DIPLOMA PROJECT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER ADVANCE STUDIES IN SPATIAL DESIGN fh Evangelina Guerra Luján Architect / Postgraduate in Public Space Design
Zürich , Switzerland 2012
“An ‘ideological,’ scientific, or artistic movement can be a potential war machine”
Deleuze and Guatarri. A Thousand Plateaus1
1 Deleuze , Gilles. Guatarri , Felix. “ A thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia”. University of Minnesota Press. Minneapolis. 1980.
Index Content / page Acknowledgments / 4 Exhibition text / 5 Epitome / 6 Prologue / 7 Thesis / 9 Conflict and Territory: Introduction to context and content / 10 Zürich as a Stage for Protest : Analysis of historical events / 12 Theorizing the Public Space in Zürich: On democracy and participation / 19 Small Conversations / 20 The conception of architecture: scenography project/ 22 The Commemoration of the Anniversary of the Swiss socio-political movements ( 1968/ 1980) as an act of memory. Theoretical Framework for proposal And Conceptual Idea. / 24 Projective Phases Architecture / Scenography proposal / 25
ANNEX “The City as Protest Space”/34 COMPLETE HISTORICAL TIMELINE Of Zurich Demonstrations ( 1968- 1991)
Acknowledgments First of all, I would like to thank Stephan Trüby for being an exceptional, knowledgeable, forward- thinking, director of this Spatial Design Master Program. His impeccable work and engagement will be always admired. I would like to also thank him for encouraging me pursuing the present research. I am very grateful to Alexandra Carambellas for the support given along the semesters regarding every issue of the Master program and for her unmistakable, accurate feedbacks during several project presentations. I would like to specially thank her for the collaboration in the video produced for the exhibition of this project. I want to show my appreciation and fond respect to Andres Bosshard, tutor of this thesis, for his enthusiasm and commitment during the tutorials and along the Master program sessions. I want to express my gratitude to my Architect colleague: the “unstoppable” Ethel Baraona Pohl, tutor of this thesis, hero and friend. In first instance, for accepting the invitation embarking on this project. I would like to thank her for the dedication and unique passion she is capable to transmit, as well as for sharing her advices, knowledge and for being endless inspiration. I am extremely grateful to César Reyes and every member of DPR Barcelona´s family, for making me feel welcome and for providing me the necessary tools to continue working on this thesis while my stay in Catalunya. Thank you so much for the amazing times shared. I want to deeply thank my friend and unofficial tutor, architect and researcher Pedro Hernández (“La Peri”) for giving a name to this thesis and for his feed- back and advices during the realization of not only this project, but all of my projects during the last year . I would like to thank Antonio Scarponi for his friendship, enthusiastic guidance, and for believing in what I do. I am very grateful to Stefano Massa for sharing his time and thesis with me and for his orientation regarding “crowds”. I am extremely grateful with my dear friend and classmate Roberto Della Pietra for sharing with me his adventures while witnessing the 1980 social movements in the city of Zürich. I would like to show my appreciating and love to former working colleague Architect and Artist Alejandra Jean-Mairet for her friendship of two years. I want to deeply thank their genuine friendship and support during difficult times to: Eloisa Avila and Hans Leidescher. You are amazing. I would like to share my appreciation to Linda Neukirchen , master program colleague and incredible friend for always being there for me and for her incomparable support during the exhibition of this project. I would like to express all my love, respect and admiration to all my family: Guerra and Luján, specially my grandmothers. You are always in my heart wherever I go. Thank you for every bit of love. I want to deeply thank my little sister María José, for her every day presence and support in every possible way during the realization of this Master, for being a living inspiration and for always believing in me. You are incredible. I would like to immensely thank Nina, my Mother and partner in crime, for her dedication, commitment, love, and enthusiasm shared with us in every moment of our lives. You give meaning to all of this. And last but not least, I would like to dedicate the present Master Thesis to the person I admire the most in this world: Ramón Guerra Alonso, a great man. I want to express my deeply gratitude for sharing his knowledge regarding life and work, for believing in me in every step I take, and supporting my plans and craziest ideas. I thank him for his love and kindness. I feel profoundly grateful with him for transmitting me the meaning of happiness, and for being beside me while I pursue my passions and construct my dreams. I will always beholden him for being the best friend and an extraordinary father.
During the decades of 1960`s until the 1980´s Switzerland braced a period of massive protests detonated by the Swiss Youth and as a consequence, the country faced a substantial process of de-territorialization, which according to Deleuze and Guatarri is the "complex movement or process by which something escapes or departs from a given territory, where a territory can be a system of any kind : conceptual, linguistic, social or affective. "(A Thousand Plateaus, 1980) . After some time, The Sovereign Power calmed down the riots and during the decade of the 90`s Switzerland seized a re-territorialized status. The project Kriegsmaschine is a part of a new , contemporary phase of de-territorialization in order to show "the other Zürich" by transforming a programmed , "well-behaved" urban space into something loud, vibrant and unexpected.
Epitome The name of the project “Kriegsmaschine” ( trans. from the German: war machine) alludes Deleuze´s and Guatarri ´s theory developed in the book A Thousand Plateaus (1980) . “The war machine is that nomad invention that in fact has war not as its primary object but as its second-order, supplementary or synthetic objective, in the sense that it is determined in such a way as to destroy the state-form and city-form with which it collides.” ( Nomadology Treatise / A thousand Plateaus . 1980 ) The name of this project resulted of a conversation between my friend: the Architect and Researcher Pedro Hernández 2 and me. After hearing the aim of my proposed design , he accurately entitled it as “ a project which point of departure is the Deleuzian war machine”. My Project finally had a name. The project “Kriegsmaschine" is structured in two volumes. Volume No. 1 includes the present academic document and an on-line series of websites of data and sources collected in the past 3 months of research . The archive can be found in the following links: 1.
Visual Archive: http://kriegsmaschineproject.tumblr.com/
2. Links Archive: http://www.scoop.it/t/kriegsmaschine-war-machine/
Volume No. 2 contains the architecture/scenography proposal. The project proposal will
The Visual Archive before mentioned illustrates the present document.
2 Pedro Hernández Martínez (Murcia, Spain) Architect from University of Alicante (Spain) with honors.
he edits the blog La Periferia Doméstica (http://periferiadomestica.tumblr.com/) focusing on landscape and architecture as political weapons, and how they prioritize certain ways of life. He has published in international magazines such as MASContext (USA) , Studio Magazine (Italy), Engawa (Spain), Arquine (Mexico) and Estudiantes de Arquitectura (Chile) to name some.
PROLOGUE Perhaps because the present project unfolds in an architectural narrative, I find quite necessary to introduce this diploma project with a story. I will tell you how the topic of this Master Advanced Studies diploma project evolved to a vertex I never expected. I´ve being, since 2010, highly involved in networking, and via my Twitter account, I follow a very important number of urbanists, sociologists, geographers, architects, etc. which principal topic of discussion is the Urban Space from many angles, especially from the „Tactical Urbanism“3 theoretical field. It is very hard not to get involved in this discussion, and also I confess I was very impress with the whole idea of the urban tactics, what it means, its visibility in the Urban Space, and most of all, how all the citizens where very pleased, and were responding all over the world with this new urban approach. Many where explaining, proposing, designing in their cities and staging new realities for the users of urban spaces. With small-scale interventions, the lecture of the city was changing. For me, this was the ultimate topic to be analyzed and the urban quest I was willing to plunge myself in for my Diploma project. The first approach of this thesis intended to realize a complete study in the Urban Space in Zürich on how people appropriate the urban/collective space. In other words : How they engage participation in the urban space? I´ve being living in Zürich for almost two years now, and all this time , while wondering in the streets, my perception was that Zürich was/is an over controlled metropolis where people have really to struggle to „own the city“4. I was really keen on, through my Diploma project, finding out which activities or actions the citizens take part as a “way of protesting”, and claiming that this ( over controlled ) city was theirs. In other words, which tactical urban actions were taken place in the city, erected
3 “(…) urban interventions of a sort – quick, often temporary, cheap projects that aim to make a small part of a city more lively or enjoyable. These types of projects have grown in popularity in recent years, and they even have a new name: tactical urbanism.” http://www.theatlanticcities.com/neighborhoods/2012/03/guide-tacticalurbanism/1387/ 4 I don´t recall when I started using this expression, and I don´t remember now from whom I heard it. Since university , at Urbanism classes, we used to say it when referring to the citizens as users, therefore owners of their city and the construction of their “sense of belonging” to a place.
by citizens themselves, and at the same time, which of these actions were illegal: Guerrilla Urbanism in Zürich. I presented this first approach of my Diploma Project at one of the MAS sessions under the name: “ The Cryptic5Urban Aspects of a City”. I referred to these tactical illegal urban actions as “urban insurgencies”. I deliberately used the word “insurgency” because it means : “ the quality or circumstance of being rebellious” 6, and these urban actions would have place citizens as rebels towards the imposed control system that regulates the streets.
I also explained this same day at the MAS session, my will to adapt the concept to the study: “Landscape of Insurgencies”. The latter is a concept developed by Léopold Lambert7 that I recently read in his very well known blog The Funambulist. In his blog post “Barricades in Paris 1830-1968: The Defensive Architecture of Insurgencies”, he mentioned that he was working on an essay about “landscape of insurgencies” and I felt deeply inspired by the concept and make a connection immediately to my current research topic. Of course: I would have had to adapt Lambert´s concept and call the thesis: “Landscape of Urban Insurgencies8”.
