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First Look at Industry Trends 34


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INTERNATIONAL PARKING & MOBILITY INSTITUTE AUGUST 2021 VOL. 3 / N0. 8

FEATURES

24

Adaptive Reuse: Short-term ROI or Long-term Investment?

Two approaches to looking at the cost of future adaptive reuse when considering a new parking structure. By Jess McInerney and Matt Davis

30

Why Cities Need Better Curbside Data

COVID-19 changed everything on the street. The future needs more, and it’s all about the data. By Adam Wenneman

34

Electrifying

Experts talk about electric vehicles, charging, parking and mobility, and the future of the industry.

42

Wherever I May Roam

The parking industry is facing big change, but your organization can make the most of it with some simple changes to thinking. Just follow the music. By Katherine Beaty

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/ EDITOR’S NOTE DEPARTMENTS 4 ENTRANCE More Choices Than Ever By Gary Means, CAPP

6 5 THINGS Free DEI Resources 8 THE BUSINESS OF PARKING Protecting Parking Patrons’ Personally Identifiable Information By Michael Ash, Esq., CRE

10 THE GREEN STANDARD Where Is My Happy City? By Sam Veraldi, CAPP

12 MOBILITY & TECH Life After COVID By Roamy Valera, CAPP

16 DIVERSITY, EQUITY, & INCLUSION Anti-racism at Work: Honesty, Support, and Commitment By Reachel Knight

18 PARKING & MOBILITY SPOTLIGHT Adapting to the New Normal of Shuttle Service By Stan Bochniak and Jim Norris

22 ASK THE EXPERTS 47 IN SHORT 49 AROUND THE INDUSTRY 52 PARKING & MOBILITY CONSULTANTS 54 CALENDAR 56 ADVERTISERS INDEX 57 IN CASE YOU MISSED IT

Going Electric OUR LAWNMOWER ENGINE is making terrible sounds

all of a sudden. It’s pretty old and its value is less than the cost to fix it, so we’ll probably be shopping in the not-too-distant future. And thanks to advances in battery range and effectiveness, it’s realistic to expect we’ll buy an electric machine. Even a year ago, I’m not sure we’d head in that direction, but the technology has come an amazingly long way and an electric lawnmower is more than enough to take care of my little, suburban yard. Now that we’re both permanently working from home at least some of the time, I’m confident we’ll make a similar decision for our next car. I’m seeing electric vehicle chargers everywhere—my bank has two, my grocery store has four, the county parking garage near our favorite restaurants has a whole bunch, and our newest town center has a row in each of its three garages. More and more home garages in my neighborhood glow blue at night with Tesla charging and it’s not at all unusual to see cars plugged in when we’re walking through town. What seemed like something out of the Jetsons a decade ago is happening and happening fast, thanks in large part to the parking industry. Experts from IPMI’s Planning, Design, and Construction Committee address the big questions about EV charging, the industry, and the future in this issue, starting on p. 34. Their individual perspectives are fascinating and together, offer something of a guide to planning for an electric transportation future—cars to buses and transit and beyond. I learned quite a bit and hope you will too. Thanks to them for participating. We also address diversity, equity, and inclusion in this issue with an eye-opening column on p. 16 and our Ask the Experts department on p. 22. It’s a brain-stretching topic that can be uncomfortable, but it’s important that we all keep growing going forward. I’m proud to work in an industry whose members are doing just that and I look forward to hearing and learning more in the months and years ahead. I’d be remiss not to remind you registration is open for the 2021 IPMI Parking & Mobility Conference & Expo, Nov. 29 - Dec. 3, in Tampa, Fla. We’ll have a lot more to share there and I can’t wait to see you. Capacity is, of course, limited and I encourage you to save your spot sooner rather than later. With that, it’s time to cut the grass. Again. Thanks for reading. Until next month…

Kim Fernandez, CAE, editor fernandez@parking-mobility.org

PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG / AUGUST 2021 / PARKING & MOBILITY 3


/ ENTRANCE

More Choices Than Ever

PUBLISHER

Shawn Conrad, CAE

By Gary Means, CAPP

conrad@parking-mobility.org EDITOR

Kim Fernandez, CAE

fernandez@parking-mobility.org TECHNICAL EDITOR

Rachel Yoka, CAPP, LEED AP BD+C, yoka@parking-mobility.org CONTRIBUTING EDITOR

Bill Smith, APR

bsmith@smith-phillips.com

Tina Altman

taltman@parking-mobility.org PUBLICATION DESIGN

BonoTom Studio

info@bonotom.com For subscription changes, contact Tina Altman, taltman@parking-mobility.org or 888.IPMI.NOW. Parking & Mobility (ISSN 0896-2324 & USPS 001436) is published monthly by the International Parking & Mobility Institute. P.O. Box 3787 Fredericksburg, VA 22402 Phone: 888.IPMI.NOW Fax: 703.566.2267 Email: info@parking-mobility.org Website: parking-mobility.org Postmaster note: Send address label changes promptly to: Parking & Mobility P.O. Box 3787 Fredericksburg, VA 22402 Interactive electronic version of Parking & Mobility for members and subscribers only at parking-mobility. org/magazine. Periodical postage paid at Alexandria, Va., and additional mailing offices. Copyright © International Parking & Mobility Institute, 2020. Statements of fact and opinion expressed in articles contained if Parking & Mobility are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent an official expression of policy or opinion on the part of officers or the members of IPMI. Manuscripts, correspondence, articles, product releases, and all contributed materials are welcomed by Parking & Mobility; however, publication is subject to editing, if deemed necessary to conform to standards of publication. The subscription rate is included in IPMI annual dues. Subscription rate for non-members of IPMI is $120 per year (U.S. currency) in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. All other countries, $150. Back issues, $10. Parking & Mobility is printed on 10 percent recycled paper and on paper from trees grown specifically for that purpose.

I

T IS AN EXCITING TIME in the parking and mobility space. Now more

than ever before, we have so many choices of hardware, software, services and support for our organizations and operations.

There was a time not too long ago that I would have categorized certain potential improvements or enhancements as no-brainers. For instance, parking facility lighting. If you own or operate parking facilities, it has been a no-brainer to upgrade your lighting system to LED or at least to more efficient fluorescent lighting—otherwise, you have left lots of money on the table. Or how about collections? If you do not have an agreement with some sort of professional collections company, you are leaving a lot of money out there. What about equipment upgrades? If your PARCS equipment or meters are more than 10 years old, it may be a no-brainer to upgrade or replace. Service calls, maintenance, repairs, and even a lack of customer service is probably costing you, and the ROI on replacement is probably a no-brainer. The examples above are pretty straightforward and really do not require a lot of analysis other than actual selection of the vendor, supplier, or product. Today, we have so many choices and options. What about apps? Text-to-pay? Software systems? Touchless options? Gateless? Frictionless? Asset-light? Curb management? Data analytics? Business intelligence? Artificial intelligence? Camera or sensor? Lions? Tigers? Bears? Ok, the list could go on though, right? How do

4 PARKING & MOBILITY / AUGUST 2021 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

we know what’s right for our own operations? I have a few suggestions for you: ■  Take the Call. When a new vendor or supplier reaches out to you, take the call, open the email, set up a demo. Try to learn as much as you can about what is out there, what is on the horizon, how this product or service could assist your organization. ■  Go to the Conference. Kick the tires. Several of the state and regional associations have scheduled in-person conferences this year. At IPMI, we are super excited about our first in-person in nearly two years, Nov. 29–Dec. 2, in Tampa, Fla. (register here). ■  Try a PIlot Program. If you are interested but want to know more about a product or service, try a pilot program. It gives you a chance to test drive something without a long-term commitment. We have lots and lots of amazing vendors, suppliers, and consultants in our great industry who can help walk you through all the choices. I wish you all the best. ◆ GARY MEANS, CAPP, is executive director of the Lexington, Ky., Parking Authority and a member of IPMI’s Board of Directors. He can be reached at gmeans@lexpark.org.

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IPMI’S DEI offerings range from Frontline Fundamentals courses to written resources. Visit the Resource Center and search “diversity” and keep an eye on the association calendar for upcoming events.

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LINKEDIN offers a host of free, online courses on a variety of DEI topics, from unconscious bias to managing a diverse team and almost everything in between. Offered on-demand, they’re available here.

The U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR’s Diversity and Inclusion website offers a host of resources designed to help businesses and their leaders grow DEI efforts, from recruitment to retirement and everything in between. Access them here.

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MIT HUMAN RESOURCES. MIT offers a whole webpage listing free DEI resources that can be used in all sorts of organizations. While they were designed for use at the university, many are applicable to companies of all sizes and kinds.


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/ THE BUSINESS OF PARKING /LEGAL

Protecting Parking Patrons’ Personally Identifiable Information By Michael J. Ash, Esq., CRE

P

ARKING PAYMENT TECHNOLOGY HAS ADVANCED from the spare change in your wallet to an

In the digital realm, protected personally identifiable inStoring Information formation (PII) includes names, license plate numbers, email The treatment and storage of PII is highly regulated at the addresses, phone numbers, vehicle nicknames, passwords, federal level. A digital service provider has an obligation to and home addresses. Hackers and digital scammers spend reasonably handle consumer data and to use reasonable a lot of time and effort atdata security measures under the tempting to infiltrate digital Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act’s impleplatforms to steal PII for menting regulations, 16 C.F.R. § criminal enterprise, resulting 314 (the “Safeguards Rule”), which in billions of dollars of losses “sets forth standards for develdue to identity theft and oping, implementing, and mainfraud. The failure to propertaining reasonable administrative, ly secure customer PII can technical, and physical safeguards create liability to a digital to protect the security, confidenservice provider for reckless tiality, and integrity of customer or negligent disclosure. information” and “applies to the Individuals have a right to handling of customer information privacy. To protect individual by all financial institutions[.]” 16 privacy rights, most jurisC.F.R. § 314.1(a)-(b). dictions throughout the U.S. The Safeguards Rule “applies The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) recognize four common law to all customer information in [a has concluded that a company’s failure financial institution’s] possession, invasion of privacy claims: ■  Appropriation of likeness. to maintain reasonable and appropriate regardless of whether such infor■  Intrusion on solitude mation pertains to individuals with data security for consumers’ sensitive or seclusion. whom [a financial institution has] a personal information is an “unfair ■  Public disclosure of customer relationship, or pertains private facts. to the customers of other financial practice” in violation of the FTC Act. ■  False light. institutions that have provided In addition to the criminal fraud that results from illegally such information to [the subject financial institution].” 16 disclosed PII, consumers may also spend precious time and C.F.R. § 314.1(b). The Safeguards Rule requires financial instimoney trying to resolve identity theft issues. When digital tutions and entities who act on behalf of financial institutions security breaches occur and become disclosed to the conto “develop, implement, and maintain a comprehensive inforsumers, class action litigation can arise to seek damages for mation security program that is written in one or more readthe improper dissemination of PII. ily accessible parts and contains administrative, technical,

8 PARKING & MOBILITY / AUGUST 2021 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

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app on your phone hosted in the cloud. Digital parking apps and services provide ease and convenience to both parties to a digital parking transaction. However, while feeding quarters in a parking meter is a rather anonymous transaction, the use of a digital platform for a parking transaction requires a user to provide, and a company to store, personal and financial information of its users. This creates a duty for parking technology providers to properly secure and safeguard highly valuable, protected personally identifiable information.


When digital security breaches occur and become disclosed to the consumers, class action litigation can arise to seek damages for the improper dissemination of personally identifiable information.

and physical safeguards that are appropriate to [the financial institution’s] size and complexity, the nature and scope of [the financial institution’s] activities, and the sensitivity of any customer information at issue.” 16 C.F.R. § 314.3(a). Violations of digital safeguards are also monitored and regulated by federal law. Generally, companies are prohibited by the Federal Trade Commission Act, 15 U.S.C. § 45 (“FTC Act”) from engaging in “unfair or deceptive acts or practices in or affecting commerce.” The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has concluded that a company’s failure to maintain reasonable and appropriate data security for consumers’ sensitive personal information is an “unfair practice” in violation of the FTC Act.

confidentiality, and integrity of customer information that could result in the unauthorized disclosure, misuse, alteration, destruction or other compromise of such information, and assess the sufficiency of any safeguards in place to control these risks. At a minimum, such a risk assessment should include consideration of risks in each relevant area of your operations, including employee training and evaluation of information systems to prevent and respond to intrusions. ◆ MICHAEL J. ASH, Esq., CRE, is partner with Carlin & Ward. He can be reached at michael.ash@ carlinward.com.

