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

CONTENTS







 





 





 

 





 

 















  





  

 





 















 

 

 

  

 


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Northwestern Undergraduate Research Journal The Northwestern Undergraduate Research Journal would like to express gratitude and appreciation to all those who recognize and contribute to our endeavors. Without their support, we would be unable to produce the 2010-2011 edition of the Journal. First, we would like to thank Morton Schapiro, President of Northwestern University, along with Provost Daniel I. Linzer and Ronald R. Braeutigam, the Associate Provost for Undergraduate Education, for their generous patronage. We are especially appreciative of our faculty advisor, Professor Allen Taflove of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, for his unwavering effort and dedication in producing the best Journal possible.

VOLUME SIX | 2010 - 2011

STAFF

     

FACULTY REVIEW BOARD

      

ONLINE FACULTY REVIEW BOARD

     

We value the work of our chief designer, Chang Lu, our webmaster, Nic Roth, and the staff of Quartet Copies for their quality print job. Finally, we would like to acknowledge the members of the Faculty Review Board for contributing their time and expertise to maintaining the quality and integrity of the 2010-2011 Northwestern Undergraduate Research Journal.

NURJ OFFICE TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE ROOM M471 2145 SHERIDAN ROAD EVANSTON, IL 60208 EMAIL NORTHWESTERN.URJ@GMAIL.COM SUBMISSIONS.NURJ@GMAIL.COM

GRAPHICS AND LAYOUT DESIGN PUBLISHER COVER IMAGES

WEBSITE

                  

           

MISSION STATEMENT The Northwestern Undergraduate Research Journal provides students the opportunity to experience writing and submitting original research. The goals of the Journal are to encourage dissemination of ideas, increase undergraduate involvement in research, and recognize the impressive work being performed by undergraduates. The views, statements, and conclusions expressed in the Northwestern Undergraduate Research Journal are the authors’ own and not necessarily those of the Journal or Northwestern University.


LETTER FROM THE EDITORS  

             

     

 

 

 3


      Now accepting submissions for the 2011-2012 publication     Want to become a part of NURJ? Learn more by contacting us at northwestern.urj@gmail.com

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CHURCHILL SCHOLARS DENNIS HU  

SAMANTHA STRASSER     

                                                             

    

       

          

NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

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RESEARCH

Community Organization and Family Strength in Watts on the Eve of the 1965 Rebellion

Colin McGrath DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY

Henry Binford FACULTY ADVISOR DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY

                                                                            

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NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

                                          Culture of Poverty, Tangle of Pathology                                  


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 VOLUME 6, 2010-2011

RESEARCH

                                                                                                 Coping Mechanisms and Forms of Social Organization in Watts                                                                                                                     NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

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RESEARCH

                                                               

Voices from Watts                                                                                                               8

NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

                                                                                                                                                                     Patterns of Destruction                          


                                                                                                                                                                      Conclusion                 

Notes i

ii

iii

iv v vi

VOLUME 6, 2010-2011

RESEARCH

                                

The research for this paper was funded by a grant from the Undergraduate Research Grant Program, which is administered by Northwestern University’s Office of the Provost. The conclusions, opinions, and statements in this paper are my own and not necessarily those of the sponsoring institution. Nathan Edward Cohen and University of California Los Angeles. Institute of Government and Public Affairs., The Los Angeles Riots: A Socio-Psychological Study, Praeger Special Series in U.S. Economic and Social Development (New York: Praeger, 1970); David O. Sears and John B. McConahay, The Politics of Violence: The New Urban Blacks and the Watts Riot (Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1981); Robert M. Fogelson, “White on Black: A Critique of the Mccone Commission Report on the Los Angeles Riots,” Political Science Quarterly 82, no. 3 (1967); Harry M. Scoble, “The Mccone Commission and Social Science,” Phylon (1960-) 29, no. 2 (1968). Micaela Di Leonardo, Exotics at Home: Anthropologies, Others, American Modernity, Women in Culture and Society (Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 115-17. To illustrate his popularity, di Leonardo recalls that one of her classmates in a middle- to working-class public high school suggested that she read Lewis’s Five Families. Oscar Lewis, “The Culture of Poverty,” Society 35, no. 2 (1998). Kenneth Bancroft Clark, Dark Ghetto: Dilemmas of Social Power (New York: Harper & Row, 1965), 62. United States. Dept. of Labor. Office of Policy Planning and Research., The Negro NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