By the end of my presentation, there was a very long pause in the audience followed by a comment of Stephan Trüby9: “ I still don´t understand what you want to do”. Deep inside I did not know either. Even though was really driven by this topic, the more I stood there explaining my urgencies on discerning the city “cryptic aspects”, and the more I gabbed about tactical urbanism the more I realize I didn´t know much about Zürich, and its “urban past”. All my examples were superficial. I wanted to give explanations and theorize daily things I see. Even though the observation of this “urban insurgencies” can be fascinating, without knowing the past and history of Zürich´s urban space and the previous participatory actions of its citizens,
it was very unlikely to understand their present existence in the urban
landscape. I had to asked myself , then: What is the link between architecture and an insurgent act? Can architecture be a tool for an insurgent act? And if these “urban
5 To have hidden meaning , occult. Employing cipher or code. / http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/cryptic 6 Anwers.com . ( Some other online dictionaries make a deeper analysis on these words. ) 7 Leopold Lambert is a licensed architect who obtained his undergraduate diploma (2008) from the Ecole Spéciale
d’Architecture in Paris and his graduate one (2010) from the Pratt Institute in New York City. He also accomplished a semester exchange at the University of Hong Kong in 2007. He is the editor of the Blog thefunambulist.com 8 Tentative title 9 Dr. Stephan Trüby is an architect, theoretician and curator who studied architecture at the AA School, London. He is currently the MAS Spatial Design Director at the Zürcher Hochschule der Künste.
insurgencies” present in the public space are, so to say, a design from the opposition: Is there then a way to be constructive by means of the destruction? I finally understood my concerns and could definitively understand from which perspective I was willing to approach the insurgencies in the public space: historically. By following the key terms: way of protesting, claiming the city, actions erected by citizens, insurgencies… a new perspective on the topic arise.
THESIS Taking the position of an outsider , the present diploma project will have as point of departure the
protest/demonstrations/manifestations in the city of Zürich since the decade of the 60s, in order to understand the present condition of the urban space and how users engage participation in it. The result of the research of the historical facts through newspapers from the time, digital contemporary newspapers, blogs, video material, songs , and interviews, is a project called: Kriegsmaschine 10.
The Historical framework will be focused mainly in two important events in Zürich´s history: The Summer riot of 1968 and the Opera House riot of 1980 , whose authors of both movements where carried out by the swiss youth. This exploration of past events became the tool not only for taking a position on the topic (of course, besides the outsider position from which I started to research) , but also helped the author conceived and developed an architectural response with the findings that were waiting at the Social Archive to be discovered or encrypted in the conversations with the interviewed.
The theoretical framework will analyze the Public Space concept and will be compare these theoretical approaches to the reality observed by the author in the city of Zürich. Other concepts-axis will be exposed I the present document like: the rituals of democracy ,
10 From the German „war machine”.
participation, the importance of public spaces to engage political participation, amongst other regarding the public urban sphere.
At the end of the day, as spatial designer, the response for the inputs received from the context, have to be performative, and through the means, for instance, of architecture. I kept on thinking while doing this research, and before even assembling this present document: In the relational spectrum we engage our profession: What are politics without architecture, and architecture without politics?
Conflict and territory Introduction to the content and context I commenced this project with the research of the historical social movements and this is the reason why I believe is important to also take this point as departure in the written form. As I approached to the bank of information ( The Social Archive 11) , I was constantly thinking that all the data that will be there, waiting for me, would be, logically, in German, language I do not master. I was not far from wrong. From the database program to research any kind of topic in the Social Archive , to the information itself: newspapers, flyers, everything was in German. In spite of that , I continued the inquiry. I want to mention this, because most of the information was translated to me in order for me to understand the events I was encountering. In this process I got also some personal input from the ones that helped me translate texts ( names in “Sources” chapter) and other information. This is what I called “second hand information”, not directly interpreted by me. Under this disclosure I started the research. Further investigations where done with the help of online translators, and also via the analysis of the aesthetic of pictures and also pamphlets, that in some level reflect the situation that 1968 were living in the whole world.
So let us say that as other point of departure, I had also to decipher a lot of the information obtained in the newspapers and other sources, by means of the aesthetic, not only the data itself. Not only what words were saying but also, visual : very valuable information. While inserting myself in this new historical unknown field I was witnessing the past of Zürich, and the more I discovered its past, the more I comprehended its present.
There they were: the newspapers telling a story I couldn’t believe: the city during the decade of 60s and 80s was full of movement in the street. The city was a protest scene and the protagonists of both movements were the youth. I found other demonstration historical facts, but let us say that the ones with the more volume of information at the Social Archive were: The Globus Riot of 1968 and the Opera House from 1980. As I went on and on with the research, I kept on being astonish. Zürich was facing 32 years ago , what many cities are facing now. Or is it a fact, that this epochs are cyclic? If so, are we waiting for the next social movement in Zürich? More surprising for me, the political situation in terms of rigidness did changed after the Youth stood up, demand a new panorama in their city in terms of space for the youth culture to developed new forms of communication and speech, and even though the masses were not so sure about what they wanted (everything started with the excuse of the need of an Autonomous Center for the Youth, but it went beyond than that) the slogans “Repression in the Democracy” and illustrations were communicating the real situation of the country, and during the second riots in 1980, this time the Young population, wanted everything “and they wanted now”.
Zürich appeared as a city more like the cities we see these days in the
newspapers: Madrid ( Puerta del Sol ) , New York ( Zucotti Park ), Cairo ( Tahrir Square).
Zürich in the decade of the 60s and 80s with its protest, manifestations or demonstrations, reflected a different reality, a reality that we are witnessing nowadays everywhere in the world. These days the contemporary Zürich and its citizens experience another reality: with its perfect lake surrounded by its little houses, beautiful facades and delirious safety feeling.
To be honest, I spent more of the half of the time we had to do the whole project in this research phase. It was very important for me to know the facts and try to understand the idiosyncrasy of that time, the historical frame where these events took place , the politics, the
configuration of the space of that time, how society was structured, the behavior and used of the public spaces at that time to name some. Even though I spend a lot of time and effort trying to decipher a social situation of the time, I have to excuse myself for the promptly ( the architectural project). It would be nice to have had more time to dig deeper into the facts, for a better level of understanding, but an “answer” has to be made, and a position had to be taken. The present document represents the theoretical framework of my (precipitate) answer to the historical facts I got to encounter on the past 3 months on the social movements on 1960 and 1980 of the city of Zürich.
Zurich as a stage for protest. An analysis of historical events.
Everything started on 1 July 1968 . The inhabitants of the city of Zurich were a state of shock. They vary between disbelief and outrage at the events that have previously occurred in the nights before all over the world, and now also in many other places in the city center. 300 policemen had come with the roughly 2,000 demonstrators street battles . In the history of Switzerland this had never happened before. The demonstration for the establishment of an autonomous youth center had called for an official representation of some 40 seriously injured policemen, firefighters and protesters, a total of 169 people were arrested. Yes, everything started because of a building summed to the claims of the recognition of the youth and the presence of “it” in the urban space. The city council even discussed the possibility of the use of troops, but it was rejected unanimously. On the same day the Action Committee submits an autonomous youth house criminal complaints against the Zurich city police. The charges: assault and battery. In the basement of the temporary world in which the police had collected the arrested protesters during the movements, there had been serious assaults. The "Dialogue of Generations", conjuring the president of the city seems to en
The Zurich Manifesto In this situation, there is another voice speaks up. A group of artists and intellectuals, among them Max Frisch, designed the Zurich Manifesto. In this "call for reflection", which is published in leaflets and in the daily press, the riots as a result of "inadequate social structures" and the "immobility of our institutions' interpreted that adapted itself does not reflect
minorities prevented. The group, which is fast becoming a joint venture with a large number of members shall, on the side of young people and calls for the resumption of public dialogue and the restoration of the right to demonstrate. But there are still another 14 days that went by before the city council to lift the ban on demonstrations - was able to struggle through and only under certain conditions. The Zurich events of last June, 68 days in summer would later be remembered as “ Globus Riot" in the collective memory of Switzerland. They still impact the memory of the '68 movement in Zurich, and the "Globus riot" is well beyond the city as a symbol of the protest events in Switzerland. Even though this is the case, what amazed me the most, is that in the urban space, there is no physical appearance of this events. No monument or little sign that denotes the presence of this historical event , specially in the squares where it happened. This movement that was so urban, vibrant and present in the city, in the streets, has no footprint in the space. In Switzerland then, there is not much association of the events. At least not by the youth If "1968" is mentioned, then the people generally speaking ( specially those who are not activists, or involved in politics what so ever) do not think first of all of the youth in Zurich, but rather remember the student protesters in Berlin and Frankfurt, not of Zurich and the youth center situation. I believe that people in Switzerland carry more in their collective
memory the happenings of the hippie movement in San Francisco and elsewhere in the world, the sexual revolution, the psychedelic sounds of The Doors, Jimi Hendrix's performances, etc. . Everything wonders in their minds: the barricades in the Latin Cartier in Paris in May, as well as to the tanks on Prague's Wenceslas Square and the assassination of Martin Luther King. Herbert Marcuse12 noted this as a "great refusal" of an entire generation, to protest
12 Herbert Marcuse ( July
19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a German Jewish philosopher, sociologist and political theorist, associated with the Frankfurt School of critical theory. Active in the United States after 1934, his intellectual concerns were the dehumanizing effects of capitalism and modern technology. Celebrated as the "Father of the New Left," his best known works
against the Vietnam war, imperialism and capitalism to criticism and the struggle for peace and justice in the world. All these facets of the years around 1968 have become the popular myth of "1968", compressed into a myth that tells of a young generation that rebelled against their parents in the name of a better world by a global revolution dreamed and finally the long march through the institutions compete, at least to achieve some of their ideals.
The events of the summer of 1968 in Zürich has to be read as a history of communication, as the story of a communicative act brought which culminated in the dramatic eruption of violence called "Globus riots". At this escalation, however, not only the activists of the youth protest movement were involved, seeking maximum demands and ultimatums set by the "establishment" under pressure and the civil law and order not only symbolically “carried to the grave” .
