Editor Stuart Hanafin
Design and Production Stuart Hanafin Dorothy Nguyen Greg Pitts
REAL Lecture Series
Architecture Construction Management
Outside Study Program 138-139
With thanks to: Glenn Ashcroft Russell Greenwood
Copyright to all work retained by the authors. There is no restriction on copying any part of this publication for teaching or personal use.
© School of Architecture + Building 2007 Published by Deakin University, Geelong First published 2008
Please credit appropriately.
Introduction On behalf of the professional and academic staff of the school, it gives us great pleasure to introduce this publication to you. Under the guidance of a strong professoriate which has curated a robust practice and industry focused approach to education and research, the student’s creative output has once again been substantial and has been benchmarked nationally and internationally to a very high standard. The powers of any creative endeavour relating to the built environment, be they: stimulation of precedent through the study of history and the advancement of theory; the devising of new management process in the procurement of built works; the refinement of new language structures in communicating and documenting build ability; and the combination of hand, mind and eye, with that ‘something else’ which we strive for when crafting a design, are essential ingredients when both inspiring and in being inspired. No doubt kernels of ideas, be they imbedded in a building design, a slice of city scape, a way to sustain comfort, or a policy to effect and implement change will fail to germinate unless significant grey matter, data, effort and discussion with peers, are applied to make them grow to their potential. The work between these covers reflect both the faculties which students have drawn from and the grit which they have applied to once again produce an excellent corpus of work which reflects a cross-section of the unique character of the Deakin school of Architecture and Building. The authors of the work selected for inclusion into this journal are to be congratulated along with the small team of staff and students who have worked tirelessly to make the publication happen, in particular Stuart. James Coulson (Associate Head, Development) Mirjana Lozanovska (Associate Head, Research) Richard Tucker (Associate Head, Teaching and Learning) Sambit Datta (Associate Head, International)
John Rollo Interim Head of School, Architecture and Building
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Professor Des Smith, Chair in Architecture
Architecture is academically and professionally very buoyant again this year.
This is graphically illustrated by the work in this, the a+b Journal, and through the employment numbers and choices made by both graduates and undergraduates within the programme.
Research has taken us into some new areas, both technically and geographically. BERG and Mabel continue to develop, with an expanding range of projects across Australia. Sambit Datta and David Beynon have made a number of trips to India to study historic temples, and our connections with practice and industry through vehicles such as ARC grants has developed further, and looks like continuing to do so.
ollaborations with practices in Victoria has been strong again, with great support for the REAL Series, guest critique sessions in a range of units, and the wide range of practices and individuals who were guest panellists for the Architecture5B/Masterclass A/Masterclass B presentation sessions.
Having a think about the other letters in arcHitecture. International connections continued this year with Mirjana Lozanovska’s study time in Macedonia, Sambit Datta and David Beynon’s research visits to India, Judith Trimble and my invited visit to the Malaysian Architects Conference in KL, and Mark Luther’s visits to USA and Germany. Student connections continued with our delegation from Kansas, as well as those from a range of nations who are studying with us here at the Waterfront.
echnology has expanded, especially with the development of the VR room, the 3D printer, and the tremendously adventurous use students have made of the laser cutter, with which they have made model kits, explored shape making, and ‘printed’ their design work.
nergy has been high around the School with changes to programmes, staff, new architecture programmes being proposed and commenced in Victoria, and the general energy surrounding architecture in this very buoyant market, both locally and globally.
onferences were big this year with the School hosting ANZASCA (much thanks to James Coulson), and putting our hand up to host SAHANZ in 2008 (good luck to David Beynon and Ursula de Jong). At the RAIA National Conference in Melbourne, which many Deakin students attended, Chris Leong’s purpose built table stood as a centrepiece to the Supertut session (a session attended and enjoyed by many Deakin students), and I had a privileged role as a guest panellist to all the architecture sessions.
his year, 2007, has been the first year of the newly developed Master of Architecture programme, and some of the work from this programme is presented in this edition of a+b Journal. With that, there will be much interest, review and change around the School and its architecture programmes.
Undergraduate programme in Architecture is now known as the Bachelor of Design (Architecture).
This new name more accurately reflects the content and position of the architecture programme within the Faculty, and Deakin. This has allowed us to adjust this course so as to integrate it with the new Master of Architecture professional programme, with this new Masters replacing the Bachelor of Architecture programme as the professional degree.
Registration as architects by Deakin graduates continued to strengthen again during 2007 (as it has done across Victoria), and 2007 saw registration (with some careful discussions and deliberations with the ARBV) of post-graduate students – Chris Lamborn with M.Arch (research), and Nghia Pham with a PhD - so congratulations to all new registrants.
verything changes. Which means that nothing stays the same. This past year we have seen a number of long-standing (and some not so perennial) and valuable staff members move to other professions, pastures and playgrounds. So from us at a+b all the best to Tony Dawson, Bevan Wood, Alan Young, Graham Treloar, Jim Georgiou, Russell Greenwood and Dirk Schwede (and in May 2008, Craig Langston). All of which means renewal, shifts in emphasis, and other ways of ‘skinning the same cat’. With that, long live the strengths and great traditions of the discipline of architecture. a+b – 6
Professor Craig Langston Chair in Construction Management
Construction management is a discipline focused primarily on the successful procurement of building projects, and at Deakin it is offered as a four-year equivalent degree program at pass or honours level. The course is integral with studies in quantity surveying and is now accredited by RICS, CIOB, AIB and AIQS. Over the last few years we have introduced flexibility for students to complete some of the program over summer semesters, and it is now possible when adopting this approach to complete the degree one year earlier. Recent curriculum changes have also enabled more student choice via six free electives, and for those who perform at a creditable level, options to pursue specific research projects in the final year. The degree is also offered in conjunction with the Bachelor of Design (Architecture) or the new Bachelor of Facilities Management by the addition of one further full-time year. These double degrees are unique to Deakin, and cannot be found at any other university in Australia, or indeed at few overseas. Deakin has introduced these progressive programs to enable graduates to increase their future career options. The double degree with design (dubbed design management) enables graduates to assume higher order employment opportunities, either as project managers who have good understanding of the design process, or architects who have good understanding of build ability issues. The double degree with facilities management (dubbed infrastructure logistics) enables graduates to move seamlessly between new construction and refurbishment or renovation work. In both cases these ‘super disciplines’ place graduates at the forefront of contemporary debates concerning energy usage, workplace design and climate change adaptation. These are matters reflected in Deakin’s emerging research profile and academic staff interest. Each double degree supports early exit and/or transfers in or out of the program. In the case of the facilities management double degree, students can elect to exit the five-year program after three years with a Bachelor of Facilities Management, after four years with a Bachelor of Construction Management, or after five years with both (one with honours). The latter has attracted international accreditation from the RICS in construction/quantity surveying, facilities management and building surveying faculties, which is a distinctive feature of the double degree. In the future it is likely that construction management may be offered only in one of these double degree formats, as we want Deakin graduates to have advantage over those leaving other universities when they enter the workforce. Until then, students can make this happen at a+b – 7
their own initiative, but only if their performance in construction management has been at a creditable level (average 65% or higher), or if they are accepted into the double degree in the first instance (usually reflecting a higher ENTER cut-off). We see the future of the construction management discipline as one where the boundaries with traditional allied professions are increasingly blurred. It is also important, in the context of increased sophistication of building projects, for practitioners to possess a broad range of knowledge and skills to equip them for the challenges that lie ahead. Higher salaries and greater responsibilities will surely follow. Already we see evidence that double degree graduates find more lucrative employment and hold more interesting positions with some of Australia’s most successful companies, and many find themselves stationed overseas working on high-profile projects. Deakin now has a reputation for producing job-ready graduates with strong practical skills. Deakin’s construction management program is one of four in Victoria. As a result of the strategic decisions that have been taken over the last five years, and the increasing success of our graduates, we truly believe that Deakin will have the top construction management program within the next three years. Deakin already is one of only two institutions in Victoria with RICS international accreditation, and indeed is the only regional university in Australia to hold such recognition. New research-based internships have been established in the double degree with facilities management to enable students to be placed in industry during their final year and be eligible for a tax-free scholarship of $20K, which will further attract high calibre entrants. During 2008 Deakin will be developing a postgraduate suite of programs in construction management, delivered globally via DSO. The graduate certificate will double as a conversion program for graduates of other allied disciplines, while the graduate diploma will comprise contemporary study in matters such as energy conservation technologies and responses to the challenges of climate change. The masters degree will comprise additional individual research in a chosen field. These courses should be available by 2010.
School Awards Arthur Collins Award Mohamad Kamil Sharaidin
AIB (Victorian Chapter) Chris Falzon
The Cavalier Prize Hilary Ackroyd-Curtis
ARBV Professional Practice Nicole Loader
Dean’s Scholar Program Aaron Cody
Association of Women in Architecture Award Teuta Jerliu
Peddle Thorp Award Mat George Hideto Chijiwa Sian Choo Foo Daniel Gibbs Teuta Jerliu Amanda Rippon Eugenia Tan
Australian Institute of Quantity Surveyors Donald Cant Prize Jacqueline Lyon CIOBA Excellent Building Undergraduate Richard Austin CIOBA Excellent Building Research Postgraduate Zhen Qiang LUO Ian Fulton Rotary Awards (2007) not awarded RAIA McGlashan Everist Graduate Prize Eugenia Tan Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) Prize Jonathon Stiberc
Peddle Thorp Prize Alice Turnbull Richard Gibson Award Susanne Arndt Schiavello Prize Brent McIntyre Studio 101 Architects Award Victoria Britt Victorian Digital Solutions Prize 1st Year - Timothy Harris 2nd Year - Nicole Lyons 3rd Year - Mark Trueman 4th Year - Sammy Curmi 5th Year - Michael Smith
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Dwelling in Memory / Dwelling on Fact By its nature and circumstance, ‘dwelling’ constitutes a perception of the world and a disposition to it. In architecture, inasmuch as any other form of dwelling, there is a perpetual and fluctuating relationship between what we remember of a place and its ultimate physicality. People often develop some form of involuntary or subconscious response to places, be it banal, threatening, sublime, exciting, tranquil, secure, daunting, neutral, etc. It may be triggered by one or a number of sense-orientated cues and may also arouse a whole series of memories and past experiences.
The broad aims of the project were: *To develop an appreciation of the relationship between the perception of space and its apparent dimension. * To develop skills in forming an inquiry about the space a body occupies and what your mind perceives. *To develop an understanding of what it means to dwell by investigating one’s architectural surroundings.
