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March-April 2011 • Vol 103 • Number 670







There’s more to this than meets the eye...

LOOKING AT IT, it would be easy to see the Combined Support

Maintenance Shop at the Lakehurst Naval Air Engineering Station as just another successful construction project. You would have to look a lot closer to see the depth of planning and development. You would need to know of the commitment of the National Guard and the State who searched the world over to find the best design elements from other CSMSs in use internationally. If you knew the commitment and planning that went into this project, you would treat its construction the same way Jack Murphy, VP of Conti Federal Services, and his team did. Jack is a military veteran with over 40 years construction experience. “This is an amazing LEED Silver facility packed with the very latest technology. It presented some huge engineering and logistical challenges.” This truly was a Joint Engineering program. Working with the State, Navy and National Guard, Conti built partnerships with the owners, the users and the designers to help deliver more than 60 value engineering proposals yielding millions in savings. “We thrive on a challenge like this one.

It brings out the best in everybody involved.”

Thousands of hours of planning and development could all have been for nothing if the team at Conti did not focus on the detail. Conti hand picked the subcontractors and made sure everybody coordinated their efforts for a smooth project delivery. The team at Conti Federal Services has helped build a remarkable structure that will give back in many ways to the Joint Services over the long term. “They even put our name on the plaque. We are very proud to be of service.”

Done once. Done right.

We built on a green field site with no water, electric or fiber optic services. The structure houses 16 high-tech multi purpose service bays, seven cranes including a 15-ton bridge, and high security vaults for missile repair and small arms storage. This is the sort of job we love.






Joint Support to Contingency Operations





The two themes featured in this edition of The Military Engineer—Joint Engineer SOCIETY NEWS ENGINEERS IN ACTION HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Contingency Operations and Energy— are excellent examples of how TME is aligned with the highest priorities of the military departments. Although I will address the joint engineering theme in this column, I can personally attest also to the tremendous amount of time and effort all the military departments are spending identifying and acting upon opportunities to conserve and create energy. While we continue to draw down combat forces in Iraq, engineers remain key to supporting the troops who remain and fostering the capacity building that is so essential to our national security strategy in that part of the world. Simultaneously, engineer forces have grown to continue to support the surge and capacity building in Afghanistan. Our engineers continue to be in high demand, placing a tremendous burden on our engineer soldiers, airmen, sailors and Marines and their families. Currently, the U.S. Air Force has more than 4,100 officers and enlisted deployed in support of Air Force and joint operations. Many of these individuals support joint engineer contingency operations in the Middle East. The Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) career field is in especially high demand in supporting the joint warfighter. Air Force EOD personnel conducted more than 7,500 missions and more than 1,600 improvised explosive device (IED)-defeat operations in 2010 alone. The 1st Expeditionary RED HORSE Group completed its mission in Iraq but continues to support construction missions in the Middle East and Afghanistan. The Air Force has deployment opportunities for civilian volunteers and is encouraging commanders to support civilians who want to deploy in support of Air Force or joint expeditionary taskings. The Air Force Prime BEEF Group “hub and spoke” concept is proving its value in Afghanistan. The 577th Expeditionary Prime BEEF Group and its three Expeditionary Prime BEEF squadrons are providing outstanding support to the Combatant Commander. To date they have completed more than $36 million in troop labor construction projects and $181 million in contracted construction. They have an additional $359 million in award status and over $280 million programmed, supporting more than 130 airfields, forward operating bases and combat outposts. Rear Adm. Mark Handley, Commander of the First Naval Construction Division and the Naval Construction Forces Command, has provided an excellent summary of U.S. Navy Seabees engagements in Iraq and Afghanistan in his Leader Profile on page 40 of this issue of TME. As with the Air Force, these outstanding engineer assets are in high demand, and they face the same issues as Air Force engineers in managing frequent deployments. There are many examples of Seabees working with The Military Engineer • No. 670

engineers of the joint services—we have learned that we are all needed to accomplish the mission. The U.S. Army has 10,000 engineers operating at the tactical level, including sapper companies operating independently and imbedded in Brigade Combat Teams, Route Clearance Companies, vertical and horizontal construction companies, well drilling units, firefighting teams, geospatial units and two brigade headquarters with multiple engineer battalions. There are another 2,200 deployed as individuals in various Army and joint assignments. Additionally, more than 1,000 civilian engineers serve in two U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) districts in Afghanistan, a district in Iraq and as members of several joint engineer organizations. USACE also has a number of Forward Engineer Support Teams, commanded by military leadership and including both military and civilian specialists. Approximately 25 percent of the U.S. Marine Corps’ engineering and EOD capability—roughly 2,600 Marines—is forward deployed to Afghanistan in support of counter insurgency combat operations by I Marine Expeditionary Force Afghanistan. Additionally, another 300 Marine Corps engineers and EOD technicians are shipboard forward deployed afloat Marine Expeditionary Units providing combatant commander expeditionary engineering. In addition to extensive route clearance and counter-IED operations to provide freedom of maneuver, Marine Corps engineers in Afghanistan are improving main supply routes, constructing conventional gap crossings, providing bulk liquid storage and distribution, expanding airfields and forward arming and refueling points capability, and improving expeditionary force protection to more than 100 expeditionary patrol bases from which Marines operate in the Helmand Valley. As our military engineers strive to provide full-spectrum support around the world, SAME continues to address the challenges of joint engineer contingency operations and energy in its committees, conferences and workshops. The SAME Joint Engineer Contingency Operations Committee, chaired by Col. Mike Flanagan, USA (Ret.), held its first meeting in New Orleans, La., in November 2010 and will hold its second meeting at the 2011 Joint Engineer Training Conference & Expo (JETC) in May. The topics of Joint Engineer Contingency Operations and Energy will each be given a dedicated technical track at 2011 JETC, and SAME is in the process of developing a course on energy management for DOD installations. I look forward to seeing many of you at the 2011 JETC. Maj. Gen. Timothy A. Byers, F.SAME, USAF SAME President 2010-2011 1

FEATURED THIS ISSUE 50 Two Models, One Mission

A unique perspective on program management in the AOR

53 Standardizing Base Camps: A New Foundation Efficiency equals enhanced operational support

55 TFB2: A Formula for Power in Kandahar

CERP-funded capacity building

57 The Joint Engineer Operations Course

Preparing joint engineers for deployment

59 Afghanistan Construction Challenges: Lessons Learned

Surge construction yields teachable moments

50 JOINT ENGINEER CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS The mission success of combat engineers increasingly relies on the ability to operate in a joint environment. With an eye on future conflicts, TME examines lessons learned from recent and current operations.

Navy photo by Chief MC Michael B. Watkins

Construction Mechanic 3rd Class Ty Ramsey, USN, finishes a day of work in Khavajeh Molk, Afghanistan, where Seabees assigned to Naval Mobile Construction Battalions 40, 18 and 26 secured and fortified a remote combat outpost in December.

“Seabees are expeditiously constructing the combat outposts, strong points and forward operating bases that serve as the platforms to build and project the combat power to protect the people of Afghanistan. This is a total joint effort including Army, Navy, and Air Force engineers.” REAR ADM. MARK HANDLEY, P.E., CEC, USN Commander, First Naval Construction Division and Naval Construction Forces Command

READ THE LEADER PROFILE ON PAGE 40 ngineer Training nt E Joi


The Military Engineer • No. 670


Proposing a new engineer unit

63 Focused Effort: The 36th Engineer Brigade in Iraq

Robust mission requirements, reduced engineer assets




61 The Military Engineer Team

66 Achieving Executive Order 13514—20 Years Early Performance-based design-build

69 Biomass and the Air Force

Meeting the energy challenges of the future

71 Sealed and Delivered

Exceeding USACE air barrier standards

73 Implementing a DOD Net-Zero Strategy

A balanced, thoughtful energy strategy

75 Customizing Lighting Control

Lighting systems tailored to building type, use


& Expo


EDITORIAL OFFICE 607 Prince Street Alexandria, VA 22314-3117 703-549-3800 plus ext. Fax: 703-548-6153 EDITOR IN CHIEF L. Eileen Erickson Ext. 140; EDITOR John M. Nank Ext. 141;



Supporting Contingency Operations

GRAPHIC DESIGNER Natalie L. Kirkpatrick Ext. 142;


ADVERTISING COORDINATOR Emma K. Inwood Ext. 145; MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS MANAGER Stephanie Satterfield Ext. 144; WEB MANAGER Josef M. Scarantino Ext. 143; CONTRIBUTING EDITORS Meighan Altwies, M.SAME Wendi Goldsmith, M.SAME E. Lewis (Ed) Link, Ph.D., M.SAME ADVERTISING REPRESENTATIVES MID ATLANTIC/NORTHEAST L. Eileen Erickson Ext. 140; WEST/NORTH CENTRAL Emma K. Inwood Ext. 145; SOUTH/SOUTHEAST Beverly Ellis 407-654-5311; Fax -5322 REPRINTS Gail Hallman, Sheridan Reprints 717-632-8448, ext. 8175 PUBLISHER Dr. Robert D. Wolff, P.E., F.SAME



EXCLUSIVELY AT TME ONLINE Beginning March 21, learn about the unique characteristics and processes of procurement in deployed settings in “Contracting in the AOR,” — By David A. Rose, M.SAME.

DEPARTMENTS 1 6 16 24 32 80 81 85 92

President’s Message Government & Industry News Military News Sustainability News Technology News Executive Director’s Message Society News Small Business News Products and Services ADVERTISING INDEX 13 31 22 11 20 C4 9 10 17 C2 14 43 34 19 21 18 15 28 35 30

AECOM AMEC Advanced Valve Technology ARCADIS Bradley Corp. Burns & McDonnell CH2M HILL Caterpillar Charlotte Pipe & Foundry Conti Group Dewberry EMCOR Engineering Unplugged Environmental Chemical Corp. FLUOR Gannett Fleming Hankins & Anderson Isco Industries John Deere Kalwall Corp.