The specific course of events of the summer Zurich is also by far the intervention of the liberal bourgeoisie city . There was a group , and association leading all the events that took place in the 68 days of movement of the Globus riot. Their demands for free expression of all parties to the conflict, their efforts to work up the processes in the riot nights, which attempts to mediate between city government and youth, and the organization of public discussion event such as the six-day marathon debate at the Centre Le Corbussier opened up new scope for action and were a crucial conditions that failed to further radicalization of the '68 movement. The summer of 1968 in Zurich - unlike in Berlin, Rome or Tokyo – was short phase of a broad mobilization. Telling the story of the '68 movement only from the perspective. Because "1968" was in Zurich, a process that only its specific dynamics of the interaction of heterogeneous groups of actors in a specific local situation - won - and by far not only the protesting youth. This means that the politics did changed, but as far as I could perform
are Eros and Civilization (1955) and One-‐Dimensional Man (1964). His Marxist scholarship inspired many radical intellectuals and political activists in the 1960s and '70s, both in the U.S. and internationally. ( Source: Wikipedia)
Historical Traces: The Aesthetic Weapon of 1968 and 1980
All players of the events have left traces of their work and active participation and engagement in the urban events of the socio-political movements in the history of Zürich. They can be read in all the amazing documentation of the summer of 1968 ( pamphlets , fanzines etc ) and also the artistic movements that took place in the summer of 1980 can be glanced in the fabulous work of, for example, Olivia Heussler 13 . The pamphlets and papers of the
Committee for an autonomous youth center or the boys section of the Labor
Party , the dossiers of the Association of Zurich Manifesto, the newspaper reports from Daily News, the magazine Hotcha!, the police records of the city police as well as posters and wall newspapers, public events - from almost no other 68 movement were preserved such an amount of fascinating historical documents. One very important part of this present research are the collected documents in the virtual archive that narrate the Zurich Summer of the year 1968 . These documents revive the sociopolitical issues of a time of the city of Zurich and its inhabitants, that in the following years were facing a de-territorialization. Through the observation of the interviewers and reaction of the Swiss people ( not related to our Master program) I could see that all this facts still cause a lot of controversy, or in the other hand , the younger people ignore completely the facts of, from my personal point of view, such an amazing, and signifying socio-political movement as is this one.
Zurich 1980. The achievement of a dream through mobilization and occupation of the public space. The socio-political movement that had significant impact in the Swiss politics was the 1980 movement in the city of Zürich. All the riots started to mobilize with the budget donated to the Opera House and the lack of money the alternative arts and culture in Zürich had. The need of the Youth to developed new forms of expression detonated all the riots, but there were major
13 Olivia Heussler (born 18 November 1957 in Zurich, Switzerland) is a freelance Swiss video and photojournalist, artist, and co-‐founder of international image and photo agencies. Her book Zurich Sommer 1980 has being one of the greatest inspiration for me to accomplish this thesis.
issues to attend. The city was confined in a very rigid system, not only in matters of recognition and support of the Youth culture, but generally, the people needed a place to develop new forms of language, new ways of creation. Not only in closed doors at home, but felt that the city needed to provide these spaces, and demanded them. So the battle began. The most impressive thing for me as researcher is that, through my conversations with several Swiss friends that were witnesses of those movements, I discovered that the situation in really Zürich changed.
The city after these events, changed in terms of regulations on how to engage participation in the public space, and where to do it. A whole new range of Urban Spaces for the arts and leisure started to emerge, not only for Young people but also for the family, the children, and the elderly. Even though the AJZ main building was demolished, with this demolition, centers for the creation started to emerged. My question to this fact will always be: Why not organize the AJZ building, and started to ask for a committee that could organize the several different activities and started to make this place a real space for the arts? Instead of that, the building disappeared. It looks like, from my point of view, the meaning of the building itself, and the amount of people that could gather together, would always mean a very strong force that somehow the state wanted to disseminate all over the city. It is easier to take control of few in small hubs, than the incredible force that a massive group of creative people all gathered together can generate. My second observation, after the historical research and through some interesting talks with some friends ( further developed in the Small Talks Chapter of this document), is that, when I read all this amazing socio-political facts and events, after seeing the pictures and all documents available I cant help but wonder: Why is the not even one sign in the public spaces where this events happened? They are part, a very interesting component of the social history in Zürich, and, If I see the present urban situation in Zürich, things did changed. This city as eventful as it is now, full of art galleries, and independent designer ateliers etc.… it ´s very difficult to imagine as in the years previously studied: why not take the position of : Looked at us! We have a contemporary history too. When I visited the sites and squares where this major events in the social history of this city happened, I do not see them materialized in any way. As a memory, as a sign, as a reminder, or not even as a way to place a footprint of such important events in the history of Zürich not only related to politics, but also related to the engagement in the public space, cultural affairs, social etc. The theorization of the Public Space in Zürich now is necessary, a revision of concepts was made in the next chapter
Theorizing Public Space in zurich On democracy AND participation,
“The highest, the most valuable, the most human mode of life is action. Only this mode is characterized by freedom, emancipated from necessity: freedom is action and action is freedom. How, then, is action to be understood? To act is to begin something, to initiate, to set in motion.” Monika Bokiniec revisiting Hannah Arendt´s philosophical approach14
What is Public Space? “Public space” is the space where individuals see and are seen by others as they engage in public affairs. Even though “we live in an online, interconnected world”15 and a increasing percentage of political interactions uses digital means , the things that get communicated involve two physical entities: people and physical space. Just as the previously studied events in the socio-political history of Zürich. These people are the citizens who occupy, share and question over the public space of the cities. They are the medium of the message and perform actions in the urban landscape. What nowadays we see performed in several cities around the world, really change and captures our attention as witnesses of the contemporary political events. The persistent and massive occupation of squares, streets and other public spaces by humans around the world are in every newspaper and online media. Is in the Public Space where people communicate their opinions, demonstrate their position and of course , protest. So even though of the existence of the online world , not matter how much we call for participation, or how many followers our “digital protest” can have, were we really visualize realities in a city, is by the actions taken
14 The author states in her paper IS POLIS THE ANSWER? HANNAH ARENDT ON DEMOCRACY. 15 R. Parkinson John Democracy and public space: the physical sites of democratic performance Oxford University Press 2012 pg. 1
by the citizens in the public space. Is, paradoxically, also a time where more restrictions emerged from the public space: Here you cannot gather, here you cannot feed the pigeons , here you cannot sit, here you cannot play the ball, and so on. I think the concept “overprogrammed cities” developed by Drew , the author of Kneeling Bus blog 16 is one very interesting to explain this phenomenon. He states in his blog post17 :
“Public space—and cities in general—have become overprogrammed. Programming is a core feature of late capitalism and is a cousin of what some call Disneyfication18. A program for an environment, whether a park, an office building, or a mall, is the menu of activities that the space is designed to facilitate. The program can be rigid or flexible, but it generally guides the users of a space toward preferred behaviors, however gently. In a mall, the preferred behavior is consumption, an action that certain urban districts are now planned to encourage as well. These environments are not coercive but people tend to internalize the program and act the way they’re supposed to, because doing so is easier and makes the most sense.”
Also the surveillance factor started to pop out in some cities in Europe, like Singapore or Zürich. As Parkinson argues it in his book Democracy and Public Space ( see sources chapter for further information), these restrictions apply when we act as politically engaged citizens, not when we act as consumers: shoppers or tourists. Speaking about architectural practice: Is there a democratic space by excellence? Or in other words: Is it possible to design a democratic space? Frank Lloyd Wright in 1939 thought it was possible to talk about “architecture of democracy”: a building and planning style that embodies and embeds democratic values. 19 With the latter, I have to disagree. I don’t believe we can, as architects or designers, come to a perfect solution that depicts democracy. In my opinion what we can do is speculate and provoke situations, but we will never be in control of collective intelligence or social structures, that , of course, can be reinforced by the built environment of the city but not controled. Another topic I want to expose here is one that lately what draws my attention and also drew Richard Sennet´s attention: the “ fall of public man”: the loss of spaces in which people can act as citizens, and a preference of space through
16 Post “Overprogrammed Cities” http://kneelingbus.wordpress.com/2012/04/26/overprogrammed-‐ cities/ 17 idem. 18 “The terms are generally used in a negative way, and they imply homogenization of consumption, merchandising, and emotional labor. They can be used more broadly to describe the processes of stripping a real place or event of its original character and repackaging it in a sanitized format. References to anything negative are removed, and the facts are watered down with the intent of making the subject more pleasant and easily grasped. In the case of places, this typically means replacing what has grown organically over time with an idealized and tourist-‐friendly veneer reminiscent of the "Main Street, U.S.A." attractions at Disney theme parks.” Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disneyfication 19 Ibid. Pg. 6
which people transit, or act as consumers and displayers of their consumption. Many urban planning in the biggest cities in the world are former public space from the public realm, and control it and commercialize it. No more biking there, or just sitting and talk. Consumption is the core activity developed on these spaces. Zürich is no exception for this statement. So when talking about the stages of democracy in the Public Space, what are we referring to? According to Parkinson 20 there are ten stages for democracy. I will point out the most important aspects of his points. Parkinson give to the definition of “democracy” a performative twist in order to apply it in the urban space. He states that from the notion of urban theory “ public life in advances democracies is narrated, scripted, ritualized, and performed “ and yet the most part of political science and political theory persist with models that emphasize formal institutions to structure decisions, rather than in informal aspects. Or when they do it ( surveys, for example) they call the collected data, psychological rather than sociological or anthropological ones. So one important aspect is that democracy has two main ways, one is the democratic roles and actors and the other is the democratic stage. A space can be public in 4 ways: it is openly accessible, it consumes collective resources, it has common impacts and it is stage for the performance of democratic roles. In this sense, for example, overly specifics design specification and norms ( the “not aloud” urban signs) can limit a democratic performance. Another interesting point that Parkinson point out in his theory is that “ Democracy requires a physical performance”. This means, that political argumentation and communication requires a narrative form. Political conflict is always about accessing and the prevention to access a certain space. When one sees ones narratives anchored in symbolic, physical form there is a sense of inclusion and membership in the demos. The latter has to deal a lot not only with the performance a citizen can have in the public space, but also, the level of information shared in the public realm, the manifestation of history, and how it is communicated. Also the communication of history enhance a feeling of „sense of belonging21“ .
20 R. Parkinson John Democracy and public space: the physical sites of democratic performance Oxford University Press 2012 pg. 200
21 In Spanish we have this expression and its use is very common when treating urbanism subject. Sense of
belonging in my own words is : feeling member, part of, as a citizen.