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Family: The Case for National Action (Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O., 1965), 30. Ibid., 35. Ibid., 45-47. “Los Angeles Police Fight Negro Mob,” Chicago Tribune (1963-Current file) 12 August 1965; “1,000 Riot in L.A,” Los Angeles Times (1886-Current File) 12 August 1965; Peter Bart, “2,000 Troops Enter Los Angeles on Third Day of Negro Rioting; 4 Die as Fires and Looting Grow,” New York Times (1923-Current file) 14 August 1965; “Illiteracy Is High in Riot Area,” The Washington Post, Times Herald (19591973) 15 August 1965; “Behind the Riots,” Wall Street Journal (1923 - Current file) 16 August 1965; “Study Traces Negro Riots to Inferior Home,” Chicago Tribune (1963-Current file) 26 August 1965; John Herbers, “Johnson Rebukes Rioters as Destroyers of Rights,” New York Times (1923-Current file) 21 August 1965; California. Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots., Violence in the City-an End or a Beginning?: A Report by the Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots (Los Angeles: The Commission, 1965). x “Study Traces Negro Riots to Inferior Home.” xi Evans Rowland and Novak Robert, “Inside Report,” The Washington Post, Times Herald (1959-1973) 18 August 1965. xii California. Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots., Violence in the City-an End or a Beginning?: A Report by the Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots (Los Angeles: The Commission, 1965). xiii “Testimony of Willie F. Brown,” in Transcripts, Depositions, Consultants Reports, and Selected Documents of the Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots, reel 3. (Los Angeles: Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots, 1965), 9. xiv “Testimony of Linda Bryant,” in Transcripts, Depositions, Consultants Reports, and Selected Documents of the Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots, reel 3. (Los Angeles: Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots, September 25 1965), 20-21. xv William R. Armstead and Richard E. Townsend, “Watts: Its Problems and Possible Solutions,” in Hardcore Unemployment and Poverty in Los Angeles (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1965), 22; “Testimony of Linda Bryant,” 6. xvi “Testimony of Linda Bryant,” 11,27. xvii Ibid., 10; Armstead and Townsend, “Watts: Its Problems and Possible Solutions.” xviii Hugh Taylor, “Memorandum: Meeting of August 26, 1:30 Avalon Carber Community Center,” in Transcripts, Depositions, Consultants Reports, and Selected Documents of the Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots, reel 4. (Los Angeles: Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots, 1965), 1. xix Ibid., 4. xx ———, “Memorandum: Watts,” in Transcripts, Depositions, Consultants Reports, and Selected Documents of the Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots, reel 4. (Los Angeles1965), 9. xxi “Report of Interview of Mr. Smith, a Resident of the Curfew Area,” in Transcripts, Depositions, Consultants Reports, and Selected Documents of the Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots, reel 4. (Los Angeles: Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots, 1965). xxii “Report of Investigation: “Discussions Unlimited” Meeting,” in Transcripts, Depositions, Consultants Reports, and Selected Documents of the Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots, reel 4. (Los Angeles: Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots, 1965), 2. xxiii Taylor, “Memorandum: Watts,” 4. xxiv “Report of Interview with Participants in the Rioting,” in Transcripts, Depositions, Consultants Reports, and Selected Documents of the Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots, reel 4. (Los Angeles: Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots, 1965), 4. xxv ———, “Memorandum: Watts,” 4. xxvi Ibid., 3. xxvii “Report of Interview of Mr. Smith, a Resident of the Curfew Area.” xxviii Adryan Dove, “Memorandum: Investigation of Causes and Effects of Los Angeles’s Riot as It Relates to Fair Employment,” in Transcripts, Depositions, Consultants Reports, and Selected Documents of the Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots, reel 4. (Los Angeles: Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots, 1965), 2.

vii viii ix

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xxix xxx

“Testimony of Linda Bryant,” 20. California Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots, Violence in the City: An End or a Beginning? (Los Angeles: The Commission, 1965), 138.

Sources Newspapers Chicago Tribune Chicago Daily Defender Los Angeles Times New York Times Wall Street Journal Washington Post Unpublished Sources California. Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots. Transcripts, Depositions, Consultants Reports, and Selected Documents of the Governor’s Commission on the Los Angleles Riots. 18 vols. Los Angeles: Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots, 1965. (Microfilm) John A. McCone papers, BANC MSS 95/20 c, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley. Works Consulted Adler, Patricia Rae. “Watts: From Suburb to Black Ghetto.” Ph. D., University of Southern California, 1977. Armstead, William R., and Richard E. Townsend. “Watts: Its Problems and Possible Solutions.” In Hardcore Unemployment and Poverty in Los Angeles. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1965. California Governor’s Commission on the Los Angeles Riots. Violence in the City: An End or a Beginning? Los Angeles: The Commission, 1965. Clark, Kenneth Bancroft. Dark Ghetto: Dilemmas of Social Power. 2nd ed, Wesleyan Paperback. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1989. Cohen, Nathan Edward, and University of California Los Angeles. Institute of Government and Public Affairs. The Los Angeles Riots: A Socio-Psychological Study, Praeger Special Series in U.S. Economic and Social Development. New York: Praeger, 1970. Di Leonardo, Micaela. Exotics at Home: Anthropologies, Others, American Modernity, Women in Culture and Society. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1998. Fogelson, Robert M. “White on Black: A Critique of the Mccone Commission Report on the Los Angeles Riots.” Political Science Quarterly 82, no. 3 (1967): 337-67. Frazier, Edward Franklin. The Negro Family in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1939. Horne, Gerald. Fire This Time: The Watts Uprising and the 1960s, Carter G. Woodson Institute Series in Black Studies. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995. Jackson, Kenneth T. Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985. Lewis, Oscar. “The Culture of Poverty.” Society 35, no. 2 (1998): 7-9. Murray, Charles A. Losing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950-1980. New York: Basic Books, 1984. Nicolaides, Becky M. My Blue Heaven: Life and Politics in the Working-Class Suburbs of Los Angeles, 1920-1965, Historical Studies of Urban America. Chicago: University of Rowland, Evans, and Novak Robert. “Inside Report.” The Washington Post, Times Herald (1959-1973), 18 August 1965, A19. Scoble, Harry M. “The Mccone Commission and Social Science.” Phylon (1960-) 29, no. 2 (1968): 167-81. Sears, David O., and John B. McConahay. The Politics of Violence: The New Urban Blacks and the Watts Riot. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1981. Sides, Josh. L.A. City Limits: African American Los Angeles from the Great Depression to the Present. Berkeley, Calif. London: University of California Press, 2004. United States. Dept. of Labor. Office of Policy Planning and Research. The Negro Family: The Case for National Action. Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O., 1965.