32 29 5 8 26 23 36 38 38, 44, 49, 77, 82, 83, 84 37 33 12 27 C3 7 39 25 2

MOCA Systems MWH Americas Michael Baker Corp. PARSONS PBS&J Perini Management Pond & Co RS&H SAME Siemens Sika Sarnafil Soil Stabilization Products Co Tetra Tech The Shaw Group U.S. GSA University of Florida URS Corp. Weston Solutions

The Military Engineer (ISSN 0026-3982) is published bi-monthly by the Society of American Military Engineers (SAME), 607 Prince St., Alexandria, VA 22314-3117; Tel: 703-549-3800; editorial, ext. 141; advertising, ext. 145. © 2011 The Society of American Military Engineers. All rights reserved; reproduction of articles prohibited without written permission. Periodicals postage paid at Alexandria, Va., and at additional mailing offices. Rates: Single copy: Member, $3; Non-member (U.S.), $15; foreign, $30. One-year subscription $88 in the United States and Canada; $168 elsewhere. Two-year subscription $168 in the United States and Canada; $316 elsewhere. Three-year subscription $210 in the United States and Canada; $435 elsewhere. Agency discount available; Air Mail extra. For details go to Annual subscription rate for SAME members is $18 and is included in dues. Address Changes: Send mailing label with changes to The Military Engineer Circulation Department, 607 Prince St., Alexandria, VA 22314-3117; allow 60 days for change to take affect. Article Submittals: We invite and encourage manuscript submissions for possible inclusion in The Military Engineer. TME editors consider each manuscript on the basis of technical accuracy, usefulness to readers, timeliness and quality of writing. SAME reserves the right to edit all manuscripts. Before submitting an article, please read the Writers’ Guidelines at Submission of an article does not guarantee publication; unsolicited manuscripts will not be returned. Disclaimer: Statements and opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and do not reflect official SAME or TME policy unless so stated. Publication of advertisements does not constitute official SAME endorsement of products or services. Postmaster: Send address changes to The Military Engineer Circulation, 607 Prince St., Alexandria, VA 22314-3117.

The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011

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In his State of the Union Address in January, President Barack Obama focused on the importance of the nation’s infrastructure; science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education; and even made a reference to the power of building information modeling (BIM). The president highlighted repairing our nation’s bridges and roads. Citing the American Society of Civil Engineers’ (ASCE) Report Card for America’s Infrastructure and the nation’s current grade of “D,” he called for America’s return as an international leader in strong infrastructure. Strong applause came following his statement about the importance of science: “We need to teach our kids that it’s not just the winner of the Super Bowl who deserves to be celebrated, but the winner of the science fair.” The president called for renewed attention to restore the country’s prominence in math and science education, including the preparation of 100,000 new teachers in the STEM fields. During his discussion of innovation and the digital age, President Obama recognized the role BIM can play in emergency management: “It’s about connecting every part of America to the digital age… It’s about a firefighter who can download the design of a burning building onto a handheld device.” His speech also touched on other issues of importance to the building community, such as the government’s role in basic research, development of a clean energy economy, and the need for technical and vocational training. The National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) composed and sent a letter commending the president for his recognition of these important issues and offering support in the identification and implementation of solutions. The letter can be viewed on the NIBS website at (Contributed by NIBS)


The General Services Administration (GSA) released in late January a new facilities standards document geared toward meeting greater sustainability measures and achieving operational excellence in public buildings. P100-2010 outlines the principles and criteria to be incorporated in the programming, planning, design and construction documentation of new and modernized GSA buildings. 6

Compiled by John M. Nank, M.SAME




The current standards serve as a cornerstone document for Public Buildings Service-owned buildings for incorporation in contracts between GSA and the design and architecture-engineering community. It is GSA’s first facilities standards to be released online only (via PDF). Future releases will be web-based, fully interactive, and user friendly. This standard covers such topics as site design, architecture and engineering disciplines, landscape design, and fire protection and life safety. The next issue will be released as a performance-based standard, which will focus on setting the standard for achieving the green proving ground and zero environmental footprint goals laid forth by GSA. Future standards will be released annually. To read the entire P100 building standard, visit (Contributed by Marie-Alice Denis, GSA)


To further advocate for veterans and guard against misrepresentation, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) announced that companies identifying themselves as small businesses or veteran-owned businesses to gain priority for some VA contracts must now provide documentation verifying their status within 90 days of receiving notice from the agency. “VA is committed to doing business with as well as supporting and protecting veteran-owned small businesses,” said Secretary of Veterans Affairs Eric K. Shinseki. “Although the verification process may initially be a challenge to some small business owners and to VA, it’s a necessary step to eliminate misrepresentation by firms trying to receive contracts that should go to servicedisabled and other veteran-owned vendors.” The Veterans Benefits Act of 2010, signed by President Barack Obama in October 2010, expanded VA’s requirement to verify the status of businesses claiming veterans preference to compete for VA contracts by being listed in VA’s Vendor Information Pages (VIP) database. Companies will have to submit an application to substantiate their status as owned and controlled by veterans, service-disabled veterans or eligible surviving spouses. Only companies that submit the information and are verified will be listed in the VIP database. The Veterans Benefits Act requires VA to notify currently-listed businesses that within 90 days of the veteran-owned business receiving the notice they must submit certain business documents. VA sent notices to more than 13,000 listed businesses by e-mail and mail in mid December 2010. Other veteran-owned companies seeking to be listed in the database and considered for future set-aside VA contracts also have to submit application packages. VA will work to verify those applications after the existing listings have been verified. Priority processing will be given to those veteran-owned firms that are in line to receive a set-aside contract from VA, those that already conduct business with VA, and those that have already filed an application for verification. For more information, visit the Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization’s website at veteran/verification.asp or the main page at (Contributed by VA) The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011


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The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) announced in early February HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE a new federal contracting program for women-owned small businesses. The new Women-Owned Small Business (WOSB) Federal Contract Program will be fully implemented over the next several months, with the first contracts expected to be awarded by the end of FY2011. “Implementing the Women-Owned Small Business contracting rule has been a top priority for the Obama administration and SBA,” said SBA Administrator Karen Mills. “Women-owned businesses are one of the fastest growing sectors of the economy. As we continue to look to small businesses to grow, create jobs and lead America into the future, women-owned businesses will play a key role. That’s why providing them with all the tools necessary to compete for and win federal con-


tracts is so important. Federal contracts can provide women-owned small businesses with the oxygen they need to take their business to the next level.”

“SBA is excited to launch this new program to provide WOSBs with increased opportunities to compete for and win federal contracts” The WOSB Program will provide greater access to federal contracting opportunities for WOSBs and economically-disadvantaged women-owned small businesses (EDWOSB). The program allows contracting officers, for the first time, to set aside specific contracts for certified WOSBs and EDWOSBs and will help fed-

eral agencies achieve the existing statutory goal of five percent of federal contracting dollars being awarded to WOSBs. SBA released instructions on how to participate in the program and launched the secure, online data repository for WOSBs to upload required documents at SBA also released an application to become an SBA-approved third-party certifier for this program. SBA welcomes comments and suggestions on this first version of the application. During the program’s ramp-up period, SBA is encouraging small business owners to review program requirements and ensure their required documents are uploaded to the repository. WOSBs also will need to update their status in the Central Contractor Registration and the Online Representation and Certification Application to indicate to contracting officers that they are eligible to participate. GSA is updating these systems, and they are expected to be completed in April 2011.


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The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011

Delivering Energy Efficient Solutions

ŠMaxwell MacKenzie

At CH2M HILL, we stand ready to deliver facilities and infrastructure projects with both mission and sustainability in mind. In a time when resources are critical, blending green solutions in our project delivery ensures our clients can do more with less. Around the world and close to home, CH2M HILL employees provide the full spectrum of consulting, design, designbuild, operations, and program management services that support your project goals and improve quality of life.







When your business is the EARTH, it makes sense to take care of SOCIETY NEWS


And that’s exactly what Caterpillar is doing with innovations like the Cat® D7E track-type tractor with electric drive. It’s truly the first of its kind because it contains 60% fewer moving parts, which in turn, reduces manufacturing. It also uses up to 30% less fuel and moves up to 25% more material per gallon, all while drastically cutting greenhouse gas emissions. And the D7E costs less to own and operate than any other tractor in its class. Because it’s not just about moving the earth—it’s about moving it forward. Learn more about how Caterpillar supports the Military, contact DoD/ FMS Machine Sales Manager: Rick Sharp 309.578.3599

© 2011 Caterpillar | All Rights Reserved | CAT, CATERPILLAR, their respective logos, “Caterpillar Yellow” and the POWER EDGE trade dress, as well as corporate and product identity used herein, are trademarks of Caterpillar and may not be used without permission.


Similarly, the WOSB rule in the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR), the companion to the SBA rule, is going through final review and is also expected to be issued by April. With these pieces in place, ENGINEERS IN ACTION HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE SBA expects to see the first contracts awarded through the program by the allimportant fourth quarter, when the largest percent of federal contracts are awarded. Every firm that wishes to participate in the WOSB program must meet the eligibility requirements and either self-certify or obtain third-party certification. As of press time, SBA has not approved any third-party certifiers. Regardless of their certification method, WOSBs also must upload required documents proving their eligibility to a secure online data repository developed and maintained by SBA. To qualify as a WOSB, a firm must be at least 51 percent owned and controlled by one or more women, and primarily managed by one or more women. The women must be U.S. citizens and the firm must be considered small according to SBA size standards. To be deemed “economically disadvantaged,” a firm’s owners must meet specific financial requirements set forth in the program regulations. The WOSB Program identifies 83 fourdigit North American Industry Classification Systems (NAICS) codes where WOSBs are underrepresented or substantially underrepresented. Contracting officers may set aside contracts in these industries if the contract can be awarded at a fair and reasonable price, the contracting officer has a reasonable expectation that two or more WOSBs or EDWOSBs will submit offers for the contract and the anticipated contract price is not greater than $5 million for manufacturing contracts and $3 million for other contracts. Each stage of implementation is part of SBA’s mission to make the program efficient and user-friendly and to ensure its benefits go only to qualifying WOSBs. SBA is excited to launch this new program to provide WOSBs with increased opportunities to compete for and win federal contracts, ultimately helping WOSBs create and retain more jobs. For more information on the program or to access the instructions, applications or database, visit (Contributed by Tiffani Clements, SBA) LEADER PROFILE