Small conversations People that unleashed “kriegsmaschines” project ideas. Ethel Baraona Pohl. ( Master Thesis Tutor) Ethel lives in Barcelona, Spain , so our first conversations where via Skype. I had also the opportunity to travel for a week to Barcelona, where I worked side by side with her developing the present document, the on-line archive and the architectural proposal. I had many conversations with Ethel, and it would be impossible to transcript all of them but I share the most important points that helped me developed this project as it is now. I asked Ethel to be my tutor from a distance, because I have a certain degree of fascination for the work she develops along with her partner in crime Cesar Reyes in the editorial house DPR Barcelona22. In the last year their blog23 along with their publications, as well as on-line networking activity24, became a new source of reference and inspiration. In the first conversations on the topic and while I was still performing hardworking research , Ethel recommended me to developed the thesis as an outsider that inserts itself in this strange reality that is Zürich. This observation helped developed a better and more objective point of view. Another important issue was stated: as I was working with archives all the time, the archive itself was the public space that I was designing. This was the first approach that defined the project proposal in the present thesis: not only by giving it an architectural and scenographical degree, but also enable a space where a new relationship with history can be achieved: as a resultant the online archive was structured and the idea of the architectural proposition was sparked. We went on talking about the potential spots of the city and how to designed a journey or a process. She pointed out several times the importance of designing not a manifestation or a protest, but a process. A process understood as a matrix of relations in the physical space or urban fields. She talked about cartographies being layers of information and how by the means of placing this information in the city plan the main parts of historical charge will pop- out. “ The urban space or any space becomes alive thanks to the collective intelligence” was a sentence Ethel
22 „dpr-‐barcelona is an innovative publishing company based in Barcelona, specialized in high quality architecture and design books. With an international scope and founded by two architects, our catalogue vary from monographs and documentation of buildings to historical studies, collections of essays and dissertations. All of dpr-‐barcelona books are product of a creative exchange between publisher, author or designer and the collaboration of academic experts that make most complete the overview about each project. Showing a clear innovative way to bring the contents to the public, our projects transcend the boundaries between time and space from conventional publications, approaching to those which are probably the titles of architecture in the future.” ( Source: http://www.dpr-‐barcelona.com/) 23 http://dprbcn.wordpress.com/
24 Twitter: https://twitter.com/#!/ethel_baraona | https://twitter.com/#!/cerreyes
said, and that started to navigate in my thoughts , and result an important component of not only my proposal, but also my conclusion.
Andres Bosshard. ( Master Thesis Tutor) The always-vibrant attitude of Andres is one I always appreciate the most in this Master program. The day I presented to him my topic, he was completely excited about it, because for my surprise, he was participating in the movement of 1968, as a Swiss student of arts. Andres pointed out some very important valuable ideas for the further developed of this project such as the idea of the local and the global regarding the facts that were happening in 1968 , where these are frequently misunderstood as an echo of what was happening in the whole world. The truth is that the results of these urban events, are unique and they can be reflected not only in the political side of the city, but also in the creative one. Andres told me the Lindenhof story of the soldier and the deceased son. He pointed out the importance of the place and the collective memory charge it has. Andres developed for me the topic of the scenography of protests, which are these and how they can be found in the public realm. For example: “a construction site is always a site of protest” he said. Also to make another state of mind is a sign of protest. To transform is the real way of protest, how to achieve this? Andres made me many questions that along with the historical facts I was encountering juxtaposed perfectly and not so, at the same time , specially the topic of “the myth of disappearing” and the choreography of protests. At the time Andres made these observations to me, it was kind of impossible to follow him, but the more I read and documented myself on the historical facts, the more I understood what he was referring to: How to materialized a fact that disappeared? How can we really build up a new, transformative language, with the means of history, in the space?
Antonio Scarponi. ( Friend) Antonio´s article in the “Anarchitecture” Magazine called “The Hypothetical Revolution Imagining New Forms of Symbolic Order” came up while I was doing this inquiry and immediately I called to see him. As we sat in the coffee place we started talking about my research topic, and then a lot of things started to emerge that define the main elements of this present project. Antonio shared with me that generally in the history of Zürich, it is not considered as a “activist” city but “volunteer” city. The second most wanted job, according to Antonio, is to be a volunteer of the many associations like Greenpeace to name one. When I think about this, this is true. One can see all of these volunteers in the street, perhaps thinking they are making a difference and that they are changing the world. Antonio continued talking to me how a product is the synthesis between economy and society. I keep on thinking about
this through the project, how objects can specially trigger action, but still depict a society. How through this objects you can tell a story? I wondered. “Public Space works with small devices” is one sentence Antonio shared with me, and one of the most interesting during our conversation, because then instead of thinking in a big scale, I started to wonder how single objects or devices can change the territory when they are inserted. And then I started to think about which meaning can this devices can have, at the end the meaning giver is the user, but how to engage relation between user and object? I told Antonio I was willing to design a protest and he told me that this would lead me into a delicate field where in the end, would be like designing nothing because this revolutionary act, any revolutionary act has to be legitimate by the people. Antonio shared some very valuable information about parades ( perhaps one of the most interesting “war machines” ) 25 and real democracy in Switzerland.
The conception of the Architecture/scenography project At some point of this research project I had to make a decision on what I was going to elaborate as a “response” or which position I was willing to undertake.
emerged in a conversation with my Swiss friend and former classmate Roberto Della Pietra. He was sharing with me his adventures when the 1980 events happened while he was studying at the Zürich School of the Arts. He was 20 years old back then.
commenced to talk about how, for real, the situation changed in matters of rigidness of the system after all the rioting, specially the Opera House riot in 1980. While talking about this, we were at the Dynamo, public facility that was a result of all the youth movements and requests from the young population. Roberto continued talking about the good changes, and how the dream of a young group of people that at some point “ did not exactly what the wanted”26 came true ( we recall that The Rote Fabrik27 was born some years after) . When I
25 This is a personal comment. 26 Personal point of view of interviewed.
27 Rote Fabrik (Red Factory) is a former factory in Zurich-‐Wollishofen, which is now used as a music venue and cultural center. It is so named because the buildings are made of red brick, but sometimes also because left-‐wing parties are campaigning at the location. In 1974 the Social Democratic Party of Switzerland (SP) launched a proposal to transform the factory building into a cultural center. As a result,
asked Roberto “What do you think this young people really wanted?” Roberto said: “ The principal thing they wanted was a place to develop new forms of being together, a new young language that could depict them.” I asked Roberto if he , as swiss, feels in a free system. Roberto says to me that if one gets organized, it is possible to get a lot of things with the democratic system Switzerland is part of . ( he explained to me the referendum system). 28 “ So in the end, thanks to the youth movements of 68 and specially 80 , the political situation in Switzerland changed?” Roberto affirm this statement. I continued : “ And why don´t you commemorate this? Why not being proud of the socio-political history, the movements, the level of expression and the artistic development of the time ? Why not show off the city history? The establishment of the Zürich that we know nowadays which in any case is perfect, but, If everyone says to me that things did changed… why not “celebrate” ? Roberto smiled at me, and said: “ Because I believe that this particular date was commemorated it would represent an excuse for a manifestation and it would become an open window for questioning the decisions that were made in those former times. I guess the State decided to leave it sort of behind and move on. ” In that moment the idea for the present project was conceived.
studios have been set up for artists and cultural events were held. In 1977, voters chose for the preservation and use as a cultural center.On 25 October 1980, the cultural centre Rote Fabrik opened. Music and theater were the focus of activities. Some independent theater groups, which gained increasing influence in the scene gave her debut at the Rote Fabrik. A referendum in 1987 decided that the Rote Fabrik should be used as an alternative cultural center and also subsidized. ( Source: Wikipedia) 28 In Switzerland Swiss voters can demand a binding referendum at federal, cantonal and municipal level. They are a central feature of Swiss political life. It is not the government's choice whether or when a referendum is held, but it is a legal procedure regulated by the Swiss constitution. ( source: Ibid.)
The commemoration of the anniversary of the swiss socio-political movements ( 1968/ 1980) as an act of memory. (Theoretical Framework for the Architecture / Scenography Proposal )
1. Provoking Situations. When I started developing the first ideas, the immediate reaction was the desire to design a manifestation/protest: of course. But it was too obvious and in a certain level , naïve. What the protest would be about? I cannot even imagine, because for instance, I am not Swiss. The decision to design a protest would have to had a very strong and specific reason, ( from which the design would have follow) and would enter deeper into politics and other affairs I am not familiar with , and this project could have another connotation. In the end I believe it would lack of knowledge to take position towards such important events, as the ones treated in the present study. So , as “revolutionary” the thought was, I left behind the “protest” idea.
From a personal point of view, I see the profession of a Spatial Designer more than a “creator” of relational objects, as an agent provocateur of situations.
After deciding to , instead of structuring a protest and its elements, to set up a stage of the commemoration of the socio-political events in question, I started to further elaborate my design position. In first instance the idea of * the democratic performance in the public spaces as a civic need emerged.” While wondering in the streets of this city, I rarely see that the situation we live around the world, in matters of democratic performance, is echoing in the daily life we live in Switzerland. Even though there were some manifestations of support regarding , for example, the Occupy movement all over the world, the strong vibe, and the emotion that many
photographers have lensed internationally, was not the same. I kept on thinking that, from a personal point of view, there is a lack of democratic engagement in the public spaces of Zürich at all, even though the Swiss Democracy is an example all over the world, in the urban spectrum, is not very visible. All the activities regarding the public space are in relation with consumption, and when not, are completely ruled and “over-programmed”. And if not, the factor of surveillance makes its presence. Were are the revolutionaries in this city? Besides confining themselves in the surrounding of Rote Fabrik, and behind low profile activism, how could we see the realities of the city, on top of the apparent perfection very well elaborated and achieved through the spectacular , well-maintained streets, transport system and luxury boutiques?
one see in the urban space , the contemporary history coming alive?
Projective PHASES 1. geography of protests The first step of this project involved the making of cartography of the places in the city of Zürich where the movements of 1968 and 1980 took place. This places where chosen from a certain amount of data I had previously collected via the Sozialarchiv , books, internet, and magazine ( for more information see sources) . The result of this cartography is the visualitazion of the different mobilizations trough the city. In both years, a several of movements are overlapping. This signifies a potential charge in the urban space.
2. Topographies of memory These series of urban spaces that in both years represented a democratic space for the citizens of Zürich that in the “Geography of Protests” map are overlapping
I called them:
Topographies of Memory. The latter are spaces of the city with important collective memory charge and potential for the set of the several stages for the commemoration of the Anniversary. This urban spaces will create a network of events and the spaces in between , will be the path of the journey between one place an another where all the elements will displaced.