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Strain Differences in Follicle Development and Gene Expression in Mice Jessina Thomas DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Teresa Woodruff FACULTY ADVISOR DEPARTMENT OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY FEINBERG SCHOOL OF MEDICINE

Lei Lei POSTDOCTORAL MENTOR DEPARTMENT OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY FEINBERG SCHOOL OF MEDICINE

Candace Tingen POSTDOCTORAL MENTOR DEPARTMENT OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY FEINBERG SCHOOL OF MEDICINE

The ovarian follicle, the functional unit of the ovary, consists of an oocyte surrounded by somatic granulosa cells. Women (and mice) are born with a non-renewable follicle reserve, so understanding how an individual follicle begins the process of development during one menstrual cycle is crucial to the progress of fertility research.[1] The mouse serves as an accurate model of human follicle growth and development. It was previously observed that the number of follicles during each developmental stage depended on the strain of the mouse tested.[2] Because the number of follicles differs among strains of mice, we hypothesized that the expression of various genes that control the follicle initiation stages must also differ between mice strains. The gene expression patterns in pre-pubertal CD-1 and C57BL/6j x CBA/Ca mice ovaries were analyzed to determine if they affected the very first follicle initiation stage. RNA was isolated from ovarian samples (day 12 and 16) gene expression levels of Gdf9, Bmp15, Fshr, Foxl2, Cyp11a, Cyp17, and Amh in the ovary were determined through real-time PCR. The expression levels of the Foxl2, Cyp11a and Cyp17 genes were found to vary between day 12 and 16 in both strains of mice.

Introduction                              VOLUME 6, 2010-2011

           Materials and Methods             NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

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RESEARCH Figure 1. The pre-pubertal follicle development in two strains of mice. (A) Histological morphology of day 12 CD-1 mouse ovary. (B) Histological morphology of day 12 C57BL/6j x CBA/Ca mouse ovary. (C~F) The morphology of follicle class: (C) primordial follicle, (arrow); (D) primary follicle; (E) two-layer secondary follicle; (F) multi-layered secondary follicle. (Table 1) The number of the follicles at different development stage. (Table 2) The percentage of the different stage follicle in the ovary. (G) The oocyte diameter of the different stage follicle in day 16 mice* shows the difference (P< 0.05 )

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NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL


                                     

RESEARCH

      

      Results                       

Figure 2. The oocyte development in hormone primed pre-pubertal mice. (A) The number of COCs collected from two strains of mice. (B) The oocyte diameter of two strain mice.

VOLUME 6, 2010-2011

NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

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RESEARCH Figure 3. The expression of early folliculogenesis related genes in day 12 mouse ovary (A) and day 16 mouse ovary (B). Due to insufficient replicates, statistical analysis could not be performed.

                        14

NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

        Discussion              


                    

RESEARCH

Acknowledgements         References [1] [2]

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Pepling, M. E. (2006), Overview of steroidogenic enzymes in the pathway from cholesterol to active steroid hormones. Endocrine Reviews. 25: 947-970. Canning, J., Takai, Y., & Tilly, J.L. (2003). Evidence for genetic modifiers of ovarian follicular endowment and development from studies of five inbred mouse stains. Endocrinology 144, 9-12. Bristol-Gould, S.K., Kreeger, P. K., Selkirk, C. G., Kilen, S. M., Cook, R. W., Kipp, J.L., Shea, L.D., Mayo, K.E., & Woodruff, T.K. (2006). Postnatal regulation of germ cells by activin: The establishment of the initial follicle pool. Developmental Biology, 289, 132-148. Choi, Y., & Rajkovic, A. (2006). Genetics of early mammalian folliculogenesis. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 63, 579-590. Huhtaniemi, I.T., & Aittomaki, K. (1998). Mutations of follicle-stimulating hormone and its receptor; Effects on gonadal function. European Journal of Endocrinology, 138, 473-481. Payne, A.H., & Hales, D.B. (2004). From primordial germ cell to primordial follicle: Mammalian female germ cell development. Genesis, 44, 622-632.

VOLUME 6, 2010-2011

NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

15




FEATURE



Irina Dykhne DEPARTMENT OF SLAVIC LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES COMPARATIVE LITERARY STUDIES PROGRAM

FACULTY ADVISOR DEPARTMENT OF SLAVIC LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY

Kasey Evans

Michal Ginsburg

FACULTY MENTOR DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY

16

Nina Gourianova

NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

FACULTY MENTOR COMPARATIVE LITERARY STUDIES PROGRAM NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY


 Introduction                                       

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                                                      

  

 

Neoprimitivism and the Rejection of the West             VOLUME 6, 2010-2011

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                                                     

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NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

                                          

                                             


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                                                                                 Heroizing the Feminine                           VOLUME 6, 2010-2011

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FEATURE

                                                     

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NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

                                                      


                                                       VOLUME 6, 2010-2011

FEATURE

                                                      NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

21


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FEATURE

                                                     

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NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

                                                     


                          Conclusion                            VOLUME 6, 2010-2011

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                      Footnotes 1 2