Ben Payne 1st Year – 12
1st Year – 13
Shelters : Recordings of Dwelling All the environments we dwell within - home, work, education, leisure and all the spaces in-between are integral to, and products of, our culture. At the very core of design lies the methods and modes of observation, experimentation, critique and transformation which constitute the actual reality of the design process. The project present the students with opportunities for exploration and development of the theme ‘to dwell’; to reflect on ‘being’ in a space. In this project it is the students challenge to explore this theme in reference to the pluralistic nature of architecture and to be astute in their observation and passionate in their investigation. As designers we need to be critically aware of our own environment, of mass and of detail, to inform our design decisions and to realise the consequences of our designs. Absorb all that is your world as it exists and what it can be: a rich tapestry of intellectual and sensory experiences; of private and public space; at micro and macro levels; as you the individual in the wider community.
Liesa Nunn 1st Year – 14
1st Year – 15
Patrick Moore 1st Year – 16
1st Year – 17
Peepshow International Pavilion “The festival theme of TRUTH & LIES will provide viewers and participants with a forum for critical discourse surrounding ideas of replication, illusion and fiction. The opposing concepts of TRUTH and LIES invite a redefinition of how art, design, and architecture reside within personal dialogue. The challenge of PEEPSHOW is to address the idea of TRUTH & LIES through the design of a pavilion to be constructed along Stephen Avenue Mall in Calgary. To revisit how art relates to urban space as a display of undeniable truth, or an individual perspective intended to challenge accepted truths. How the pavilion negotiates a spatial relationship with the viewer either to create empathy or debate between the viewer and the artwork. Pavilions must be designed to present visual art in a way that is beneficial both for the viewer and the art. Entrants must also consider that the pavilion’s purpose is to display art in an innovative manner, but not necessarily be the art piece itself. Art may be viewed either from inside or outside the pavilion. Pavilions may be designed for a particular art form or to exhibit a variety of art forms. The method of displaying art should be clearly defined and illustrated.” [Peepshow Competition Brief: ArtCity Festival, Calgary]
Hilary Ackroyd 1st Year – 18
1st Year – 19
Jason Cope 1st Year – 20
Jason Gec 1st Year – 21
ART - I - FICIAL This project is intended to complement the first two projects, by involvement in further investigations as to the content of architecture. Peepshow concentrated on the relationship between architecture and what it contains and/or represents. Machina Ex Corpus concentrated on the multi-faceted relationship between architecture and the body. Art-I-Ficial will partially reinforce the intentions of these two projects within the context of a slightly more complex building. Responsible public architecture should stimulate inventive use and provoke thought. Consider the following: * Architecture and its relationship to art/performance. * The landscape and environment of the existing site. * The nature of ‘public’ architecture and ‘public’ space. * Relation to the life of the university and the city. * Scale, anthropometrics and proportion. * Typology; the relation of your proposal to the current state of the art in galleries and performance spaces. * Beauty; the desirability of architecture.
Brandon Gardine 1st Year – 22
1st Year – 23
Hilary Ackroyd 1st Year – 24
Holly Farley 1st Year – 25
Emergence of Modernism The purpose of the Visual Exercise was to develop studentâ€™s awareness of a building selected from those seen in the Emergence of Modernism coursework. By drawing the building, labelling and writing a brief text, students were able to understand more thoroughly and expand their knowledge about buildings. The exercise represented the close relationship between design, thinking and knowledge of history. Students began by choosing a building for which they could obtain clear drawings as well as photographs and images. Students decided what properties, characteristics / qualities were to become the focus of their analysis. The main drawing illustrated a general view of the building. Two other drawings illustrated how the chosen characteristics were expressed by the building. The subsequent drawings were in the form of overlays or other types of graphic manipulations of the original drawing showing the design intentions as they are manifested in the chosen building or work of art.
1st Year â€“ 26
1st Year â€“ 27
2nd Year – 28
2nd Year – 29
Minima “Design a self-contained, demountable, re-locatable living capsule for one person. The living space must cater for a sleeping space, a study or work space, a cooking and eating space, a shower and a toilet.” In this project students analyse how the dimensions of the human body relate ergonomically to constructed space, and how objects of everyday use structure, define and order design. This analysis entails exploring: the placing of activities and motion in space; the generation of space and its geometric aspects; the relationships between body, object and space; anthropometric geometry as a generator of form; the relationship of human dimensions to the size, shape and proportion of a single minimal, living space; and the role of furniture, enclosure and functional criteria in shaping space.
Victoria Britt 2nd Year – 30
2nd Year – 31
James Loder Silas Gibson 2nd Year – 32
2nd Year – 33
Domus Design teams are asked to demonstrate a new concept for a sustainable live-work environment in the major climate zones of Australia. The three major climate zones are hot-humid (tropical, Northern Australia), hot-dry (desert, Central Australia) and temperate (Southern Australia). In Domus, students extend their Minima project to design a shared live-work environment that can accommodate the three to five people of their design team in one of the three climate zones. Each house must be fully autonomous – i.e. it cannot rely on power or water from the national grid. The project should be approached through an understanding of the relationships between individual (private) and collective (shared) spaces within a living environment. This understanding is arrived at through the exploration of: the relationships between buildings and their environment (landscape, climate and culture); the impact of energy (passive), materiality and external site constraints (shadow, breeze, topography) from the environment on making architectural space; and how notions of ordering, organisational principles, repetition and composition shape architectural form making.
Victoria Britt, Silas Gibson, Vicki McLean
Kylie Chu, James Loder, Alexander Paterson
Brent Leheny , Daniel Calder, Stuart Dow 2nd Year – 34
2nd Year – 35
Tectonic Design 1 : 10 Architecture 2B is a project in phases that explores the tectonic quality of architecture. In the first phase spatial design is linked with material composition and construction thinking through the design of a single function space set in a specific context. Functions are limited to; Greenhouse, street vendor, emergency shelter, reading room, bathhouse, garden shed, music room, tea room, viewing room, media room, aviary, prayer room, yoga studio, massage studio or urban shelter Contexts are limited to; Street, garden, jetty, foreshore, courtyard or plaza. In the second phase students develop their thinking about the major design elements and how they might be composed and constructed in a material way with resolution @ 1:10 scale. This phase expects concern for the transition from idea to building.
Victoria Britt 2nd Year â€“ 36
2nd Year â€“ 37
Peter Scott 2nd Year – 38
Peter Scott 2nd Year – 39
Design Reality Making 1:1 The third and largest phase is full construction of selected designs, in groups of 5 or 6 students, with an emphasis on material, detail and assembly @ either 1:1 or 1:2 scale. Groups bid for projects from the second phase and determine the subsequent construction scale and authenticity of the project delivery. Material selection, detail, availability and cost become influential factors in the design resolution along with collective time management and decision-making. This process includes a number of steps: *identify any design ‘gaps’ *establish a dimension regime to confirm the scope *create an inventory of materials, fixings and finishes *consider material sourcing and substitution *plan the fabrication process including any elemental assembly The skill level of students is assisted by workshop support for initial testing and final fabrication, for display and review in the University grounds.
Team Chung 2nd Year – 40
2nd Year – 41
Team Somerton 2nd Year – 42
Team Moxon 2nd Year – 43
Team Birnie 2nd Year – 44
Team Trist 2nd Year – 45
Graphic and Coded Communication Two Graphic and coded communication reviews the relationships that evolve between the function and form of architectural space and the environment. Attempting to capture both form and space that encapsulates building designs, both the documented structure and design ethos of the architecture. Conventional and digital media imagery is employed as personal expression as well a conduit to reviewing divergent relationships between surface, textures and form within the built environment and the natural world. In reviewing space so as the transition from 3D form into 2D imagery is an expression of the design ethos, generating images that are both a personal aesthetic and the documentation of form and function. Photographic based imagery that reinterprets and reviews the melding of the architectural aesthetics and artistic expression. Just as architecture seeks to project both a design context and a functional use of built space, photographic imagery abstracts the visual and supports the concrete reality of the environment as humans perceive space and architectural form. As the creative process of image generation is revisiting 2D, media so the thought processes aligned to the creative endeavours of 3D design process are grounded in the graphic output.
Tom Stanistreet 2nd Year â€“ 46
2nd Year â€“ 47
2nd Year – 48
Susanne Arndt 2nd Year – 49
3rd Year – 50
3rd Year – 51
Barcode Studio participants explored the idea of typology through the design of a supermarket. Beginning with a template for its layout, spatial characteristics and material composition, the supermarket design challenged participants to investigate and critically analyse adaptable and sustainable models of shopping. Central to the development of the supermarket design were aspects such as, methods of displaying and storing goods, method of arrival, circulation and exit, the articulation of fittings and fixtures, spatial proportions, environmental controls, and lighting. A number of geographical contexts were introduced mid-way through the project for which participants developed suitably adapted designs. Their final designs, located within these contexts, incorporated site-specific aspects such as composition, image, access, materiality, cultural specificity, signage, aesthetics and integration into streetscape.
3rd Year â€“ 52
3rd Year â€“ 53
3rd Year – 54
3rd Year – 55
Streetwise This project brought together the unitâ€™s concerns for the adaptation of architectural typologies to a more programmatically and compositionally complex project. It allowed participants to explore how architecture can create a sense of place and foster the development of communities. A complex program of mixed-use built forms for an urban site in Geelong was proposed in which participants designed within collaborative teams of three. The project involved creative and lateral thinking about how architecture might topologically, morphologically, culturally, socially and ecologically contribute to the future of a site, a neighbourhood and a town. The overall aim was to create socially and culturally sustainable architecture out of the typological investigations covered earlier in the semester. The future development of a number of properties on the west and east sides of Yarra Street between Brougham and Malop Streets was central to the project. The vision was to create a vibrant and attractive mixed-use activity node that responds strongly to its prominent location in the heart of the city.
Imogen Carr, Jose Rodriguez, Mark Trueman 3rd Year â€“ 56
3rd Year â€“ 57
Isabella Czerniakowski, Joanna Sych, Louise Wilkie 3rd Year – 58
Paul Soccio, Ooi Yam San, Ng Ying Shean 3rd Year – 59
Environmental Awareness Pavilion Poster Project 1 was to design a Pavilion for Environmental Awareness. A place where members of the public come to reflect on the environment and our relationship to it, discuss these matters with others, and make presentations to the community regarding these issues. It was to be based on a profound understanding of our relation to and responsibilities for the environment. A particular challenge was to make an architecture that will concretise, for the users, an appropriate sense of this shared relationship with the environment.
An exercise subsequent to the design project asked for the design of a poster that ‘announced’ the designed building and its intentions; in other words, the poster was to convey the intentions and ideas behind the design as well as refer to its nature or purpose. It thus became an exercise in visual communication: deciding first what is ‘essential’ or representative about the building and then how to put it in graphic form, considering different rules of layout, composition, type, colour, visual impact, and such.