Best Practices The FTC has promulgated numerous guides for businesses that highlight the importance of implementing reasonable data security practices. According to the FTC, the need for data security should be factored into all business decision-making. The FTC provided cybersecurity guidelines for businesses, advising that businesses should protect personal customer information, properly dispose of personal information that is no longer needed, encrypt information stored on networks, understand their network’s vulnerabilities, and implement policies to correct any security problems. The FTC further recommends that companies not maintain PII longer than needed for authorization of a transaction; limit access to private data; require complex passwords to be used on networks; use industry-tested methods for security; monitor for suspicious activity on the network; and verify that third-party service providers have implemented reasonable security measures. In addition to potential civil liability from a consumer PII breach, the FTC may bring an enforcement action against a business for failing to adequately and reasonably protect customer data, treating the failure to employ reasonable and appropriate measures to protect against unauthorized access to confidential consumer data. Orders resulting from these actions further clarify the measures businesses must take to meet their data security obligations. Digital providers should take the guidance from federal regulators to operate with best practices to identify reasonably foreseeable internal and external risks to the security,

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/ THE GREEN STANDARD

Where is My Happy City? By Sam Veraldi, CAPP

H

appy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design, by Charles Montgomery is one of my favorite books. The general theme of Happy City is that happiness and renewed interest in urban life could be linked together. After many decades of urban sprawl, people are becoming more inclined to move back to the city. Our heavy dependence on automobiles during the last 70 years has created congestion, an over-reliance on multi-lane highways and overbuilt parking structures, and a migration away from the urban core. Higher density in urban development has been described as the savior for our future because research points to the simple fact that urban sprawl is unsustainable. In Happy City, Montgomery focuses on linking happiness and urban design. On the happiness side, he concludes that people are relatively poor at making choices that maximize their well-being. On the urban design side, he points out the powerful influence city design has on people’s moods and behaviors. City planners and developers need to pay attention to the research on what creates happiness to design cities that enhance the satisfaction of those who reside in them. It’s our job—the American public—to help planners and developers understand this critical concept.

Commutes and Happiness Montgomery suggests that those who have a 90-minute, one-way commute experience less happiness and feel that they have an inferior quality of life. At one point in my life, my round-trip commute was three hours—on a good day. While I loved the location of our home, my commute was miserable every day. Each commute was capped off with making it home so late and so exhausted, that I couldn’t even enjoy the beautiful home we had. And yet, there I was the next day doing it all over again. It is not that Montgomery is sug-

gesting people shouldn’t have long commutes, but rather that planners and developers should concentrate on constructing properties closer to the city. He favors a connected life—one that incorporates the research-backed belief that green space should be an important part of design criteria, not an optional luxury. As Montgomery says, “It is part of a healthy human habitat.” Green space invites people to establish casual and regular relationships with others they meet through proximity. It doesn’t have to be in large examples like Central Park, but more in pocket parks and green strips that provide pedestrians with mental refreshers on their daily trips around the city. This isn’t a new concept. It was in the writings of Aristotle 2,400 years ago. It was in the words of Jane Jacobs when she spoke about her neighborhood in the early 1960s. In Happy City, Montgomery cites a study in the mid-1990s conducted in a low-rise social housing complex in Chicago by two environmentalist psychologists, Francis Ming Kuo and William Sullivan, who found that no one would hang around in barren courtyards. In stark contrast, green courtyards—no matter how well kept—always remained

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active. In addition, the study concluded that those who lived around the greener courtyards were happier, friendlier, and less prone to violence than those who lived in the barren courtyards.

Case Studies Vancouver Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada has an urban core of a 20-block peninsula that is bound on two sides by the sea and capped by the magnificent rain forest of Stanley Park. Since the late 1980s, more than 150 residential towers have been developed with Vancouver’s population nearly doubling between 1991 and 2005. Vancouverites rushed back downtown at a time when their American counterparts to the south fled to suburbia. Vancouver consistently ranks as one of the best places to live by Forbes and Mercer and has the lowest carbon footprint of any major city on the continent. One of the key attributes of the downtown area is that it faces the north and west to capture the beauty of the mountains, rainforest, and ocean instead of buildings or the sun—which only appears occasionally through a steady flow of rain clouds each year.


The University of Florida Montgomery’s love for green and connected design can also be seen on college campuses. The University of Florida is planning to close off the center of campus to create a “connected” environment. One location named Innovation Square will serve as a pivotal location for the campus and city of Gainesville by “connect[ing] people to Tumblin Creek Park while also reinforcing the east/west movement between the campus and downtown via a green corridor with active ground floor uses and a pedestrian- and bike-friendly streetscape.” The site is intended to be mixed use with large research and office buildings sharing land with proposed residential buildings fronting 4th Avenue that step down in height as they approach 6th Avenue, as well as border neighborhoods that will keep the area active at night. On another section of campus, where University Avenue is the primary urban corridor connecting downtown Gainesville to the University of Florida, a new mixed-use project with four to five stories atop retail and restaurants fronting tree-lined side-

walks could attract a wide range of visitors. According to the university, it will offer “a more continuous and generous street front with fewer curb cuts that will promote an attractive and safe pedestrian experience.” Montgomery states that, “The well-designed city offers a thrilling new freedom to choose how to move and how to live. It manifests that ineffable, but undeniably good, feeling we all get when we know we are most truly alive.” As an urban planner, I am truly excited about examples of this being replicated in other municipalities and universities. I know there are more of these initiatives across the country at this very moment, and I am eager to learn about more. My Happy City awaits! ◆ SAM VERALDI, CAPP, is senior strategic policy strategics with TransLoc and a member of IPMI’s Sustainability Committee. He can be reached at sam. veraldi@transloc.com.

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/ MOBILITY & TECH

Life After COVID By Roamy Valera, CAPP

L

IFE WON’T BE THE SAME POST-COVID, particularly when it comes to curb management. After more

than a year of social distancing, and with many more months of it likely, people aren’t in a rush to huddle together with others outside their immediate social circles. When it comes to transportation, that means fewer people will be taking public transit and carpooling for the foreseeable future. Instead, they’ll be commuting in their personal vehicles. Transportation planners have even coined a term for the impending trend: carpocalypse. One study by researchers at Vanderbilt University predicts that there could be 5.5 to 6 million additional cars on American roads and highways post-COVID. The focus of the Vanderbilt study was on increased commute times, but the implications are just as dire for mobility and curb management. When you introduce so many additional cars and trucks onto city streets, curb management becomes that much more important and challenging. City administrators, transportation and parking planners, and cities’ parking industry partners need to prepare for this new reality now. One of the challenges we’ll face in managing the curb the next few years is that curb management begins with transportation demand management (TDM). Simply put, it will be more difficult to rely on TDM to manage the curb if fewer people are willing to take public transit or carpool.

Technology is Key The key to managing the curb will be found in technology— mobile parking technology in particular. Cities like Detroit (see Parking & Mobility’s November cover story on Detroit) are rolling out apps designed to promote mobility, and one of the most important elements of those services is the parking guidance function that shows drivers in real time where parking is currently available and how much it will cost. Detroit is at the forefront of this movement, but other cities across the U.S. are readying their own apps. Mobile technology can connect people to all elements of the parking and mobility experience, and it is the bridge to these new smart city mobility apps. It gives people control over their route and transportation via GPS and mapping apps, and once

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A whole

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One of the challenges we’ll face in managing the curb the next few years is that curb management begins with transportation demand management. Simply put, it will be more difficult to rely on TDM to manage the curb if fewer people are willing to take public transit or carpool.

the driver arrives at his or her destination, it provides the most convenient payment option. In the coming months, these benefits will be more essential than ever to managing the curb because, by making it easier to find available parking, they dramatically reduce the number of cars and trucks circling blocks looking for a space. In addition to reducing roadway congestion, this minimizes the chance that drivers will misuse curb space that’s intended for drop-offs and pick-ups or deliveries. Payment is considered a major pain point for drivers. In the age of connectivity, drivers want to park and pay quickly and simply via mobile phone without any route deviation. Mobile payment platforms reduce the friction by allowing drivers to pay with their cell phones, extend time remotely, and receive smart parking reminders. They help ease drivers’ commutes, prevents them from waiting in line at a payment machine, and provides a better, more convenient experience. Mobile technology will be all the more important during the next few months, when parking demand is highest, because it’s available now, without having to develop costly new infrastructure. Mobile technology provides control over one’s mobility but also gives urban planners insight into how the curbside value can be optimized. It provides convenience, connectivity, and reliability for drivers and smart cities alike. Technology synergies between infrastructure and mobile payment reduce the friction for cities and

towns by providing an asset-light solution that provides long-term benefits in terms of cost, longevity, and valuable data allowing operators to optimize on rates. Of course, mobile technology will continue to play an important role for many years to come. Looking to the future, mobile payment technology will continue to be vital to the success of smart cities and smart parking as they evolve in the coming decades. It won’t be long before vehicles will be able to accommodate these new city mobility apps on their dashes, just as they offer GPS, Apple CarPlay, and Android Auto. When it comes to mobile payment, several luxury vehicle brands are already preparing to offer mobile payment technology in their vehicles. With this technology, the cars themselves will be able to pay for parking once they’ve found a spot, and it’s likely that it won’t be long before every car features this technology.

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Data Points Most parking technologies were developed to improve the parking experience, but they also provide important benefits to owners and operators as well. The parking industry of the future will be data driven. PARCS, parking guidance, mobile payment, and pre-booking technology all compile vital data that can be put to good use by owners and operators. They measure how many cars park in a given facility each day; which times of day are busiest; where within individual parking facilities people tend to park; and how they pay for parking.

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A recent white paper produced by the consulting firm Deloitte highlighted the important role that technology already plays in the parking industry, and how these technologies will continue to become more important, particularly to owners and operators, in the coming years. For instance, as automakers move to make their fleets entirely electric over the next decade, adding recharging capabilities throughout the facility, not just in a handful of spaces, will provide significant revenue enhancement capabilities, not to mention a competitive advantage over other local garages that can’t offer electric infrastructure. The Deloitte paper also touts the benefits of dynamic pricing. When owners and operators are able to implement market-based pricing, they can maximize revenues. This is no small consideration

after a year of pandemic-induced shutdowns that saw parking demand plummet. The technology to implement dynamic pricing already exists via advanced PARCS and parking guidance technology. And as previously stated, the utilization data that is collected by all of these technologies is invaluable. When owners and operators know how their facilities are being utilized—and when—they can make more informed operational choices for both short- and long-term administration of their parking assets. These decisions should lead to healthier bottom lines, fewer administrative efficiencies, and better-run parking facilities.

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fore the pandemic, who could have imagined city streets lined with pedestrians wearing masks? Or restaurants and bars with partitions keeping patrons away from each other? That’s our reality today and may be for a while yet. Similarly, transportation, parking, and mobility have been transformed, at least for the foreseeable future, and perhaps for years to come. Many of the things that we took for granted in our mobility strategies no longer apply. Fortunately, technologies that are already in wide use, particularly mobile technologies, will allow us to adjust to this new reality and manage the curb more safely, efficiently and effectively. ◆ ROAMY VALERA, CAPP, is CEO, North America for PayByPhone. He can be reached at rvalera@paybyphone.com.


