking contraventions and to enhance community safety.” The vehicle will patrol the city targeting vehicles that stop unlawfully outside schools. It will also be used to enforce parking regulations at bus stops. It features a roof-mounted Pan/ Tilt/Zoom camera and two roof-mounted cameras that provide ANPR and color image capture for evidence collection. Evidence packs will be downloaded from a USB for access and review by trained council operators prior to sending confirmed offenses to the back office processing system for the issuance of PCNs. Videalert provides a quick and easy three-click process to review evidence packs and produce PCNs. The packs are automatically created, including still images and video footage comprising contextual information and close-ups of appropriate signage in the vicinity of the offense. Operators just have to validate number plates before exporting complete evidence packs to the back office PCN processing system.

2017 IPI Conference & Expo May 21-24 | New Orleans, La.


By Exploring an Expo Full of Solutions

2017 7

Learning doesn’t end in the classroom. Vendors bring the most exciting products, solutions, and technology to the IPI Expo, including the latest in enforcement, design and building materials, vehicles, communications, on- and off-street necessities, green parking resources, and much more!

Last chance to register! IPIConference.parking.org


Westfalia Technologies, Inc. Announces Website to Highlight Parking Solutions WESTFALIA TECHNOLOGIES, INC. recently announced the launch of WestfaliaParking.com, highlighting its newest automated parking solution that was developed through a global partnership with sister company Westfalia Europe and parking solutions innovator AutoPark. Together, these industry leaders are combining their product offerings and developing fourth-generation equipment and software for fully automated parking systems across North America, South America, Europe, and Asia. The new website explains in detail how Westfalia’s parking solutions help meet increasing demand by providing an aesthetically appealing and environmentally friendly alternative to traditional parking garages.

Dan Labell, president of Westfalia Technologies, Inc., says, “The growing number of vehicles on the road combined with limited space availability, especially in urban areas, has created a need for parking garages to have greater storage density. Automated parking systems meet this need while reducing the land required to build a new garage, which also lessens the impact on the surrounding environment.” Westfalia’s parking solutions will use Savanna.NET® Parking Control System software to manage the movement of vehicles within garages. These solutions will increase parking capacity while using less square footage than a conventional parking garage by replacing traditional ramps with automated lifts and reducing

the internal circulation space. Westfalia manufactures both pallet and non-pallet parking systems, although non-pallet, or palletless, systems are gaining popularity due to the elimination of empty pallet handling and the reliability of the technology. The palletless parking system uses technology to adjust to the length of the car’s wheelbase, allowing the system to handle multiple car sizes. Unlike pallet-supported systems, the palletless system transports the vehicle into the parking garage and positions it on a concrete slab or deck. Palletless parking systems have the flexibility to be constructed using either concrete or steel, depending on the location, which can reduce construction costs.

Introducing IPI’s Menu of Trainings: Customer Service, Conflict Resolution, Tactical Communication, and Parking Fundamentals. Lock in 2016 rates for face-to-face training now! Book by Jan.15th, pay less, and advance your team. Go to parking.org/train-on for more information and start the conversation today!




Miami-Dade County, GSA Bill Dickenson

University of Nebraska, Lincoln Daniel Carpenter

Valet Park of America Ted Chagnon

City of El Paso Paul Stresow

York University Safety, Security & Parking Darren Craig

The Car Park Sarah Hill

City of Charlottesville Rick Siebert



AGA Consulting, Inc. William Gmiterko

ZipBy LLC Greg Parzych

20/20 Parking Consultants, LLC James Maglothin

Canada Ticket Inc. Steve Wengrowich


Universal Boot Inc. Oliver Dumoulin

Florida International University Lissette Hernandez

CampusParc Sarah Blouch

Bosch Steffen Zacharias

Old Dominion University Transportation and Parking Services Scott Silsdorf

Disneyland Resort Kevin Gidden

AWID, Inc. Kyle John


Daktronics, Inc. Jody Huntimer

Green Bay Parking System Division Christopher Pirlot

Q-Free TCS Renate Vogel

Park Plymouth John Burke

MobileNOW! John Oglesby

City of Edmonton Bohdan Maslo

National Car Charging James Burness

County of Alameda GSA Angel Gonzales

SB Ballard Construction Company Candy Hennig

University of North Carolina At Greensboro Robert Walker University of Wisconsin, La Crosse Victor Hill University Of MD, Baltimoreâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Parking & Transportation Services Robert Milner