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Goncharova, Natalia and Mikhail Larionov. “Roynists and Futurists: A Manifesto.” 1913. Goncharova, Natalia. “Preface to Catalogue of One-Man Exhibition, 1913.” The Russian Avant-Garde Theory and Criticism 1902-1934. Ed. Bowlt, John E. New York: The Viking Press, 1976. Further citations of this author will be made parenthetically. Nicholls, Peter. “A Metaphysics of Modernity: Marinetti and Italian Futurism.” Modernism: A Literary Guide. 2 ed: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. 84-111. Further citations of this author will be made parenthetically. Markov, Vladimir. Russian Futurism: A History. Washington DC: New Academia Publishing, LLC, 1992. (8). Further citations of this author will be made parenthetically. Gray, Camilla. The Russian Experiment in Art. New York: Thames and Hundson Ltd., 1962. (94). Further citations of this author will be made parenthetically. Parton, Anthony. Mikhail Larionov. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. (77). Further citations of this author will be made parenthetically. Shevchenko, Aleksandr. “Neoprimitivism: Its Theory, Its Potentials, Its Achievements, 1913.” Russian Art of the Avant-Garde Theory and Criticism 19021934. New York: The Viking Press, 1913. 41-54. (45). Goldwater, Robert. Primitivism in Modern Art. Enlarged Edition ed. Cambridge and London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1986. Markov, Vladimir. “The Literary Importance of Khlebnikov’s Longer Poems.” Russian Review 19.4 (1960): 359. State Russian Museum, The. Natalia Goncharova the Russian Years. Trans. McInnes, Kenneth. Italy: GRAFICART, 2002. Further citations of this publication will be made parenthetically Hubbs, Joanna. Mother Russia: The Feminine Myth in Russian Culture. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1988: 11. Further citations of this author will be made parenthetically. Quotations for “Venus and the Shaman” will be taken from the English translation by Paul Schmidt. Quotations for “Stone Woman” will be taken from the English translation by Paul Schmidt. I am referencing the Russian version because Schmidt’s English translation slightly

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alters, and in my opinion misinterprets, the intended image to, “You stretch to heaven and back again.”

Works Cited Ardis Anthology of Russian Futurism. Ed. Ellendea Proffer, Carl R. Proffer. Ann Arbor: Ardis 1980. Print. Laboratory of Dreams: The Russian Avant-Garde and Cultural Experiment. Ed. John E. Bowlt, Olga Matich. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996. Print. The Myth of Primitivism : Perspectives on Art. Ed. Hiller, Susan. London and New York: Routledge, 1991. Print. Prehistories of the Future: The Primitivist Project and the Culture of Modernism. Eds. Barkan, Elazar and Ronald Bush. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995. Print. Women in Russia. Eds. Atkinson, Dorothy, Alexander Dallin and Gail Warshofsky Lapidus. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1977. Print. Words in Revolution Russian Futurist Manifestoes, 1912-1928. Trans. Lawton, Anna and Herbert Eagle. Ed. Lawton, Anna. Washington, DC: New Academia Publishing LLC, 2005. Print. Bowlt, John. “Neo-Primitivism and Russian Painting.” The Burlington Magazine 116.852 (1974): 132-40. Print. ---. “Russian Art in the Nineteen Twenties.” Soviet Studies 22.4 (1971): 575-94. Print. Cooke, Raymond. Velimir Khlebnikov a Critical Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. Print. Cro, Stelio. “The Noble Savage: Myth and Reality.” Romance Languages Annual 4 (1992). Print. Elena Itkina, Elena Mishina, Natalia Rudakova, Antonina Sakovich, Alla Sytova. The Lubok Russian Folk Pictures, 17th to 19h Century. Trans. Miller, Alex: Aurora Art Publisher Leningrad, 1984. Print. Ellingson, Ter. The Myth of the Noble Savage. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, Ltd. , 2001. Print. Gikandi, Simon. “Picasso, Africa, and the Schemata of Difference.” Modernism/modernity 10.3 (2003): 455-80. Print. Goldwater, Robert. Primitivism in Modern Art. Enlarged Edition ed. Cambridge and London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1986. Print. Goncharova, Natalia. “Preface to Catalogue of One-Man Exhibition, 1913.” The Russian Avant-Garde Theory and Criticism 1902-1934. Ed. Bowlt, John E. New York: The Viking Press, 1976. Print. Goncharova, Natalia and Mikhail Larionov. “Roynists and Futurists: A Manifesto.” 1913. Print. Gray, Camilla. The Russian Experiment in Art. New York: Thames and Hundson Ltd., 1962. Print. Hubbs, Joanna. Mother Russia: The Feminine Myth in Russian Culture. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1988. Print. Janecek, Gerald. The Look of Russian Literature Avant-Garde Visual Experiments, 19001930. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984. Print. Khlebnikov, Velimir. “Kamennaia Baba.” Velimir Khlebnikov Sobranihye Sochineniya. 1919. Ed. Duganov, R.V. Vol. 3. Moscow2002. Print. ---. The King of Time. Trans. Schmidt, Paul. Ed. Douglas, Charlotte. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985. Print. ---. “Shaman Ih Venera.” Velimir Khlebnikov Sobranihye Sochineniya. 1912. Ed. Duganov, R.V. Vol. 3. Moscow2002. Print. ---. “Stone Woman.” Trans. Schmidt, Paul. Collected Works of Velimir Khlebnikov. 1919. Ed. Vroon, Ronald. Vol. 3. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997. 144-46. Print. ---. “Venus and the Shaman.” Trans. Schmidt, Paul. Collected Works of Velimir Khlebnikov. 1912. Ed. Vroon, Ronald. Vol. 3. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997. 13643. Print. Klapp, Orrrin E. “The Folk Hero.” The Journal of American Folklore 62.243 (1949): 17-25. Print. Markov, Vladimir. “The Literary Importance of Khlebnikov’s Longer Poems.” Russian Review 19.4 (1960): 338-70. Print. ---. The Longer Poems of Velimir Khlebnikov. University of California Publications in Modern Philology. Vol. 62: University of California Press, 1962. Print. ---. Russian Futurism: A History. Washington DC: New AcademiaPublishing, LLC, 1992.