Cartography : Geography of Protests. ( A larger image is attached in the present document)
Cartography : Topographies of Memory. ( A larger image is attached in the present document)
3. Appropriation of history
Design for Street Signage.
“The war machine is that nomad invention that in fact has war not as its primary object but as its second-order, supplementary or synthetic objective, in the sense that it is determined in such a way as to destroy the state-form and city-form with which it collides.” ( Deleuze and Guatarri
Nomadology Treatise / A thousand Plateaus . 1980 ) 29
The event “68/80” will be the mean for the citizens of Zürich to enable a process of remembering and then appropriate their contemporary socio-political history. This project will be made in cooperation with: The Sozialarchiv 30, The Political Science students of the University of Zürich 31 , the “The Autonome Schule”
“Rote Fabrik” Committee 33 and
Blebereicht-Collektiv . 34
The project takes as point of departure the Kriegsmaschine Visual Archive 35, as a detonating element of conflict. “ Information” as generator of collision. Collision being the purpose of second order, and information of first. The concept applied to the present project is “ The city as archive” and Miessen´s concept : “ The archive as a productive space of conflict”. 36 The project deals with the questions exposed by theoretical framework elaborated by Miessen on how spaces of knowledge can be devised, developed and designed. 37
The architectural/design proposal takes as theoterical framework Deleuze´s and Guatarri´s theory on the “kriegsmaschine” or war machine. According to them , the war machine is an invention of the nomads, therefor is a nomadic element. This “war machine” can be any element that maneuver over a smooth surface (a given territory) and has war ( or conflict) not as primary object but as second. The war machine triggers conflict in order to destroy (change/transform) the state-form and city-form ( the urban space) with which it collides.
29 See bibliography. 30 http://www.sozialarchiv.ch/ 31 https://www.facebook.com/kritischePolitik.uzh 32 http://www.bildung-‐fuer-‐alle.ch/ 33 http://www.rotefabrik.ch/en/kontakt/ 34 http://www.bleiberecht.ch/ 35 http://kriegsmaschineproject.tumblr.com/ 36 See Marcus Miessen present study and forthcoming publication : „The Archive as a Space of Conflict „ For more see: http://www.studiomiessen.com/the-‐archive-‐as-‐a-‐productive-‐space-‐of-‐conflict/
The conception of the project follows those theoretical lines. It consists on an ephemeral action : The event “68/80” with duration of 1 month where a series of urban spaces (noted in the cartography : Topographies of Memory) will be “re-colonized” by physical manifestations of the archive that will emerge in the urban spaces as intruding objects
installations, itinerant archives and nomadic furniture will occupy ( all this elements can be called “deleuzian” war machines 38) . The citizens rather than “participate” in the Public Space, will “occupy” it. 39
These objects will provoke a transformation of the given territories by subverting the actual program of the city space in question, hence de-territorializing it.
38 See Deleuze . A Thousand Plateaus . Nomadology Treatise . 1980. 39 Recently I had the amazing opportunity to see Saskia Sassen in Zürich in the lecture: Warten auf die
Revolution, in the Month of May of 2012 and she makes a clear emphasis on the difference between participating in the public space and the occupy. The latter meaning rather than participate: making.
Basic Scheme of Intruding Objects/War Machines. ( For detailed information see Kriegsmaschine Vol. 2)
Taking the city as already a given scenario, the present proposal seeks to generate not new forms to insert in the urban space, but rather marrow of forms. These devices with succinct body are inserted in order to explore , exploit and shift the present status of some urban spaces with strong collective memory charge in the city of Zürich.
A new level of spatial appropriation takes place. Zürich will turn into something loud, where all students of the universities will be invited at the opening day, and will recite in chorus The Zürich Manifiesto . The public space will become vibrant and will house the democratic participation of the citizen, while it is engaging new forms of communication with its city and history. The project main aim is to “open up a stage for productive”40 and progressive conflict by triggering historical events colliding with the present. The stage will be set and will ward all activities that the collective intelligence decides to perform. The 1 month interaction amongst new digital layers ( ex. Kriegsmaschine on-line Visual Archive) , the physical layers of the city along with the new ephemeral action , generates a whole new territory. Perhaps this territory is “that” Public Space where democratic performance reigns and history makes its physical presence.
The complete architectural project it´s detailed in Kriegsmaschine Volume No. 2.
40 Marcus Miessen words.
( Setting up “68/80” Scenography)
THE CITY AS PROTEST SPACE /COMPLETE HISTORICAL RESEARCH OF zurich Demonstrations ( 1968- 1991) June 1968 The City Council approved a two-day event at the abandoned world-temporary. Several thousand young people taking part. It is a "Provisional Action Committee for an autonomous Youth Centre "is selected. The City Council will ultimately threaten the world line-up, if the Young people by 1 July is not an appropriate venue for major events is available. 29th June 1968 After the City Council in the Globe temporary permits no further meetings and otherwise not deal with the ultimatum of the young people to gather around 2,000 demonstrators on the railway bridge. The police intervene immediately. Young people and provide police for two days heavy fighting. July 1968 Well-known personalities to publish the "Zurich Manifesto", which at the town's youth policy Criticizes. The city authorities to grant a loan of 200,000 francs to develop a constructionready project template for the Drahtschmidli-building complex. December 1969 Young people of all political persuasions to form a commission for the purpose of setting up a "Association Autonomous youth center. " July 1970 The People's House is an Assembly (VV) instead. About 600 people will participate. The urban bunker-offer is approved. 30th October 1970 The Lindenhof bunker is opened. November 1970 The increasing concentration of drug cases in the shelter requires the use of multipleSocial workers who are not from the municipal authority made available. The Committee keeps itself in the future only be limited to the regulatory requirements and Nights in a bunker. 14th December 1970 The City Council shall provide the committee with an ultimatum to the bunker-restoration of the agreed order within three weeks, the shelter would otherwise closed. 28th December 1970 At a VV decides the majority of the 500 participants not to the ultimatum of the city, to respond and for the autonomy of the bunker to fight. 31st December 1970
41 As Joachim Scharlot and Angelika Linke state in their book: Der Zürcher Sommer 1968. Zwischen Krawall, Utopie und Bürgersinn.
Establishment of the "Autonomous Republic of Bunker" as a mini-state. 6th January 1971 The People's House is a place with VV Mayor Widmer. The city's ultimatum, despite the Offer an urban emergency accommodation for 30 people rejected. The bunker in which to a "socialist battle group" included to prevent the police occupation has is surrounded by police. After 68 days the bunker experiment will abgebrochen. 18th December 1972 The re-opened after a temporary occupation Drahtschmidli by young people cleared by the police. 30th June 1974 Voters reject the Drahtschmidli community project. Even the young contact against the bill because it does not correspond to their demands for autonomy. 27th September 1977 The voters decide to convert the factory into a Red meeting and Cultural Center. 12th November 1977 Opening of Schindlerguts (Schigu), as a substitute for the Drahtschmidli that stopped in autumn 1981 should be. 16th November 1977 The first VV Schigu rejects an Delegiertensys-tem. The users of the internal demand Assembly as the supreme, decision-making body. 24th May 1978 The VV is split because of disagreements, the approval of nights in Schigu on. There is debate about the occupation of any Schigus at closing. 29th May 1978 The Schigu is occupied by about 150 youths. 6th June 1978 The Schigu is cleared by the police. Autumn 1979 The working group "Rock as a revolt" (RAR) is forming. My concern is the music scene to improve in Zurich, i.e. to provide an alternative to commercialized and concerts To acquire premises for Session meetings, parties and discussions. December 1979 In Polyfoyer meet some 600 young people. They protest against the unilateral distribution of Cultural deposits and the high prices for rock concerts, and they criticized the lack of suitable Premises. January 1980 To the public in January 1980 VVs appear around 50 people each. More and more Young people are willing to get involved. 23rd January 1980 The "community of interest Rote Fabrik" (IGRF) is active. February 1980 The "action group Rote Fabrik" (ARF) is founded. It consists of different Individuals, groups from the RAR, "Young Communist League," "Young Socialists", "Freaks on Friitig "etc. To the end of the semester ARF announced that it will no longer be the Polyfoyer Use is open. Because of the high ticket prices commercial concerts to be disturbed. 12th March 1980 Young people want to negotiate directly with the City Council and request a large hall for concerts and Versammlungen. 26th March 1980 The answer is negative, the City Council. End of March 1980 The ARF wrote a letter that is required in which once again, the youth facilities to make available. April 1980 During the Sechseläuten occupied the group, "Air & Noise" the underpass at the Langstr. 8. / 9. May 1980 After a concert organized some of the visitors at the Rote Fabrik an illegal party. Young people
may notice here that commercial firms have been hired at the Rote Fabrik, what the business is a clothing warehouse looted. 17th/18th. May 1980 At a protest party in the dis-cuss the Red Factory adolescents as they make their demands for Are places for their culture to express. For the 30th May a demonstration against the Opera announced submission. Disputes surrounding the opening of an autonomous youth center 30th May 1980 On the evening of 30 May show - organized by the ARF - about 200 people before the Opera House for the promotion of alternative culture in the city of Zurich. They want the Opera House visitors in the run up to the municipal vote on the 60-million loan for the planned opera house renovation to meet the needs of an alternative cultural scene in Zurich make them pay attention. The demonstration began peacefully. 30Police in riot gear call on the demonstrators, the place within 15 minutes clear. The site is not cleared. The first skirmish. Later in the evening evolve The skirmish at a real riot, as the visitor inside the Bob Marley concert in the Downtown flow. At Bellevue barricades are erected. The conflict between Police and protesters take to the early morning hours. 31st May 1980 The scenes from the night before repeating itself. First June 1980 The purpose of public relations for the upcoming voting before the opera house erected Tent is occupied by about 2,000 people. A VV is held. The events of the previous day be discussed and placed new demands on the city government: the withdrawal of criminal complaints against all those arrested, no further use of CB tear gas and rubber bullets, and the Partial opening of the Red Factory as a cultural and youth center in autumn 1980, which implies, that the opera house the contracts for the use of the Red Factory as a storage and rehearsal room be canceled and the vacant factory building on the Limmat 18-20 as autonomous Youth Center from 8 June, 12:00. In the evening, a demonstration is in the direction of movement in the county jail, where the people are arrested. Third June 1980 After a rally of young people at the demonstration to the cantonal Hirschenplatz Police barracks and district buildings. 4th June 1980 Mayor and Councillor Widmer take Lieberherr - along with some 2,000 young people - VV at a house in some people. Listen to the demands of the young: In relation to the Done at the Rote Fabrik refer Widmer and Dear as the IGRF Interlocutor, in terms of the required youth center they show up ready to talk â€“ under the condition that no further violence takes place. They call on the congregation, to form a delegation, which will result in the forthcoming negotiations. The VV is not ready respond to this proposal, insisting on negotiations with the VV. There is a video film a group of anthropology students demonstrated on the Opera House riot. 6th June 1980 The Cantonal Directors of Education, Government can Gilgen, the video film on the Opera House riot for political agitation confiscate with scientific material. A study on the accountability of management of the Ethnological Seminar will initiated. 7th June 1980 On the Platzspitz a VV takes place using their space on the Limmat 18-20 on. The young people are unsure how to respond to the proposals of the city. Man decides to visit the new locations to first of all. A demonstration of several hundred people attracted by the Limmat River 18-20 and from there via the County Building and Police barracks to Bellevue, where is advised on how to proceed. The majority agrees with the Proposal to go to the Red factory in order to discuss further. 8th June 1980 The referendum on the opera house loan is assumed scarce. Another VV in the Red Factory decides not to enter into the terms of the City Council. It will first Working groups established.