Frances Clancy 3rd Year – 60
3rd Year – 61
Environmental Scientist Retreat The project was a retreat for environmental scientists; scientists who are not members of a single institution but invited scholars of national and international status. The retreat should be a place for those scientists to consider, discuss and prepare for the profound changes in our institutions and lifestyles said to be necessary to resolve the current ecological crisis. It was to be a simple live-in facility and, while it could provide seminar spaces as well, there would be no special scientific laboratories as such, and the visiting scientists were there for limited periods of time. It was to be a place to refresh or refocus the mind and spirit in an environment—both natural and built—that fosters that. Stephen Monahan
The architecture should be the object as well as ‘representation’, or even embodiment, of the scientists’ concerns and ideas. This ‘connection’ between thinking and ideas of the users and the architecture meant the architecture needed to reflect environmentally sensitive design in order to evoke the work of the scientists. Thus, the main principles guiding environmentally sensitive design were: minimal environmental impact, low energy consumption, and responsible resource management.
Jessica Ivory 3rd Year – 62
Louise Milton 3rd Year – 63
Frances Clancy 3rd Year – 64
William Hosikian 3rd Year – 65
Project Documentation This project engages students with the complexity of project specific information. It requires the application of general construction knowledge to a given context and, through group research and decision-making, emulates a professional consultancy process. A small building with basic graphic information and additional verbal information directs the subsequent information search and generates a different detailed solution for each group. The main variables are the prescribed primary construction and the site conditions. The profound effect of these influences on project specific construction and detail refinement is a major element of the unit learning. When group decision-making is ‘complete’ and recorded in a project file, students share the information and produce their own documentation set. This stage reveals that decision-making is never finished and the precise nature of the final production introduces new ‘gaps’ in the information that preliminary detailing missed. The main emphases of the project are comprehension of the three-dimensional nature of building construction, effective representation of the construction and appropriate communication through referencing, symbols, object delineation, dimensions, labels and notation.
Kirsty Edwards 3rd Year – 66
3rd Year – 67
Building Environmental Studies Two The aim of Building Environmental Studies 2 is to extend students’ knowledge about the treatment of light and sound in buildings in the context of sustainable design, construction and operation. The theory of lighting and acoustic systems is taught with the perspective of introducing the principles and terminologies to architects and builders. The comprehensive assessments are intended to familiarise the students with different approaches to lighting research like experimental measurements as well as numerical simulations. This reinforces the knowledge and skills students learn in the class.
Robert Ashby, Joshua Muyambo, Ooi Yam San, Ng Ying Shean
In the lighting model assignment, students study the qualitative and quantitative effects of artificial and natural lighting for a fixed boundary space with the use of physical model and photographic tools. Also they make use of lighting simulation software and compare with the physical model. The students can synthesize new information through the design variations applied to the space. In the acoustics course, students identify and solve an acoustic problem for a real space. By doing this they acquire the skills of using a computational simulation program called BOSE Modeler.
Michael Awabdeh, Rebecca Muscat, Ann Thai, Laura James 3rd Year – 68
Nadina Bisanovic, Sarah Curly, Jessica Ivory, Anna James 3rd Year – 69
4th Year – 70
4th Year – 71
Urbanism [plan] Architecture The theme of the studio is captured in the title. The [plan] is framed on one side by urbanism and on the other by architecture. It suggests that the plan represents and might generate a productive and dialectic relationship between urbanism and architecture. The plan might also link the writings (and work) of Le Corbusier, who states that the architect is an organiser of space, not a designer of objects; and the writings (and work) of Rem Koolhaas who has stated that his generation (after 1968) has ridiculed the professional field of urbanism. The studio programme was based on Proposition 3047, a 2006 national urban design and architecture ideas competition that seeks to identify innovative development concepts for a group of important sites in a selected town centre (Broadmeadows 2006; Preston 2007). Intervention >> is the platform where the architect faces the capacities and limits of the self-designer >> the designerâ€™s actions produce spaces of differentiation and spaces of assimilation.
Tim Twentyman 4th Year â€“ 72
4th Year â€“ 73
Philip Teakle 4th Year – 74
Sammy Curmi 4th Year – 75
Deakin Design Institute The major project for Architecture 4B engages students in a culture of design through the exploration of architecture specifically related to the activity of design. The unit requires the design of complex commercial and institutional buildings within an urban environment. It asks students to achieve a level of design resolution beyond that of any previous project undertaken during the architecture course. The project involves the design of the new ‘Deakin Design Institute’: a multi-disciplinary institutional environment dedicated to the advancement of design in the heart of Geelong. The purpose built DDI will complement the existing School of Architecture and Building at the Waterfront Campus. The complex will provide the necessary infrastructure and learning environments to support contemporary and flexible curricula with an interactive and multi-disciplinary approach, thereby maximizing the opportunities for student development, facilitate industry participation and community involvement, and promoting interactive exchange among local and overseas design talents.
Lorenzo Ju 4th Year – 76
4th Year – 77
Tim Twentyman 4th Year – 78
Margaret Berthet, Sammy Curmi, Michael Neil 4th Year – 79
Refine This project required the students to refine an element of their Deakin Design Institute project in a way that brings together technical, theoretical and physical considerations. Through this project, they demonstrated their ability to master the design of complex buildings to a level that surpasses previous projects. The project is framed in the form of a competition. To develop a part of their design to the highest degree possible and produce a presentation, that explains to a third party, this development in a coherent way.
The broad aims of the project are: *To develop a pre-eminent space of the Deakin Design Institute to a high degree and to demonstrate the ability to integrate knowledge from other units in the course. *To produce an exhibition quality model that fully communicates the depth of development reached. *To develop understandings of the impact of materials and finishes and lighting on interior environments.
Patrik Karlsson 4th Year â€“ 80
4th Year â€“ 81
Information Transfer by Design This unit is a self-directed study in the area of knowledge– based project information development and communication. Articulation of architectural language is at the core of this communication. Through initial research and subsequent project development, with an emphasis on communication clarity, the critical relationship between the development of project knowledge and the instigation of effective project specific information is explored. Appropriate analysis and synthesis of communication issues forms the framework for undertaking a process of research into exemplary architectural precedents. This informs subsequent individual project investigation and development. Students apply project based research skills to enhance general design and communication knowledge, design development and documentation, from a basis of sound communication of design intent.
Alice Cook 4th Year – 82
4th Year – 83
Rohendrika De Zoysa
Rohendrika De Zoysa 4th Year – 84
4th Year – 85
Designing Urban Environments Referred to as the ‘Urban Heart Surgery’, Designing Urban Environments is a design based research forum that attempts to break down piece-meal development between neighbouring precincts and facilitate a landscape of decision-making that stimulates an integrated approach to design within the urban context. The projects allowed students to respond individually to an urban condition that they had selected and identified as being conceptually challenging and significant to present urban design practices. The projects called upon speculative explorations, analytical research, theoretical investigations and provided an opportunity to demonstrate a critical position in the field. The forum has developed into a very successful teaching, research and public/community relations program. It has not only secured an ongoing relationship with various planning authorities, but it’s core of industrial partnerships has expanded to include four regional councils (Bendigo, Ballarat, Geelong and Warrnambool), three metropolitan municipalities (Melbourne City, Port Phillip, Wyndham and Maribyrnong) and close links with various branches of the Department of Planning and Community Development.
Alice Cook, Elaine 4th Year – 86
4th Year – 87
Cole Dailey, Samuel Detering, Saify Kazi 4th Year – 88
Alice Cook 4th Year – 89
Parametric Modelling Computer-aided virtual and physical prototyping methods play a central role in the current theory and practice of architecture. This unit is focussed on understanding and using digital prototyping and fabrication tools in the making of architecture. The aim of this unit is to equip students with fundamental skills and knowledge concerning the theory, design and practice of computer-aided prototyping and fabrication methods for architecture.
Nha Van Pham
This year students undertook two “digital to physical” prototyping assignments based on selected topics in mathematical and geometric description as well as spatial and design perspectives. Topics included use of available hardware and parametric modelling software and case studies of realized projects from inception through production. Digital techniques learned in the unit were applied to the design of architectural forms that could be generated through parametric modelling methods. These forms were then fabricated through the use of 3D prototyping into scaled models.
Nha Van Pham 4th Year – 90
4th Year – 91
Michael Sharman 4th Year – 92
Cameron Ross 4th Year – 93
5th Year – 94
5th Year – 95
Eugenia Tan Data / Dwelling About half of the world’s population now live in cities. The United Nations has projected that more than 60% of the World’s population will live in urban areas by the year 2030. This requires spatial consideration on how our cities will accommodate the expected population growth. Melbourne is expected to have significant population growth by 2030. Due to migration from rural and interstate areas, overseas migration, estimated fertility and death rates, the Australian bureau of statistics has projected Melbourne to have a population of over 4.5 million by 2030. This translates to over 600,000 additional dwellings required. In the city of Melbourne local government area, over 40,000 new dwellings are required in order to house the expected population growth. Melbourne has to consider the spatial possibilities and consequences of these factors. Density becomes a tool to measure and extrapolate.
Mat George Darwin Civic Centre The primary motivation is an interest in ‘tropical thinking’, or design for the tropics of Australia. To create a public architecture for the tropics. This idea has been motivated by reaction to the existing situation of tropical architecture in Australia. Tropical architecture in Australia has grown and developed significantly in recent times. However, the language and typology of tropical architecture and climatically responsive design seems limited to the small scale, most poignantly the domestic scale. The intent within this project is to create a public building that can embrace the tropics. Explore ways in which people can experience the tropics and its 5th Year – 96
phenomenon through architecture and to explore the interface between public and private spaces. Explore and develop an architecture that is prominent, interactive and dynamic, while being prominent, does not lose its public attraction.
Hideto Chijiwa Poetics of Differentiae The title ‘Poetics of Differentiae’ embodies in its simplest reduction an attitude exemplified through the works of Carlo Scarpa. The term entails the richest effect of accumulated fragments evident throughout Scarpa’s architecture. The experience of these “fragments”, whether it be architectural details or phenomena of light, endow one with a narrative organisation, which in its most potent expression is one of a certain incompleteness. Accepting this as a premise, the subject project is in its essence the pursuit of a sense of endless-ness, or incompleteness, and furthermore it is a study of representing this process as an integral part of its content; one in which fragments are composed + pieced together. A condition, an event where a dialogue by discontinuity can be unveiled, rather than that of a holistic formal edifice.
St Kilda Collective Housing Project Inkerman Street Collective Housing project called for a Collective Housing block on the site of Inkerman and Greeves Street. The block was to house a total of 50 units consisting of 3 unit types all different in size. The sub-title of the project; ‘Architecture of Daily Life’ placed its focus on the Architecture as a social medium, on the architecture not becoming an instrument of mere functionality. The raison d’etre of Collective / Social Housing has been outlived, and collective living in the current age has seen the insular and dominant prevalence for interiorisation resulting as an agglomeration of private spaces (compartments). The aspiration of the project is to reappropriate and reestablish the social dimension of living as a collective.