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Print. Nicholls, Peter. “A Metaphysics of Modernity: Marinetti and Italian Futurism.” Modernism: A Literary Guide. 2 ed: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. 84-111. Print. Nina Tamara, Roy. “Harvest of Memories: National Identity and Primitivism in French and Russian Art, 1888-1909.” McGill University, 2001. Print. Parton, Anthony. Mikhail Larionov. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993. Print. Pospelov, G.G. Mikhail Larionov. Moscow: Galart, 2005. Print. Price, Sally. Primitive Art in Civilized Places. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991. Print. Rhodes, Colin. Primitivism and Modern Art. New York: Thames and Hudson Inc., 1994. Print. Sharp, Jane A. “The Russian Avant-Garde and Its Audience: Moscow, 1913.” Modernism/ modernity. 6.3 (1999): 96-116. Print. Shevchenko, Aleksandr. “Neoprimitivism: Its Theory, Its Potentials, Its Achievements, 1913.” Russian Art of the Avant-Garde Theory and Criticism, 1902-1934. New York: The Viking Press, 1913. 41-54. Print. State Russian Museum, The. Natalia Goncharova the Russian Years. Trans. McInnes, Kenneth. Italy: GRAFICART, 2002. Print. Torgovnick, Marianna. Gone Primitive: Savage Intellects, Modern Lives. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1990. Print. Wingert, Paul S. Primitive Art It’s Traditions and Styles. New York: Oxford University Press, 1962. Print.


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   Laura Ashbaugh INTERNATIONAL STUDIES PROGRAM

Galya Ruffer FACULTY ADVISOR INTERNATIONAL STUDIES PROGRAM NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY

Jacqueline McAllister



GRADUATE STUDENT MENTOR DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY

The refugee policies of first world countries and the international refugee regime have been popular topics in refugee studies. This research often overlooks that most refugees flee to neighboring countries in the third world and minimizes the impact that these countries’ domestic policies have on the refugees. The literature on host countries’ responses to a refugee influx is based on a different context than is most often found in the developing world. With one of the highest ratios of refugees to total population in the world, Jordan challenges the standard assumptions and theories in the literature. Jordan has an authoritarian regime, a chronic lack of natural and economic resources, an insular and homogeneous society, a complex diplomatic position in the region and vis-à-vis the U.S., and a complicated history of hosting Palestinian refugees. This research traces the historical trajectory of Jordanian policies on Iraqi refugees and explains them as rational reactions to the refugees’ perceived impact on Jordan’s external relations, regime security, and socioeconomic situation. Elements of process tracing, content analysis, and discourse analysis are employed to examine official discourse on Iraqi refugees in speeches, interviews, and press reports. Its findings suggest that despite continued discourse on treating Iraqis as “welcomed guests,” the Jordanian regime’s tightening policies reveal increasing concern that the refugees’ presence is a threat to the security and stability of the regime and Jordanian society. Furthermore, the policies reflect the regime’s chronic fear of weakness and its desire to preserve social and political homogeneity.

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T

he Middle East’s ‘Other’ Refugee Problem                                                    26

NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

                                                     


                Center of the Storm: How Jordan Became the Region’s Safe Haven                                     VOLUME 6, 2010-2011

FEATURE

                                                      NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

27


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FEATURE

                       The Evolution of Jordan’s Iraqi Refugee Policy                             

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NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

                                           Jordanian Perceptions of Iraqi Refugees as a Security/Stability Threat        


                                                     

VOLUME 6, 2010-2011

FEATURE

The Future of Iraqi Refugees in Jordan                                               Acknowledgements      NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

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FEATURE

   Endnotes 1

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UNHCR, Surviving in the City: A Review of Unhcr’s Operation for Iraqi Refugees in Jordan, Lebanon and Syria (Geneva: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 2009). Fagen, Patricia Weiss, Iraqi Refugees: Seeking Stability in Syria and Jordan (Institute for the Study of International Migration and the Center for International and Regional Studies: Georgetown University, 2007). Luck, Taylor, “Refugees Make up 1/4 of Amman Population - Un,” Jordan Times March 22 2010. Fagen, Iraqi Refugees: Seeking Stability in Syria and Jordan. Saif, Ibrahim and David M. DeBartolo, The Iraq War’s Impact on Growth and Inflation in Jordan (Amman, Jordan: Center for Strategic Studies, University of Jordan, 2007). Dalton, Matthew, “Europe Deports More Iraqis: U.N. Refugee Agency Criticizes Some Nations for Tightening Policies; ‘I’m Going to Get Killed’,” The Wall Street Journal March 9 2010. Publico, “King Abdullah II of Jordan: Peace with Israel and a Two-State Solution Are Strategic Options of All Arabs,” Publico March 16, 2009. UNHCR, Surviving in the City: A Review of Unhcr’s Operation for Iraqi Refugees in Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. Weiner, Myron, “Security, Stability and International Migration,” International Security 17.3 (1992). Susser, Asher, Jordan: Case Study of a Pivotal State (Washington, D.C.: Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2000). Schenker, David, With Neighbors Like These: Iraq and the Arab States on Its Borders (Washington, D.C.: Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2007). Forsythe, David P., “The Palestine Question: Dealing with a Long-Term Refugee Situation,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 467. The Global Refugee Problem: U.S. and World Response (1983). Akram, Susan M., “Palestinian Refugees and Their Legal Status: Rights, Politics and Implications for a Just Solution,” Journal of Palestine Studies 31.3 (2002). Bel-Air, Francoise de, “Iraqis in Jordan since 2003: What Socio-Political Stakes?,” CARIM Research Reports 2009/10 (2009/10). Terrill, W. Andrew, Regional Spillover Effects of the Iraq War (Strategic Studies Institute, 2008). Chatelard, Geraldine, “What Visibility Conceals. Re-Embedding Refugee Migration from Iraq,” Dispossesion and Displacement: Forced-Migration in the Middle East and frica, ed. Dawn Chatty (London: British Academy, 2009). Chatelard, Geraldine, “Iraqis in Jordan: Elusive Numbers, Uncertain Future,” The Middle East Institute July 2008.Viewpoints, Special Edition on Iraq’s Refugee and IDP crisis (2008). Chatelard, “Iraqis in Jordan: Elusive Numbers, Uncertain Future.” Chatelard, “What Visibility Conceals. Re-Embedding Refugee Migration from Iraq.” Arouri, Fathi, “Irregular Migration in Jordan: 1995-2007,” CARIM Analytic and Synthetic Notes 2008/71.Irregular Migration Series: Demographic and Economic Module (2008). FAFO, Iraqis in Jordan 2007: Their Number and Characteristics (Amman: Fafo/DoS/ UNFPA, 2007). Gordenker, Leon, “Refugees in Developing Countries and Transnational Organization,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 467 (1983). Stein, Barry N., “Durable Solutions for Developing Country Refugees,” International Migration Review 20.2 (1986). Jacobsen, Karen, “Factors Influencing Policy Responses of Host Governments to Mass Refugee Influxes,” International Migration Review 30.3 (1996). Saif and DeBartolo, The Iraq War’s Impact on Growth and Inflation in Jordan. Stein, “Durable Solutions for Developing Country Refugees.”

NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL


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RESEARCH

   People have a fascinating ability to identify individual objects and keep track of them even through dramatic changes over time. In this study, we investigated the identity preservation of individual objects with a specific focus on functional attributes. Participants were asked to imagine a flawed copy machine, which took an object and produced an altered version of it, along with other modified copies. A picture of the original object, which was given a name and a functional attribute, was presented to the participants followed by several of the outputs, and participants were asked to judge whether outputs could be identified as the original object. We found that if the original object and the output shared the same functional attribute, people were significantly more likely to say that it could be the original object and that identity was preserved. We also found that identity was preserved less with increasing transformational distance between the object and the output, a seemingly intuitive trend but one that has not been consistently produced in literature.

Reina Uchino DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY

Lance Rips FACULTY ADVISOR DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY

Linsey Smith GRADUATE STUDENT MENTOR DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY

Introduction                  VOLUME 6, 2010-2011

NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

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RESEARCH

                         

Figure 1. Identity preservation across perceptual and functional manipulations.

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NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

                         


                                                       VOLUME 6, 2010-2011

RESEARCH

     Method                               Results                NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

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RESEARCH

        

Discussion                                           34

NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

Acknowledgements          References Blok, S., Newman, G., & Rips, L. J. (2005). Individuals and their concepts. In W.-K. Ahn, R. L. Goldstone, B. C. Love, A. B. Markman, & P. Wolff (Eds.), Categorization inside and outside the laboratory: Essays in Honor of Douglas L. Medin (pp. 127–149). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Gutheil G., Bloom, P., Valderrama, N., & Freedman, R. (2004). The role of historical intuitions in children’s and adult’s naming of artifacts. Cognition, 91, 23-42. Gutheil G., Gelman, S.A., Klein, E., Michos, K., Kelaita, K., (2008). Preschoolers’ use of spatiotemporal history, appearance, and proper name in determining individual identity. Cognition, 107, 366-380. Gentner, D & Markman, A.B (1997). Structure Mapping in Analogy and Similarity. American Psychologist, 52, 45-56. Hall, D.G., Waxman, S.R., Bridart, S., & Nicolay, A., (2003). Preschoolers’ Use of Form Class Cues to Learn Descriptive Proper Names. Child Development, 74, 5, 1547-1560. Hood, B.M., & Bloom, P. (2008). Children prefer certain individuals over perfect duplicates. Cognition, 106, 455-462. Liittschwager, J. C. (1995). Children’s reasoning about identity across transformations. Dissertation Abstracts International, 55 (10), 4623B. (UMI No. 9508399) Rhemtulla, M., & Hall, D.G. (2009). Basic-level kinds and object persistence. Memory & Cognition, 37, 292-301. Rips, L. J., Blok, S., & Newman, G. (2006). Tracing the identity of objects. Pyschological Review, 113, 1-30. Rosch, E. H., Mervis, C. B., Gray, W. D., Johnson, D. M., & Boyes-Braem, P. (1976). Basic objects in natural categories. Cognitive Psychology, 8, 382– 439


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RESEARCH

The Effect of Time Lived in the US on Risk Factors for Type II Diabetes among Indian Immigrant Women of Low Socioeconomic Status Anisa Rahman DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY

Chris Kuzawa

William Leonard

FACULTY ADVISOR DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY

FACULTY MENTOR DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY

The rate of diabetes among Indian immigrants in America is increasing rapidly, facilitated in part by the adoption of changes in diet and lifestyle. This study attempts to elucidate the relationship between duration of time lived in the US and risk factors for diabetes. The study population consists of low socioeconomic status Indian immigrant women recruited from a Chicago-based health clinic (n=90). Data were collected on biological and lifestyle factors contributing to the heightened diabetes susceptibility of Indian immigrants in America. In addition, the study explores how well Indian diabetics care for their disease. Findings confirm a positive relationship between duration of time lived in the US and diabetic risk. A significant relationship was found between duration of time lived in the US and abdominal obesity (p=0.01), and a somewhat significant relationship with body fat percentage (p=0.09) and body mass index (p=0.09). Finally, diabetics in this sample population (n=39) did not take care of their diabetes in accordance with current standards of biomedicine, with 53.8% having an a1c hemoglobin measurement above 7.0% and 64.1% reporting less than 2 hours of weekly exercise. This study calls for a focus on educational interventions for Indian immigrants about Type II diabetes.