9th June 1980 Before the University of Zurich takes place will manifest documentation. The immediate resignation of Councillor Gilgen is required. Demonstration to protest the meeting: On the Central Traffic blocked. It moves on to the building of the Neue Zürcher Zeitung (NZZ). A police operation is preventing the delivery of the BBC to an end. After this incident, the City Council announces a tougher line on. 11th June 1980 The VV in the People's House agrees to continue negotiations with the city council refuses but it continues to define a delegation. 12th June 1980 At the University in 2000 lead a protest by students in the course of which the Rector turns to the congregation. 14th June 1980 In one, held on the court pointed VV was decided on 21 June, a large demonstration to organize in order to provide the demands of the moving thing heard. Nude demonstration by Zurich's Old downtown. 17th June 1980 Demonstration after a protest rally at the University of the building Department of Education. 18th June 1980 Demonstrators gather outside the Town Hall: ask the council to discuss on. The council refused the interview. The demonstrators from waiting, after which the police engages. Damage to property in the city center. 9th June 1980 Extraordinary Assembly of Delegates of the SP city of Zurich. They protested against the Ban on demonstrations of the City Council for 21 Commissioned in June and the Executive Committee, the City Council and the young people to get in touch. 20th June 1980 So-called "ringleaders" to be taken into preventive custody. The management of SP is the City Council to take over the sponsorship of an autonomous youth center. The Working groups decide the motion, the 21st for the Gross planned June Demons-tration and instead cancel the Helvetia Square, where can already held a feast for the POCH, a VV hold. 21st June 1980 After the experience around 5000 to 6000 the congregation of the Helvetiaplatz preventive arrests on Friday, a majority decides, the debate about the SP the proposals relating to sponsorship and instead to adjourn immediately demonstrate. On the Quaibrücke demonstrators take to the police, but then withdraws, what is the demonstration peacefully. 25th June 1980 The People's House takes place VV. She decides the placement proposed by the SP to accept, under the condition that the house and autonomously performed on 28 June can be opened. 27th June 1980 Late Friday night, the City Council adjusted the contract for the sponsorship of the Convention center on the Limmat River with the SP 18-20: It is noted that the Convention center with the greatest possible self-government should be operated so that the Gebrausleihe within a period of four days may be terminated, that the localities expected from 1 April 1981 by the city requires for its own purposes, that the building must be restored and that the use Entlehnerin for satisfactory operation needs. From the opening until the first closing of the autonomous youth center 28th June 1980 With a plenary session and a feast is the autonomous youth center on the Limmat 18-20 opened. The most urgent renovations were completed in the morning. Second July 1980 Is on the television program "Tele stage" discussion about the cases in which resistance against state violence is legitimate. Participants are politicians from different parties and Representatives of the youth movement a few weeks old. The 10 young people make through
most noticeable at night, and costumes by yelling, clapping, whistling, and soap bubbles Balloons. This prevented them from representing mainly the interior of the right words.The "Tele-stage" process is terminated. 12th July 1980 Before AJZ gather around 200 people to demonstrate for the abandonment of criminal prosecutions. The unapproved protest march is broken up by police: Massive Disputes between the moving thing and the police that lasted well into Sunday morning. More than a hundred people were arrested. In the following week in the media police action debated. 15th July 1980 To a round-table discussion on Swiss Television DRS with representatives of the city council, the Police and the SP delegated two representatives of the movement, as the Anna and John Smith presented. Instead, as expected, to represent the movement standpoint, they take the course the call to the absurd exaggerated object point of the average citizen from the "Silent majority" a. 17th July 1980 Ten put up in a known manner Müllerian teenagers invite to a press conference to Youth center and say nothing. 19th July 1980 The traditional Christmas market takes place officially approved demonstration. The moving thing to protest against police action on 12 July. First August 1980 The issue of "abandonment of criminal prosecutions" is taken up again: Large demonstration approximately 4,000 people. 9th August 1980 With an "action day for press freedom" to protest the group TV Zurich Syndicate Swiss media representative (SSM) and the Swiss Union of Journalists (SJU) against the Compression tests, carried out by politicians and business circles in recent times to the media be. 23rd August 1980 Sympathizers of the movement "AJZ per club" was founded with the aim of Zurich's motion to support financially and morally. 29th August 1980 Homes of the urban settlement vine hills are occupied. That same day, police clear the houses. 30th August 1980 Rioting with looting, vandalism and arson in the Bellevue area following an unapproved demonstration of about 1,000 young people. 4th September 1980 At 5:15 the clock cantonal and city police take home because of a warrant from Zurich District Court a joint raid in the Youth Center (AJZ), on the Limmat 18-20 before. 137 people, including 66 foreigners are brought into the CID building. The police Stolen property, narcotics and weapons safely. The results of the raid as a reason to be immediate closure of the AJZ called. The following VV will not have to accept the closure; about the procedure but it is divided: While a majority of those present is about 1500 against immediate disputes and pronounce for a mass demonstration on Saturday, advocates is a militant minority of about 200 did not appear on the VV and fights against the AJZ Stones and bottles at the police barricaded themselves at AJZ. Violent clashes in the Area of the station and Lion Street. The fight for the reopening 5th September 1980 In an extraordinary meeting of the City Council declares that he is interested in a new sponsorship is. He formulated new, more restrictive conditions for the reopening of the AJZ. The City CounciL calls for a restoration operation with an appropriate patent and cantonal operating hours, the cantonal Management Act correspond, a closing of the morning 2-5 clock, the waiver of an emergency shelter in Haus. 6th September 1980 For Saturday called on the motion of a mass demonstration: "For the immediate Reopening of the AJZ, but Subito, Susch tätschts! "The crowd is by the police
dissolved. In the early evening, about 2,000 demonstrators gathered on the traditional Christmas market. They decide to conduct an unapproved demonstration to Platzspitz the installation and a VV hold. Clashes between the demonstrators and the police, the trier-up in the early. Morning hours. Several hundred people were arrested. 10th September 1980 The movement discussed how to proceed in a VV Limmathaus. Moving around 2500 as well as media representatives from around the world are present. There is debate about the issue of "new Ownership ", after the SP has been reported about the failure of negotiations with the City Council. The SP had not been willing to take on the more restrictive conditions. For the moving thing clear that foreign ownership will be accepted only if they continue the autonomy can provide. At this VV inform working groups that were involved in the AJZ-operation, about their actual experiences and derive requirements, the future for a smooth operation must be met: You insist on additional funding for additional renovations and submit a work plan with 15 points. 20th September 1980 An approved demonstration, in addition to the moving thing, members of the PDA, SAP, and POCH , will participate with about 8,000 participants to the peaceful and impressive evidence of ongoing ability to mobilize the movement. 24th September 1980 The General Assembly of the motion requesting the reopening of an ultimatum for the first AJZ October. 27th September 1980 Is the part of the rights to the Münster terhof a "rural community of law and order" organization of the approximately 1000 participants belong to a large part of the movement. First October 1980 By 20 clock runs off the ultimatum, which calls the Zurich City Council Youth Movement has to open the Autonomous Youth Center to unconditionally again. At a church minister in the VV discuss some 2,000 young people how they could call their emphasis. The Now these points of dispute lasting for weeks rounds are still the Emergency shelter and opening times. The young people entrusted to the Pro AJZ only , continue negotiations if it is assured that the AJZ remains open 24 hours. Second October 1980 About 200 supporters of the Movement for a Zurich Autonomous Youth Center burn during the evening prior to the sale of newspapers worldwide Zurich, shooting off fireworks and deposited on the ground floor of the globe a stink bomb. On the night of the 3rdOctober the Lumberyard burned down a building firm. 4th October 1980 Hundreds demonstrate outside the Moving globe and at Bellevue. During the night further actions with property damage. 77 people are verhaftet. 5th October 1980 The Fraumünsterkirche occupied by moving thing and cleared out by police. The bourgeois parties take militant action from the first weeks of October to the end Opportunity to request the termination of negotiations. In connection with the riots in Zurich are of the Zurich District Court (BAZ) in the period from 30 May to 5 October 440 People have been involved in criminal investigations. The machining center is expecting another 100 cases, which is currently at the stage of police investigations are. There are also 550 ads against unknown perpetrators. These are some 1,100 criminal investigations on 100, hinzuzuzählen who initiated the youth advocate. 11th October 1980 On the lawn Pestalozzi held an information campaign. The city police can prepare the dialogue AJZ-followers, with the bogus arguments with a spontaneous street theater mimed police staged grant, and not arrested 144 people. After this action was prevented by the new Einkreistaktik the police do in the moderate sections of the movement of resignation, disappointment and despair wide. 14th October 1980 Moving commit an arson attack on a construction company. The result is a damage of 2 million Franks. 15th October 1980 At the VV at the Rote Fabrik distance themselves part of the moving thing by violence, others are believes that there is no other choice. The number of participants in the VVs has strong
removed. In September were each well over a thousand persons present, decreased Number of participants in October and continuously reached the end of October hardly have 500 participants. 24th October 1980 The first issue of a second movement newspaper - "icebreaker" - has a circulation of 10,000 copies. 25th October 1980 Partial opening of the Red Factory: From the approved demonstration on Red Münsterhof Factory are two: While a small proportion of young people on the approved route holds through the General-Guisan-Quai, select about 500 protesters a detour, for the time being with the county building and then takes you through the tight quarters, it will be wrapped slices and damaged a police car. 31st October 1980 Representatives of four organizations, which in recent weeks with the city council on education have wrestled a new sponsorship for the AJZ explain the negotiation stops. First November 1980 Property damage and looting in the city of Zurich after the film premiere of "Züri brännt" at the Rote Fabrik. 12th November 1980 Militant followers of the Zurich youth movement hit indiscriminately in the Zurich city center slices one of many commercial buildings. An activist is arrested by the police. The Property damage occurred subsequent to the already traditional Wednesday night General Assembly of young people held at the Rote Fabrik wurde. 15th November 1980 On a day of action the whole of Switzerland with young people as demonstrations of their Attentive concern. In Zurich, about 400 people take to the facilities at Bürkliplatz to a approved events partly on "the Zurich youth and their concerns." Soon moves a demonstration by the Bahnhofstrasse to the parade ground, where trash scattered Brought and the traffic is partially obstructed. In a crowd police use tear gas without Grenadiers the demonstrators in the space Bellevue / Limmatquai from where hours of rioting again play. 17th November 1980 In the cars of four district attorneys are committed arson attacks. 19th November 1980 The City Council approves the closure of the Action Area in the Rote Fabrik. In a communiqué He points out that the hall is used for assemblies, according to which each is to Massive rioting or damage to property had come. Around 300 young people gather evening in the Limmat River House, where they the hospitality of a meeting of trade union pressure and Paper received. 25th November 1980 At the house of Mr. Dear Councillor, an arson attack perpetrated. 26th November 1980 The City Council announces a restrictive practice with regard to the approval of demonstrations. 28th November 1980 Interfere with moving ETH anniversary torchlight. Second December 1980 The first riot Process: A police officer is the charge of assault and abuse of office acquitted. Third December 1980 Around 100 young people follow a call to hold a congress center in VV, where at 20.30 clock to a concert of the "kinks" to begin. The police circles the demonstrators and takes just half of those present determined. There is a severe eye injury. 11th December 1980 2000 people follow the call of "icebreaker" to participate in a public house in the VV.The Starting point for this meeting is clear: The editors of the "icebreaker" is dated in the sixth edition December a call to "all people of good will" was published. Main ideas are the Demand for the AJZ opening for the 24th December and the resumption of Proceedings of the City Council with a potential sponsorship of the AJZ in January.The City Council feels is blackmailed and is instead about the teaching of church representatives on 24December The Red Factory for Christmas available.