The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011

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The U.S. Army Contracting Command (ACC) announced in late January the renaming of its major contracting centers to reflect their HISTORICAL geographical locations. The centers provide comENGINEERS IN ACTION PERSPECTIVE prehensive acquisition, contracting, business advisory, production support and depot-level maintenance services in acquiring, fielding and sustaining Army weapon systems, services and soldier support. ACC soldiers and civilians work with commercial firms to acquire equipment, supplies and services for the Army. Commenting on the reason for the change, Jeff Parsons, ACC Executive Director, stated: “Over the past two years, we’ve come to realize the importance of establishing a consistent and practical identity across the organization. After much study and consideration, the one area we believe can achieve some major returns on investment is branding and standardizing the naming convention of the ACC contracting centers. We decided to incorporate the geographical locations of the centers in their new names.” A graph containing the former and new names of the seven ACC contracting centers can be found at (Contributed by ACC)


AMEC announced the acquisition of BCI Engineers and Scientists Inc. of Lakeland, Fla. BlueForge LLC was awarded a design-build contract by the VA to develop a state-of-the-art, 500-space parking facility at the Bay Pines VAHCS campus in Bay Pines, FL. Conti Federal Services Inc. won a contract from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) for construction work in the Westbank Vicinity of New Orleans, La., as part of the area’s overall hurricane protection program. The work involves upgrading the structural integrity of roadways, floodgates and T-walls on the east and west sides of the Algiers Canal. dck north america was selected by Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) Mid-Atlantic for a multiple award construction contract (MACC) and its $22 million design-build seed project. This indefinite delivery-indefinite quantity contract is for a wide range of general construction projects in the NAVFAC Mid-Atlantic area of responsibility. The JF Jones Co. was selected to provide design management and design services for two National Park Service design-build projects: the renovation of the John Muir Park Visitor Center and a new lodge at the Redwood National Park. Kleinfelder announced the acquisitions of LPG Environmental & Permitting Services Inc. of Orlando, Fla. and Buys and Assoc. Inc. of Littleton, Colo. Mead & Hunt Inc. and RPM Engineers announced the merger of the two firms. They will operate as one entity under the Mead & Hunt name. The Department of the Air Force recognized O’Brien & Gere for exceptional service related to architect and engineering design services at Charleston Air Force Base, S.C. Parsons announced the creation of a new sector to support the The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011

ADVANCING By leveraging our innovative and award-winning expertise in markets such as transportation, facilities, environmental, energy, water and government, AECOM is advancing the ideas, projects and strategies of clients in over 100 countries around the world. Our complete portfolio of services, combined with a connected global presence that spans every continent, enables AECOM to deliver visionary turnkey solutions to the challenges facing our clients. We are also advancing the careers of our global network of approximately 50,000 employees — including architects, engineers, designers, planners, scientists and management professionals — who are united by a shared commitment to creating, enhancing and sustaining the world’s built, natural and social environments. And we are advancing our reputation, as our work on eight of the largest infrastructure projects on the planet has helped AECOM become the #1 ranked design firm — in the U.S. and globally — by ENR. To learn more about AECOM, advance to





GOVERNMENT & INDUSTRY NEWS defense market within its Infrastructure & Technology group’s Energy, Systems & Security Division. The new Defense Sector will be led by Thomas J. Rose, M.SAME, Vice President, Parsons. ENGINEERS IN ACTION HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE PBS&J awarded a grant of $5,000 to the Contemporary Science Center of Durham, North Carolina, to provide science, technology, engineering and math learning opportunities for state high-school students. The grant was funded by The PBSJ Foundation Inc. Terracon Consultants Inc. announced the acquisition of Stafford Consulting Engineers of Charlotte, N.C. The Orlando, Fla., office of VOA Assoc. Inc. is working with the USACE Fort Worth District for the Department of Homeland Security as architect-of-record for the new $30 million Border Patrol Station Complex in Kingsville, Texas. Wisnewski Blair & Assoc. Ltd. has been acquired by HGA Architects and Engineers of Minneapolis, Minn. Woolpert was selected by the USACE Sacramento District for a five-year, $30 LEADER PROFILE



We are committed to delivering design excellence to the DOD.

New Community Hospital at Fort Belvoir

Neal Wright, PE, F. SAME, VP 757.498.1148

million indefinite delivery-indefinite quantity contract to provide master planning and geographic information system services for military and civil works projects worldwide.


James W. Blake, P.E., PLS, was named Vice President in the Sparks, Md., office of JMT. Please join The Military Engineer in Brig. Gen. William congratulating the following SAME memBUCKLER M. Buckler Jr., USA, bers, who will assume U.S. Air Force comhas been nominated mand assignments this summer: for appointment to the Lt. Col. Aaron Altwies grade of major gen628 CES/CC - JB Charleston eral and assignment Lt. Col. James Beam as commander, (Troop 366 TRS/CC - Sheppard AFB FOX Program Unit), 412th Lt. Col. Brad Buckman Engineer Command, 421 CES/CC - RAF Menwith Hill Vicksburg, Miss. Gen. Lt. Col. (s) Sarah Deaver Buckler is currently 319 CES/CC - Grand Forks AFB serving as deputy Lt. Col. (s) Rick Dwyer commander, (Troop 380 ECES/CC-Al Dahfra AB MALMGREN Program Unit), 412th Lt. Col. (s) Dat Lam Engineer Command, 62 CES/CC-JB Lewis-McChord Vicksburg, Miss., AsLt. Col. (s) David Novy sistant Chief of Staff, 1 SOCES/CC-Hurlburt Field Engineer, 8th U.S. Lt. Col. (s) Patrick Obruba Army, Yongsan, Korea. 92 CES/CC - Fairchild AFB ROBBINS James A. “Jim” Fox Lt. Col. Susan Riordan-Smith was selected to serve as 45 CES/CC-Patrick AFB Chief Executive Officer, O’Brien & Gere. Lt. Col. John Schuliger Col. Timothy S. Green, USAF, has 375 CES/CC-Scott AFB been nominated to the grade of brigadier Lt. Col. Tom Taylor general. Col. Green is currently serving as 312 TRS/CC-Goodfellow AFB Special Assistant to the Commander, U.S. Lt. Col. (s) Terrence Walter European Command, Supreme Head332 ECES/CC - Balad AB Maj. Ross Gleason quarters Allied Powers Europe, Belgium. 422 CES/CC - RAF Croughton James D. Keith, P.E., CFM, was named Maj. Patrick Suermann Senior Project Manager for the Denton, 821 SPTS/CC - Thule AS Texas, office, Dewberry. Maj. Jack Wheeldon Greg W. Malmgren was named Vice Det 1, 823 RHS - Tyndall AFB President of Government Building Sector Sales, Professional Service Industries Inc. Dennis J. Milsten, CCM, Chief Quality Assurance Services Director, Office of Construction and Facilities Management, Department of Veterans Affairs, LETTER FROM . . . GOVERNMENT NEWS MILITARY NEWS SUSTAINABILITY NEWS was awarded the 2010 President’s Award by the National Institute of Building SciSubmit Government & Industry ences. News items, with high-resolution (300-dpi) electronic images, to Col. Niel E. Nelson, USMC, has been nominated for appointment to the rank of TECHNOLOGY NEWS

14 TME Ad.indd 1

brigadier general. Col. Nelson is currently serving as Executive Assistant to the Deputy Commandant for Installations and Logistics, Headquarters, Marine Corps, Washington, D.C. Maj. Gen. Earnest O. Robbins II, USAF (Ret.), has been appointed President, Parsons MENA+ (Middle East, North Africa, and the northern Mediterranean Sea border countries).

2/1/2011 2:10:21 PM




The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011



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Compiled by Meighan Altwies, M.SAME




Senior Airman Jacob Cleer, USAF, wrestles his 30-lb jackhammer into place and begins pounding the pavement on HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE one of two landing strips at an undisclosed air base in Southwest Asia. Chunks of concrete fly into the air as the steeltipped chisel digs into the tarmac, demolishing a patch of runway that had begun to crumble a few days earlier. Airman Cleer, a heavy equipment operator assigned to the 386th Expeditionary Civil Engineer Squadron (ECES), finishes the job with one final burst and looks down the runway at the half-dozen other sections he is scheduled to excavate the same day. Each of the crumbling patches, called a spall, is riddled with fractured concrete that could damage an aircraft during takeoffs and landings if not repaired immediately. Behind him, Airman Cleer’s coworkers on the 386th ECES runway repair team are busily mixing a cement-like mortar to pour into the holes he’s making. They will patch the voids with a form of concrete that cures rapidly so the runway can reopen in just three hours. In the past six months, the members of the 386th ECES have repaired hundreds of spalls by pouring more than 180-ft3 of fresh mortar.The main imperative is speed, explained Capt. Jason Adams, USAF, 386th ECES Chief of Operations. “The runway is obviously a missionessential asset, but we have to close it to conduct repair work,” Capt. Adams said. “Even though we have two runways here, we work pretty rapidly so no runway has to be closed for an extended period of time. Our shop can do up to 20 patches in a single 4-hour period, and the runway is available for use a few hours after that.” Spalls pose a very real danger to aircraft here, where thousands of takeoffs and landings happen annually as part of round-the-clock airlift operations conducted by members of the 386th Air Expeditionary Wing. Preventing that kind of damage is the main objective of runway repair, he said, but the 386th ECES members’ true impact is much broader. “Our runways are where the rubber meets the road,” Capt. Adams said. 16



Staff Sgt. Brandon Terhune, USAF, smoothes out a fresh runway patch in December 2010 at an air base in Southwest Asia. Sgt. Terhune is a member of the 386th Expeditionary Civil Engineer Squadron.