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/ DIVERSITY, EQUITY, & INCLUSION

Anti-racism at Work: Honesty, Support, and Commitment By Reachel Knight

T

HE PANDEMIC WAS A GAME-CHANGER FOR ME. Like everyone, I suddenly had a lot of

time on my hands with nowhere to go and nothing to do. I reflected on my personal and professional life, and all the social unrest associated with the Black Lives Matter movement. As others have shared before, being a Black woman in a predominantly White, male industry comes with challenges—and anyone like me can share the ones they’ve faced. You hear stories about demotions, being overlooked for promotions, and being denied access to certain projects and opportunities, but unless you’ve lived them—which many of us have—it’s hard to grasp. As part of my healing process, I set objectives for myself: ■  First, I wanted to become fluent in the principles of diversity and inclusion and be able to apply them to my everyday life. So, I completed a Leadership and Inclusion Certificate in my spare time. ■  Second, I wanted to be more unabashedly vocal around my experiences of racism, especially in my professional life. The time to turn the other cheek to uncomfortable conversations has passed. ■  Finally, I wanted to create clear expectations of what I need from my employer and colleagues as part of an anti-racist professional environment to guide my professional development. What became apparent to me is the qualities I seek in my professional and personal relationships are the same: honesty, support, and commitment.

Honesty Honesty seems like such a simple concept, but honesty around race and racism is much more complex, especially when defensiveness, anger, and frustration are involved. No one wants to be called a racist or to be accused of racist behavior, but there are too many stories (mine and others) and too many incidents of overt and covert racism to ignore. The intent of anti-racist work is not to dissect each individual instance, but rather to have safe, open discussions that result in forward-focused solutions. (I strive to perfect the art of calling people in versus calling them out: calling people in is a gentler

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approach to difficult conversations about race and racism, and is, ultimately, a more effective way to work through problematic behavior.) It’s crucial that individuals and employers do not look to the oppressed to fix the problem of systemic, institutionalized racism. I’ve been in countless discussions where I am looked to for suggestions and recommendations because I’m a person of color. As a Black woman, I’m living in a racist society and trying to navigate it as best I can. I continue to do the work to educate myself, and my expectation is that colleagues, peers, and leaders do the same: It’s no one’s job to educate you but you. It is the responsibility of those with privilege, especially in leadership roles, to champion change and work toward being openly anti-racist, seeking out expert support when needed. Do some quick research online to locate the diversity and inclusion experts in your area who can facilitate important conversations about employee relations, hiring practices and policies, and more.


The intent of anti-racist work is not to dissect each individual instance, but rather to have safe, open discussions that result in forward-focused solutions.

Support I started working in the parking industry at a municipality in Canada in my early twenties. My manager at the time, a middle-aged White man, sat me down and said, “You are going to have a hard time in this industry because you are a young Black woman, but here is how I am going to support.” He knew my professional reality and made a promise to navigate it with me. He made it his mission to ensure I always felt included, had access to opportunities, and called out racist actions for me so I didn’t have to. This was my introduction to allyship, and I cannot begin to explain how grateful and appreciative I was (and still am) for that support. I began my career very aware of how my race and gender would work against me, but the acknowledgement and support from my organization and mentor was incredible. This is the work of allies—those with privilege must use it to hold space for, amplify the voices of, and advocate for the needs of those who are marginalized. That is what true support looks like.

Commitment The moment I accept a new job, position, or challenge, I am fully committed and will give the opportunity my very best. I’ve never thought to ask my employer to make a reciprocal, explicit commitment to anti-racism; to me, that should be the starting point for any organization. By

commitment, I don’t mean the commonly found “we are an equal opportunity employer” on a website or a job posting. Those are just words. Organizations need to take actual action to ensure they are being actively anti-racist and working to eradicate systemic racism. For example, implementing policies, practices, and initiatives that directly support disenfranchised individuals in the workforce. Is there diversity at all levels of your organization, or is diversity situated only at the more junior levels? If it’s the latter, your hiring practices and professional development programs need to be reviewed. It’s also crucial that a diversity and inclusion lens is applied to all corporate goal setting and decision making, so it permeates an organization’s culture and is more than a one-off checklist item. Anti-racism is an ongoing and holistic commitment that organizations must make. Relationships are difficult. We often spend more time (virtual or otherwise) with our work family than our actual family. If the past year has taught us anything, it’s the importance of transparent, respectful, and meaningful connections for our emotional and mental well-being. More than a year after George Floyd’s murder sparked international outrage, my hope is that organizations, colleagues, friends, and family continue to define their own growth objectives, navigate difficult situations and conversations with empathy, and educate themselves on how to be anti-racist in a genuine, lasting way. ◆ REACHEL KNIGHT is business strategy coordinator with the Calgary Parking Authority. She can be reached at reachel. knight@calgaryparking.com.

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/ PARKING & MOBILITY SPOTLIGHT/SHUTTLES

Adapting to the New Normal of Shuttle Service By Stan Bochniak and Jim Norris

T

HE COVID-19 PANDEMIC HAS CHANGED the parking and transportation industry in countless ways. Cor-

porate offices once filled with hustle and bustle have mostly turned into ghost towns, resulting in significantly decreased need for shuttle and transportation services. So, what’s next for the future of shuttles? As pharmaceutical companies race to distribute vaccines, a vision of life returning to normal draws closer. According to research conducted by Gensler, only 12 percent of people want to continue to work from home full-time after the pandemic subsides.1 This indicates that occupants will be returning to offices in record numbers and forward-thinking operators will be prepared for the influx of shuttle passengers. Now is the time to develop a plan so when workers return, they can be met with seamless and safe transportation options.

Identifying Rider Concerns Public distrust in the safety of ride-sharing has increased due to COVID-19. Studies conducted by CarGurus and the IBM Institute for Business Value found that of the 26,000 American adults surveyed, around half have developed a distrust for

ride-sharing services.2,3 Public transportation numbers have taken a hit as well. According to data collected by the National Transit Database, monthly public transit ridership is down 65 percent compared to 2019.4 As a service that traditionally economizes rider travel, it’s understandable patrons would be wary of returning to shuttle use. According to a survey conducted by the Yale Center for Consumer Insights, top shuttle safety concerns include the potential of the virus living on surfaces and the close proximity of riders to one another5. It is important to note that within the same Yale study, researchers found that safety messaging on shuttles plays a critical role in rider confidence. In scenarios where the shuttle bus did not have

safety messaging, only 27 percent of participants were likely to ride the shuttle, compared to 53 percent who were shown messaging with images displaying preventative health measures.5 Passengers will also likely be wary of waiting in groups for shuttle arrival, which means clear social distancing markers should be installed prior to reopening.

New Rules and Regulations According to the Milken Institute, the societal effects of pandemics tend to be long-lasting, often unfolding over years, if not decades.6 It is likely that as a society, we will continue to be hyper-conscious of the safety and cleanliness of our surroundings for the foreseeable future. Shuttle services returning in 2021 will


EXPERIENCE, RELIABILITY, COST EFFECTIVENESS

mean indefinitely tailoring operations to fit post-pandemic life. What was once a process filled with pressing buttons, sitting close to other riders, and touching shared surfaces will need to pivot to a near-contactless experience. The CDC recommends that managers implement plans to help operators effectively communicate with passengers entering the bus regarding modifications to work or service processes. Other safety recommendations include using curtains or plastic walls to establish physical barriers between transit operators and passengers.7 Shuttle operators should be trained to effectively enforce social distancing onboard. Tactics such as blocking out every other seat onboard the shuttle can also play a big part in enabling social distancing. An emphasis on driver safety is equally as important as passenger well-being. Providing transit operators the opportunity to wash their hands with warm soap and water for at least 20 seconds throughout their shifts will be crucial not only to keep riders safe, but ensure shuttle drivers stay healthy. In addition to the enforcement of mandatory face coverings for passengers, operators should be required to wear appropriate face coverings and other PPE while on the shuttle.

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Prioritizing a Clean Environment As building occupants return, shuttle riders will undoubtedly be hyper-aware of cleaning measures taken (or not taken). Operators must make disinfecting a top priority, both for the safety and peace of mind of passengers. Safety-conscious riders will take notice of an increase in cleaning frequency. Before using a disinfectant on bus surfaces, check to make sure that your product is EPA-approved to kill COVID-19. You can visit the EPA’s List N Tool page to search approved disinfectants.8 In addition to operator cleaning efforts, adding touch-free hand sanitizer stations and strategically placed trash receptacles is a way to ensure passengers do their part to keep each other healthy while on board. Because COVID-19 pathogens can live on surfaces for up to five days, it is imperative shuttles are cleaned thoroughly on a consistent basis.9 According to the Federal Transit Administration, high-touch areas like benches, handrails, and poles must be disinfected at least once per day.10 Shuttle passengers might expect disinfection to be even more frequent than this, like once a loop. In addition to surface cleaning, the CDC recommends using vents and windows to bring in fresh air, rather than using the recirculated air option for shuttle ventilation.11

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Advancements in Clean Energy Transportation It is important to acknowledge the environmental and health hazards that come with the operation of petroleum-­ powered buses. Diesel, the fuel consumed by a vast majority of buses, is a known carcinogen that can negatively impact both the health of riders and outdoor air quality.12 When it comes to making the switch to electric shuttles, the benefits greatly outweigh the costs. In fact, battery-powered buses are said to be the more cost-effective option in the long run. On average, the cost of electricity is 80 percent less than the cost of diesel per mile traveled.13 Because shuttle buses are built to make fixed, short routes, they are the ideal candidate for electrification. The top reasons for a transition to electric vehicle (EV) shuttles in your lineup are hard-to-beat zero-emissions, quieter and smoother travel for customers and employees, and federal and state financial incentives that reduce total cost of ownership. Charging EV shuttles is a hassle-free experience, and can usually take place at single location, such as a parking lot. Charging typically can be done with both Level 2 AC or DC Fast Charging. A combination of both can be ideal most applications, offering more flexibility in schedules and duty cycles. On a full charge, an EV vehicle can typically run for 120-180 miles, a range perfectly suited for short, scheduled routes. From 12 person vans to larger 28 passenger buses, EV shuttles come in various types and models to fit your facility’s transportation needs. ADA-compliant features such as wheelchair lifts are also available as upfits. Eco-friendly practices are becoming increasingly important to consumers. According to a survey conducted by Swedish public transit authority, Västtrafik, a large proportion of passengers said that because the line is operated using environmentally friendly fuel, their willingness

to travel on the route was positively affected.14 Because shuttle buses have such high visibility to the customers they serve, most operators will proudly display their environmental stewardship with signage or a vehicle wrap, giving passengers peace of mind that the ride isn’t negatively impacting the environment or their health.

that is flexible and willing to work with your needs will be vital in determining the success of your reopening.◆ STAN BOCHNIAK is vice president, national parking sales for ABM Industries. He can be reached at stan.bochniak@abm. com. JIM NORRIS is director of business development, eMobility & electrical infrastructure, for ABM Industries. He can be reached jim.norris@abm.com.

Selecting a Provider When it comes to selecting a shuttle transportation provider, look for a program that is customized to fit your facility’s needs. It is vital your provider understands and meets the increasing demands of keeping shuttles clean. Make sure to thoroughly research providers to make sure they both ensure a safe and timely shuttle service, and address the inevitable concerns of passengers. Due to COVID-related ride-sharing concerns, many commuters may opt to drive solo, while those with whom the solo drivers once carpooled may opt for shuttle use. Facility operators must be confident their selected provider can deliver consistent, quality service at scale until the threat of COVID-19 becomes less prevalent. While COVID-19 has been the major concern in recent months, the reality is that it is only one of many viral pathogens for which we must be watchful; the need for thorough cleaning and disinfection is here to stay. With this in mind, anticipating an ongoing expectation of cleanliness and disinfection will ensure that businesses are prepared to offer shuttle and other services well into the future, while keeping their customers, visitors and the public feel safe.