12th December 1980 Silvia Z. pour gasoline on the Bellevue and died later in the severe burn injuries. 13th December 1980 Break between 100 and 150 young people, the opening of the "art scene, Zurich 1980." As Mayor Sigmund Widmer wants to speak, they shout "AJZ, AJZ". 15th December 1980 The young civil ceremony at the Convention Centre is gestört. 17th December 1980 The General Assembly of the Zurich youth movement rejects the offer from church circles, 24 December to organize a Christmas party at the Rote Fabrik. The movement decided on 24December a demonstration under the slogan "No AJZ - No Wiehnacht 'conduct. 24th December 1980 It is further serious clashes between demonstrators and police, after youths tried to gain access to the closed AJZ. 29th December 1980 About 400 people gathered at the funeral of 23-year-old Silvia Z. in the cemetery Manegg. After the funeral, about 300 people move into a silent march in the direction Bellevue. 31st December 1980 About 200 rally participants gathered at the clock around 19 Drahtschmidli to to protest against the demolition part of the youth center. 14th January 1981 The youth movement will come to one SVP party on "riots" have their say. 16th January 1981 The group, which has the newspaper "icebreaker" is produced, one whose appearance. The "Icebreaker", with his tenth and last edition has a circulation of over 20,000 copies reached, the concerns of the movement to a wider audience and was worn in the short time of its release become a brand. The "icebreaker" is now a new newspaper, the "Brächise" replaced. 21st January 1981 People from the movement of fill two vacant houses on the Limmatquai and the Brandschenkestrasse. These will be cleared on the same day. 24th January 1981 Around 400 people have launched a leaflet campaign, after which the "Committee for a Zurich repression-free "demonstration planned by the city council was not approved. 28th January 1981 The City Council formed a new negotiating team, consisting of Aldermen Wagner, Kaufmann, Koller and Bryner. 30th January 1981 On the grounds that it contained obscene pictures and call for illegal acts, the second number of "Bräch-ise" - before she is released for sale - by the police confiscated. 31st January 1981 The participants in an unauthorized mass demonstration against the judiciary and the ongoing Processes are surrounded at the National Museum of the police. About 700 persons have to a person subjected to control. 4th February 1981 The People's House is a great place with VV about 2,000 participants, on the one tries to about the tactics of the next steps are agreed. The new delegation of City Council is asked to hold direct talks with the VV. 12.-14. February 1981 The Pro AJZ organized in the community center a "Zurich tribunal" against to the allegations of massive to the authorities and the police charged. 18th February 1981 The General Assembly discussed the negotiating strategy. Some people do not want any delegation that the others it does not matter how the youth house "bills of" is, as long as it is autonomous and the Conditions of the movement opens. The City Council agrees to the property Limmat 18-20 to open again as an assembly center, if a suitable sponsorship let see. End of February 1981
The national churches and officially declare Pro Juventute their willingness to participate in the creation of a second autonomous youth center to participate. Beginning in March 1981 The City Council has requested that the City Council a loan of 1.8 million francs for the repair of the Property Limmatstrasse 18-20. Thus, the City Council established a double hurdle for the opening a second AJZ: Not only must advise such a loan application from the council and be accepted, but it is also subject to the referendum. 5th March 1981 In VV, the more than 1,000 participants are again present, there is agreement that, with the negotiations can not go on as before. The mood is aggressive and uncompromising. A large demonstration is to support the call for the reopening. According to the VV attracts some of the assembled delegates to the meeting of the City of Zurich SP to get the information about the SPStadträten associated with the new loan application intentions. 7th March 1981 Moving disturb the nocturnal carnival activity: property damage and looting, Traffic congestion and damage to public transport. Against the fashion house Modissa is committed an arson attack. 18th March 1981 The Schigu occupied by moving thing and the "provisional AJZ" explains. 21st March 1981 Approved at the "Spring demonstration" about 8,000 people take part. When the train the AJZ reached thousands penetrate into the area of the AJZ, while part of the train on his way toward Helvetiaplatz continues. In the evening the police clear the area of the AJZ: Violent Conflicts and damage to property in the area of the main station. 22nd March 1981 AJZ is occupied by the moving thing. 23rd March 1981 The Police clear the area a second time by VV 100 moving thing with subsequent Protest march through the city: mass destruction. 29th March 1981 The City Council based on the contract with the state churches and the Pro Juventute, which Was to take sponsorship for a youth center on the Limmat 18-20 completed. 31st March 1981 Those people in the movement to deal with the problem of housing organize to do more and carry out a first "home-squatters VV", attended by some 300 people. It Two houses occupied to be cleared immediately by the police. First April 1981 The "Action against Housing" will hold a press conference, announced at the out-boycotts werden. Second April 1981 In order to avoid a referendum on the city's contribution to the rebuilding of the AJZ, the transfer with the loan of 1.8 million francs by the municipal council of the City Council rejected back. From the second opening to the closure of the autonomic AJZ Third April 1981 The AJZ will open with a VV and a party a second time. 17th April 1981 In the park on the right bank of Lake Zurich barracks to be built. The settlement will Chaotikon make the housing carefully. During one week to live 50-100 Motion. 24th April 1981 The Chaotikon is cleared by the Parks Department and the Police: retaliatory actions on the Road. 27th April 1981 Only thanks to a massive police protection, the Zurich Sechseläuten performed in the usual
form be. The movement has been the reopening of the AJZ in their publications with the Fault of the party threatened if no amnesty is adopted for all defendants. Again and again masked youths try to disrupt the parade and throw and bang against Rauchpetarden Horses and parade participants. 31st April 1981 Moving to begin construction of new Chaotikon on an island close to the Sihl the reopened AJZ. First May 1981 On Labor Day Moving disrupt the relocation of the unions. The final rally be on the Münsterhof be discontinued prematurely because of violent clashes comes between unionists and moving thing. A Nachdemonstration of around 500 moving thing is broken up by police. 6th May 1981 At around 600 people visited VV is attempted, the events of 1 Process may, Moving with militants are criticized. After the individual VV Moving barricades at the building Limmatstrasse, other people break this motion once again. In the evening there will be Fight of the people in the movement. Mid-May 1981 The journal "Brächise" sets her appearance after internal disputes. 19th May 1981 The new police grants Chaotikon. In protest against the eviction Moving to begin in the evening, the Lining of the coach park next to the AJZ tear open with pneumatic drills. The police intervene. 23rd May 1981 The movement closes temporarily AJZ the one hand, as a protest against the detention of Movement members without any legal basis, in protest against the stringent Judicial repression and as a firm demand for the immediate cessation of all criminal proceedings; on the other hand as a signal for those AJZ-users, who the AJZ as "temples of consumption" and "Homeless shelter" look. 26th May 1981 The General Assembly decides to structure the operation of the AJZ and better with the gain of the To create a regulatory vigil service, especially against the traffickers of hard drugs can occur 30th May 1981 On the anniversary of the opera house is a riot "anniversary demonstration" before the police shielded Opera House hosts. 150 Moving participate. It then held Anniversary celebration at AJZ is a box office hit: About 2,000 people attend the festival. In the evening Moving a few buildings, vehicles and public facilities, damage to which the police engages. Made in the same night several arson including in a Warehouse for a construction company. Total damage: one million francs. Third June 1981 At the VV militants moving thing to be because of their provocative demonstration of 30th May front of the Opera House vehemently attacked. A debate does not lead to agreement. About 50 members of the movement to pull the pilot VV Town Hall, where the local council to has assembled an all-night sitting. Then the MPs with abusive calls and Assault received. 11th June 1981 The police admits that since the 18th March Schigu occupied. 15th June 1981 Out by the police in Zurich AJZ a personal check. 12 wanted persons warrant be arrested. 25th June 1981 In a second security check at AJZ are 107 people who are not sufficiently