“Without them, the wing wouldn’t be able to conduct its airlift mission. So runway repair is about more than simply preventing aircraft damage from loose concrete, it’s also about keeping our runways in serviceable condition, so they can stay operational and the wing can continue to support the fight throughout the area of responsibility.” (Contributed by Maj. Dale Greer, USAF, 386th Air Expeditionary Wing Public Affairs)

take more than two weeks to accomplish the mission. The 557th Engineer Company received a request to help the Seabees expedite project completion. The company brought with it their heavy equipment, excavators and bulldozers to support the Seabees’ efforts. The silo was built during the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan and was abandoned after their defeat. (Contributed by Michael Reinsch, ISAF Joint Command)



Seabees from Naval Mobile Construction Battalions 40 and 18 and the 864th Engineer Battalion, 557th Engineer Company in November 2010 began razing the area around a former Soviet grain processing silo for a future 10-MW power plant and a Combat Operation Post (COP) in Kandahar City, Kandahar Province, Afghanistan. The COP is the planned home for a team of soldiers from the 122nd Infantry to support their mission in and around Kandahar, located in southern Afghanistan. The power plant will be built for the purpose of providing power to the western side of Kandahar City. Seabees were tasked with the demolition of the smaller buildings around the actual silo. It was estimated that it would

Businesses on the east side of Kandahar City, Afghanistan, are about to get around-the-clock power generation. In early January, Dr. Tooryalai Wesa, Governor of Kandahar City, and Karl W. Eikenberry, U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan, joined dozens of Afghan business and industry leaders, factory owners, and U.S military and civilian government officials in celebrating the opening of a new 10MW diesel generator power plant in the Shurandam Industrial Park, located on the east side of Kandahar City. The diesel power plant will provide reliable power to factories and small businesses on Feeder 514 in that area. Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat (DABS), the national power utility company, energized The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011





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the power plant on Dec. 1, 2010, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Afghanistan Engineer District–South (AES). During the past month, the plant has been HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE operating 24-hr a day, a significant increase in the amount of power that businesses currently receive in that industrial park. The Afghan government is working with U.S. agencies to provide more power

to Kandahar City for business and economic growth. The Shurandam power plant is an intermediate step in a planned progression to bring Kandahar City to sustainable and reliable power. The goal is to jumpstart business and economic development until the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) can install a third turbine at Kajaki Dam and improve the distribution.

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Providing sufficient power can’t be done quickly, so an interim, or bridging solution resulted in the first 10-MW plant at Shurandam Industrial Park. A second 10-MW plant is under construction on the west side of Kandahar City, at Bagh-ePol, and will come on line in early March. USACE is managing the construction and operations and maintenance contracts for the diesel plants. Col. Anthony Funkhouser, USA, AES Commander, described how the power bridging solution fits into the Kandahar City Power Initiative, a plan to increase power generation and distribution to the city over the next three years. The initiative invests more than $600 million in the Southern Electrical Power System, which is the utility system serving the Kandahar, Helmand and Uruzgan provinces. “Kandahar City has approximately 26MW of power made available to it—12MW coming from hydropower produced at Kajaki Dam and 14-MW produced through diesel generators that DABS maintains.” The new diesel generator plants will add power to the grid. Additionally, USAID has contracts in place to strengthen and expand the distribution system, plus install the third turbine at Kajaki Dam in Helmand Province, the recognized sustainable solution to supplying additional power to Kandahar City. AES also awarded a contract that provides DABS with spare parts and tools to repair distribution networks, acquire maintenance vehicles, prepare connections to the power plants and perform other maintenance services. This project, as well as the bridging solution, is being funded through the Commander’s Emergency Response Program, which provides projects or services that immediately assist the population. The diesel plants are intended to be in place three years, untiml a longer-term solution is in place to provide sustainable power to Kandahar City. Read more about AES efforts to create sustainable power generation in southern Afghanistan in the feature article on page 53 of this issue of The Military Engineer. (Contributed by Joan Kibler, AES Public Affairs) The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011

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“If the importance of an event is measured by who attends, then this is a very important event today,” said Col. Anthony C. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Funkhouser, USA, AES Commander, to the more than 200 people who attended the January ribbon-cutting ceremony for an Afghan National Army (ANA) hospital addition at Camp Zafar, Herat, located in southern Afghanistan. Attending the ribbon cutting were ANA members including Brig. Gen. Mohaidin Ghori, Chief of Staff, 207th Corps of the ANA; Col. Brad Booth, USA, Commander, Regional Support Command (West); Mahmoud Baligh, Vice President, Omran Consulting, Construction & Engineering; and dozens of ANA soldiers, medical staff, contractors and coalition personnel. The $3.5 million facility, which AES awarded in April 2009, was constructed by Omran. “The additional capacity will provide the 207th Corps’ 13,000 soldiers with proper medical facilities,” said 1st Lt. Tanner Smith, NATO Training Mission–Afghanistan/Combined Security Transition Command–Afghanistan, Engineer staff. “This expansion provides the Afghan National Army with a critical facility for their transition to self-sustainment.” Through an interpreter, Baligh explained the layout and function of the hospital addition and said that it was constructed “in accordance with the highest modern updated standards. “In addition, the hospital was designed and built by professional young Afghan engineers,” Baligh said. “Our first and main priority is to employ Afghan engineers to build capacity and to take on bigger projects in the future.” According to Kenny Pham, Project Engineer for the AES Herat Area Office, “The addition has patient areas, administrative offices for the medical staff and a full-service dining facility.” Pham added that the patient area provides 46 regular patient beds, four isolation beds for infectious patients, and a VIP patient bed—and each has its own oxygen fitting that is connected to an existing oxygen system. The administrative area has 13 medical staff offices, a shared office, meeting room, locker rooms, nurse station, barber shop and gift shop. The dining facility has a kitchen that can serve up to 60 people at a time, a dining area and a food storage area. (Contributed by Joan Kibler, AES Public Affairs)


Seabees from NMCB-3 spent 17 days building a patrol base in the Maiwand District of Afghanistan. Lashkar Gah Duri Junction Patrol Base is the proposed name for the 200-M by 150-M base, which is located approximately halfway between the coalition bases in Kandahar and Camp Leatherneck. The base was built to accommodate British forces that patrol Highway 1. The first thing the Seabees did when they arrived to the area was to coordinate their security perimeter with the British. Between the detachment’s gun trucks and what the British had in place, the troops from both nations were able to establish and maintain a 360 degree security perimeter, enabling the Seabees 20

The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011

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to safely begin construction operations. The first order of business after establishing security was to mine-proof the area. This required a bulldozer with a mine rake attachment to rake the area for HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE potential mines or explosive hazards. The first phase of the base construction consisted of placing hundreds of dirt-filled, wire-framed, and cloth-encased security barriers around and inside of the base. The rest of the construction included building a helicopter landing pad, four guard towers, two entry control points, roads and other miscellaneous support structures. The successful mission demonstrated the capabilities of NMCB-3. NMCB-3 is part of the Navy Expeditionary Combat Commands warfighting LETTERsupport FROM . . ele. ments, providing construction operations and security in support of overseas contingency operations. (Contributed by Chief Mass Communication Specialist Jesse A. Sherwin, NMCB-3 Public Affairs)


To install the new cable, heavy-equipment operators had to cut into a road Inhabitants of Bakir Village, Iraq, spent and dig an additional 1,500-ft trench, a the final three months of 2010 without job that required the help of more than power before members of the 332nd 30 ECES airmen from throughout the ECES, contractors and local electricians squadron who pitched in to unwind and worked together to install new high-volt- lay a spool of cable weighing more than 14,000-lbs. age cable to restore electricity. “It was a great effort for all of us to come “This has been a joint effort between together and make it happen,” said Staff the provincial reconstruction team, the Sgt. Jeremiah Webb, USAF, a 332nd ECES 332nd ECES and the Iraqi Minister of Pavements and Construction Equipment Electricity to restore power to Bakir VilOperator. “We just wanted to help out lage,” said Maj. Walter D. Gibbins, USAF, the people of Bakir Village. Having to be the 332nd ECES Operations Flight Comwithout electricity is an inconvenience, mander. and they were without it for 85 days.” While the high-voltage line traverses (Contributed by Senior Airman Tong Duthrough Joint Base Balad, delays in the reong, 332nd Air Expeditionary Wing Public pair were partially due to the time itMILITARY took NEWS GOVERNMENT NEWS SUSTAINABILITY NEWS to procure the replacement cable and lo- Affairs) cal politics. Although Joint Base Balad has Submit Military News items no responsibility maintaining the line, with high-resolution (300-dpi) villagers, many of whom work on-base, electronic images, to milnews@ benefited from ECES efforts, Maj. Gibbins said.



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Lisa P. Jackson, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator, announced in early February the agency’s decision to move forward with the development of a regulation for perchlorate to protect Americans from any potential health impacts, while also continuing to take steps to ensure the quality of the water they drink. The decision to undertake a first-ever national standard for perchlorate reverses a decision made by the previous administration and comes after Jackson ordered EPA scientists to undertake a thorough review of the emerging science of the potentially harmful chemical. Perchlorate is both a naturally-occurring and manmade chemical, and scientific research indicates that it may impact the normal function of the thyroid, which produces important developmental hormones. Thyroid hormones are critical to the normal development and growth of fetuses, infants and children. Based on this potential concern, EPA will move forward with proposing a formal rule. This process will include receiving input from key stakeholders as well as submitting any formal rule to a public comment process. Monitoring data show more than 4 percent of public water systems have detected perchlorate and between 5 million and 17 million people may be served drinking water containing perchlorate. The science that has led to this decision has been peer reviewed by independent scientists and public health experts including the National Academy of Sciences. Perchlorate is used in the manufacture of rocket fuel, fireworks, flares and explosives, and may be present in bleach and in some fertilizers. This decision reverses a 2008 preliminary determination, and considers input from almost 39,000 public comments. EPA will continue to evaluate perchlorate health effects and occurrence in public water systems. The agency also will evaluate the feasibility of treatment technologies to remove perchlorate and will examine the costs and benefits of potential standards. In a separate action, EPA is exploring similar standards for a group of 16 volatile organic compounds. (Contributed by EPA) 24