A Plan for Return Because nothing about the pandemic is certain, it is important that facilities managers take on a fluid approach to returning to the workplace. Be prepared to have a moving start date and be willing to pivot if necessary. Choosing a provider

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SOURCES 1. Gensler. Published May 22, 2020. Accessed December 14, 2020. https://www.gensler.com/research-insight/ blog/most-people-want-toreturn-to-the-office-but-expect-changes 2. Cargurus.com. https://go.cargurus.com/rs/611AVR-738/images/US-Covid19-Study.pdf 3. Ibm.com. Accessed December 18, 2020. https:// newsroom.ibm. com/2020-05-01-IBM-Study-COVID-19-IsSignificantly-Altering-U-S-Consumer-Behavior-andPlans-Post-Crisis 4. USAFacts.org. Published October 7, 2020. Accessed December 14, 2020. https://usafacts.org/articles/ covid-public-transit-decline/ 5. Yale.edu. Published June 8, 2020. Accessed December 14, 2020. https://som.yale.edu/blog/ shared-transportation-in-post-covid-world 6. Milkeninstitute.org. Accessed December 16, 2020. https://milkeninstitute.org/power-of-ideas/ possible-futures-ways-people-react-after-covid 7. Cdc.gov. Published November 10, 2020. Accessed December 14, 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/ coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/organizations/ bus-transit-operator.html 8. List N Tool: COVID-19 Disinfectants | US EPA 9. Clevelandclinic.org. Published August 5, 2020. Accessed December15,2020.https://health.clevelandclinic.org/how-long-will-coronavirussurvive-on-surfaces/ 10. Transit.dot.gov. Accessed December 14, 2020. https:// www.transit.dot.gov/frequently-asked-questions-fta-granteesregarding-coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19 11. CDC. What rideshare, taxi, limo, and other passenger drivers-for-hire need to know about COVID-19. Cdc. gov. Published November 13, 2020. Accessed December 14, 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/ community/organizations/rideshare-drivers-for-hire. html 12. Environmental and Energy Study Institute. Fact Sheet: Battery Electric Buses: Benefits Outweigh Costs. Fact Sheet: Battery Electric Buses: Benefits Outweigh Costs | White Papers | EESI 13. Business Wire. Green Automotive’s e-Patriot Electric Shuttle Bus Benefits from Attractive Government Incentives. Green Automotive’s e-Patriot Electric Shuttle Bus Benefits from Attractive Government Incentives | Business Wire 14. Volvobuses.com. Electric City Buses Increase Passenger Satisfaction. Electric city buses increase passenger satisfaction | Volvo Buses


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ASK

THE

EXPERTS How can the parking and mobility industry and its professionals embrace and grow diversity, equity, and inclusion throughout their organizations?

Brian D. Shaw, CAPP

Melonie Curry, MBA

Executive Director Stanford Transportation

Staff Analyst ParkHouston

The key factor is in hiring and promoting folks into your organization. Ensuring a diverse candidate pool and a diverse hiring committee for every new hire will help, over time, create a more diverse, equitable, and inclusive working group. Encouraging folks from underrepresented groups to apply for promotions is also a key action to diversify leadership. Bottom line, it is up to those of us who hire and lead to include diversity, equity and inclusion in these critical processes.

Look within your organization. Do you have reliable, dedicated employees who have demonstrated a strong work ethic? They would be great candidates for a promotion to upper management. Offer them continuing education, mentoring, and software training and prepare them for career growth. They have demonstrated their commitment to the organization and this is a great opportunity for your organization to demonstrate its commitment to its employees.

Tiffany Peebles Director Parking Authority of River City, Ky. Growth in the area of diversity, equity, and inclusion can only be achieved through intentionality. A commitment to making a change in both words and actions with a focus on every action of the organization being directed towards an impactful difference throughout the organization. Intentionality in improving things that have previously been overlooked and have not taken diversity, equity, and inclusion into consideration.

Casey Jones, CAPP Director, Customer Success FLASH Diversity, equity, and inclusion will be earnestly pursued at all levels of an organization when the organization’s leaders view the pursuit of these ideals as a business imperative. Leaders must communicate the importance to their organizations at all levels and establish actionable goals and strategies, along with a system of accountability using performance measures. 

Ben Wesley, CAPP Market President, Nashville Premium Parking For many organizations, the first step would be to simply draft a policy commitment. From there, work could be done via HR and marketing to promote core values with inward and outward messaging that promotes values of respect.

/ HAVE A QUESTION? Send it to editor@parking-mobility.org and watch this space for answers from the experts. 22 PARKING & MOBILITY / AUGUST 2021 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG


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Twsheoacpr hekingatol eutrfosc eustivradp onsiderghcw kingaewpr e.turcs By J ess McInerney and Matt Davis

24 PARKING & MOBILITY / AUGUST 2021 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG


PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG / AUGUST 2021 / PARKING & MOBILITY 25


ADAPTIVE REUSE: SHORT-TERM ROI OR LONG-TERM INVESTMENT?

F

OR OWNERS AND DEVELOPERS INVESTING IN NEW PARKING FACILITIES,

adaptive reuse is a popular topic of discussion. While there is no limit to the possibilities we can imagine, the reality is that designing a parking structure to be compatible with other human uses adds to

the cost. However, whether you evaluate that additional investment through the short-term benefits or take a long-term view, adaptive reuse has the potential to provide a cost-efficient and sustainable solution. By envisioning the future purpose of the building first and incorporating key design considerations at the outset, owners can make both an initial investment into the parking structure and an early investment into a future project. If planned properly, much of the infrastructure for the eventual occupied use can be designed into the parking structure so the conversion to an occupied use in the future would involve little more than constructing the exterior facade and building out the tenant improvements. The cost factors are driven in large part by a number of design considerations that should be taken into account when making a decision regarding the best solution for your project. In the short term, designing a structure for partial adaptive reuse, such as only incorporating these design considerations into the ground level, can provide a more cost-friendly option that still provides flexibility in the event parking demand shifts in the future. However, when you take a more holistic, long-term look at the return on investment or ROI, a compelling case can be made for full adaptive reuse design.

Reconsidering the Contributing Factors The structural and facade designs of occupied uses are very different from what is typically incorporated into parking facilities. Therefore, the following best practices should be considered with the intended future use in mind:

Location

Site location, value, demand. and density are key factors in the decision to design for future adaptive reuse. A parking facility located in a high-density 26 PARKING & MOBILITY / AUGUST 2021 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG


Whether you evaluate that additional investment through the short-term benefits or take a longterm view, adaptive reuse has the potential to provide a cost-efficient and sustainable solution.

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ADAPTIVE REUSE: SHORT-TERM ROI OR LONG-TERM INVESTMENT?

area with growing demand for commercial, office, or residential space is a more suitable candidate for adaptive reuse than one in a low-density region that may not have sufficient demand to drive the conversion. Likewise, in dense, high-value areas where building costs are higher, the cost of converting an existing parking facility instead of demolishing it and building a new building type from scratch can pose potential long-term cost savings.

Structural Design Considerations

While it seems counterintuitive, the structural load on a building for parking cars is about half the load needed to support an occupied space, such as an office or housing. Therefore, the effective design load of a parking structure is relatively low compared to other uses. Identifying and incorporating are future loading needs will make adaptation much easier. The structural floor framing would also need to be considered. Parking structures typically use either a short or long span system, which have advantages and disadvantages depending on the later intended use. The most efficient system for parking cars is a long span system, where beams span the entire parking bay. While a long span system can park more cars in the same footprint and improves the user experience by avoiding the need for columns between parking stalls, it does not translate well for occupied uses. Long span floors can be a little bouncy with support beams that extend approximately 30 inches below the underside of the floor above. To accommodate a future alternative use for ducts, etc., a long span system would require a higher floor-to-floor height. On the flip side, while a short span system has additional columns, it does provide a stiffer floor and there are typically no beams to contend with during the retrofit, which allows the greatest flexibility for running ducts, plumbing, and conduit while reducing the overall height of the building. The short span system is generally cheaper for the same footprint as a long span system, but the additional columns reduce the number of cars that can be parked and users are required to park between columns. Whatever structural framing is selected for the design, understanding what challenges and opportunities it poses for future conversion is an important consideration. For converting a parking structure to office or residential, the short span 28 PARKING & MOBILITY / AUGUST 2021 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

system is generally the best choice to blend parking requirements with future uses such as office or residential.

Increased Floor Heights

Since occupied uses require higher floor-to-floor heights than are necessary for storing cars, floor heights should be determined based on the future occupancy needs. Another factor that affects floor-toceiling height is accounting for sloping floors. Parking structures are typically designed with sloping floors to allow water to drain. One approach to dealing with this issue for later conversion is to provide enough clear height and structural capacity to add a future flooring surface that will fill drain areas and “flatten” the floor. To accomplish this, the building floors should be at a constant level around the perimeter and slope to area drains at the middle of the structure.

Design for Daylight

Most traditional parking garages have large, deep floor plates, which can cause the central portions of the structure to feel dark and therefore less desirable for human occupancy. However, one way to mitigate this involves careful consideration of ramping configurations. Ramps, while inherent to the design of typical parking garages, are not conducive to occupied uses and should be designed with removal in mind. By locating the ramps in the center bay of the garage and using modular components that can be disassembled and removed in the future, the center of the building can be transformed into an atrium. This provides natural light and ventilation to the inner portions of the converted building, and perhaps a courtyard amenity for building occupants.

Pedestrian Circulation

Most occupied buildings place stairs and elevators in the center of the building, to open up as much of the perimeter as possible to bring daylight into the space. However, in most garages, the stairs and elevators are located in the corners of the building, making use of space that cannot be used for parking. The number of and width of egress pathways, stairs, and elevators must also account for a future use.

Facade Design

Unlike occupied spaces, above ground parking garages typically rely on natural ventilation. Therefore, to


For owners willing to make the investment, “future proofing” parking can provide a long-term, cost-efficient and sustainable solution that keeps tomorrow in mind. enclose the building for an alternative use, the facade should be designed for flexibility. Exterior cladding such as metal mesh, louvered panels, or perforated metal panels is often added to a parking garage to obscure view of the cars while still maintaining openness. Since this will need to be replaced with walls and windows, the attachment of the cladding should be designed for easy removal. Likewise, precast or cable rails are desirable guardrail systems as they can be easily removed in the future and provide flexibility to incorporate walk-out balconies.

Going For The Short-term ROI

Many owners evaluating this issue are exploring a more cost-effective approach that still provides flexibility for changes in future demand, such as designing only a ground level for adaptive reuse. The effect of structural, occupancy, and drainage considerations is far less on ground levels than on upper levels. Assuming the soil is sufficient to avoid a structural slab on grade, many of the high cost issues are avoided. This level of reuse design may be achieved for a relatively small increase in the construction cost of less than 10 percent. This approach is being implemented by both public and private entities alike. To future-proof its new Government Center parking structure, San Mateo County elected to have the ground floor designed with increased floor-to-floor heights compatible with human uses. The structure will also use an express ramp instead of a park on ramp, which preserves the full footprint of the ground floor for alternative use. Likewise, the ground floor of the Intermodal Transportation Facility-West Parking Structure, part of the Landside Access Modernization Program (LAMP) at Los Angeles International Airport, is also being designed with higher floor-to-floor heights to provide flexibility for future needs. Another way to provide flexibility is designing for density. Mechanical and automated parking systems often require floor-to-floor heights compatible with adaptive reuse. As these systems can easily be removed, parking supply can be adjusted as needed, and the mechanical and automated systems even

removed entirely. This is the approach being taken with Telegraph Tower in Oakland, Calif. Should parking demand change in the future, the parking levels could be converted to other occupied spaces.

Considering the Long-term Game

Designing flexibility beyond the ground floor and into upper levels requires greater upfront investment; fully designing an entire structure for adaptive reuse can increase cost by 40 percent or more, which can give many owners pause. However, when viewed as an investment in the full life of the development, it can potentially provide a more cost effective way to reap development benefits down the road by paying for a future project in today’s dollars. In addition to the long-term cost benefits, building for later adaptive reuse also provides a more sustainable development approach in the event demand for a parking facility decreases in the future. Converting an existing parking structure to an alternative use is a much more sustainable approach than demolishing it and building something new in its place. For owners willing to make the investment, “future proofing” parking can provide a long-term, cost-efficient and sustainable solution that keeps tomorrow in mind. Parking structures are a significant investment. Designing them for adaptive reuse, be it full or only partial conversion, provides flexibility to accommodate future changes in parking demand and get more out of that investment. Whether you go for the short or long term game, having options to choose from greatly assists owns and developers in making a decision that is right for their vision. ◆ JESS MCINERNEY is principal with Watry Design. He can be reached at jmcinerney@ watrydesign.com.