Grant MacEwan University James MacDonald University of Texas, Arlington Adam Kaufman University of Houston Robert Browand Northern Arizona University Erin Stam University of Louisiana, Lafayette Stuart Glaeser

AIRPORT Portland International Airport Michael Huggins

District of Columbia DOT Evian Patterson City of Beverly Hills Chad Lynn Stationnement De Montreal Charles Auger

TRANSIT/ TRANSPORTATION Minnesota Department of Transportation Lisa Austin

Charlottesville Parking Center Inc. Katie Beazley






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IPS Group Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C2 ipsgroupinc.com | 858.404.0607

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CHANCE Management Advisors. . . . . . . . . . .61 chancemanagement.com | 215.564.6464

Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc.. . . . . . . .5, 61 kimley-horn.com/parking | 919.653.6646

TIBA Parking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 tibaparking.com | 770.491.7586

DESMAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 desman.com | 877.337.6260

MITI Manufacturing Co., Inc... . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 mitico.com | 866.545.6484

Timothy Haahs & Associates, Inc. . . . . . . . . .60 timhaahs.com | 484.342.0200

EDC Corporation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 aimsparking.com | 800.886.6316

ParkingSoft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 parkingsoft.com | 877.884.PARK

Toledo Ticket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C4 toledoticket.com | 800.533.6620

IntegraPark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C3 integrapark.com | 888.852.9993

POM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 pom.com | 800.331.PARK

WALTER P MOORE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 walterpmoore.com | 800.364.7300

International Parking Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 ipd-global.com | 877.437.7275

Rich & Associates, Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 richassoc.com | 248.353.5080


JIM BASS is landside operations manager at the Bill and Hillary Clinton National Airport, Little Rock, Ark. He can be reached at jbass@fly-lit.com or 501.537.7354.



Highlighted are IPI and IPI Allied State and Regional Association Events


2017 March 13–15

May 21–24

September 27–29

Mid-South Transportation & Parking Association Annual Conference and Tradeshow Knoxville, Tenn. mstpa.org

2017 IPI Conference & Expo New Orleans, La. ipiconference.parking.org

Carolinas Parking Association Annual Conference & Tradeshow Asheville, N.C. carolinasparking.org

April 3–4 New England Parking Council Spring Conference & Tradeshow Boston, Mass. newenglandparkingcouncil.org

April 3–6 Texas Parking and Transportation Association Conference and Tradeshow Fort Worth, Texas texasparking.org

April 5-6 Cleveland Clinic CARES about Parking 2017 Symposium Cleveland, Ohio

April 26–28 Parking Association of Georgia Conference Buford, Ga. parkingassociationofgeorgia.com

April 28 Parking Association of the Virginias Spring Workshop Fredericksburg, Va. pavonline.org


June 14–15 Southwest Parking and Transportation Association Reno, Nev. www.southwestparking.org

July 12 -14 Pacific Intermountain Parking and Transportation Association Tacoma, Wash. pipta.org

September 11–13

October 10–13 New York State Parking Association Silver Anniversary Albany, N.Y. nyspa.net

October 17–20 Canadian Parking Association Annual Conference Banff, Alberta, Canada canadianparking.ca

Southwest Parking and Transportation Association Annual Fall Conference Las Vegas, Nev. southwestparking.org

November 15-17

September 20–22

December 5–7

GPALs Summit at the Eurpoean Parking Association Rotterdam, Netherlands parking.org/gpals

Florida Parking Association Conference & Tradeshow Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. flparking.org

California Public Parking Association Annual Conference Monterey, Calif. cppaparking.org

September 27–29 Pennsylvania Parking Association 2017 Annual Conference & Expo Erie, Pa. paparking.org




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Profile for International Parking & Mobility Institute

The Parking Professional January 2017  

The Parking Professional January 2017