Compiled by Wendi Goldsmith, M.SAME


The Department of Energy (DOE) and the Department of the Interior (DOI) announced a comprehensive environmental analysis that identifies proposed “solar energy zones” on public lands in six Western states. Lands that are in Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico and Utah that are most suitable for environmentally-sound, utility-scale solar energy production were the focus of the joint December 2010 announcement. A 90-day period for public comment on a detailed study, known as the draft Solar Energy Development Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), began Dec. 17, 2010, with the publication of a notice of availability. Under the study’s preferred alternative, DOI’s Bureau of Land Management (BLM) would establish a new solar energy program that would standardize and streamline the authorization process and would establish mandatory design features for solar energy development on BLM lands. BLM would establish “solar energy zones” within the lands available for solar development right-of-way applications. These have been identified as most appropriate for development, containing the highest solar energy potential and fewest environmental and resource conflicts. The solar energy zones would provide directed, landscape-scale planning for future solar projects and would allow for a more efficient permitting and siting process. The initiative stems from a June 2009 DOI announcement that tracts of BLM land in the six Western states, known as solar energy study areas, would be fully evaluated for their environmental and resource suitability for large-scale solar energy production. Much of the BLM-managed 120 million acres of public land in the six states would be excluded from solar energy production, leaving about 22 million acres available for right-of-way applications under the preferred alternative. That includes some 677,400 acres identified as proposed solar energy zones. However, reasonably foreseeable solar energy development is anticipated on only about 214,000 acres of

the suitable and appropriate BLM lands. Even as it completes the PEIS, the BLM continues to process existing solar energy applications. The BLM’s current solar energy caseload includes 104 active solar applications covering 1 million acres that developers estimate could generate 60,000-MW of electricity. The preferred method of commenting is by written submissions using the online form available on the Solar Energy Development PEIS website. The Draft Solar Energy PEIS document also is available at the Solar Energy Development PEIS site. (Contributed by DOE)


After reviewing the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD) on the Cape Wind LLC wind energy facility proposal, to construct 130 wind turbines in Nantucket Sound, Mass. The proposal, which was compiled by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE), is to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) New England District has made its determination under Section 10/Section 404 jurisdiction to issue a Corps permit. This represents the largest U.S. offshore wind project to date, projected to generate 400-MW of power. The application for the federal permit was filed with USACE in compliance with Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act, which provides for federal regulation of any work in, or affecting navigable waters of the United States; and with Section 404 of the Clean Water Act, which regulates the discharge or fill of material in U.S. waters, including wetlands. USACE completed its Section 10/404 permit review and ROD in January and issued a USACE permit for the proposal. BOEMRE is the lead federal agency in the environmental review, as required by the National Environmental Policy Act. BOEMRE released its final EIS in January 2009 before making its ROD in April 2010. USACE has been one of many federal, state and local cooperating agencies in the environmental review process. The BOEMRE website with the EIS and ROD The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011

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EPA issued its plan for establishing greenhouse gas pollution standards under the Clean Air Act in 2011. The agency looked at a number of sectors and is moving forward on standards for fossil fuel power plants and petroleum refineries—two of the largest industrial sources, representing nearly 40 percent of the

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greenhouse gas pollution in the U.S. The schedule issued in these agreements provides a clear path forward for these sectors and is part of EPA’s approach to addressing greenhousegas emissions from the largest industrial pollution sources. Several states, local governments and environmental organizations sued EPA over the agency’s failure to update the pollution standards for fossil fuel power plants and petroleum refineries, two of the largest source categories of greenhouse gas pollution in the U.S. Under this agreement, EPA will propose standards for power plants in July 2011 and for refineries in December 2011 and will issue final standards in May 2012 and November 2012, respectively. This schedule will allow the agency to host listening sessions with the business community, states and other stakeholders in early 2011, well before the rulemaking process begins, as well as to solicit additional feedback during the routine notice and comment period. Together this feedback will lead to smart, cost-effective and protective standards that reflect the latest and best information. The Clean Air Act requires EPA to set industry-specific standards for new sources that emit significant quantities of harmful pollutants. These standards, called New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), set the level of pollution new facilities may emit and address air pollution from existing facilities. The act allows flexible and innovative approaches that take into account cost, health and environmental impacts, and energy requirements. EPA also must periodically update these standards to reflect improvements in control technologies. Earlier this year, EPA issued an approach to greenhouse gas permitting for the largest industrial sources. This approach, the greenhouse gas permitting guidelines issued in November, and these standards will give power plants and refineries a clear and sensible path for addressing GHG pollution. EPA will accept public comment on these two agreements for 30 days following publication of notice in the Federal Register. (Contributed by EPA)

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DOE Secretary Steven Chu announced in December 2010 the completion of a new cool roof installation on the DOE Headquarters West Building in Washington, D.C. There was no incremental cost to adding the cool roof as part of the roof replacement project, and it will save taxpayers $2,000 every year in building energy costs. Cool roofs use lighter-colored roofing surfaces or special coatings to reflect more of the sun’s heat, helping improve building efficiency, reduce cooling costs and offset carbon emissions. The cool roof and increased insulation at the facility were installed as part of the federal government’s commitment to lead by example in increasing energy efficiency, reducing carbon pollution and demonstrating the benefits of clean energy technologies. Earlier this year, Chu directed all DOE offices to install cool roofs, whenever cost effective, when constructing a new roof or replacing an old one. The department’s new cool roof on the West Building covers approximately 25,000-ft2. In the spring, DOE also will install a cool roof on its adjacent Headquarters South Building that will cover approximately 66,000-ft2. As a result of the new cool roof installations on the two headquarters buildings, taxpayers will save a total of $8,000 per year in energy costs. Roofs and road pavement cover 50 percent to 65 percent of urban areas. Most traditional dark-colored roofing materials absorb 80 percent to 90 percent of incoming solar energy, increasing temperatures on the surface and, in the case of roofing, heating the building, which in turn requires additional air conditioning. White or special “cool color” roofs absorb less than 50 percent of solar energy, reducing the roof temperature and decreasing the energy used in air conditioning. A dark roof can reach temperatures above 180°F on a hot day, while a cool roof can stay 50° cooler. A study by researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory found that using cool roofs and cool pavements in cities around the world can help reduce the demand for air conditioning, cool entire cities and potentially cancel the heating effect of up to two years of worldwide carbon dioxide emissions. (Contributed by DOE)

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Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) Washington was recognized for its first Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold certification during a ceremony held at Naval Support Activity South Potomac, Dahlgren, Va., in December 2010. The facility was built by NAVFAC Washington to support Naval Surface Weapons Command (NSWC) Dahlgren Division at Naval Support Facility Dahlgren. The sustainable features of the building include recycled materials, construction materials bought regionally, premium indoor air quality, design innovations, bike storage, changing rooms, water efficiency and optimized energy performance. In all, the building met 41 criteria points, enough to qualify for LEED Gold certification. The task faced some challenges; for example, the building was not able to qualify for the “daylight views” requirements because the sensitive nature of the work performed in the building severely limited the number of windows allowed in its design. The NSWC facility supports two primary missions: the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System and the Integrated Combat Systems Test Facility. The 56,000-ft2 Research, Development, and Acquisition and Testing and Evaluation Consolidation Facility houses 130 personnel. The LEED system promotes design and construction practices that improve the impact of buildings on the environment and their occupants. NAVFAC is dedicated to seeking ways to increase energy efficiency and support the U.S. Navy as it strives to become a leader in environmental responsibility. (Contributed by NAVFAC)

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Energy MILITARY Secretary anNEWS Steven Chu SUSTAINABILITY NEWS nounced the DOE’s intent to fund up to $50 million to test and demonstrate innovative technologies that will lead to cost-competitive solar energy technologies. The demonstration program will be a critical link between DOE’s advanced



technology development programs and full-scale commercialization efforts. The Nevada National Security Site will serve as a proving ground for cutting-edge solar technologies, such as concentrating solar thermal power and concentrating photovoltaic energy, which can be used for utility applications in the Southwestern United States, where there is an abundance of solar energy. DOE was expected to announce the Funding Opportunity Announcement in early 2011. Potential technology applications include concentrated solar power systems that use mirrors to reflect and concentrate sunlight on a heat absorbing fluid, convert it to steam and ultimately generate electricity, as well as concentrated photovoltaic power, which uses lenses to concentrate sunlight to improve the efficiency of conventional photovoltaics. The demonstration projects will be deployed at a large enough scale to provide useful operating and economic data for the eventual deployment of solar energy projects at utility-scale, which are typically gridconnected projects larger than 20-MW. The Solar Demonstration Zone at NNSS will complement DOI’s 24 Solar Energy Study Areas on public lands across the Southwest U.S. by providing essential data about the commercial viability of the most advanced solar technologies. As part of DOE and DOI’s continuing collaboration, the departments are working together to implement this project, including conducting environmental reviews and coordinating necessary infrastructure planning for the site. DOE funding for the project is dependent upon congressional appropriations. The full Notice of Intent is available on by searching under Reference Number DE-FOA-0000233. (Contributed by DOE)



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Compiled by Lewis E. (Ed) Link, Ph.D., M.SAME



Levee breaches are a national concern and can be an emergency management agency’s worst nightmare. The American Society of Civil Engineers estimates there are 100,000-mi of levees in the U.S., 85 percent of which are locally owned and maintained. Many are old with large unknowns in reliability and risk. On Dec. 15, 2010, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) successfully demonstrated an innovative technology to close levee breaches rapidly: the Portable Lightweight Ubiquitous Gasket (PLUG). PLUG could revolutionize flood response not only nationally, but also globally, saving countless lives and billions of dollars in property losses. The PLUG is the culmination of nearly five years of fast-paced ERDC research efforts, which included 1:50, 1:16 and 1:4 scale experiments. It is envisioned to be deployable in four to six hours after a levee breach occurs, the critical window of time to seal a breach before it unravels and grows too large, causing devastating flooding and losses. Until now, about the only method of plugging levee breaches was sandbags, which are slow to deploy and somewhat ineffective. Even the giant sandbags dropped by helicopters in New Orleans, La., following Hurricane Katrina took almost a week to close some of the breaches. The lack of expedient repair options for levee breaches was also apparent in

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The prototype Portable Lightweight Ubiquitous Gasket is a high-strength fabric tube that is partially inflated with water and floated into a levee breach to rapidly and effectively seal the breach.