MATT DAVIS is principal with Watry Design. He can be reached at mdavis@ watrydesign.com

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LEARNING FROM 2020

Why Cities Need Better Curbside Data

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Cities did an admirable job managing the curb in a hurry when COVID-19 changed everything on the street. But the future needs more, and it’s all about the data. By Adam Wenneman

T

HE CURBSIDE IS A WIDELY USED AND POORLY UNDERSTOOD municipal

asset that quietly facilitates nearly every aspect of our urban transportation systems. It provides a considerable portion of urban parking supply, serves as the final link in the last mile for commercial goods delivery, and makes the billion-dollar ride-sharing industry possible. But given the significant role it plays in making modern cities work, the way some cities regulate and communicate the curbside is outdated and a poor fit for the modern curbside.

SHUTTERSTOCK/ MOOI DESIGN

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LEARNING FROM 2020: WHY CITIES NEED BETTER CURBSIDE DATA

Problems at the Curb

Currently, curbside regulations—the rules that tell people where they can park, load, or stop—are communicated to users almost exclusively by physical signage on-street. When they’re not completely indecipherable, these curbside signs can be easily damaged, are often obstructed, and can be out-of-sync with existing plans or regulations. Even when there’s nothing wrong with a parking sign, it still doesn’t provide any information to users until they arrive at their destination, making trip planning more difficult, resulting in cruising for parking, and millions of dollars in parking fines for shippers. Curbside regulations are sometimes no better understood by cities than they are by the public. In fact, most cities have no digital record of where someone is allowed to park, load, or stop along the curbside. Instead, regulations in many cities are based directly on the signage in the field. This means that frequently, the best records cities have for how curb space is allocated is a signage inventory—which requires continuous maintenance to stay up to date with damaged or modified signs—or a set of scanned copies of work orders related to the initial installation of the signage. Neither of these sources provides a complete representation of the curbside, making it difficult to address important city planning questions such as, “How much parking are we

Changes were implemented on a location-bylocation basis, without a deeper understanding of the trade-offs they were making between allocating space for parking, social distancing for pedestrian activity, curbside pick-up, and dozens of other curbside uses.

providing?” or ‘“Are we allocating curb space according to the demands on that space?” The result is that these questions often go unasked and unanswered. While cities struggle to communicate and understand existing curbside regulations, accelerating growth in the use of curb space has resulted in the demands on curb space to exceed supply. Today, transportation network companies such as Uber and Lyft complete more than 4 billion annual trips globally—the bulk of which begin and end on urban curbsides. E-commerce continues to grow, with goods delivery companies making millions of stops on city curbsides daily. Looking ahead to the not-too-distant future, the widespread adoption of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) has the potential to reduce the need for parking, but could also dramatically increase the demand for short term pickup and drop-off spaces on the curb. The number of new uses for curb space only continued to grow over the past year as the COVID-19 pandemic changed how we collectively considered the curbside. From pedestrian-only streets, to curbside patios, and an expansion of curbside pickup and dedicated delivery zones, the evolution of curbside demands in just the past year has shown that cities need to be agile in managing how curb space is allocated to meet the needs of residents and local businesses. Though cities implemented sweeping changes to curbside regulations rapidly in the last year, changes to curb rules were largely made in an ad hoc fashion. Without readily available and reliable information on existing curbside regulations, cities needed to perform

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Looking ahead to the not-too-distant future, the widespread adoption of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) has the potential to reduce the need for parking, but could also dramatically increase the demand for short term wpick-up and drop-off spaces on the curb. time consuming site visits and informal field surveys to help them understand existing conditions. Once appropriate locations for new curbside regulations were identified and changes were implemented, cities found themselves without a great way to communicate the new designations, with many relying on press releases, temporary signage, or static maps. While well intentioned, the methods used by cities in 2020 were not all fit for purpose, and city staff were left to make quick decisions with the imperfect understanding and tools that they had on-hand. Changes were implemented on a location-by-location basis, without a deeper understanding of the trade-offs they were making between allocating space for parking, social distancing for pedestrian activity, curbside pickup, and dozens of other curbside uses. Simply put, cities lacked the data and tools to effectively manage and communicate changes to curbside regulations enacted in response to the effects of COVID-19.

Curb Data: This is the Way

The path towards better understanding and communication of curbside regulations starts with better data. There are a handful of ways to generate this data, but one of the simplest and quickest ways is by using something like the Shared Streets CurbWheel—an open-source data collection tool that can be used to survey streets and create digital curbside regulation data. City staff can then leverage this data using GIS tools or web-based spacial analysis tools to help them better understand existing regulations, identify curb allocations that may not meet current demands, and make changes in a simple and visual way. Cities can also share this new data with users—via interactive web map, existing parking application, or

API that third-party developers can use to integrate this data into their own applications—to provide a clearer picture to users of where they can park, load, or stop near their destinations. By allowing drivers to plan the last miles of their trips in advance of arriving at the curb cities can reduce cruising for parking, better direct delivery vehicles to dedicated loading spaces, and ensure that connected and autonomous vehicles can understand the curb effectively as pilot programs continue to expand across the country.

Preparing for a Post-pandemic Curbside

The past year has shown us that while the curbside is essential to urban transportation, the understanding cities have of existing curbside regulations and the tools they use to manage and communicate it are insufficient. As we look ahead to a post-pandemic world, cities need to ensure they have the capacity to adjust to the changing demands placed on the curbside. Growing populations of personal vehicle drivers will need to find parking spaces, CAVs will need to ‘see’ the curb even when signs aren’t immediately visible, courier vehicles will need more dedicated loading space to support the demand for deliveries, and surely there are future uses we haven’t started to designate curbside space for quite yet. It’s up to cities to plan, regulate, and communicate these changing curbside designations to ensure that the curb is ready for the demands of the future—they just need the data and tools with which to do it. ADAM WENNEMAN is associate, manager, transportation planning with IBI Group. He can be reached at adam.wenneman@ibigroup. com.

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L E

R T C E

Experts talk about electric vehicles, charging, parking and mobility, and the future of the industry. IPMI’S MARKET TRENDS AND RECOVERY SURVEY captured benchmarks and trends for the industry and where parking and mobility professionals see short- and long-term effects regarding recovery and societal and industry trends that shape the work we are doing today. Many responses focused on the immediate need to simply recover— recover revenue, programs, and a sense of normalcy for operations. Beyond that, the survey revealed other considerations beyond revenue recovery and new revenue streams, which included both building infrastructure and programming to accommodate increased EVs on the roads and in our facilities. From on-street programming to off-street facility planning for fleet electrification, respondents are preparing alternative-fuel vehicles. Paired with the focus (and need) to rehab, repair, and adapt off-street facilities, our industry have a unique opportunity to both modernize and update off-street assets as well as provide needed infrastructure to support electric vehicles and fleets. IPMI’s Planning, Design, and Construction Committee and industry experts tackled questions about electric vehicle (EV) adoption, effects on mass transit, mobility hubs, and electrification and fleets.

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I R

G N I Y F

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ELECTRIFYING

JAMES C. ANDERSON

Market Development Manager—Building Solutions Master Builders Solutions U.S. LLC CO-CHAIR, IPMI’S PLANNING, DESIGN, AND CONSTRUCTION COMMITTEE

What are your predictions on the adoption rates and percentages of EVs on the road in the short- to medium- and longer term for both privately-owned vehicles and fleets? And what happens with mass transit?

According to S&P Global Market Intelligence, global electric vehicle sales are projected to reach 6.2 million units by 2024, which they report is almost three times the volume sold in 2019. In 2019, there were approximately 109 million registered vehicles in the U.S. While consumer EV adoption rates are difficult to forecast, it would appear that in the next three years, the EV adoption rate of privately-owned vehicles will remain a relatively small but growing segment of the market. In the near term, forecasts are similar for fleet registered vehicles. The eight- to 10-year horizon is another story as we approach 2030. The major auto manufacturers are investing heavily with electrification designs and production of their vehicle offerings, which will be evident in EV car sales and adoption rates. Mass transit, mostly defined as e-buses, is reportedly the fastest-growing segment of the worldwide EV market, though adoption within the U.S. has been slow outside of a few metropolitan areas. Influenced by clean technology, political infrastructure support, and governmental subsidies, expect this segment to gain significant momentum by the end of the decade.

What are the barriers to greater adoption? Are there innovations happening to address these barriers?

The primary barriers to EV adoption today are vehicle affordability, the ability/infrastructure to recharge, and driving distance per charge. The automakers and battery innovators/manufacturers are working to address these battery challenges and are investing heavily in research and development to enable a practical solution. Renewable energy demand will certainly grow with the increasing advent of the EV market. State power authorities recognize this emerging transportation trend and are assessing their plans for, and accommodation of, this grid capacity challenge. Look no further than Amazon’s net-zero commitment to sustainability and their plan to electrify all of their 100,000 unit delivery fleet vehicles by 2030. This will require dedicated vehicle recharging hubs and power consumption planning by all the entities utilizing this means of energy regeneration. This translates to renewable energy infrastructure planning today. Recognize and plan for this emerging technological and societal change. If planning a new structured parking facility with a 50+ year investment life, assure your stakeholders and designers are addressing all of the sustainable carbon-reducing options necessary to accommodate EVs while reducing your structures’ environmental footprint.

JOHN K. BUSHMAN CEO Walker Consultants

CO-CHAIR, IPMI’S PLANNING, DESIGN, AND CONSTRUCTION COMMITTEE

What are your predictions on the adoption rates and percentages of EVs on the road in the short- to medium- and longer term for both privately-owned vehicles and fleets? And what happens with mass transit?

EVs are still less than 1 percent of the cars on the road today in the U.S. We expect them to be less than 2.5 percent of the vehicles on the road by 2025, and 7.5 percent by 2030, even if they approach 25 percent of sales by 2030. The on-the-road numbers simply lag by that much. Double those figures, however, in California

and other cities where there is an aggressive plan to ­encourage EVs.

What are the barriers to greater adoption? Are there innovations happening to address these barriers?

Right now, the biggest barrier is cost of the new vehicle, even with federal tax rebates and other incentives. Non-plug-in hybrids still outsell plug-ins two to one. We are, however, approaching breakeven on return on the incremental investment in a plug-in EV, and

36 PARKING & MOBILITY / AUGUST 2021 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG SOURCE: IPMI’S MARKET TRENDS AND RECOVERY SURVEY


Industry Trends 0%

5%

10%

15%

20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50%

Changes in commute patterns Demand for frictionless and touchless/contactless technology Pressure to recover revenue from COVID-19 crisis Curb management strategies/technology for complex uses Demand for parking revenue Demand for electronic (cashless) payment Pressure to generate new revenue streams Electrification/demand for EV charging infrastructure and...

Societal Trends 0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

Changes in work arrangements affecting demand and commuting Changes in transportation mode choice Increased alternative-fuel vehicles, including EVs and their impact on energy and charging demand Decreases in transit ridership and potential cuts in availability/sechedule Focus on the environment and sustainability Demand for curb space for retail, restaurant, and food deliveries Desire for more livable, walkable communities Demand for curb space for non-vehicular uses Demand for curb space for TNCs, freight, and commercial loading Demand for cleaning/sanitation of shared vehicles, transit, and hardware Increased SOV trips and VMT Increased use of ride-hailing/TNCs

SOURCE: IPMI’S MARKET TRENDS AND RECOVERY SURVEY

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ELECTRIFYING

further reduction in battery costs and increases in range should make it more cost-effective to buy an EV in the next few years. Second is range anxiety, which is why the proponents and the Feds want to significantly increase the number of charging stations in the U.S. Third is the issue of how much an EV really reduces emissions if the electrical grid is coal-based in a particular area. I saw a recent article that said in those areas, the net reduction in emissions is only 15 percent. In other areas, the impact on emissions is much higher. In other words, the grid has to be updated and there has to be investment in cleaner energy sources to the grid to achieve the full benefit of EVs for climate change.

What is one key thing parking, transportation, and mobility pros need to know about EVs and their impact in the future? What accommodations and changes should be made now to current and near-term operations?