Introduction

             VOLUME 6, 2010-2011

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RESEARCH

            

Indian Immigrants in the US over Time                                    

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NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

Research Questions                                Materials and Methods                   


 Characteristic Weight (kg) BMI (kg/m2) Body Fat % Waist to Hip Ratio Systolic BP (mmHg) Diastolic BP (mmHg) Cholesterol (mg/dL) a1c hemoglobin %

Total Population mean (n=90) 71.2 30.3 34.8 0.80 132.7 78.8 189.4 6.4%

Short (0.25-6 years, n=31) 68.3 28.3 32.7 0.79 133.4 78.0 195.8 6.5

Medium (7-14 years, n=31) 72.1 30.2 33.9 0.78 128.0 77.2 191.0 6.0

Long (15-33 years, n=28) 73.5 31.2 38.1 0.82 132.5 78.3 180.5 6.6

RESEARCH p-value 0.29 0.09 0.09 0.01 0.49 0.94 0.40 0.23

Table 1. Diabetic Risk Factors over Length of Time Lived in the US The sample population was divided equally into Short, Medium, and Long length of time lived in the US. The amounts displayed are the mean of each subgroup. The p-value indicates the strength of the relationship, generated from ANOVA. The Waist to Hip Ratio shows a significant upward trend with length of time lived in the US. BMI and Body Fat % show a somewhat significant upward trend. Cholesterol shows a slight downward trend with time lived in the US.

                             Results        

VOLUME 6, 2010-2011

                         BMI and Body Fat Percentage Averages by Length of Time Lived in the US (n=90)

Figure 1. Average BMI and Body Fat % for Duration of Time Lived in the US

NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

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RESEARCH

             

Discussion                                     38

NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

Comparison of Avg Body Fat % of Diabetic

Figure 2. Comparison of Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Average Body Fat Percentages for Duration of Time Lived in the US

                                   


    Conclusion                             

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RESEARCH

   Isabelle Ji DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

Jean-François Gaillard FACULTY ADVISOR DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY

Luciana Zanella GRADUATE STUDENT MENTOR DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY

Inorganic mercury is released to the environment as part of several industrial processes such as coal burning. In sediments and waters, microorganisms transform the inorganic mercury to methylmercury. Methylmercury is a toxin that bioaccumulates in the aquatic food chain, with high concentrations found in many species of fish consumed by humans. Ingested methylmercury produces neurotoxic and fetotoxic effects in the body. Therefore, from both an environmental and public health perspective, methylmercury has become an alarming pollutant. In order for methylation to occur, inorganic mercury must first be bioavailable, or able to enter microorganisms. Our research investigates how the bioavailability of mercury changes in the presence of natural and anthropogenic ligands: cysteine and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)i. Bioavailability was measured via bioluminescence assays performed on a genetically engineered whole-cell mercury biosensor (Escherichia.Coli ARL1 with merR::luxCDABE fusion). Our results show that bioavailability is greatly enhanced in the presence of the amino acid cysteine (100 µM to 1000 µM), suggesting that a mercury-cysteine complex facilitates the cross-membrane transfer. NTA results show increase in bioluminescence at 10 µM and 100 µM levels, but decrease at 1000 µM levels, presenting unexpected results which are discussed. Given that ligands can change the bioavailability of mercury, microbial methylations of mercury, and therefore the toxicity of mercury, will strongly depend on the composition and quality of an aquatic system. i

40

Other ligands including citrate and EDTA were tested, but omitted for the purpose of this publication.


RESEARCH 1. Introduction                      2. Significance of Research                  3. Materials and Methods        

VOLUME 6, 2010-2011

                           4. Results and Discussion                    

NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

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RESEARCH

Figure 1. Measured biolumninescence of E.Coli ARL1 in 300 nM Hg2+ and varying cysteine concentrations. E.Coli ARL1 exhibit higher bioluminescence when cysteine is added to the suspension.

                           42

NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

                    5. Conclusion      


                          

11. 12.

RESEARCH

European Chemical Industry Council, “Chelating Agents -- Questions and Answers.” Sillanp, Pirkanniemi, and Dhondup, “The Acute Toxicity of Gluconic Acid”.

6. Acknowledgements           End Notes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

“Mercury Cycling in the Environment - USGS Wisconsin Water Science Center.” Wheeler, “Measuring mercury.” Simmons-Willis et al., “Transport of a neurotoxicant by molecular mimicry.” Harada, “Minamata disease: methylmercury poisoning in Japan caused by environmental pollution.” Lei, Chen, and Mulchanadani, “Microbial Biosensors.” Daunert et al., “Genetically engineered whole-cell sensing systems.” May and Murray, “JOINT EXPERT SPECIATION SYSTEM,” Reaction No. 59,415. Barkay and Wagner-D\öbler, “Microbial transformations of mercury.”; Lovley, Environmental Microbe-Metal Interactions. Schaefer and Morel, “High methylation rates of mercury bound to cysteine by Geobacter sulfurreducens.” Brown and Markich, “Evaluation of the free ion activity model of metal-organism interaction.”