the Midwest floods of 2009 and 2008. PLUG is a high-strength fabric tube that is partially inflated with water and floated into a levee breach to rapidly and effectively seal the breach. Beyond the rapid-deployment requirement, this repair technology had to work in austere conditions with little site preparation and little logistics support, and it had to be easily deployable by helicopter, vessel, or even driven to a site by truck. The demonstration was held at the new 11-acre, 4-million-G, $4 million levee breach experiment facility at the ERDC installation in Vicksburg, Miss.—by far the largest such facility in the world. The demonstration simulated a 40-ft levee breach with a flow rate of approximately 2,000-ft3, or 15,000-G, per second. The 100-ft-long, 15-ft-wide PLUG tube was filled about 70 percent with water. (Dry, the fabric tube can be folded for transportation with a weight of approximately 3,700-lbs.) It took about 45 minutes for pumps to fill the PLUG with 96,000-G of water. Although it weighed in at approximately 800,000-lbs, the water flow through the simulated breach moved the lumbering yellow PLUG surprisingly fast. Once positioned, the PLUG effectively sealed flow through the simulated breach in less than 90 seconds. The demonstration drew approximately 100 attendees representing DHS, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and other federal agencies; state and regional levee districts; various state emergency operations organizations; academia; and private industry. Those attending the demonstration were impressed with PLUG’s capabilities and are looking to see it in action in the near future. USACE researchers were contacted on the day of the demonstration with a request to use PLUG technology at a levee breach flooding in Colombia; however, the only PLUG available is the ERDC prototype. Nonetheless, the flooding in Colombia was a perfect example of a situation in which the PLUG technology could be applied. This research was funded by DHS, with additional funding provided by the Southeast Region Research Initiative. The prototype full-scale PLUG that was demonstrated in December cost approximately $150,000 to manufacture. Fabrication of a proThe Military Engineer • March-April • 2011


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version of the same size PLUG NLINE!duction is estimated at a cost of approximately

SPIDERS partners include the U.S. between the needs for heat and electric Pacific Command, U.S. Northern Com- power. Unneeded electricity from a mi$100,000. mand, DHS, five Department of Energy crogrid can be “wheeled” back to the For additional information, contact Dr. (DOE) laboratories, ERDC (technical central grid, potentially at a profit to the Donald Resio, ERDC, at 601-634-2018 or manager), the four military services, the microgrid owner. Two Department of Defense (DOD) Facilities Engineering Command, ! Special guest speaker, Ed Begley, Naval Jr., the greenest man in America! An eco-pioneer sites will have microgrids installed for local utility companies and the states of e 1970’s, author of two green books and an award winning actor and TV star,project: Begley’s the SPIDERS Camp H.M. Smith, SPIDERS TO WEAVE WEB OF CYBER, Hawaii and Colorado. The three-year efon sustainability attract sold-out crowds! ENERGY SECURITY Hawaii, and Fort Carson, Colo. The DOD fort will run through 2013. sites provide a test bed for a capability A Joint Capability Technology DemA microgrid is a local grouping of electhat will have national implications. Suconstration starting in 2011 will use a dis- tricity generation, energy storage and cessful demonstration and emergence of tributed energy circuit—or microgrid— loads usually connected to a traditional this technology will allow military instalcombined with other elements to ensure centralized grid, or macrogrid. This sincritical military missions have a reliable, gle point of common coupling with the lations and cities to take advantage of resecure electrical supply after a power macrogrid can be disconnected. The mi- newable energy and reduce fossil fuel use outage due to natural disasters or attack. crogrid can then function autonomously. while also reducing the carbon footprint Known as the Smart Power Infrastruc- Microgrid generation resources can in- and providing a backup electrical supply. ture Demonstration for Energy Reliability clude fuel cells, wind, solar, or other en- Further, with the nation’s litigious climate and Security (SPIDERS), the project will ergy sources, while storage can include and “not in my backyard” mentality, it is address advanced controls needed for such options as hydrogen storage and becoming increasingly difficult for power utility-connected and islanded modes of advanced batteries. Byproduct heat from companies to add generation facilities operation, cyber-security risk mitigation generation sources such as microturbines and transmission lines. Local or regional and transition of microgrid technology to can be used for local process heating or microgrids could augment the country’s space heating, allowing flexible tradeoffs existing electrical infrastructure. standards. SOCIETY NEWS




The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011

• • • • • • •

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TECHNOLOGY NEWS From a DOD installation perspective, microgrids would represent a major step forward in complying with national mandates to reduce energy consumption, which include a goal to achieve a net-zero energy standard by 2025. Microgrids are the enabling technology allowing for energy management systems to perform a variety of functions. Energy managers face multiple, complex challenges in meeting the requirements of legislation such as the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, Executive Order 13423 and other imperatives. Also on the horizon are new laws dealing with climate change that have obvious implications for DOD, which uses more than 4.6-billion-G of fossil fuel annually. In response to recent executive orders, DOD already has committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions from non-combatant activities 34 percent by 2020. Targets for this reduction are the department’s 300,000 buildings and 160,000 fleet vehicles, which consume one-fourth of DOD’s fuel but account for nearly 40 percent of its greenhouse gas emissions. Lessons learned from SPIDERS also can be exported to contingency operations, perhaps with some modification from home-based microgrids. By producing and storing some of its own electricity, a base camp could reduce the number of convoys needed to deliver fuel, placing fewer American military men and women in harm’s way. At present, the single largest commodity supplied to troops in Afghanistan is fuel. The SPIDERS demonstration is phased over the project’s three




years. This year, initial work will begin at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii, in support of Camp Smith’s microgrid. The Hickam phase is a circuit-level demonstration to provide building blocks for Camp Smith’s future energy island. Planned activities begin with integrating the base’s existing renewables, diesel generators and energy storage. A fuel cell will be added to back up critical loads on the installation circuit. The team will then perform an operational evaluation of the microgrid on mission loads to provide redundant power to simulate mission-critical functions. Another goal is to validate the cyber-security strategies through a test bed simulation of the utility electric grid management systems with two-way communications, situational awareness and the ability to safely reconnect with local utility grids. DOD must ensure enhanced energy capabilities do not create new vulnerabilities to operations or system health. Cyber security elements of the SPIDERS demonstration will leverage ongoing work in DOE and DHS. At Camp Smith, the team will install an advanced metering infrastructure, implement demand-side management and conduct an off-site simulation of the camp’s secure smart microgrid for a complete installation. The final configuration for Camp Smith at will be an installation-wide cyber-secure smart microgrid with battery storage and islanding capability. Successful demonstration will enable future net-zero energy operations as investments in energy generation and renewable energy are planned. First-year activities at Fort Carson include tying the shared, distributed grid to backup generation, demonstrating the microgrid in the command area and starting to incorporate photovoltaic renewable generation. The fort’s completed system will be a large, smart microgrid with cyber defense and vehicle-to-grid storage that leverages 2-MW of existing photovoltaic generation and $20 million in recent electric upgrades. For more information, contact Dana Finney, ERDC, at 217373-6714 or


USACE has successfully demonstrated the potential application of the innovative Lightweight Modular Causeway System (LMCS) as expedient bridging to support both military requirements and possible disaster response operations. The capabilities of this new technology may prove extremely useful in a variety of future emergency scenarios. LMCS is in final development stages by ERDC, the USACE research and development organization. It is answering DOD requirements for vessels to conduct autonomous offloading operations where sea ports may be lacking, damaged, or nonexistent. This causeway can be transported and rapidly deployed from a vessel, can support 70-T vehicles and has been proven in model testing to be capable of withstanding 20-ft waves. Because the LMCS uses a combination of concepts from fixed bridging and floating causeway systems (10-ft by 20-ft modular sections with attached inflatable pontoon-like tubes), USACE researchers quickly saw the potential application for expedient bridging. In August 2009, LMCS proved its initial potential as 36

The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011

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TECHNOLOGY NEWS a “wet gap” crossing system for coastal areas, rivers and streams when a small section was used over a canal during a demonstration at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii. This bridge demo included crossings by several vehicles simulating a disaster relief force. In April 2010, another bridging demonstration was included in the Arctic Edge 2010 exercise at Fort Richardson, Alaska. The scenario was replacement of an earthquake-damaged bridge, and the demo focused on two aspects: helicopter transportability and the ability of engineer troops without experience with this system to bridge a fast-moving river. A CH-47 Chinook helicopter was used to successfully sling-load and fly two LMCS sections. The tubes were flown both inflated and deflated at air speeds of up to 90-knots, and demonstrations of both configurations were successful. Twenty soldiers from the 84th Engineer Support Company, 6th Engineer Battalion used the LMCS sections to cross the Eagle River using only forklifts for emplace-




ment. Due to their unfamiliarity with the system, it took the soldiers two hours to WELCOME YOUR NEW CONTRIBUTING EDITOR launch the first section. The next section took only an hour; the remaining five secDr. Ed Link is a research professor in tions were emplaced in a few hours. By the Department of Civil and Environmid-afternoon, vehicles were across the mental Engineering at the University 70-ft river gap on the expedient bridge. of Maryland, where he teaches coursWith system familiarity, the soldiers eses in risk and natural disaster mantimated they could emplace the same agement. Previously, he spent 34 years LETTER FROM . . . GOVERNMENT NEWS bridge in only four to five hours. working in research and development USACE researchers are continuing (R+D) for USACE, the last six years as discussions on fielding and operational the Director of R&D and Chief Scienuse with DOD organizations, but as with tific Advisor to the Chief of Engineers. many other projects, there is no funding During that time he was involved in currently available to carry this technolconducting, managing and leading reogy forward to final fruition. However, search efforts that addressed a broad these successful demonstrations have spectrum of military engineering and shown the great potential of LMCS secwater resources issues. He led the fotions for expedient bridging in emergency rensic analysis of Hurricane Katrina, relief operations for floods, hurricanes, for which heLEADER received ENR’s 2007 TECHNOLOGY NEWS PROFILE tsunamis, earthquakes, or other natural Award of Excellence. or manmade emergency events. For additional information contact Dr. Submit Technology News items with Donald Resio, ERDC, at 601-634-2018 or high-resolution (300-dpi) electronic


images, to





The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011








Adm. Handley addresses the questions and concerns of Seabees assigned to Naval Mobile Construction Battalions 22 and 74 during an all-hands call at Kandahar Airfield, Afghanistan, in January. NAVY PHOTO BY MC3 ERNESTO HERNANDEZ FONTE