Don’t try to design for a lot of cars to be recharged simultaneously. Charging needs and delivery modes will evolve in the future, and power management will reduce the power draw at any one time. Provide 2 percent of spaces with charging stations today, with infrastructure for 10 percent of cars charging simultaneously in the future. Double that for residential, and double both again for California and other areas with much higher than normal EV penetration.

JOHN HAMMERSCHLAG President Hammerschlag & Co., Inc.

What are the barriers to greater adoption, e.g. cost, technology, etc.? Are there innovations happening to address these barriers?

Barriers include cost, battery capacity, charging speed, and national infrastructure. Innovations are happening, but they aren’t here quite yet: battery costs

have been dropping and charging stations are more sophisticated. Conversion of fleets to EV will result in lower emissions. It’s apparent that there is a need for a national grid of charging stations that will charge a vehicle in no more time than it takes to fill a vehicle with fossil fuel and at lower cost.

MATTHEW KENNEDY, CAPP Executive Director New Brunswick Parking Authority

What are your predictions on the adoption rates and percentages of EVs on the road in the short- to medium- and longer term for both privately-owned vehicles and fleets? And what happens with mass transit?

In the short term, privately-owned EVs will stay under 3 percent of the American new vehicle market, and there will only be incremental growth in the longer term. Within the next decade, battery electric vehicles (BEVs) will remain a very small percentage of privately-owned vehicles in America; however, hybrid electric vehicles and conventionally fueled partial zero emission vehicles (PZEVs) will experience substantial growth. Even given the likelihood of postponed mandates in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, PZEVs, trailblazed by Subaru in recent years, will be become a dominant consumer choice in the market for new conventional vehicles throughout the nation. The San Francisco Bay Area will continue to lead the country in EV adoption, and BEVs 38 PARKING & MOBILITY / AUGUST 2021 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

will see noteworthy increases in major cities nationwide. Public transit and fleets will continue their widespread nationwide conversion to electric, natural gas, and propane, resulting in game-changing reductions in city air pollution. Mass transit ridership, including public buses and trains, along with ride-share services, will see a measurable, long-enduring loss in passenger share as many people will switch to solo occupancy driving in the wake of the pandemic.

What are the barriers to greater adoption? Are there innovations happening to address these barriers?

Acquisition cost will remain the highest barrier, especially in the aftermath of the collapse in purchasing power resulting from the pandemic. The overall increase in EV adoption will be incremental, allowing the nationwide grid ample time to adapt and handle the associated charging needs.


My organization has addressed (or is planning to) address these programs in the next six months: Contactless payment concepts

54% Maintenance (deferred, management, rehab)

48% Increased cleaning protocols

42% Electric Vehicle accommodations

34% Pricing changes and variable pricing

34% Flexible parking arrangements

32% Virtual permitting

28% Staffing increases/rehiring

26% Asset light concepts

22% Organization restructuring

22% Curb management strategies

20% Community outreach on programs

19% Pay-and-display vs. pay-by-plate

10%

SOURCE: IPMI’S MARKET TRENDS AND RECOVERY SURVEY

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ELECTRIFYING

JOHN W. NOLAN, CAPP, MSM

Managing Director of Transportation Services Harvard University

What are your predictions on the adoption rates and percentages of EVs on the road in the short- to medium- and longer term for both privately-owned vehicles and fleets? And what happens with mass transit?

The lack of significant EV infrastructure and the entry price point of pure EV’s (non-hybrids) have deterred significant market penetration. Deterring growth is also the availability of cheap fossil fuel. As power producers engage and invest in infrastructure expansion and as manufacturers build more affordable vehicles, we will see larger market growth and expansion. I expect growth to be at about the same rate in the near future with greater expansion as infrastructure expands.

Do you see a bigger picture effort happening to connect EVs to the grid? Can the grid handle a big increase in daytime charging? Are there any new breakthroughs in batteries and charging stations? More and more companies have entered this space in the last five years, which has driven the cost of charging stations much lower. In addition, with fossil fuel reduction and carbon neutral goals now mandated in many cities, more power companies have stepped up to subsidize electric charging stations for business and cities. Due to pricing incentives and longer battery life, charging vehicles in off hours should help to handle

pressures of demand on the power grid. Many fleets run in circular patterns, which lends itself to this type of infrastructure especially in the Urban environment. In the recent past it would be consistent with placing these stations within a mobility hub for on-route charging. Given newer and longer lasting batteries now on the market, these stations can be placed within a bus yard for overnight charging.

Talk to us about fleets and electrification: how will that change transportation as we know it today? Where do you see storage and charging happening? How does the evolving “mobility hub” account for EVs?

They’re coming. At some point in the next 10 years, I can see individual cities and states beginning to mandate these additions as mitigation for carbon offset emissions within particular regions. Public transportation for cities and towns is currently being significantly subsidized by the federal government with significant grants, which has been the lifeblood for EV bus companies in the U.S. With current price points around $800,000, it makes it very difficult for private transportation providers to operate at that number. Significant expansion will come when additional OEM’s enter the market as well as when EV Buses are manufactured more efficiently bringing lower price points needed for further market penetration.

BRIAN SHAW, CAPP

Executive Director, Transportation Stanford University

What are your predictions on the adoption rates and percentages of EVs on the road in the short- to medium- and longer term for both privately-owned vehicles and fleets? And what happens with mass transit?

Private adoption will be slow, particularly if gas prices remain low and demand for SUVs remains high. Incentives from federal and state governments will be needed to further EV acquisition by private owners. In the long term, as battery technology improves and range for EVs becomes more in line with fossil-fueled vehicles, adoption will improve. Also, a network for fast 40 PARKING & MOBILITY / AUGUST 2021 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

chargers will be needed to facilitate quicker recharges for EVs. Mass transit in California will see much faster adoption of EVs due to state climate change requirements, cost effective electricity being available and local EV bus manufacturing. Other areas in the U.S. will be slower to move the electric buses, but as the technology becomes more available, growth will occur in areas concerned about climate change. If there is ability for transit properties to finance the needed charging infrastructure with bus acquisition, that will speed up adoption outside California.


What are the barriers to greater adoption? Are there innovations happening to address these barriers?

Range anxiety for private or fleet EVs, cost, and the needed charging infrastructure for electric buses. Batteries are getting better so range anxiety will eventually cease to be an issue. Electric bus manufacturers will need to be electric mobility service providers where they help design, engineer, and finance electric bus charging infrastructure, routes, and bus design to be fitted properly for the given mobility needs.

Talk to us about fleets and electrification: how will that change transportation as we know it today? Where do you see storage and charging happening? How does the evolving “mobility hub” account for EVs?

EVs will help local air quality and address climate change, particularly if the electricity they use is from renewable sources. But traffic, parking demand and travel time are not improved by EVs. If the range for

EVs continues to improve, the need for workplace charging should decline. Charging will be needed where people live for overnight charging as well as along long-distance routes. What will be the big game changer is when the vehicles are operated autonomously. Then parking facilities will need to be able to charge autonomous vehicles using inductive charging.

What is one key thing parking, transportation, and mobility pros need to know about EVs and their impact in the future? What accommodations and changes should be made now to current and near-term operations?

Charging should not be provided for free. It cost to put in, maintain, and supply the power. Charging EVs is another product to provide in the parking industry like valet, carpools, car sharing, etc. It will take a decade or more before a parking facility must have chargers, unless required by local code. By then, not offering EV charging will limit market share for the charge-less facility.

EDWARD A TRAMMELL II

Planning & Project Manager Lexington & Fayette County Parking Authority

What are your predictions on the adoption rates and percentages of EVs on the road in the short- to medium- and longer term for both privately-owned vehicles and fleets? And what happens with mass transit?

As a medium sized urban area located within a rural state, the large scale adoption of privately owned EV vehicles still appears to be eight to 10 years away, but I could foresee fleet vehicles in the area converting to EV much sooner. Mass transit within our community has already worked to transition a portion of its fleet to EV.

What are the barriers to greater adoption, e.g. cost, technology, etc.? Are there innovations happening to address these barriers?

The adoption of EV vehicles in the state of Kentucky has lagged behind the national trend and that low adoption rate pre-COVID made the investment of installing EV charging stations less appealing, as our garages were at capacity and the ROI on EV chargers wasn’t as appealing in our market. As the economic impact of COVID continues to unfold and garage occupancy levels remain below pre-COVID levels, we’ve begun to more seriously consider the idea of installing EV chargers. While we

currently don’t foresee installing a large number of chargers, the idea of installing one or two per facility looks more appealing than before. It would be an additional amenity to offer downtown visitors that drive electric vehicles and as such would work as a marketing tool for our organization, promoting the technology.

What is one key thing parking, transportation, and mobility pros need to know about EVs and their impact in the future? What accommodations and changes should be made now to current and near-term operations?

One thing to consider is a forward-thinking capital asset management plan that addresses the existing infrastructure of your facilities. While exploring the idea of installing EV chargers in one of our older facilities, we discovered the existing electric panels were at capacity. The necessary upgrades to the existing electrical system added substantially to the cost of the project. By planning ahead and making capital improvements to your facilities before the impending larger surge in EV ownership, your organization can be better positioned for the demand that will accompany the widespread adoption of electric vehicles. ◆

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Wherever

I MAY

Roam

The parking industry is facing big change, but your organization can make the most of it with some simple changes to thinking. Just follow the music. By Katherine Beaty

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I

NNOVATION is defined as a new method, idea, or product, and is crucial to the continued success of

any organization. With innovation comes the need to learn

to embrace change. After all, change is inevitable, normal, and necessary. What is difficult is acknowledging the changes you are experiencing and recognizing why the changes are occurring and/or needed. You must claim control over what you can as it relates to the change and helping accept the new reality.

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Faith No More

When you find you no longer have faith in the current business model, you must make change work for you. No one did this better for me than one of my favorite metal bands—Metallica. The music industry was shaken to its core in the early 2000s by Napster, which made it relatively easy for music enthusiasts to download copies of songs that were otherwise difficult to obtain, such as older songs, unreleased recordings, studio recordings, and songs from concert bootleg recordings. Napster paved the way for streaming media services and transformed music into a public good for a brief period. Metallica discovered a demo of their song, “I Disappear,” had been circulating across the network before it was released as a single. This led to it being played on several radio stations across the U.S., which alerted Metallica to the fact that their entire back catalogue of studio material was also available. On March 13, 2000, they filed a lawsuit against Napster and eventually won. But with this victory, the band learned the industry was evolving and they could either fight the new innovations and changes in how people purchased, accessed, and listened to music, or they could take control. The band decided to take control of this new business model and became the world’s first subscription-based music group by turning the concert tour into a resort package, which they called their “Wherever I May Roam Black Ticket.” The subscription service allowed access to any concert of the 30+ date, 2018/19 U.S. arena tour.

Rage Against the Machine

Subscription services are all the rage. Nearly every business sector has been affected as the subscription model of revenue has become quite trendy. We in the parking industry can try to rage against this machine, however, the reality is that this machine evolved from $57 million in revenues in 2011, to $2.6 billion in 2016. As the Information Age and the internet have advanced, so has the subscription model. If the parking industry does not adapt to this new business model, it could follow in the footsteps of Blockbuster video, which lost its rage against the machine to Netflix. In his recent book, Subscribed: Why the Subscription Model Will Be Your Company’s Future-and What to Do About It, Tien Tzuo aims to change how executives think about their products and organizational structure in the subscription economy. “If you are not shifting to this business model now,” Tzuo writes, “chances are that in a few years you might not have any business left to shift.”

Queen of the Stone Age

For decades, the parking industry was queen of the stone age: There were few innovations in the tools used to provide parking services. This all changed with the digital revolution, and in 44 PARKING & MOBILITY / AUGUST 2021 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

the wake of these changes and the recent COVID-19 pandemic, customers’ expectations have drastically changed. As Tzuo wrote, “Every customer is unique and has different, ever changing needs, so businesses that still try to sell one-size-fits-all packages that lock customers into longterm contracts will be left in the cold.” We should not underestimate the appeal of this freedom and ability for customers to get what they want, when they want it, and from wherever they happen to be. Our customers largely no longer work from traditional office spaces; they attend classes virtually; there are new regulations related to mass transit, travel, events, and eating; and a lot of people don’t work a traditional Monday - Friday, 9 - 5 schedule anymore. We must come up with new innovations that can address our customer’s needs and realities. A subscription model does this by shifting the focus away from new customer acquisition and onto customer retention. What is great about this model is that you can keep selling products the traditional way while selling some products and services as a subscription. This gives you time to adjust and avoid common mistakes.