CJ Foo Harmony : Unity of Constance & Variance Heraclitus (600s BCE) would have been the first western philosopher to consider the world order as a cosmic form that acts as a constant transformational equivalence of opposites. That Harmony is a result of the presence of constance and variance. “On those stepping into rivers staying the same, and other waters flow” In which he meant; the river remains the river because of the change of water flowing through it. Some things change to make the continued existence of other things. The world is in harmony because it is in universal flux where nothing is fixed in permanence by itself, but only exists in relation to opposing elements. We seem to have gone a step backwards in evolution when Descartes coined the phase ‘I think, therefore I am’. These separations of the body and mind have caused an isolation of the ‘self ’ from the Harmony of wholeness. Our attachments to the physical realm have robbed us of our desire to achieve mental/spiritual awareness, an awareness that everything functions only in relation to others, not as individual beings.
Daniel Gibbs Stockholm Public Library To combine the idea of activity and contemplation, the project explored the significance of atmospheres and how the basic ideas of contrast and difference can be made apparent and as such inform the sense and character of these spaces. This was done through scale and also the direct qualities of certain materials. As a concept for creating different atmospheres, and in-turn ‘states of mind’, there is a constant change in scale and material throughout the library. A concrete heaviness and public scale at the entry gives way to an
intimate and timber space as this entry moves inside. And from here the height and scale of the public atrium triggers another atmosphere, another state of mind before moving into the confined nature of a concrete ‘beton brut’ staircase. This then proceeds to the collection levels where it is possible to be both public and private have the intimate study spaces at the public end act to externalise the study nature of a library.
Stuart Hanafin New Holmenkollbakken The Holmenkollbakken, ski jump, was erected in 1892 and has been extended and rebuilt 18 times, with the last being in 2000. It currently stands as an icon encapsulating the history and significance of ski sport and a symbol of Oslo, Norway, as a city and tourist destination. Having been awarded the 2011 Nordic World Ski Championship, Oslo required a redevelopment of the national arena at Holmenkollen. The current Holmenkollbakken does not satisfy today’s requirement for a modern ski jump, so in order for Holmenkollen to remain an arena for international ski jumping events the existing jump is to be demolish and the design of a more modern jump as be put forward as an international design competition. The challenge of this competition is in designing an icon on the skyline of Oslo that considers the history and the significance of the site, while still meeting the functional requirement of the new building below. This became an exploration of the journey, but not of just the jumper but also the visitor. How the journey is reinforced and experience throughout the whole scheme is critical.
Teuta Jerliu Renewing Churchill’s Town Centre Churchill is a small town located within the Latrobe Valley District, Victoria, approximately 150 kilometres east of Melbourne. 5th Year – 97
The architectural language of Churchill’s town centre represents the emotions experienced within the Latrobe Valley over a 40 year period. People once attracted to the area by the promise of a better future and a secure lifestyle, have had their dreams dissolved by the privatisation and downsizing of the coal mining industry. Those who remain, left behind to pick up the pieces and regain their dignity, cannot find support in the existing architecture of their town centre, which further illuminates the need to engender community within the town centre of Churchill. This new town centre illustrates, and is a place for the basis of a community, civic concentration, and identity. It not only displays/visualises/ provides opportunity for the hopes and dreams for the future but one that also engenders a positive future which is not based upon the unsuccessful past as this past is a constant reminder in the town of Churchill today. Architecture can influence this progression into the future through careful thought and design of the existing town centre, taking into consideration the needs of all within the community.
Amanda Rippon Yarra Valley Wine Hub & Distribution Point The rural landscape; relationship between the people the vineyard and the rural setting. The inspiration is gleaned from the small rural towns, the rolling hills, the roadside Eucalypts and the vines growing in perfect symmetry across the expansive landscape. The relationship between this landscape, the architecture and the people is the key to the possibility for a profound experience. This project hopes to capture the essence of the wine making process by endeavouring to use an architectural language that allows the industrial nature of the process to be exposed and celebrated. To create architecture that encourages people to take the opportunity to linger and enjoy the experience with others.
CURRENT NET DWELLING DENSITY OF 27.9 DWELLINGS PER HECTARE. EXTRAPOLATING FROM DSE DATA, BY 2030, THIS WILL HAVE RISEN TO 66.9. A PLOT ADJACENT TO THE DOCKLANDS AND
RELEASED FOR DEVELOPMENT AFTER 2014.
CONSISTS OF AND
20 HECTARES OF LAND UNDERGO
REMEDIATION WORKS IN PREPARATION FOR
USE. A PORTION OF THE SITE IS TAKEN (BOUNDARY
HAWKE STREET) FOR THIS STUDY. THE SITE COVERS 3.85 HECTARES.
THIS EQUATES TO A FOOTPRINT SIMILAR TO SOUTHERN CROSS STATION. WHEN A DENSITY OF 67 DWELLINGS PER HECTARE IS APPLIED, THIS SITE WILL REQUIRE
THE TARGET DENSITY AT 2030. THIS
SUCH A SCENARIO. PRELIMINARY MODELS 1-500
8 RALPH ERSKINE’S
CUT FROM OF
6 HAWKE STREET
258 DWELLINGS ON
2-3 STOREY MASSING
VISTAS FROM STREETS
RESULT FOR THE
ADJACENT SITE FROM
ON SITE INCLUDING
PLOTS (562M2) OVER THE
RAISED PODIUM LEVEL
COMPRESSED TO FIT
AND DOCKLANDS SHOW
POTENTIAL BREAKS IN
AREAS FOR RESIDENTS.
LONE PERSON HOUSEHOLDS
FLEXIBLE ROOM HOUSHOLDS
IN HOUSING TYPES
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UNITS ABOVE AND BELOW
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GYM & POOL
KINDERGARDEN & CHILDCARE
LONE PERSON HOUSEHOLDS
WORK WASH COOK
LONE PERSON HOUSEHOLDS
UNITS ABOVE AND BELOW
WORK WASH COOK
DORMANT ZONE DORMANT ZONE
SLEEP SIT SLEEP EAT EAT
WORK WORK WASH WASH COOK COOK
FLEXIBLE ROOM HOUSEHOLDS PLAN PERSPECTIVE
FLEXIBLE ROOM HOUSEHOLDS
NUMBER OF ROOMS TO ACCOMMODATE THE
OCCUPANT’S TIME IN A DWELLING.
NUMBER OF ROOMS TO ACCOMMODATE THE POSSIBLE ROOM
OCCUPANT’S TIME IN A DWELLING.
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Galmarra - Larrakeyah People’s Tree of Knowledge
Larrakeyah People’s rock ar t
Larrakeyah People’s rock ar t
Palmerston Town Hall Ruins
Browns Mart Theatre
Christ Church Cathedral
Administrator ’s House
The use of models as a development and design tool began at the inception of the design and was utilised through all of the design phases and quickly became the integral medium in which this project has been developed. Utilising physical models of varying scales and qualities has enabled a richer process and allowed further explration spatially of the proposal and has enabled a more realistic perception of the proposal.
PRE - COLONIAL
>> M O D E L D E S I G N D E V E L O P M E N T
01 INITIAL MODEL
POST - COLONIAL
02 INSERTING PROGRAM
POST CYCLONE TRACEY
03 DEVELOPING WISPY PERMEABLE WALLS
Smith Street Mall
Troppo Architects - Rozak House
Troppo Architects - Rozak House
04 FURTHER DEVELOPMENT
05 DEVELOP PERMEABILITY Design Proposal
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Mat George Architecture 5B
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Hideto Chijiwa Masterclass A
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Hideto Chijiwa Masterclass B
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CJ Foo Masterclass B
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Stuart Hanafin Architecture 5B
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Teuta Jerliu Architecture 5B
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Amanda Rippon Architecture 5B
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Nathan Porter 5th Year – 120
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The New Australian Ugliness Silas Gibson, 2nd year
A drive through the suburbs of Melbourne with The Australian Ugliness as a guide is a depressing journey. Most of the problems Robin Boyd described in 1960 remain, and in many cases have worsened, although as Boyd points out, unless we are conscious of it we become blind to the mess that is suburbia, our eyes distracted by the Featurism still prominent in both domestic and commercial design.1 However the built environment has changed a great deal in the last half century, along with attitudes to the suburbs and to the Featurism Boyd described. Melbourne’s older suburbs are maturing into more cohesive entities, although new developments on Melbourne’s fringe represent alarming trends and aesthetic travesties. Melbourne’s central business district has improved greatly with the addition of Federation Square and other prominent buildings and the greening of its streetscapes. It too still suffers from the Featurism associated with commercialism, however contemporary criticisms are more accepting of the inevitable variety and ornament that is the result of a free market. Whilst urban planning restrictions have become much tighter we are now faced with the problem of what to preserve and what to rebuild. Since Boyd wrote The Australian Ugliness an increased sense of national identity borne from economic, social and environmental factors has made a huge impact on Australia’s built environment and attitudes towards design. Although problems still exist Australia has matured and is gaining an inclusive and unique sense of identity that was not apparent in 1960. 1) Robin Boyd, The Australian Ugliness, Penguin Books Australia Ltd, Victoria 1972, p.43.
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Robin Boyd was a regular contributor to architectural journals and a prolific architect. He was one of Australia’s most outspoken proponents of International Modernism and one of the most vociferous critics of Australia’s built environment.2 In his biography of Boyd the prominent historian Geoffrey Serle describes the impact of The Australian Ugliness, stating that “few Australian books, before or since, have roused such tumult and shouting – wild indignation and lavish praise”.3 The reason the book was so controversial was due to the lack of criticism of Australian culture by Australians at the time. It inspired further criticism and self reflection that resulted in a more confident and culturally proud nation and it is worth revisiting now because only by looking critically at ourselves and the direction we are heading can we hope to improve upon our situation and identify our mistakes. The main culprit responsible for the Australian ugliness according to Boyd was what he describes as ‘Featurism’, which he defines as the featuring of an object or part of a building at the expense of the whole design.4 According to Boyd, when people can’t achieve the quality they desire in an object they resort to adding features to try and improve the overall perception of it.5 He wrote of a burgeoning middle class in Australia and their lack of taste, a middle class un-educated and uninterested in quality design that falls victim to the addition of features to buildings as a cheap and convenient way to add life and prettiness to their surroundings. This syndrome is still prevalent today, powered by ever increasing commercial pressure to ‘beautify’ one’s home and update it to the latest styles. The result of Featurism is a built environment constantly in competition, the eye of the observer is drawn and diverted to featured objects but whenever the whole picture is considered it reveals itself as a tangled mess. Boyd gives Melbourne the epithet the “capital of Featurism” and he frames this honour as a direct consequence of Melbourne’s history, describing it as a confused Victorian town, as opposed to the chaste Georgian of Sydney’s and Hobart’s colonial buildings.6 He describes Melbourne as like “a dressmaker’s 2) Geoffrey Serle, Robin Boyd: A Life, Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Victoria, 1996, preface. 3) Ibid, p.213. 4) Robin Boyd, op. cit., p.23-26. 5) Robin Boyd, op cit, p.67. 6) Ibid, p.49.