MilitaryEngineer Engineer • March-April • 2011 TheTheMilitary





Rear Adm. Mark A. Handley, P.E., CEC, USN SOCIETY NEWS


The Commander of the First Naval Construction Division and Commander of Naval Construction Forces Command discusses the U.S. Navy Seabees’ current support to overseas missions both combat-related and humanitarian. TME: What is the mission of Seabees in supporting joint contingency operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, and what have been some of their greatest accomplishments? ADM. HANDLEY: Seabees have had a constant presence in Iraq since 2003 supporting Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation New Dawn in support of U.S. Army soldiers and Marines. Our accomplishments include the erection and maintenance of numerous base camps and air fields and the establishment of critical infrastructure such as roads and bridges to allow the freedom of movement for troops to conduct kinetic operations. Concurrently, Seabees have been integrated with the special operations forces. When President Obama announced the surge of 30,000 additional U.S. troops to Afghanistan in December 2009, Seabees were called upon to provide an additional two battalions to construct critical infrastructure for incoming Marines and soldiers. Seabees operated in a joint environment to establish combat outposts, forward operating bases (FOB), and to provide force protection improvements such as guard towers and bunkers. Throughout Afghanistan, Seabees were integrated with Army and U.S. Air Force engineering units to execute multitude of projects to meet the initial operating capacity. In fact, in northern and eastern Afghanistan an Army brigade worked extensively with a battalion of Seabees to accomplish assigned missions within their area of operation. In southern Afghanistan, a Seabee regiment has provided command and control of Army combat engineers and Air Force engineering squadrons. It is through this type of integration that we are able to leverage each service’s engineering capabilities and learn from each other as we work together in a joint environment. The TheMilitary MilitaryEngineer Engineer• No. • No.670 670

With four battalions in theater, Seabees have completed more than 625 projects in more than 65 austere locations. One of our greatest accomplishments took place in northern Afghanistan, where Seabees established a 300-acre FOB as the logistics hub for U.S. forces in the north. Capable of housing more than 2,500 personnel, it was deemed the largest earth-moving operation undertaken by a single battalion since World War II. Another great accomplishment is our current support of efforts in securing the city of Kandahar and its surrounding provinces in southern Afghanistan. Seabees are expeditiously constructing the combat outposts, strong points and FOBs that serve as the platforms to build and project the combat power to protect the people of Afghanistan. This is a total joint effort including Army, Navy, and Air Force engineers. TME: How have deployments changed to keep up with the current operational tempo and how are Seabees handling these additional stresses? ADM. HANDLEY: Seabees are certainly in high demand, and our engagement has increased around the globe. As our Seabees are called upon more frequently, particularly in support of the surge, we have had to make adjustments across the Naval Construction Force (NCF). We have had to shorten homeport periods and lengthen deployments to meet operational requirements across the U.S. Pacific, Central, European, Southern Command and Africa Commands. To support the surge over the past year we have increased our deployment lengths from six months to eight months, and our homeports have decreased from 12 months to 10 months. To respond quickly and seamlessly, some deployments were extended to 10 months.

Despite the shift in our force flow, Seabees remain resilient and flexible. Their ability to handle these additional stresses is a testament to each battalion’s Ombudsman, Family Support Group and command leadership. The United Service Organization and other organizations are also doing their part to relieve stress for deployed Seabees by providing free phone cards and care packages full of much needed items. I am continually impressed by the work ethic of Seabees. In fact, the members of one of our reserve battalions, Naval Mobile Construction Battalion 18, recently sent a letter to Gen. David Petraeus, USA, thanking him for allowing them to remain in Afghanistan for seven months to complete their work rather than go home early. You can’t ask for a more determined, hard-working group. Leadership at every level remains engaged during our current tempo as we continue to meet the demands placed on NCF, continuously monitoring the health and tone of each unit. We also have put measures in place to assist Seabees in dealing with extended deployments prior to their redeployment. Our focus is to ensure Seabees and their families have the support they need before, during and after each deployment. This unwavering support to our people has kept the focus on the long-term health of our force. TME: What role are Seabees playing in Theater Security Cooperation Programs (TSCP) and humanitarian missions, and why is that important? ADM. HANDLEY: TSCPs that build hostand partner-nation capacity through presence and engagement and provide humanitarian assistance in response to disasters and other crises are a key element to supporting U.S. policies around the globe. Engineering-focused opera41








tions are a highly visible method of demonstrating U.S. commitment and friendship, essentially winning the hearts and minds of people and nations worldwide. Seabee engineer capabilities can be leveraged to support TSCP goals of preventing conflict, promoting regional stability and protecting coalition interests. Currently, Seabees are forward deployed around the world providing engineering and construction support while promoting regional stability through engineer civic action projects in Africa, Europe, South America and the Pacific. Seabees are currently participating in exercises and executing projects at several locations in South America and Africa. Recently a detail of Seabees was embarked aboard the USS Iwo Jima in support of exercise Continuing Promise 10 and completed projects in Haiti, Suriname, Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama, Nicaragua, Guyana and Guatemala. Seabees are improving local communities with their construction efforts and playing a larger role in building and sustaining relationships between and among nations, nongovernment organizations and international organizations. Their engagement with local populaces open doors for future collaborations as we look to gain trust and establish mutual respect among these nations. Seabees have been the first engineers on scene at myriad natural disasters. In 1992, nearly 800 Seabees were involved in disaster recovery efforts as Hurricane Andrew made landfall in Florida. In 1998, 460 Seabees deployed to the Caribbean and Central America and established several detail sites to provide critical disaster relief after Hurricane Mitch. In 2005, more than 3,300 Seabees helped with recovery efforts along the Gulf Coast following Hurricane Katrina, clearing 750-mi of roads, removing more than 20,000-T of debris and repairing 85 schools. Seabees were among the first responders following recent earthquakes in Pakistan and Haiti.

TME: What is the mission of Seabees in Africa and how much are Seabees currently engaged in that region? ADM. HANDLEY: Our national interests lie in a stable continent of Africa. Dispatched across Africa in Cameroon, Senegal, Sao Tome, Mozambique, Liberia, Ethiopia, Kenya, Djibouti, Comoros and Uganda, Seabees are doing their part in building partner-nation capacity and promoting regional security and stability of young democracies. In addition to their construction efforts, their direct interaction with the people around them has made a lasting impression. Whether constructing medical clinics in Ethiopia, schools in Djibouti, a bridge in Uganda, or creating water wells in Kenya, Seabees play a critical role in building positive relationships with the local communities and the local governments that can hold the door open for future interactions and mutual support in the region. One particular program that Seabees have supported in past years is the Africa Partnership Station (APS) initiative. APS is a strategic maritime program designed to build the skills, expertise and professionalism of African militaries, coast guards and mariners. The program is delivered in many forms including ship, and aircraft visits, training teams and Seabee construction projects throughout the year. The focus is on building maritime capacity of the nations and improve their ability to extend the rule of law within their territorial waters and better combat illegal fishing, human smuggling, drug trafficking, oil theft and piracy. Projects that Seabees have executed in support of the APS mission have included building barracks, firing ranges, command centers for host-nation sailors and marines and the repair and installation of floating pier systems. Seabees have and will continue to play a critical part as key enablers in Africa with future projects in Morocco, Mali and Ghana.

TME: What is your advice for young officers and NCOs to develop themselves for Seabee assignments and a career in the Navy Civil Engineer Corps (CEC)? ADM. HANDLEY: I was initially attracted to the CEC and the Seabees because of the unique balance of leadership opportunities in a technical environment. As junior officers and rising senior enlisted leaders work on their professional development, I recommend focusing on leadership and technical proficiency. A career in the Navy, or any of the services, provides numerous opportunities to build and develop a foundation of leadership—take advantage of every opportunity and lead at every level. The greater the challenge, the better. As you work on your technical skills, SAME and other professional organizations can provide a forum to expose you to new and emerging technologies and practices. I encourage people at every level to keep their technical skills sharp through education and experience. It is our technical capabilities that provide executable solutions and it is our strong, unwavering leadership that ensures success in combat when our nation needs it most. TME: How has SAME contributed to your career, and how can SAME assist other members of the CEC in their careers? ADM. HANDLEY: The foundation of SAME has always been to support our military engineers. Throughout my career, SAME has provided me with an extensive network of professionals who I have leaned on to broaden my horizons and to understand the “art of the possible.” It is through the professional association with the SAME members that CEC officers can become more effective as they answer our nation’s call today and in the future.

Adm. Handley assumed his current command on Oct. 23, 2009. He previously served as Vice Commander, Navy Installations Command, and Director of Shore Readiness for Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Logistics) in Washington, D.C. Prior to that he served as Commander, NAVFAC Mid-Atlantic, Norfolk, Va., and Regional Engineer for Commander, Navy Region Mid-Atlantic. Adm. Handley was commissioned through the Naval Reserve Officer Training program at Villanova University in 1981. 42

The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011


The EMCOR Government Services division is proudly patched into dozens of military facilities that are vital to the Army, Navy, Air Force —and the entire country. We’re relied upon 24/7 for services that range from facilities management, fire protection and transportation operations to HVAC maintenance, utility plant operations, energy services, and “green initiatives.” On our watch, these systems and others operate faithfully at peak efficiency for installations from the Washington Navy Yard to Kirtland AFB Medical Clinic in Albuquerque, NM. With the facilities services EMCOR provides, we consider ourselves intricately woven into the fabric of our military’s formidable infrastructure.


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Society of American Military Engineers is proud to present the


march 23, 2011 arlington, va

The Department of Defense (DOD) and Federal Agency Program Briefings will showcase the planned initiatives in the President’s FY 2012 budget. This all-day forum will provide SAME Sustaining Member Companies with the appropriate contacts and valuable information needed for future contracting opportunities with DOD and other federal agencies.