were able to identify checks. 23 people are theft, fraud or duress against Officials accused. 26th June 1981 The VV protested against the raids and stressed that this kind of identity checks in the future be more easily accepted Sun 9th July 1981 On the third raid, the movement responded with a small demonstration and significant Property damage. The AJZ is completely fogged with tear gas. 10th July 1981 Skirmishes between the police and moving thing. It follows a series of arson attacks, the large Property damage. First August 1981 Moving try the first official Disturbing Day celebration. Property damage in downtown Zurich. End of August 1981 The remaining political activists who want to get away from the scene and the trailer resigned Atmosphere at AJZ. The VV is transferred to the Red Factory. By the end of August 1981, a total of almost 4,000 people arrested in connection with the youth unrest and about 1,000 criminal cases been initiated. Beginning of September 1981 The working group "Building" at AJZ running out of money. In early September, the number of homeless Trailer, the alcohol and drug addicts at AJZ jumped in again. From the Self-administration experiment, a social asylum, but without the necessary Facilities. 8th September 1981 In the fourth AJZ raid is conducted. The moving thing hardly react to it. Autumn 1981 The election campaign for the city and municipal elections of 7 March 1982 begins. First October 1981 After the fifth (and last) in the raid AJZ it comes to some confrontations with the police at the AJZ and to several arson attacks. The end of the AJZ and the movement 12th October 1981 Attended by some 400 people a VV has sympathy for the oppressed working groups and agrees a large majority of "Letting Go of Clutter and detoxification action" to. It is closed to AJZ. The mood is bad. On an immediate reopening of the AJZ thinks no one, you will take its time. Beginning of November 1981 People from the AJZ working groups meet in the presence of the sponsorship with representatives of the City Council and talk about the drug problem, the external emergency shelter and transportation to the Finance. 21st November 1981 A variety of organizations sympathetic to the movement announced Demonstration against the repression in Zurich and is prohibited by the police in the bud prevented. December 1981 Moving one who has applied to be a fourth candidate for the city Bureau shall, together with his party's "The Naked chaos" before the election program. Mid-December 1981 A V-V in the Red Factory decides to open the AJZ from Christmas for 14 days. 24th December 1981 The demonstration at Christmas, to which one club 'demonstration on 24 December 1981 Âť invoked that is not approved. They will not take place. Instead: Skirmishes between moving thing and the police. The AJZ opens with a VV and a feast for 14 days. Around 600 people take part in the re-opening. End of December 1981 The blocking tactics of the city with the result that the working groups at the end of virtually
no more funds are available. For the coming year sees the sponsorship of and the working groups drafted budget also requires a high deficit. Beginning in January 1982 The council submitted a document more than 15 million francs for the expansion and renovation of the Drahtschmidli youth center. This is from the 22-year-old temporary Drahtschmidli finally be definitive youth house. Beginning in January 1982 After the 14-day temporary reopening of some 300 Moving to a VV discuss whether the AJZ should remain open: The Fixer and trailer set is vehemently against a Closing the weir, most groups advocate the cessation of operation. 18th January 1982 A public meeting of citizens in the block Limmathaus where the problems in District 5 for the language to come, is disturbed by moving thing. End of January 1982 The working group "drugs" leads the AJZ a "drug-week" . Beginning in February 1982 The sponsorship by the City Council calls an external fixer-space for which the "union to independent doctors "take responsibility and organize the care. The Social Services promises to consider the project - it is happening but nothing in this matter. 5th February 1982 In the attic of the AJZ fire is laid. Various facilities are destroyed. End of February 1982 The working group "drugs" decides that AJZ only open Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays. To the other days will be fenced with a wire mesh and the AJZ guarded. Drug addicts and Inside, however, make it impossible for dealers to enforce this decision. 7th March 1982 The Civil win the council elections. All five candidates of the bourgeois coalition be elected, mayor, Thomas Wagner (FdP). The answer militant groups: The City Hall is smeared with paint, in three different locations in the city center will set fire and paralyzed the trade on the stock exchange through a Rauchpetarde. Mid-March 1982 The authority decided to close the AJZ temporarily. The project can not . enforce 17th March 1982 The sponsorship gives up. It dissolves the contract with the city of Zurich with immediate effect and is the key back to the building at the Limmatstrasse 18-20. That same day, the city council, the area can to clear with 118 persons, who are still at AJZ, are arrested. At the same time found in the Winterthur-th first jury court cases against defendants the movement instead. While the judiciary with full force against the defendants from the movement going on, run most of the approximately 180 criminal cases against police officers in the sand or in an acquittal. 23rd March 1982 The AJZ is canceled. Only react militant groups: Riots and Damage to property in the vicinity of the former AJZ. 28th March 1982 A demonstration of some 1,000 demolition is resolved against the moving thing with tear gas. The 1982-1990
Under the Wagner administration from 1982 to 1990, the budget for alternative and free Cultural forms of almost 1 million to over 11 million lines (including the Rote Fabrik, Gessnerallee Office center, rock-and Popkredit, Copro, etc.).
25th April 1982 The template for a youth center in Zurich "Drahtschmidli" will of the voters of the Interior City of Zurich approved. The project joins the majority in the eighties motion to reject. 30th December 1983 and 14-15. January 1984 The new youth center will be occupied by opposition youth. The drug transshipment point about to the youth center and on the court pointed increasingly impossible for a regulated Youth center operation. First September 1984 Opening of the district and cultural center Kanzlei. End of 1987 Withdraw as the club's youth Drahtschmidli house. The city is a concept for a Jugendkulturhaus create. First January 1988 After a seven-year trial period, the cultural center Rote Fabrik - the sovereign approved take his final operation. March 1988 The Youth House Drahtschmidli under the name "Dynamo" and restarted in several Stages of opening. The result is a cultural workshop for young people with training rooms for Musicians, recording studio, video studio, club room, photography lab, dance room etc. 1989/1990 The Drahtschmidli is only partly in 1989/90 operation. 22-23. September 1990 The Zurich voters narrowly in favor of the closure of the district and cultural center Law firm of. March 1991 The office will reopen after the Presidential Commission a gemeinderätliche and the Pro Juventute - have developed a concept of operations - as the new ownership. 8th December 1991 The Zurich electorate voted in favor of the definitive closure of the firm. 1992 After a four-year pilot phase, the Youth Cultural House, "Dynamo" by a municipal Referendum to a fixed base of the social department of the city of Zurich.
Books - Linke Angelika , Scharlot Joachim et al. “ Der Zürcher Sommer 1968”. NZZ Verlag. Zürich 2008. - Stapfernhaus Lenzburg. “ A walk on the wildside”. Chronos Verlag.Zürich 1997. - Heussler Oliva. ( Text: Stefan Zweifel) “ Zürich Sommer 1980”. Patrik Frey.Zürich 20120. - Gimelfarb,N. “ Las manifestaciones de jóvenes en Suiza” ( Serie estructura social). Pro-Helvetia. Zürich 1982. - Wisler Dominique. “ La violence politique en Suisse et les mouvements sociaux”. Forschungstelle füu Sicherheitpolitik und Konfliktanalyse. ETH. Zürich 1992. - Bouvier,Nicolas,Schriftsteller. “Geneva,Zürich,Basel”. Princeton University Press. Princeton, N.J. 1994. - R.Parkinson John. “ Democracy and Public Space: the physical sites of democratic performance”. Oxford University Press. Oxford 2010. - Kalisch Rotem Einat. “ The share of form in the creation of publicness”. ETH. Zürich 2007. - Latour Bruno. “Making Things Public”. Karlsruhe. ZKM. 2005. - Savage Kirk. “ Monument wars”. University of California Press. Berkeley,Calif.2011. - Simpson Diane. “ Third Ager Urbanism”. ETH. Zürich 2010. - INURA. ( Ed. Wolff Richard). “ Possible Urban Worlds”. Birkhäuser. Basel, 1999. - Vant Hof Christian, van Est Rinie, et al. “ Check in-check out”. NAi Publ. Rotterdam 2011. - Hughes Jonathan .“ Non-plan”. Oxford Architectural Press. 2000. - Brejzek Andrea. “ Space and Power”. ZHdK. 2008. - Herzog Jaques. De Meuron Piere et al. “ MetroBasel”. ETH Studio Basel. 2009. - Diener Roger . “ Switzerland : an Urban Portrait”. ETH Studio Basel. Basel 2006. - Diener Roger et al. “ Metropolitanregion Zürich”. ETH Studio Basel. Basel 2010. - Rimmele Peter. “ Collective Gardens and Open Spaces”. ETH. Zürich 1999. - Miessen Marcus. “The Nightmare Of Participation”. Sternberg Press. 2010. - Miessen Marcus. Basar Shumon. “ Alguien dijo Participar? Un Atlas de prácticas espaciales. DPR Barcelona. Barcelona 2009. - Chomsky Noam. “Occupy” . Occupied Media Pamflet series. Zuccotti Park Press. Brooklyn 2012. - Raunig Gerald. “Mil máquinas : Breve filosofía de las máquinas como movimiento social”. Traficantes de Sueños. Queimada Graficas. Madrid. 2008. - Deleuze Gilles, Guatarri Felix. “ A thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia”. University of Minnesota Press. Minneapolis. 1980. - Julien Phillipe. “Jacques Lacan´s Return to Freud”. New York University Press. 1994.
Magazines/Pamphlets. - An Architektur No. 18 “ Camp for Oppositional Architecture”. Berlin 2006. - ACVIC. Construccions col-lectives de l´espai sial . Ajuntament de Barcelona. 2012. On-line Sources. - Please go to http://www.scoop.it/t/kriegsmaschine-war-machine
Published on Jun 13, 2012