floor strewn with snippets of style”. Melbourne still suffers from pockets of good design set amongst tracts of bad; the suburbs remain largely untouched by architects and prone to mediocre design based on the economy and passing fashions. This highlights one of the most important problems with the state of design in our cities today: architects’ lack of involvement in the planning and design of the suburbs. In an Architecture Australia editorial Carey Lyon rallies architects to address this issue, referring to the suburban tract as “Australian architects’ blind spot”.7 Boyd declares rather boldly that well-adjusted people are not tempted by display and thus reject Featurism.8 His frustration with the public is apparent throughout The Australian Ugliness. His attitude mirrors Le Corbusier’s desire for a machine for living and the Modernist belief that function is paramount and is the only necessity in good design, that ornament is a symptom of a maladjusted sense of taste, displayed by those not yet converted to the ‘Brave New World’ of streamlined production and general orderliness. This view does not recognise the comfort ordinary people find in ornament, and the fact that people may not want to live in an entirely utilitarian environment. As Melbourne has aged the older suburbs have been constantly updated, gardens allowed to grow and streetscapes beautified with landscaping and by placing power lines underground. The garish Featurism that Boyd described has in many cases settled, and some suburbs now read more as a rich tapestry of eclectic taste and historical layers. The Australian suburb has been increasingly validated as an important part of our culture and as representing Australiana ideals and way of life. With the passing of Modernism society has a renewed respect for urbanism and an increasing Post-Modern acceptance of ornament and symbolism. Whether this equates to blindness to the ugliness or an acceptance of vernacular practices is a matter of personal opinion. Problems remain however with the new suburbs constantly sprouting on Melbourne’s fringes. A dangerous trend has emerged towards bigger homes on smaller blocks, known derisively as McMansions, coupled with the ‘arboraphobia’ Boyd criticised almost fifty years ago. Urban sprawl in Melbourne is becoming a huge problem, as recognised by the current urban planning initiative of the Victorian Government Melbourne 2030.9 The Australian dream Boyd described of owning a small house on a large block has evolved into a large house on a small block with as many features as can be squeezed in. Australia’s self-perception of limitless space is being proven to cause problems socially for transport and infrastructure as well as being ecologically unsustainable. The suburbs continue 7) Carey Lyon, ‘McMansions – ‘We’re Livin’ It’, Architecture Australia, Sept/Oct 2006, p.9. 8) Boyd, Op Cit, p.66. 9) Department of Sustainability and the Environment,
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phenomenon other commentators such as Robert Venturi in America saw it as a symptom of our society that should be dealt with on its own terms.14 Although steeped in the Modernist tradition Boyd recognised the shortfalls of certain Modernist architects, who wanted their buildings to look functional and discarded decoration as unnecessary.15 Now with the passing advent of Post-
to spread with managed developments of project homes that offer luxury lifestyles but are aesthetically awful and environmentally criminal. This view has been widely supported in the media in recent times. Richard Glover’s photography exhibition ‘Suburban Frontiers’, reviewed in the Sept/Oct 2005 issue of Architecture Australia highlights the trend and represents the pioneering spirit Boyd described, but this time on steroids.10 David Hallet, an Archicentre representative speaking on ABC radio recently pointed out, “The average house these days is twice the size of the house 20 to 40 years ago yet the average family is a smaller family unit”.11 In a recent feature on Australian architecture in the Japanese magazine A + U Philip Goad writes, “Climate change may be bringing the Great Australian Dream of the detached dwelling to a close.”12 Carey Lyon also emphasised the growing importance of environmental considerations in design in an article entitled ‘Why Architecture Matters’, saying, “In the future intelligent and ethical design and sustainability will be inseparable.”13 Commercial districts are some of the most prone to Featurism, due to the competition inherent in capitalism, which unfortunately is not conducive to a cohesive built environment. Boyd pointed out the commercial vested interest in Featurism and the lack of profits available in promoting good design that is sympathetic to its neighbours. He hoped that the technological possibilities that were being created would encourage a profitable but also cohesive building typology, one that incorporated standardised parts and standardised module based designs. The problem with this ideal lies at the heart of Australian culture. Whilst we have remained a comparatively affluent and trouble free society, our sense of individuality has grown, which is made manifest in our individualised houses. Boyd refers to the recalcitrant popular taste of the Australian public and calls for better education in aesthetics. Australia’s commercial districts are a mess of colour and shapes. Every shop displays the most eye-catching features possible in the hope of winning a customer. Whilst Boyd criticised this
10) Richard Glover reviewed by Tracy Clements, ‘Suburban Frontiers’ Architecture Australia, Sept/Oct 2005, pp60-63. 11) David Hallet, quoted on ‘Minister under fire for McMansions jibe’, www.abc.net.au 17/5/07, accessed 22/9/07. 12) http://www.cityofsound.com/blog/2007/09/in-every-dreamh.html 13) Carey Lyon, ‘Why Architecture Matters’, Architecture Australia, Jul/Aug 2006, p.7.
Modernism there is an increasing trend towards meaning and symbolism on buildings. Federation Square by Lab architecture studio in collaboration with Bates Smart Architecture, completed in 2002, takes its inspiration from the Australian landscape and attempts to represent Australian ideals of democracy and openness rather than functionalism and order. Finally free from the ‘pagan’ ideals of proportion in classicism and the functionalist ideals of Modernism, architects today are increasingly intent on embodying ideas in their buildings, from vibrant use of colour to incorporating signs and symbols. This is perhaps not quite what Boyd had in mind as his jewels of architecture standing out against the black velvet of purely functional buildings. Many of the finer examples of contemporary architecture, such as Federation Square, present cohesive, although often quite complex designs. They can either be viewed as sitting in competition with the variety of styles that surrounds them from various phrases in Australia’s history or more positively as a welcome addition to a continually evolving collage of Australian design. The Australian Ugliness is a potted a history of Australian architecture as well as a critique. Boyd traces the progression of styles as a direct parallel to the shifting zeitgeist and he challenges the then prevailing notions of Australian identity. Each architectural movement has its roots in the major influence of its associated period, from the pioneering spirit of Neo-Colonialism to the post war American influence seen in the Californian bungalow and mall-style shopping precincts that Boyd described as “Austericanism”.16 More recently Australia has begun to recognise that it is located in Asia, from the Orientalism of William Hardy Wilson in the 1920s to increasingly popular Japanese decorating styles.17 Boyd lamented the uncertainty of Australians and their lack of individuality; their willingness to latch on to any passing fad, leading to a confused looking built environment.18 Boyd made the point that at the time when The Australian Ugliness was published the older generations still referred to and thought of England as ‘home’. He attributed many of the shortcomings of the Australian character and hence Australian design to the failings of adolescence.19 Perhaps now we are moving into a more confident stage in our history, having had international recognition for distinctly Australian designers such as Glenn 14) Tom Styant-Brown, ‘The Australian Ugliness Now’, Architect, June/July, 1989, pp.22-23. 15) Boyd, Op Cit p.180. 16) Boyd, Ibid, pp.80-90. 17) Ibid, p72. 18) Ibid, p.71. 19) Ibid, p.74.
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Murcutt, Sean Godsell and Denton Corker Marshall among numerous others. Australians are becoming more robust in their experimentation and are beginning to establish an Australian architecture, free from colonial influence but reflecting current technologies and increasing globalisation whilst recognising Australia’s unique climate. The role of authorities in legislating for aesthetics is a difficult and contentious one. Heritage considerations have improved greatly since Boyd lamented the destruction of many of Australia’s good historic buildings, and there are now more restrictions than ever on what is deemed acceptable and thereby receives planning permission. Unfortunately the conservative stance of regulating bodies in Australia often restricts progressive and experimental design. This raises the issue of whether all heritage is in fact worth maintaining and at what cost. The council plays a valuable role in maintaining a cohesive streetscape, however how long will people be expected to live in poorly planned nineteenth century terrace houses just because they have historical value? “The Old House” in Richmond by Jackson Clements Burrows is a parody on the ridiculousness of some planning restrictions. It has a glass screen façade with a picture of the Victorian weatherboard house it replaced printed on it. Inner city Melbourne is full of houses and terraces that have a rich history but were often poorly designed in the first place. Too often we continue mimicking the mistakes of the past in the sole interests of a uniform streetscape. When The Australian Ugliness was first published the first incarnation of the John Curtin School of Medical Research at the Australian National University had just been completed. Boyd criticised its design as being inconsistent with the rest of the University and too formal in comparison to its surrounds.20 The new version of the facility by Lyons architects completed in 2006 is an intricate, post-modern building encompassing complex geometries and large fins and protrusions.21 It cries for attention but that may not be a bad thing, rather, it may be simply the next step in the progression of Australia’s design style, an update that is hopefully a continuation of the constant evolution that our built environment should be subject to.
had arisen. One of the most significant changes mentioned in both articles was not just changes in design, but changes in the attitudes towards design. They considered the impact of the ideas of Robert Venturi, who promoted symbolism as valid design generator, in contradiction to the Modernists who exclusively promoted the logical and functional generation of architectural form.23 More recently sustainability has emerged as the key factor that will influence the design of Australia’s built environment. The principal criticisms that Robin Boyd outlined in The Australian Ugliness revolved around Featurism, the lack of a national identity and the mediocrity of Australian suburbia. In the past half-century attitudes towards design have changed along with our changing perceptions of ourselves. Boyd made it clear that the problems of Australia’s built environment reflected insecurities in the national psyche, and that they were largely the problems of a young nation. As Australia has matured its confidence has grown and it is beginning to accept its own culture as a valid alternative to copying trends from overseas. There are still many faults in Australia’s built environment, but hopefully through a process of continual self-criticism, renewal and regeneration Australian design can continue to evolve into a rich and beautiful representation of the best parts of its culture. Bibliography: Boyd, Robin, The Australian Ugliness, Penguin Books Australia Ltd, Victoria, 1972. Freeland, Max, Architecture in Australia: A History, F.W. Cheshire Publishing Pty Ltd, Melbourne, 1968. Serle, Geoffrey, Robin Boyd: A Life, Melbourne University Press, Carlton, Victoria, 1996. Harding, Laura, ‘John Curtin School of Medical Research’, Architecture Australia, Sept/Oct, 2006, pp.6473. Glover, Richard, reviewed by Tracy Clements, ‘Suburban Frontiers’, Architecture Australia, Sept/Oct 2005, pp.60-63. Kelly, Ian, ‘Learning From the Australian Ugliness’, The Architect, (Western Australia), vol. 29, no. 4, 1989, pp.36-40. Lyon, Carey, ‘Why Architecture Matters’, Architecture Australia, Jul/Aug 2006, p.7. Lyon, Carey, ‘McMansions – ‘We’re Livin’ It’, Architecture Australia, Sept/Oct 2006, p.9. Spens, Michael, ‘The Riddle of Australian Suburbia’, Architectural Review, vol. 191, July 1992, pp.74-79. Styant-Brown, Tom, ‘The Australian Ugliness Now’, Architect, June/July, 1989, pp.22-23.