Evanescence

The definition of “evanescence” is something fleeting that passes out of sight or mind quickly. An example of evanescence is a rainbow that appears for only a moment after a storm. If you want your subscription method to be lasting and have a real effect on your customers, your organization, and most importantly, your revenue, it’s prudent to avoid some mistakes: ■  Making decisions without research. With the subscription economy booming, many people are excited to dive right in. Do not. It is important to do your research first. Is there a problem/ solution fit? Is there a need for which your product or service provides a solution? ■  Not providing good support and customer success


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Our customers largely no longer work from traditional office spaces; they attend classes virtually; there are new regulations related to mass transit, travel, events, and eating; and a lot of people don’t work a traditional Monday - Friday, 9-5 schedule anymore. We must come up with new innovations that can address our customer’s needs and realities. from day one. It costs more to acquire new customers than it does to retain your existing. Both customer support and customer success teams help to retain customers. ■  Waiting too long before charging for your product/service. Charging early on and accepting pre-orders can help differentiate the tire kickers from the qualified prospect. ■  Not charging enough for your subscription. The value of your product should match your price. ■  Analysis paralysis. Avoid overthinking something so much that you are unable to decide or take action on it. Do not be so focused on getting the pricing, features of your product, website, etc., so “perfect” that you delay the launch. ■  Aways saying yes. Focus on quality over quantity. Do not jump the gun to satisfy one or two customers. As you grow, you will be able to add well-thought-out features that are easy to use and enhance the overall customer experience.

All That Remains

All that remains is deciding where and how to adopt a subscription business model within your parking organization. Maybe you would benefit from:

■  Monthly parking subscription based on the number

of days parked. Customers are no longer working Monday to Friday, 8-5. A subscription model that allows a parker to have an adjusted rate to park two or three days a week might make sense. ■  All-access pass subscription that provides customer access to the entire inventory of parking options within a particular area/city/region that can be used as they need. ■  Frequent customer subscription for those customers who are more than just one-time customers, but not quite to monthly or VIP status, to gain the larger discount.

KISS

Whatever subscription model you choose, remember that it is better to be the one initialing change using free will rather than being driven by a negative path or influence. When creating your program remember K.I.S.S. (keep it simple, stupid). Make the most of change to stay one step ahead and prepared for the future. ◆ KATHERINE BEATY is vice president of implementation with TEZ Technology. She can be reached at katherine@tezhq.com.

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YOUR WEBINAR SCHEDULE Register for a single webinar for $35. Annual Training Pass Available: Members purchase all 2021 webinars for $379. AUGUST 11, 2021 Ask Better Questions, Get Better Answers: Improve Your RFP Procurement Process to Receive Quality Proposals Presenter: Mandy Bowers, Senior Marketing Specialist, Kimley-Horn

SEPTEMBER 15, 2021 Collecting Lost Revenue: The Payment Behind the Parking Payment Presenters: Andrew LaMothe, Regional Director of Sales, Passport; Brian Shaw, CAPP, Executive Director of Transportation; Stanford University

RECORDINGS INCLUDED IN YOUR ANNUAL PASS: Curbing COVID-19 at the Curb Presenter: Matthew Darst, JD, Director of Curbside Management, Conduent Transportation

Frictionless Parking: Smoothing Out the Edges for a Seamless Mobility Experience Presented by the IPMI Technology Committee

Operational Measures that Produce a Positive Customer Experience and Drive Organizational Success Presenters: Tammy Baker, Vice President of Client Experience, and Brian Wolff, President & CEO,

OCTOBER 20, 2021

Parker Technology Inc.

How U.S. Cities can Learn from Smart City Innovations in Europe

Teleworking: An Alternate Mobility Mode

Presenter: David Parker, Chief Operating Officer,

Presenters: Perry H. Eggleston, CAPP, DPA,

Cleverciti

Executive Director for Transportation Services; and Ramon Zavala, Transportation Demand

NOVEMBER 10, 2021 The Truth Behind Common Parking Myths Presenter: Michael Pendergrass, AIA, Associate Principal and Matt Davis, Associate Principal, Watry Design, Inc.

DECEMBER 15, 2021 Getting Smart: Strategies to Get Started Creating Smart Communities Presenter: Thomas Szubka, CAPP, Senior Consultant, Walker Consultants

Manager, UC Davis Transportation Services, University of California at Davis

Using Social Listening to Improve Your Customer Service Presenter: Melonie Curry, Communications Manager, ParkHouston

The Parking Study is Done. Now What? Presenter: Jennifer McCoy, PE, PTOE, Senior Traffic Engineer, Bolton & Menk, Inc.


IN

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Highlights from the IPMI Blog

The Parking Study is Done. Now What? By Jennifer McCoy, PE, PTOA After a parking lot study has been completed in a new, shiny document, cities ask themselves, “What happens next?” Moving into the next task of sifting through parking study recommendations can be daunting. However, here are some great steps to help structure the decision-making process and know what to do next. Step 1: Define the overall goals for the changes to the parking system. Why was the parking study done in the first place? What are the city’s long-term goals toward a sustainable system? A few goals could include increasing turnover on the street, increasing revenue for the parking system, improving payment technology, or right-pricing the parking to encourage use of long-term parking in lots or garages instead of on-street. Step 2: Determine which groups will be affected by the changes and decide who needs to be informed and how. Different outreach messages need to be crafted for each group, as they likely have varying concerns or needs when it comes to the proposed changes. Different groups could include city council or upper management, business owners, downtown chamber, and different parking patrons using the system such as

visitors, students, and employees. Step 3: Determine how to best convey messages about the parking changes and develop a communication strategy plan. Using a branded communication plan for your parking system will help create awareness of the changes. A variety of digital and non-digital tools can be used to display information in a quick and easy-to-understand manner. It is important to never forget the value of the old-fashioned, boots-onthe-ground approach to telling people about the upcoming changes. Effort put into communication at the beginning of the process promotes understanding and support for the project, increasing the likelihood that implementing the new parking changes will go much more smoothly.

JENNIFER MCCOY, PE, PTOA, is a senior traffic engineer at Bolton & Menk.

Ready for more? Read IPMI’s blog every business day in your daily Forum digest email (10 a.m. Eastern) or at parking-mobility.org/blog. Have something to say? Send post submissions to editor Kim Fernandez at fernandez@parking-mobility.org.

PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG / AUGUST 2021 / PARKING & MOBILITY 47


Putting Your Client First By John Mason, CAPP, PMP It’s tough in business sometimes to see what value there could be beyond turning a profit when it comes to implementing systems. Corporate culture tells you it’s all about making money. To some extent, that’s certainly true. You can’t stay in business if you’re not making money. Well, sometimes it’s not true. Every once in a while, you’re going to lose money. You learn from the experience and do your best to correct for the next experience. Other times it becomes about doing what’s right and creating business relationships that pay different dividends. One of those dividends could be turning a great partner into an amazing reference–making a relationship so strong that the partner reference speaks volumes to the positive experience they had with you and how (as partners) you slayed a dragon of a project together. They speak to how you stood shoulder to shoulder with them throughout a difficult implementation. That together you worked tirelessly to get everything just how it they needed it to be. That kind of reference cannot be measured in dollars. A large, very visible client that would speak that highly of your company is priceless. That is what comes of putting your client first. JOHN MASON, CAPP, PMP, is project manager with HUB Parking Technology.

My Parking Career Wasn’t Over After All By David Horn, CAPP In March 2020, the beginning of the pandemic, life began to change quickly and the outcomes were a mystery to all of us. My family and I took a summer trip in late July. Upon returning to work, I was told my position would be eliminated at the end of August. Knowing the condition of the industry due to COVID, my future looked dim. I reached out to my network, sharpened my resume, and began looking for my next opportunity, wondering if I might have to leave the industry I love so much. After months of applying, interviewing, and dead ends, my outlook grew grim. My friend of 30 years who works in automotive, invited me to join him in Texas at the plant he manages building sub-assemblies. He assured me I would be successful. On Jan. 1, I left for Arlington Texas, for what would be a four-month contract role that became permanent. To say I was overwhelmed would be the understatement of the decade. By early March, I reached the conclusion that I

probably was not a good fit for automotive; I just did not feel a passion for it. I longed for my first love— parking! I gave notice later that month and agreed to work through the end of the contract. I began looking for my next opportunity. The last week of April, Tim Hoppenrath sent me a note asking if I still knew anyone in Jacksonville. This was the opportunity I had hoped for. Forty-five days later, I joined an awesome team and returned to the industry I love. My career in parking wasn’t over after all.

DAVID HORN, CAPP, is market president, Jacksonville, at Premium Parking.

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/ PayByPhone Appoints Sonny Samra to Senior Director of Business Growth, Canada & USA. PAYBYPHONE has appointed Sonny Samra as Senior Director of Business Growth, Canada & USA. Sonny joined PayByPhone in 2019 as Sales Director, Southwest, quickly proving to be a great asset to the company, growing his territory and adding key clients. Sonny came to PayByPhone with a strong background in information technology and services, where he worked as director of growth for a software as a service (SaaS) financial technology company. Against this backdrop and with his enthusiasm for innovation, experience in global sales, growth, and strategy roles, he brings to bear his passion for technology enablement in his current and new role. Sonny holds an MBA from Simon Fraser University Beedie School of Business, BC, and a BSc. degree from the University of Victoria, BC. “PayByPhone is in the midst of extraordinary growth throughout the U.S. and Canada, and Sonny Samra has brought tremendous success to our team,” said Roamy Valera, CAPP, PayByPhone’s CEO, US and Canada. “Sonny has demonstrated tremendous sales leadership during his tenure and will play an important role in our continued success throughout the United States and Canada.” Sonny leads the team that develops sales focus and leadership resources dedicated to PayByPhone’s suite of products, while supporting the go-to-market strategy.

Conduent Named a 2020 Supplier of the Year Winner by General Motors CONDUENT INCORPORATED was named a GM Supplier of the Year winner in General Motors’ 29th annual Supplier of the Year awards. GM recognized 122 of its best suppliers from 16 countries for performance in the 2020 calendar year. The annual awards highlight global suppliers that distinguish themselves by exceeding GM’s requirements, in turn providing GM customers with innovative technologies and among the highest quality in the automotive industry. “As GM works to achieve a future with zero crashes, zero emissions and zero congestion, we are proud to have innovative and dedicated suppliers around the world as partners in this mission,” said Shilpan Amin, GM vice president, Global Purchasing and Supply Chain. “Throughout a challenging year, our suppliers have showed resilience and dedication in working toward our shared goal of long-term sustainability for our planet and the communities we serve, while meeting our present needs,” Amin said. “We are pleased with what we’ve

accomplished together in the past year and we are excited by the opportunity that lies ahead.” The 2020 Supplier of the Year winners were selected by a global team of GM purchasing, engineering, quality, manufacturing and logistics leaders. Winners were chosen based on performance criteria in Product Purchasing, Global Purchasing and Manufacturing Services, Customer Care and Aftersales, and Logistics. “During unprecedented challenges, our clients counted on Conduent to help them navigate through difficult times and I’m proud of the stellar work our Payroll, Legal Compliance, and Finance, Accounting and Procurement teams provided to General Motors,” said Dharma Rajagopalan, Group President, Business Process Solutions at Conduent. “The Supplier of the Year award from GM reflects our commitment to unlocking cost savings while exceeding performance expectations for the clients we serve. We are honored to receive this recognition from such a valued client.”

PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG / AUGUST 2021 / PARKING & MOBILITY 49


/ Advanced Technologies and Predictive Analytics from LAZ Parking Reduce Traffic Tie-Ups at Busy Rhode Island State Beaches THE RHODE ISLAND Department of Environmental Management (DEM), which operates eight saltwater beaches and associated parking facilities, has once again partnered with LAZ Parking to modernize, digitize, and streamline parking for more than one million annual beachgoers this year. Rhode Island has implemented a customized technology platform built upon LAZ’s e-commerce, business intelligence, and customer care solutions. The technology allows residents and out-of-state visitors to purchase season parking passes and daily flex passes online. With a Daily Flex Pass, beachgoers are automatically charged the daily parking rate when their vehicle enters one of the state beach parking lots. The flex parking pass is a great option if a beachgoer is unsure how many times they may visit the beach but would like the opportunity to use the express lanes. Both passes use state-of-the art license plate recognition technology for validation and allow passholders to access express lanes for faster entry. The technology was in limited use in 2020 before being suspended due to travel restrictions and capacity limits associated with COVID-19. Improvements include allowing customers to buy both day and season online passes in advance, express lanes using license plate recognition technology for prepaid customers at some locations, capability to provide real-time parking lot capacity data that DEM can use to communicate alerts when lots are at or near capacity, and capability to capture visitation and revenue numbers in real time

to ensure that the right fees are being charged and collected for every transaction. Initial data showed that purchasing

a season or flex pass online and using an express lane significantly reduced the time to park. “In the summertime, DEM is in the business of providing safe and convenient access to the best beaches anywhere to hundreds of thousands of Rhode Islanders and out-of-state visitors,” said DEM Acting Director Terrence Gray. “LAZ Parking’s customized and customer-friendly technology speeds up the parking process and allows visitors to find their spot in the sand more quickly. Access to outdoor recreation venues where families and friends can relax and share special times is central to DEM’s mission. LAZ Parking is our partner in fulfilling this promise.” To help reduce the amount of time beachgoers spend at the entry booths, DEM encourages Rhode Islanders to buy season and daily flex parking passes online or in advance. Anyone who buys a season parking pass or a daily flex parking pass online or before heading to the beach may use the express lanes for quick beach entry. Purchasing season or daily flex parking passes online also helps DEM keep express lanes open, as

50 PARKING & MOBILITY / AUGUST 2021 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

there have been past instances when the express lanes could not be used because too many people were paying for parking at the entry gates rather using prepaid parking passes. “Per-vehicle transaction times at beach entrance booths for sales of seasonal beach passes previously took up to three minutes a car,” Gray said. “If you multiply that by the thousands of cars we welcome on busy summer weekends, the time really adds up and means worse traffic backups and delays for everyone. This technology will be even more critical in 2021, as the state expects record crowds this year.” LAZ Parking manages more than one million parking spaces across the U.S. and is an industry leader in the development and implementation of technology, data analytics, and real-time monitoring tools that make parking faster, safer, easier, and more efficient. DEM first contracted with LAZ Parking in early 2020, after a competitive bidding process, to operate and modernize parking at state beaches. DEM’s selection of LAZ Parking is in keeping with the State’s Parks Initiative, now in its third year, of celebrating the state park system by investing in it. Rhode Island’s natural and public assets – including eight saltwater beaches, 25 parks and nature preserves, 8,200 acres of parkland, 1,000 campsites, 400 miles of hiking and biking trails, and 200 fishing spots – are magnets, attracting more than 9 million Rhode Islanders and tourists a year. They’re also an engine that adds an estimated $315 million to the economy, generating nearly $40 million in state and local taxes and supporting nearly 4,000 jobs a year.


T2 MobilePay Delivers a Simple, Contactless Parking Experience to 1200 Poydras Street Garage in New Orleans CUSTOMERS of the 1200 Poydras Street Garage in downtown New Orleans, managed by Poydras Parking Company, will now be able to quickly and easily pay for parking on their phone using T2 MobilePay. The mobile payment platform, from parking technology leader T2 Systems, will be available in all of the garage’s 382 spaces. “I’m excited that the T2 MobilePay platform is now available to residents and visitors of downtown New Orleans,” said Bric Fraser, Regional Sales Manager for T2 Systems. “Since

there is never an app to download, first-time and repeat visitors share the same convenience. This solution will increase mobile payment adoption and customer satisfaction.” T2 MobilePay, powered by TEXT2PARK, is a browser-based parking payment solution that does not require parkers to download an app. They simply send a text message or scan a QR code specific to the lot, enter their parking and payment information, and go on their way. Meanwhile, parking operators are given complete control of their customers, data, brand, and revenue.

Parkopedia partners with ThinxNet for In-car Fueling Payments PARKOPEDIA AND THINXNET , have partnered to improve the refuelling experience for drivers, automakers and fuelling stations across Europe, through intelligent connected solutions that enable drivers to pay for their fuel directly through their vehicles’ head units. As part of the single API, which powers the pay-at-the-pump application of Parkopedia’s payment platform, ThinxNet uses state-of-the-art, cloud-based technology to ensure payments at the fuel pump can be seamlessly completed from inside the vehicle. Drivers are able to refuel quickly, cheaply and safely, negating the need to step away from the vehicle or enter a kiosk to pay. ThinxNet’s solution is currently available at more than 1,400 fueling stations in Germany, Austria, Belgium, and the Netherlands, with more to follow in Luxembourg, Switzerland, Portugal, Spain and the rest of Europe. Parkopedia’s new multi-domain payment platform is an extension of the company’s existing parking payment solution, which is currently in use by various leading global automakers. The latest platform will now also include payments for fueling, as well as other vehicle-centric services, such as electric vehicle (EV) charging and tolls via a single sign-on solution, removing the need for drivers to

maintain multiple apps and accounts for their on-the-road payment needs. Parkopedia’s integrated solution manages the full aggregation and payment flow between providers into a single payment platform, working with wider vehicle sensors to enable a seamless and complete digital fueling experience for the driver. Once a driver is notified that fuel is low, they will be presented with live fuel pricing for comparison and guided to their preferred station. Once on-site, the platform activates the pump, initiates the transaction and safely manages the payment from the vehicle. Discounts and loyalty offers can be applied automatically, as well as the mailing of electronic receipts—delivering a heightened level of connected service to drivers and simplifying management for automakers. Hans Puvogel, COO at Parkopedia,

says, “We are delighted to partner with ThinxNet, and integrate essential pay-atthe-pump fueling services for drivers into our recently announced payment platform. Our relationships with key connected vehicle service providers are a vital aspect of why we are already the market leader for in-vehicle parking payments. As we expand across further vehicle-centric payment services, we need partners that are aligned with us in delivering exceptional connected services that enhance the journey for drivers.” Sandra Dax, CEO at ThinxNet, says, “The partnership with Parkopedia is a logical next step for us to fulfill our vision of hassle-free, secure and reliable transactions around the car. We are convinced that a seamless in-car experience is a key driver for the adoption of connected services like digital fueling.”


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/

CALENDAR

2021 AUGUST 11 Webinar

Ask Better Questions, Get Better Answers: Improve Your RFP Procurement Process to Receive Quality Proposals

AUGUST 17 Online, Instructor-Led Training (Virtual) Cybersecurity

AUGUST 17 Free Frontline Training (Virtual)

Find Your Potential, Develop Your Path

SEPTEMBER 1 Free Industry Shoptalk (Virtual)

Hospital/Medical Center Parking and Mobility: Unique Challenges and Solutions

SEPTEMBER 14 Free Frontline Training (Virtual)

Life at Work is Like a Legos Set: All the Blocks are Necessary to Achieve the Bigger Picture

SEPTEMBER 15 Webinar

Collecting Lost Revenue: The Payment Behind the Parking Payment

SEPTEMBER 21 Online, Instructor-Led Training (Virtual)

SEPTEMBER 28 Free Frontline Training (Virtual) Managing Customers in a Remote Environment

SEPTEMBER 28 AND 30 Online, Instructor-Led Training (Virtual) APO Site Reviewer Training

OCTOBER 19 Free Frontline Training (Virtual) The Undercover Consultant

OCTOBER 20 Webinar

How U.S. Cities can Learn from Smart City Innovations in Europe

OCTOBER 19 AND 21 Online, Instructor-Led Training (Virtual) Wicked Problem Solving

OCTOBER 27 Free Learning Lab (Virtual) NOVEMBER 2 Free Frontline Training (Virtual)

Refocused and Refreshed: Experiential Customer Service

NOVEMBER 3 Free Industry Shoptalk (Virtual) Diversity: Rising Through the Ranks

Disaster Recovery

NOVEMBER 4 Online, Instructor-Led Training (Virtual)

Accredited Parking Organization Site Reviewer Renewal

NOVEMBER 4–5 Mid-Atlantic Parking Association Annual Conference Baltimore, Md.

NOVEMBER 10 Webinar

The Truth Behind Common Parking Myths

NOVEMBER 16 Free Frontline Training (Virtual) Situational Awareness

NOVEMBER 29– DECEMBER 2 2021 IPMI Parking & Mobility Conference & Expo, Tampa, Fla. DECEMBER 7, 9, 14 AND 16 Online, Instructor-Led Training (Virtual) Parksmart Advisor Training

DECEMBER 8 Free Industry Shoptalk (Virtual) The Year Ahead

DECEMBER 15 Webinar

Getting Smart: Strategies to Get Started Creating Smart Communities

54 PARKING & MOBILITY / AUGUST 2021 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG


State and Regional Events Calendar AUGUST 4–6 New England Parking Council (NEPC) Annual Conference and Trade Show

OCTOBER 5–8, 2021 Carolinas Parking & Mobility Association 2021 Annual Conference & Tradeshow

OCTOBER 25–27 Southwest Parking & Transportation Association (SWPTA) Annual Fall Conference

AUGUST 9–12 Texas Parking & Transportation Association (TPTA) 2021 Conference & Tradeshow

OCTOBER 12–NOVEMBER 16 California Public Parking Association (CPPA) Virtual Conference

NOVEMBER 4–5 Mid–Atlantic Parking Association (MAPA) Annual Conference and Tradeshow

AUGUST 18–20 Pennsylvania Parking Association (PPA) 2021 Conference & Expo

OCTOBER 12–14 New York State Parking & Transportation Association (NYSPTA) Fall Conference and Tradeshow

NOVEMBER 8–10 Parking Association of the Virginias (PAV) Fall Workshop & Tradeshow

Boston, MA

Round Rock, TX

Pittsburgh, PA

SEPTEMBER 13–15 Mid–South Transportation and Parking Association (MSTPA) Annual Conference and Tradeshow Chattanooga, TN

SEPTEMBER 23 Michigan Parking Association Membership Drive/Golf Outing

Harrah’s Cherokee Casino Resort

Watkins Glen, NY

OCTOBER 13–15 Pacific Intermountain Parking and Transportation Association (PIPTA) Annual Conference & Tradeshow

Las Vegas, NV

Baltimore, MD

Virginia Beach, VA

NOVEMBER 17–19 Florida Parking & Transportation Association (FPTA) Annual Conference & Expo Orlando, FL

Denver, CO

Timber Ridge Golf Course

Dates to Remember 9/15 CAPP Scholarship Application Deadline for #IPMI2021 in Tampa 9/15 CAPP Testing Deadline for #IPMI2021 in Tampa 10/13 Early Bird Rates End for #IPMI2021 in Tampa 11/2 Advanced Rate Ends for #IPMI2021 in Tampa 11/2 CAPP Classic Golf Outing Registration Closes

Stay up to date on industry events and activities! Visit parking-mobility.org/calendar for the latest updates and additions.

PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG / AUGUST 2021 / PARKING & MOBILITY 55


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➚Cities Using Transit to Get People to Nature ➚Washington, D.C., Joins Vision Zero to Improve Bike Lane Safety, by Tim Taylor ➚New Yorkers Still Loving Transportation by Bicycle ➚Like, Right? By Mark Lyons, CAPP ➚Read posts in your daily Forum email and submit your own to be published by IPMI—click here. ON THE NEW FORUM

➚Scooter and Bike RFP ➚EV Charging Ordinance ➚Let’s Think Outside the Car ➚Parking Portability with Performance-based Parking ➚COVID-19 Restrictions for Fall the conversation! Post a question, share your experiences, and more on our new, easy-to-use ➚Join online member community: forum.parking-mobility.org.

All from your desk, on your time, at parking-mobility.org. 58 PARKING & MOBILITY / AUGUST 2021 / PARKING-MOBILITY.ORG

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