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NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

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WANT TO GET INVOLVED IN RESEARCH AT NU? Are you interested in getting involved in undergraduate research but don’t know where to start? Northwestern University has several programs and opportunities specifically created to assist undergraduates in finding and carrying out independent research.  UR@NU The website of The Office of the Provost has a section called “UR@NU.” Filled with concise information and videos from undergraduates currently involved in research, this website is the best source of information for topics such as “What is Research?/How to Get Involved” and “Research Opportunities.” It also provides valuable information on sources of research funding once you have an advisor and project in mind. Check it out: http://undergradresearch.northwestern.edu/

 Undergraduate Research Assistant Program (URAP) A new pilot program through The Office of the Provost, URAP allows faculty members to request research assistants for various projects. The projects are listed on the website, allowing interested students to submit applications and communicate directly with the professor. Check it out: http://undergradresearch.northwestern.edu/undergraduate-research-assistant-program-urap

 Science Research Workshop (SRW) A program sponsored by the Searle Center for Teaching Excellence and the Departments of Biology and Chemistry, the SRW program includes “science cafés” and peer-led workshops. During Science Cafés, faculty members discuss their interest in getting involved in research, as well as a specific theme such as “How to navigate the proposal process.” Workshops assist students in contacting science laboratories, developing research projects, and writing grant proposals. Check it out: http://www.northwestern.edu/searle/programs/undergraduateprograms/science-research workshop.html

 Humanities Research Workshops The Office of the Provost has created a series of four workshops for those interested in humanities research as opposed to science. The workshops – “Thinking About Research/Developing Questions,” “Methodology Fair,” “Resources and Opportunities,” and “Writing Workshop” – provide background information on performing research and developing research proposals, as well as advising and mentorship. Check it out: http://undergradresearch.northwestern.edu/humanities-research-workshops

 Department Websites The best places for department-specific opportunities are department websites. Most departments in which research is performed have a “Research” tab on their website. Check out the website of the department you are interested in for the most detailed information pertaining to research opportunities for undergraduates.

Still Not Sure? Another option is to seek out specific faculty members who are performing research in a field or topic you are interested in (you can find this information on department websites). Once you have a few professors in mind, send out personal (not bulk) emails briefly introducing yourself and describing your research interests. Then, meet with the professors and discuss what you could contribute to their research. Remember, don’t be afraid to talk with professors; most are happy to discuss their research and are willing to involve undergraduates in their research!

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NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL


 COLIN MCGRATH Colin McGrath graduated from Northwestern University in Spring 2010 with degrees in guitar performance and American history. He now works for the Texas Interagency Council for the Homeless (TICH), a position funded by the Americorps VISTA program. With TICH he is writing a policy plan that coordinates Texas state agencies to prevent and reduce homelessness. Before and after work, Colin practices guitar, runs compulsively, reads about urban history and public institutions, and wonders where he will be a few years from now.

IRINA DYKHNE Irina Dykhne is a senior Comparative Literature and Political Science major in the Weinberg School of Arts and Sciences. A class on the Art of the Russian revolution sparked her interest in 20th century Russian art and literature. The project was particularly appealing because it was an opportunity to use her native Russian skills. She began her work in Spring of 2010 under the guidance of Professor Nina Gourianova and completed her project in May 2011. She hopes her work will encourage readers to explore talented and innovative Russian artists and writers who are not well known in Western culture.

JESSINA THOMAS Jessina Thomas is a sophomore Biological Sciences student at Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences. She began work at Dr. Teresa Woodruff ’s lab in September 2007, where she studies possible fertility preservation methods for cancer patients. Since then, she has completed 3 research projects and has presented at several symposiums. Jessina has received an undergraduate research grant, which will fund her research in Woodruff lab this summer.

REINA UCHINO Reina Uchino is a senior Psychology and Biology student in Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences. She began her research in cognitive psychology at the Project on Children’s Thinking, where she completed her Benton J. Underwood fellowship in summer 2010. She is now working in the Higher-level Cognition laboratory where she is investigating the concept of individual identity across transformations under the direction of Prof. Lance Rips. She is currently co-authoring a paper with Prof. Rips on research stemming from her honors thesis project. She intends to apply to medical schools this coming year.

LAURA ASHBAUGH Laura Ashbaugh graduated in 2010 as the Valedictorian of the Medill School of Journalism, with a second major in international studies. Her interest in migration issues was sparked when she studied abroad in the Middle East and South Africa as an undergraduate. She is currently a Fulbright Fellow in Amman, Jordan, and is continuing her research on the Iraqi refugee community. In addition to her research, Laura teaches English to Iraqi refugees, studies Arabic, and sings in a Jordanian choir.

ANISA RAHMAN Anisa Rahman graduated from Northwestern University in 2010 with Honors in Anthropology and Global Health Studies. She is currently a first year medical student at the University of Illinois College of Medicine in Chicago (UIC COM). She completed her undergraduate thesis research on diabetic risk among low socioeconomic status Indian immigrant women during the summer of 2009, under the advisement of Dr. Christopher Kuzawa and Dr. William Leonard. Anisa plans to continue her work with low socioeconomic status Indian immigrants in Chicago through her participation in the Urban Medicine Program at UIC COM. She plans to set up an educational program on diabetes risk and nutrition at a local Chicago Indian community center within the next couple of years.

ISABELLE JI Isabelle is a senior studying a combined bachelor’s degree in environmental engineering and master’s in chemical engineering, plus the Kellogg certificate for managerial analytics. She began working on the mercury project during her sophomore year under the guidance of Professor Jean-Francois Gaillard and support from the Murphy Institute Program. Isabelle will graduate in June and begin working for Accenture management consulting this fall. In the future, Isabelle would like to pursue work in sustainable design and development.

VOLUME 6, 2010-2011

NORTHWESTERN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH JOURNAL

45

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