In 1989 two articles were published that looked at the effects of The Australian Ugliness and the changes that had taken place since it was first published: ‘Learning from the Australian Ugliness’ by Ian Kelly and ‘The Australian Ugliness Now’ by Tony Styant-Brown.22 Both articles noted that much had changed in Australian design since 1960, and that whilst many improvements had been made to confront the problems Boyd described, there were other issues that 20) Boyd, op cit, p.34. 21) Laura Harding, ‘John Curtin School of Medical Research’, Architecture Australia, Sept/Oct, 2006, pp.64-73. 22) Ian Kelly, Learning From the Australian Ugliness’, The Architect, (Western Australia), vol. 29, no. 4, 1989, p.38. Tom Styant-Brown, op cit, pp.22-23.
23) Ian Kelly, op cit, p.38.
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The City in Art and Literature Susanne Arndt, 3rd Year
The artistic movement of the late Romantic flourished in Germany between 1830 and 1850 and was characterised in its depictions of reality by a subjective stress on the experience of nature and the tendency of using a traditional historical style with a predominance of objects with an intellectual significance. Many of the works that were produced during this period were intended for the bourgeoisie. Even in courtly Berlin art was mainly used for the benefit of the public and thus the subject matter was highly influenced by what interested and appealed to its buyers. While Schinkel redesigned the city, many painters recorded the changes in the city’s appearance and mood with “sharp eyed accuracy that mingled pride with the humble.”2 Amongst them was Eduard Gärtner (1801-1877) whose views of Berlin’s buildings and streets are some of the best examples of late Romantic painting.3 His unpolitic and objective art was determined by the reality and employed great sharpness and precision in the rendering of details as well as a great mathematical exactness of perspective.
The representation of Berlin in painting over a period of time reveals various attitudes towards it. This essay will discuss the particular views of artists over the time from 1833 to1928. Economic and social conditions of the city as well as the stylistic preferences of the different artists it will be discussed to point out factors that affected the particular respond. Through the analysis of late Romantic, the Berlin Secession, Expressionism and New Objectivity a divergent interpretation of the city and its life is evident. It will be argued that the Romantics and Impressionists embraced the city, while the Expressionists and Critical Realists rejected the urban life. With the crowning of Friedrich I. to the King of Prussia in 1701 Berlin became the royal residence and capital of Brandenburg–Prussia. Throughout the eighteenth century it developed into an important political, economical and cultural centre and continued to do so during the first half of the nineteenth century. The city developed rapidly and expanded as the chief city of a state that was “dedicated to political aggrandisement and rapid modernisation.”1 Under the supervision of Karl Friedrich Schinkel (1781-1841) as the chief building director of Prussia it became a model of urban planning. His vision transformed the city that was still quite unspectacular at the beginning of the century to the representative capital of Prussia. Buildings like the Neue ache, the Zeughaus, or the Schauspielhaus defined Berlin’s early eighteenth century urban landscape. 1) Vaugham, W., German Romantic Painting, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1980, p.148
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The Neue Wache, Unter den Linden 1833 is an example of his idyllic and exact city scenes that depict bourgeoisie metropolitan life and its urbane forms of social interaction.4 The painting shows Schinkel’s Neue Wache located on Berlin’s grandest boulevard, Unter den Linden. The position is slightly shifted away from the street which is obstructed by a statue and the Neue Wache itself is seen from the side, largely covered up by a tree. This viewpoint seemingly accidental and likely to be one of a passing by pedestrian gives the viewer the impression of being actually present. A soft warm light falls onto the architecture in Schinkle’s urban layout and the activity of the city life creating a pleasant and harmonious impression of the city. However the highly realistic and nearly photographic nature of Gärtner’s representations of Berlin also created limitations. The apparent absence of any convincing ideal challenged its s tatus as art:
“Such paintings remain within the bounds of art only when the fanatical strive after objective exactitude produces the effect of being itself a subjective spiritual force, or with certain elements, such as colour and light, migrate to Naturalism. The latter is the case in many of Gärtner’s paintings.”5
the city in the second half of the nineteenth century caused a population explosion which resulted in deteriorating living conditions for the factory workers and their families. An increased demand for housing led to land speculation and homelessness causing political and social tensions. The Hobrecht Plan from 1962 aimed to relief this population pressure by extending the city concentrically. However, it also caused the separation of social classes: ‘Mietskasernen’ (rental barracks) spread uncontrollably in the new ring of high density working class districts which nearly fully encircled Berlin by 1900. At the same time a westward shift took place in the development of new urban districts for the middle and upper classes. Further execution of the Hobrecht Plan and admiration for Paris led to the “creation of palatial apartment blocks and fine new avenues with the Kurfürstendamm reflecting the urban elegance of the Champs-Elysées.”6 By 1890 Berlin had developed the basic characteristics of a metropolis. It was the third largest city in Europe and a significant industrial, business, intellectual and cultural centre. The introduction of new long distance transport networks as well as electric trams and an underground transport system reflected Berlin’s identity of the nineteenth century as ‘Electropoilis’. As the Berlin executive council pointed out, the city underwent a dramatic change:
“With a speed unprecedented in Europe,” Berlin “has burst its bounds as a modest princely seat with an almost all-pervasive small-town character, and has suddenly become a world city which is an equal to the million-peopled cities which have traditionally been the focus of attention.”7
Towards the end of the nineteenth century this new ‘world city’ became the centre of the Berlin Secession. Many artists were attracted by its cosmopolitan atmosphere and metropolitan society whose aesthetic views were sharply opposed tho the imperial court and its representational arts that praised the military and the empire. German Impressionism with its new, unassuming and personal nature painting represented an artistic reflection of the democratic and liberal ideals of these cities.8 However, the new style was sharply rejected by the state.
In 1871 Berlin became the capital of the new German Reich and the empire’s political, economic and scientific centre. The industrialisation that had reached 2) ibid. 3) ibid, p.106 4) Gillen, E., German Art from Beckmann to Richter, Yale University Press, Yale, 1998, p. 280 5) Novotny, F., Paintings and Sculpture in Europe 1780-1880, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1960, p. 119
6) Fraser, D.,The Buildings of Europe, Berlin, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1996, p. 16 7) Sutcliffe, A., Metropolis 1890-1940, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1984, p.298 8) Finke, U.,German Painting from Romanticism to Expressionism, Thames and Hudson, London, 1974, p. 156
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The Impressionist movement had developed in France over the last thirty years of the nineteenth century, but only arrived in Germany around 1900, though in a very general manner. The Impressionists main concern was to express the “rich optical possibilities of the world, limited to the momentary impression and the fleeting nature of phenomena.”9 In contrast to the French Impressionists who created a visual experience from the phenomenon, the German Impressionists emphasized the pure optical experience. The dualism between this pure visual experience and the expression of content was unique to the German version of Impressionism. In Unter den Linden 1913 Max Slevogt (1868-1932) depicted the military parade at Unter den Linden for Emperor Wilhelm II. on the occasion of his crown jubilee. In contrast to Gärtner’s depiction of the boulevard eighty years earlier, the painting pays no attention to detail; quick dynamic brush strokes roughly define the tree lined boulevard, the crowd of people and the urban landscape. The technique of the painting seems to reflect the dynamic of the metropolis and the faster speed of the life, the trams and cars. Slevogt embraces the city and its metropolitan ways. The luminous blue sky, the bright colours of the signs, the Empire’s flags and the many people in the street communicate a cheerful, exciting atmosphere that one wants to part of. The painting suggests that the process and effects of modernisation that took place during that time are benign by celebrating the urban life and depicting a moment of pleasure. Unlike the Impressionists who represented the attractive and romantic nature of the city, the Expressionist movement chose to depict the negative aspects of the urban life. Its artists did not see the city as “the playground of a leisured class but the reef on which the hopes of those lured to the metropolis by the promise of a better life had foundered.”10 In Germany the expressionist movement in the visual arts began in the first decade of the twentieth century when young artists rejected the classical and realistic doctrines. They regarded the city as an ultimately new phenomenon that could not be represented by traditional means. A new formal language was necessary to represent “our only true home, the city”11 Thus the Expressionists dismissed vagueness of description, tradition methods of perspective and the practice of working directly from the motif, which were all hallmarks of Impressionism, as irrelevant.12
9) Finke, U.,German Painting from Romanticism to Expressionism, Thames and Hudson, London, 1974, p. 156 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� ) Timms, E., Kelley, D., Unreal City, Urban experience in modern European literature and art, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1985, p.49 ���� ) ibid, p.48 ��� ) ibid.
While the styles within the movement ranged from representational to nonobjective, they all shared a constant theme: “a determination to subordinate form and nature to an emotional and visionary experience.”13
crowd of hostile figures threateningly rise above the viewer. The impression of a hostile atmosphere is even heightened by pointed forms of the figures and their dresses as well as the distortion of the space.
In contrast to Impressionism it was not concerned with the visual phenomena of the city but rather the experience of the city life. It aimed to “reveal the scarcely comprehensible forces concentrated within it and the chaotic and contradictory impressions it presented.”14
Kirchner argued that exaggeration and other kinds of distortion are necessary to convey an authentic impression of the quickly changing visual spectacle of the city life19:
The works of the Expressionists generally express a rejection of the urban life as many artists linked the metropolis to “materialism, superficiality and rampant individualism” which superseded the “healthy values of ‘culture’” like “spirituality, traditional folk life and closeness to nature”15 Generally the atmosphere in Europe at the beginning of the twentieth century was dominated by an increasing discontent. The rapid industrialisation and urbanisation and the revolutionary discoveries of Freud and Einstein resulted in a general feeling of apprehension.16 Nowhere “however was the reaction more intense than in Germany, where anxiety about the future developed into extremes of utter despair and wild expectation.”17 Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (1880 – 1938) communicated these feelings in a series of paintings from 1911 to 1915 of the Berlin street life. The Street 1913 depicts a scene on a street of Berlin. Although no buildings are represented that would give an indication about the location of the scene, the urban setting is obvious: the figures that dominate the composition are dressed in fashionable city cloth and are framed by a motorcar and a shop window. Two absurdly dressed-up women with large feathered hats and fur collars, “loom larger than life over the rapidly-reseeding streets”18, next to a gentleman with a walking cane who leans forward to look into a shop window. The street behind them is crowded by an indefinite number of anonymous people who turn their heads away from the viewer and one another. This painting clearly displays Kirchner’s critique of the modern city as a place where human contact has become impossible and anonymity and money dominate. Kirchner was no longer a detached observer like Gärtner or Slevogt before him. He was concerned with the feelings the city caused in the people who live in it. For him these feelings were of depression and alienation. They find their expression in the swift jagged brushstrokes, the clashing colours of various pinks, purples and blues as well as the viewpoint from a low angle that lets the 13) Miesel, V.,Voices of German Expressionism, Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey, 1970, p.1 14) Timms, E., op.cit., p. 48 15) Miesel, V., op.cit., p.7 ��� ) ibid, p.6 ��� ) ibid. 18) Shapiro, T., The City in the Visual Arts, from The metropolis in the visual arts: Paris, Berlin, New York 1890-1940, in Metropolis 1890-1940, ed. A. Sutcliffe, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1984, p.8
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“If we now look at … a modern city big city street with thousands of light sources, some of them coloured, we must surely understand that to construct everything objectively is in vain, since even a passing taxi, a bright or dark evening dress changes the entire, painstaking construction”20
The distortion of space and objects emphasises Kichner’s primary concern of depicting what he felt, rather than saw. Unlike Gärtner and Slevogt who depicted the phenomenon of the city, he expressed the experience of the city life which for him was tainted by hectic, corruption and sickness and social crisis. The very conditions that gave rise to Expressionism and were so frequently expressed in its art became the daily experience during World War I (19141918). Despair, violence and suffering characterised the horrors of war. Having experienced these horrors as a front line soldier Otto Dix (1891-1969) discovered the same terror everywhere in the reality of urban life. With a violently aggressive vision, Dix destroyed the superficial and arrives at a harsh reality of all that is questionable, absurd, and objectionable.21 As an artist of the New Objectivity (Neue Sachlichkeit) , he illustrated these themes in the techniques of the old masers. However the realism he employed in representing the city is very different to Gärtner’s. He confronts the viewer with a truth more fundamental than a realistic city scape.22 With horrifying clarity he conveyed all the harshness and bitterness that he has personally experienced. In Big City Tryptich (Grossstadt), 1927-28 he shows the post-war Berlin of the twenties that was “more than the splendid hotels on the Potzdamer Platz or the luxurious shops on the Kurfürstendamm, …the capital of the Weimar Republic, in which the fixers and profiteers flourish while the majority has to beg or prostitute itself to make a living.”23 The cental panel of the triple portrait depicts the dance floor of a brightly-lit nightclub. Elegantly clothed men and women dance to the music of the jazz band. The two panels at either side show the scene outside. While the panel on
the left shows a legless war veteran in a dark alley observing whores who are barely distinguishable in their appearance from the women inside the club, the right wing depicts more prostitutes walking down a street with lavish rococo facades and another leg-less war veteran who salutes them. Grossstadt is a critical record of the city’s night life, contrasting the superficial society of the wealthy with the ‘trash of the city’. Dix used the metropolis as a metaphor for the “moral illness of a society and is lavishly painted in the acid colours of its bright decay.”24 By comparing several genres of art over a period of nearly 100 years, it is evident that the particular views towards Berlin vary greatly. The city is an ever-changing phenomenon with many facets and cannot be generalised. Consequently, a ‘view in general’ shared by all artists does not exist as their response is always subjective and a product of their time, its economic and social situation as well as their artistic style. Bibliography
Balfour, A., Berlin, The Politics of Order 1737-1989, Rizzoli International Publications, New York, 1990 Finke, U., German Painting from Romanticism to Expressionism, Thames andHudson, London, 1974 Fraser, D., The Buildings of Europe, Berlin, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1996 Gillen, E., German Art from Beckmann to Richter, Yale University Press, Yale,1998 Haftmann, W., Hentzen, A., Liebermann, W., German Art of the Twentieth Century, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1957 Kleihues, J., Rathgeber, C., Berlin-New York, Like and Unlike, Rizzoli, New York, 1993 Ladd, B., The Ghosts of Berlin, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago,1977 Lloyd, J., Moeller, M., Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, The Dresden and Berlin Day,Thames and Hudson, London, 2003 McDonogh, G., Berlin, A Portrait of Its History, Politics, Architecture, and Society, St. Martin’s Griffin, New York, 1999 McGreevy, L., The Life and Works of Otto Dix, German Critical Realist, umi Research Press, Michigan, 1975 Miesel, V., Voices of German Expressionism, Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey,1970 Novotny, F., Paintings and Sculpture in Europe 1780-1880, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1960 O’Neil, J., Walter, E., Pryor, G., German Masters of the Nineteenth Century, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1981 Paret, P., The Berlin Secession, Modernism and Its Enemies in Imperial Germany, Havard University Press, Cambridge, 1980 Pevsner, F., Paintings and Sculpture in Europe 1780-1880 Roh, F., German Painting in the 20th Century, New York Graphic Society, New York, 1968 24) McGreevy, L., The Life and Works of Otto Dix, German Critical Realist, umi Research Press, Michigan, 1975, p.77
�������������� ) Timms, E., op.cit., p. 52 ��� ) ibid. ����������������� ) Haftmann, W., op.cit., p. 87 �������������������������� ) Timms, E., Kelley, D., op.cit., p.63 ��� ) ibid.
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Postgraduate Analysis of Employee Turnover amongst Construction Managers
An Input-Output-Based Linkage Measure Framework
Technical Developments for Building Demolition Management
The Ripple Effect in House Price Fluctuations in Australia
Jian Jian DU (Master of Construction Management)
Yu SONG (Doctor of Philosophy)
Sung Kin PUN (Doctor of Philosophy)
Zhen Qiang LUO (Master of Construction Management)
Employee turnover has been identified in the construction industry reports as being one of the principal causes of poor performance, low competitiveness and technical loss. Construction managers are important employees who possess advanced knowledge and skill in construction methods and management techniques. Hence, a high rate of construction manager turnover directly impacts a construction organization’s survival and development.
The input-output technology has been considered in the literature as a main tool to determine, define, measure and assess the linkages between sectors. However, there are still some critical theoretical shortcomings in the previous linkage research. More importantly, even though linkage studies have been applied to many sectors, the linkages of the real estate and construction sectors are not well explored. Specifically, no previous research has focused on the quantitative relationships between the real estate and construction sectors. Using the recently published Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) input-output database at constant prices, this thesis aims to overcome the existing shortcomings theoretically and propose a comprehensive linkage measure framework to explore the linkages of the real estate and construction sectors.
Demolition wastes are a major source for landfill. Building material reuse and recycling are widely advocated by the demolition industry. However, deconstruction and other environmentally friendly demolition methods are not widely accepted. Particularly, lack of economic motivation deters contractors from adopting environmental demolition techniques. This PHD research aims to economically analyse current and emerging demolition techniques, and to adopt information technology and E-commerce into demolition project management in order to achieve higher level of material reuse and recycling.
The aim of this research was to detect the long-run cointegration relationships between house prices in Australia’s state capital cities. These causalities based on the cointegration test show the spatial interconnections between or within the eight housing markets which form the house price diffusion pattern within Australian subnational markets. Based on the long-run equilibrium relationships, the short-run dynamics of the regional house prices is examined. The response in one market to the shock in other markets is used to identify the persistence period and extent of mutual influence amongst every housing market in eight capital cities.
Firstly demolition costs are analysed using cost breakdown. Different demolition techniques are examined through a case study. Although deconstruction has the highest environmental performance, its economic benefits are low or uncertain. In the viewpoint of process, demolition can be referred as manufacturing process of reusable dismantled building materials. Supply chain and logistics models are utilised to simulate demolition process. It is found that Just-in-time (JIT) philosophy helps to reengineering demolition process by allowing building material ordered by buyers before they are produced. JIT philosophy is adapted into a Web-based information system. This system performs waste exchange prior to building demolition. Selling of materials also provides motivation for both building owner and contractor for salvaging them. At the meantime, demolition process is simplified under the system.
The findings suggest a 1-1-2-4 pattern of four tires network links which formulates the current Australian subnational house price diffusion pattern: Sydney is on the top tier with Melbourne in the second; Perth and Adelaide are in the third level and the other four cities lie on the bottom. The diffusion pattern shows the linkages with both contiguous areas and non-contiguous areas. Convergence is detected to exist within the housing markets in the eight capital cities which show the house prices in eight cities make the adjustment to the equilibrium with their individual rate. As in other research in this field, it is difficult to reject the efficient market hypothesis using results from the impulse response function tests.
It is necessary for a human resource department in a construction organization to understand major factors that significantly affect turnover of construction managers. These major factors can be used to predict turnover intention of construction managers. Effective prediction would help human resource managers to make timely adjustments to human resource strategies with a view to keeping high performing staff in their organizations. The aim of this research is to determine the most important variables affecting turnover intention and to develop a prediction model of employee turnover for construction managers in Hubei province in China. A questionnaire survey that focused on 22 factors grouped into three major factor categories was undertaken of construction companies in Hubei province in China. This original questionnaire composed five sections and 73 questions. This research has identified seven most important factors affecting turnover intention of construction managers, and a turnover prediction model was developed based on the seven factors. In addition, the notion that different factors affect turnover intention in different employee groups was discovered. Finally, a simple survey questionnaire which can be used by human resource managers to test turnover intention was developed
Considering the industry characteristics of the real estate and construction sectors, an input-output-based linkage measure framework has been proposed. This framework comprises four sub-models: overall evaluation, short-term linkage measures, long-term linkage measures and linkage measures with the impact of capital. This framework supplies a comprehensive measure of the real estate and construction linkages including the assessment of short and long-term variations; the linkage effects from all directions such as total, backward, forward, internal and sectoral effects; and the impact of capital on the linkages. Bearing in mind the complexity and comprehensiveness of linkages, the linkage measure framework is a multi-level hierarchy and omni-directions decision making model and takes the impact of capital into account. The omni-direction and capital characteristics of this research are distinguishing and unique and make a significant contribution to industry knowledge. The proposed framework has overcome the deficiencies of existing methods and provides more realistic meaning and broader perspectives.
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Lecture Series 2007
John Wardle & Rob McBride
Again in 2007 we continued the tradition of the REAL Series of guest presentations given to the School by architects and others to the School. This season of the REAL verified the breadth of considerations, issues and productions of the architectural and building professions. We were fortunate enough to range from Timothy Hill of Donovan Hill berating the novated procurement system and its effect on the birth and life of public buildings, Sir Laurence Street discussing the nature and civility of the mediation system of dispute settlement, Sean Godsell discussing the profound character of Alvar Aalto, John Wardle, Rob McBride and Debbie Ryan inviting us to tour with them through the work of Carlo Scarpa, Hamish Lyon of NH Architects lucidly invoking the presence of the public and the monstrous machinations of the PPP system, across the politics and concerns of Rob McGauran of MGS and Peter Williams of WBa, the realpolitic of Shelley Penn’s role at the Govt. Architects Office, the contemplations of architecture with Allan Powell, and into the small is mobile and beautiful of Peter Woolard of Studio101 and Andrew Maynard. I think we also enjoyed the pizzas, and the wonderful camaraderie of dinner with guests at The Max. Greatest of thanks to Eugenia Tan, Daniel Gibbs, Peter McIntyre, Liam Hehir and, of course, John Stabb. Hamish Lyon
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In semester 2 of 2007 I was on OSP (a new name for what used to be called sabbatical), a time of leave from the normal academic duties to engage with activities like research or creative projects (and reading, writing, thinking), usually outside of Australia. I was hosted by the Faculty of Architecture at Sts. Kiril and Metodij University in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia, where I set about consolidating my work on migration and architecture towards a manuscript for a book. That process included some additional field research of the case study, a mountain village, Zavoj, near the historical town of Ohrid; statistical research of population numbers in the village; search for studies on villages, and conversations with architects and academic staff who have developed a studio program around the revitalisation of villages. It resulted in a quite different structure for the manuscript, one that was more focussed and inviting to a broad range of readers, and smaller. The text is structured around the city/village dichotomy, the former as the city of promise and immigration, and the latter as place of origin and emigration. I gave two public lectures at the Faculty of Architecture, the first entitled Land/City: a perspective on Australian architecture, and the second which was a summary of my research work, entitled, City/Village: Architecture in the age of migration. The abstract of the latter is included below:
OUTSIDE STUDY PROGRAM Mirijana Lozanovska
CITY / VILLAGE: ARCHITECTURE IN THE AGE OF MIGRATION
The city and village are underscored by a discourse of disconnections, distances, and perceived opposition. The period after World War Two is considered an age of migration, where massive movements of peoples altered demographics and places: unprecedented growth of cities (through immigration) and erosion of villages (through emigration). The terms emigration and immigration make explicit a troubling dynamic between places, and reveal ways that places appearing to be disparate, such as Zavoj and Melbourne, are linked by the migrant’s journey. The presentation will focus on Melbourne and Zavoj as symptomatic of the city and village, and will direct its discussion on the migrant houses built in each. Migration is a traumatic event that triggers an intensive relationship between the migrant as identity and human subject, and the migrant house as object. Subject and object are not neatly re-established after the process of migration. In addition, the migrant houses are perceived as foreign objects and cause negative reactions in the hegemonic culture, disrupting host-guest structure of cities like Melbourne. Migrant houses are appearing in the village Zavoj amongst the disintegrating vernacular architecture. Through psychoanalytic theories of the abject this confusion between subject and object caused by migrant houses will be examined. If architecture’s objective is to establish stable places and structures, architecture’s effect on language and culture, is producing places engaged in dynamic processes.
Plan of the Zavoj, Republic of Macedondia.
Being in Macedonia provided the context for several other interests. One was the city of Skopje where we lived. Each day a walk from our apartment in the centre of town to the Architecture building included passing the City Wall, on occasion lighting candles and pondering the stillness of the icons in the main church Sveti Kliment Ohridski, buying almonds and mandarins in the Bunjakovec green market. Skopje is the capital city of Macedonia, and has evolved around the river Vardar. Between the modern city, south of the river, and the Ottoman 19th century part to the north, is the famous old Stone Bridge, and the Daut-Pasha Hamam, a refined example a+b – 138
of Ottoman architecture. A hill with a majestic stone fortress wall (Kale Fortress) contains layers of buried ancient cities and settlements. After the 1963 earthquake which destroyed 75% of the urban fabric, Skopje was the centre of architectural activity generated by the winner of the master plan competition, Japanese architect Kenzo Tange. I befriended two elderly pioneers in Macedonia architecture: Professor Georgi Konstantinovski (see images of works) and Professor Boris Cipan, an 89 year old, who gifted me with many of his books including his favourite on Sveta Sofia in Ohrid, an extraordinary study of this 11th century Byzantine basilica. The days were enrichened by intellectually stimulating conversations with these and other architect/academics. Skopje in the new millennium is encapsulated in the Macedonian pavilion entry for the 2006 Venice Biennale. Under the guidance and vision of two architecture gurus (Minas Bakalcev & Mitko Hadji-Pulja MBMHP) the City of Possible Worlds addressed how disparate fragments might be perceived as a series of co-existing enclaves or worlds rather than small pieces of a once imagined whole. Look out for the new film by Milcho Manchevski, Shadows, which is set in Skopje and portrays a profound and gruelling lesson for the contemporary city and its society. Macedonia is described as the land where the mystery of the monastery and the mosque mix, a gateway between the East and the West. These structures are often set in the exquisite natural topographies of mountains, valleys, forests, rivers and lakes. An architecture design summer school is run annually in July in the monastery Sveti Joachim Osogorvski in the town of Kriva Palanka, where students from any school are welcome, accommodation and food is provided (come and see me if you are interested). We visited the historic town of Ohrid, beautifully poised on the shimmering lake. I began to understand how the frescoes and icons which cover much of the surface of the interior of Byzantine churches provides a gauze-like pictorial space and transforms the geometric space of architecture into an atmosphere. In contrast to the western perspective which produces depth in the picture plane, I am told the inverse perspective of the icon tradition of painting produces an expansion of the picture surface, a horizon.
City of Skopje
I was very well received in the Faculty of Architecture and in Macedonia. I was interviewed by TEA the weekly magazine component of Dnevnik (The Daily) national newspaper, and by Porta, an architecture magazine. And I appeared on live television, a guest for a discussion programme called ‘Dom i Dizajn’ (Home and Design). Early in the OSP I presented a paper, “One line lacks density: A study of the associations between cartographic representation and ontology,” at a conference, Density: Inside Out, in Edinburgh; published a paper, “Diaspora, Return and Migrant Architectures,” in the International Journal of Diversity and Community, and worked on the third sketch design for the Lemon/Almond house in Sicily.
National Theatre interior, designed by Marjan Usic and team, 1979. a+b – 139
MABEL is a research facility that evaluates total building environmental performance and occupant satisfaction, on location. This involves taking detailed measurements in the areas of power, comfort, light, sound and indoor air quality. These measurements are usually related to the outdoor conditions during the measurement period, so a portable weather station is also set up on site to measure air temperature and humidity, wind speed and direction, solar radiation and daylight illuminance. CH2 Melbourne
To date, MABEL has undertaken projects in Geelong, Melbourne, Lithgow, Newcastle, Darwin and Tasmania. Several high profile “Green” buildings have been investigated including 40 Albert Road Melbourne (the first building in Australia to achieve a 6-Star Green Star rating), the Sustainability Victoria new headquarters at 50 Lonsdale Street Melbourne, and CH2 Melbourne (Australia’s greenest building).
In early November the construction Alumni came together in the Bluestone Room of the Coppers Inn in Russell Street Melbourne for a night of revelry and story telling. The construction management course had its first graduate in 1992 and all years were represented with approximately 80 participating in the festivities. Apologies from a further 40 who could not attend mainly because they were interstate or overseas, shows the benefits of having a degree transferable anywhere in the world. Associate Head David Picken, whilst in London mid year, attended a dinner organized by a dozen graduates currently working in London. This was followed by a tour of the Wembley Stadium by David Seeley, Project Manager for Multiplex and a recent graduate of the course. Head of School Judith Trimble welcomed the graduates and Professor Craig Langston brought the assembled up to date with the new courses such as Facility Management and Property and Real Estate. However as can be seen from the pictures most of the night was spent reminiscing about old times, putting out feelers for new opportunities and generally celebrating friendships. Looking forward to the next night.
For more information on MABEL see www.mabel.com.au
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Thinking Local, Acting Global Robert Murphy
In early 2004 Chris Walker and I were approached by Rotary International (Newtown) to join their continued campaign to help lift the living standards in the poorer regions of Fiji. We grasped the opportunity to be involved with an internationally recognized aid organization, by helping some of Fiji’s poorest communities, using and gaining valuable skills and experience.
During the final year of my Construction Management degree in 2004, I was given the opportunity to complete my remaining units off campus and focus on attaining more practical experience. For two months I volunteered to assist as a site manager on a project in Fiji named Koroipita. Located outside Lautoka on Viti Levu Island, the aim of the project is to build a fully functional village to house 450 people and aid the massive squatter problems in Fiji. With over 80,000 homeless in the country, the need for low cost, cyclone proof shelters is critical.
Our first project was located on Yanutha Island, and involved solving the continued water shortage problem experienced by the local self-sufficient village consisting of 200 people. The most viable option was to provide the local huts with a rainwater collection system. An inventory list of all the materials required and a report including an overall costing of the project was submitted to AusAID. Some four months later we received word that our submission had been approved and a separate team later travelled to Yanutha to complete the installation of the works. The second project was the RotaHomes housing development venture, a project aimed at providing low cost cyclone proof housing on the outskirts of the city of Latoka, for the homeless. Although many houses had already been constructed to the first stage, our involvement was to prepare the site for the second stage of housing. This involved land surveying and civil works of a 3 acre hillside area to ensure that the land would not be prone to land slides during excavation as well as maintaining an appropriate yet efficient layout for the houses. For the third project we prepared a preliminary analysis on the existing state of a school building and boarding house at the remote village of Navala. The school operated primarily on government funding; however with the buildings close to being condemned, the village was at risk of losing its funding meaning that children would have to relocate to attend school. Our proposal was given to Rotary and Deakin University in the hope of future aid for Navala. Since graduating in 2004 I worked with a small builder/developer in Melbourne as an Assistant Project Manager/Contract Administrator on projects of a commercial nature with a construction value of up to $12m. As the Development Manager I am now involved in maintaining the unsold portfolio and upcoming development sales and marketing.
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With the sugar industry collapsing, massive numbers of people are moving into illegal squatter settlements outside the few urban areas in Fiji. The social and economic problems associated with these settlements is appalling, with violence, poor health and crime the common result. Koroipita is the conception of Peter Drysdale, a Fijian who has built over 700 houses for the homeless. With strong assistance from Rotary International, Koroipita is the first “village” project undertaken and is a benchmark solution to squatter problems both within Fiji and internationally. My role on the project was to plan, organize and assist in building the houses with each group of volunteers. It was very much a hands-on position, where practical solutions often involved a great deal of innovation. The good humor and effective teamwork between both the local workers and the volunteers are my fondest memories of the experience. It was also the perfect opportunity to put into place the knowledge I had gained during my degree and apply it to real situations. It is very fulfilling to have the skills to give some sort of assistance to these remarkable people whose resilience and genuine happiness still gives me great perspective on my own life. Shortly after returning home and graduating, I commenced full time employment. I spent three years with Baulderstone Hornibrook, working on the Metropolitan Remand Centre in Melbourne and the Christmas Island Immigration, Reception and Processing Centre in the Indian Ocean. For the last six months I have been working in India for Leighton International, based in the north of the country in Punjab, which is close to the Himalayas and the Pakistan border. India is a market of immense potential and similarly to Fiji, it is a challenging but very enjoyable place to work.
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