In addition to our informative Engineering Service Chiefs Panel, this event will feature high-ranking officials from the following organizations: • • • • • • • • • •

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers – Civil Works and Military Programs U.S. Air Force Office of the Civil Engineer and the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment U.S. Naval Facilities Engineering Command U.S. Coast Guard Office of Civil Engineering U.S. Army Installation Management Command U.S. Navy Commander Navy Installations Command U.S. General Services Administration U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs U.S. Department of Homeland Security U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

SAME 2011 Joint Engineer Training Conference & Expo (JETC) May 24–27, 2011 Grapevine, Texas Take a look at the many exciting opportunities that await you…

Register today for JETC 2011 at

Join your colleagues at the

SAME 2011 Joint Engineer Training Conference & Expo (JETC) May 24–27, 2011, Grapevine, Texas. When you attend JETC you’ll: • gain insight on strategies, ideas and solutions from industry experts to enhance your professional and leadership skills; • uncover new and exciting products and services to assist you in the field; • make contact and network with decision makers who can assist in the growth of your business; and • open up exciting and new opportunities for your career and your companies connections. The 2011 JETC will feature six technical tracks that focus on timely issues presently affecting the A/E/C, environmental and facility management fields, including: Track 1: Contingency Operations Track 2: Installation Management Track 3: Design & Construction Track 4: Water Resources Track 5: Energy Track 6: Acquisition Looking to earn Professional Development Hours (PDHs)? The 2011 JETC technical program offers up to nine PDH. Details will be featured on the JETC website and in the on-site event program.

The JETC technical program sets up the groundwork for the conference, and is supported by an informational expo area, invigorating technical tours, and myriad networking and social events, some of which are: • • • • •

“Welcome to Texas” Icebreaker event Opening ceremony with continental breakfast and keynote speaker CMSgt. James A. Roy, Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force; Honors luncheon recognizing the outstanding achievements of SAME Members; SAME Society Ball with a formal reception and dinner; and a Golf Tournament at the Bear Creek Golf Course and a clay shoot tournament at the Dallas Gun Club.

Discounted registration rates are available to SAME members.

Register today at 46

The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011

Keynote Speaker James A. Roy Chief Master Sergeant of the U.S. Air Force Chief Master Sgt. of the U.S. Air Force James A. Roy represents the highest enlisted level of leadership. In this role, he provides direction for the enlisted force and represents their interests to the American public and to those in all levels of government. Chief Roy serves as the personal adviser to the Chief of Staff and the Secretary of the Air Force on all issues regarding the welfare, readiness, morale, and proper utilization and progress of the enlisted force. He is the 16th chief master sergeant appointed to the highest noncommissioned officer position.Before assuming his current position, Chief Roy served as Senior Enlisted Leader and adviser to the U.S. Pacific Command Combatant Commander and staff, Camp H.M. Smith, Hawaii. Previous assignments have included serving as a superintendent of a military personnel flight and a mission support group before becoming a command chief master sergeant at the wing, air expeditionary wing, numbered air force and combatant command levels.

The Military Engineer • No. 670




3:30 p.m.-6:00 p.m.

Registration Open

3:30 p.m.-6:00 p.m.

Exhibitor Move-in TUESDAY, MAY 24, 2011

7:00 a.m.-7:00 p.m.

Registration Open

8:00 a.m.-5:30 p.m.

Exhibitor Move-in

6:30 a.m.-4:00 p.m.

Golf Tournament—Bear Creek Golf Course

6:30 a.m.-4:00 p.m.

Clay Shoot Tournament—Dallas Gun Club

9:00 a.m.-4:00 p.m.

Social Tour—Taste of Dallas

10:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m Technical Tour—Cowboy Stadium and 1:00 p.m.-3:00 p.m. 5:30 p.m. - 7:00 p.m.

Young Member, NCO and Fellows Event

7:00 p.m. -10:00 p.m.

Ice Breaker WEDNESDAY, MAY 25, 2011

6:30 a.m.-7:15 a.m.

Physical Fitness Events

7:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m.

Registration Open

7:30 a.m.-8:30 a.m.

Continental Breakfast

8:30 a.m.-10:00 a.m.

Opening Session

10:00 a.m.-4:30 p.m.

Exhibit Hall Open

11:30 a.m.-1:30 p.m.

Honors Luncheon

12:00 p.m.-5:00 p.m.

Social Tour—Taste of Grapevine

2:00 p.m.-3:30 p.m.

Technical Session 1 THURSDAY, MAY 26, 2011

7:00 a.m.-3:30 p.m.

Registration Open

7:00 a.m.-8:45 a.m.

Post Awards Breakfast

8:00 a.m.-2:00 p.m.

Exhibit Hall Open

9:00 a.m.-10:15 a.m.

Technical Sessions 2

9:00 a.m.-10:15 a.m.

RVP Meeting

9:00 a.m.-3:00 p.m.

Social Tour—Taste of Ft. Worth

11:00 a.m.-12:15 p.m.

Technical Sessions 3

12:30 p.m.-1:30 p.m.

Exhibit Hall Luncheon, and Committee and Council Meetings

1:45 p.m.-3:00 p.m.

Technical Sessions 4

2:45 p.m.-6:30 p.m.

Exhibitor Move-out

4:00 p.m.-5:00 p.m.

All Hands Meetings

6:30 p.m.--11:30 p.m.

Society Ball Reception and Dinner FRIDAY, MAY 27, 2010

8:00 a.m.-2:30 p.m.

SAME Board of Direction Meeting

8:00 a.m. – 2:00 p.m.

Technical Tour—Lockheed Martin F-35


The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011

Society of American Military Engineers

Academy of Fellows 2011 Golden Eagle Awards Dinner March 24, 2011

Join us in honoring the 2011 Golden Eagle Award recipients

Rear Adm. Benjamin F. Montoya, F.SAME, USN (Ret.) For outstanding contributions to the engineering profession

Adm. Thad Allen, USCG (Ret.) For dedication and contributions to national security

The 2011 Golden Eagle Awards dinner is a black-tie event that will include a cocktail reception with an open bar, three-course dinner, live entertainment and the presentation of the prestigious Golden Eagle Awards.

The Golden Eagle Awards Dinner is open to all SAME members and invited guests.


Col. Jeffrey Knippel, USAF, was chief of the AFCEE Contingency Construction Division in 2008-2009 before taking command of the USACE Gulf Region South District. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PHOTOS


The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011


Two Models, One Mission The first U.S. Air Force officer to command a USACE district examines the pros and cons of two distinct approaches to construction program management in the AOR. BY COL. JEFFREY KNIPPEL, M.SAME, USAF The last decade of construction in the Middle East has left military engineers with a lot to consider and analyze in the development of future construction management doctrine and structures. As lead of the Contingency Construction Division of the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment (AFCEE) and through a subsequent tour as Commander of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Gulf Region South District (GRS) that concluded in 2010, I had the unique opportunity to experience two very different approaches to construction management in the Iraqi area of responsibility (AOR). With numerous security, military and civil projects constructed outside the wire, the two programs were very similar. However, although the programs shared many common challenges, the methods employed to manage those challenges were different, as characterized by the organizational structures, predominant contract vehicles, site inspection methods and approaches to security used by the two mod-

The Military Engineer • No. 670

els. A cursory look at the advantages and disadvantages of these differences offers future joint engineer leaders a spectrum of perspectives on which to formulate new approaches for future conflicts.


Without question, the most distinct difference between the AFCEE and USACE approaches to construction management in the AOR is their organizational structures. While AFCEE incorporated a small government footprint approach that relied heavily on contracted site inspection and reachback contracting and legal support, USACE used a large government footprint approach and established incountry engineering districts with the full complement of support. During my AFCEE tour, 10 project managers (five military and five civilian) were placed in country, while the rest of the execution staff remained at AFCEE headquarters in San Antonio, Texas. A U.S. Title 2 contract that supported all construction inspections also provided beddown support for deployed civilian employees. On the other hand, GRS is similar in structure to a stateside USACE district. During my USACE tour, GRS employed a contingent comprising more than 70 local nationals and a 100 government employees, including contracting officers, lawyers, public affairs, program and project managers, construction inspectors, operational management, IT support, and a large contract security team. The district was further divided into area and resident offices, each with a complement of security and operational support. Each of these structures offered advantages and disadvantages. By far the largest disadvantage to the AFCEE approach was caused by the time difference between the AOR and HQ AFCEE and the limited stateside work schedule. Because Iraq is nine hours ahead of San Antonio, all key internal

meetings had to be held on weekdays after 5:00 p.m. in the AOR to coincide with AFCEE work hours. Adding the constraint of forward operating base dining facility times, intermittent communication problems and typical stateside leave, TDY and holiday schedules, the window to work with and contact key AFCEE personnel on business issues was narrow. This factor limited stateside personnel understanding of the time-sensitive challenges and nuances of the operations faced in the AOR. It lengthened response time on critical milestones and decisions and created frustration, especially with customers and AOR senior leaders, who expected timely feedback. These issues were all but eliminated by the Army’s model. As GRS commander, all key decision makers were within walking distance, and, because most of them worked and lived in the same compound, I could discuss and call a meeting essentially any time, day or night. From a management effectiveness perspective, this provided a significantly better structure in which to work day-to-day issues, and I preferred it to the AFCEE approach. However, it came at a high personnel management cost. Keeping qualified personnel in country was a constant battle—not to mention the numerous leave, pay and personnel issues that come with managing a large population. This created many continuity and institutional knowledge challenges that did not affect AFCEE and its small in-country footprint. With few exceptions, AFCEE was able to rotate the San Antonio-assigned military and government civilians to the forward location in Iraq on a six-month basis. Because these individuals were permanently assigned to AFCEE, institutional knowledge was retained for longer periods of time. Continuity was further increased as a project manager would likely work the same project both in the AOR and stateside in a slightly different capacity. 51

JOINT ENGINEER CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS The USACE population also had a large beddown requirement. A deployed USACE district requires self-contained camps, typically above the average contingency standard, to entice and retain qualified government civilian employees. On forward operating bases, these camps included billeting, gyms, laundry and cleaning service, and, in one case, a dining facility. In comparison, with the exception of the military personnel who lived in forward operating base-provided billeting, the handful of intheater AFCEE government civilians were provided billeting by the Title 2 inspection contractor in a Green Zone villa.


The second characteristic that differentiated the USACE and AFCEE models was their preferred primary contract vehicles. Both approaches were directed to use a high percentage of local labor across their program, and while both models used a variety of contract vehicles to accomplish this, AFCEE used primarily costplus contracts utilizing a large U.S.-based indefinite delivery-indefinite quantity (IDIQ) vehicle that required the primary contractor to subcontract local contractors. USACE, with the exception of its large MILCON and special-interest projects, used predominately firm-fixed-price contracts using IDIQs and standard open competition tailored to local Iraqi firms. While the cost-plus approach offered less risk to the U.S. contractors and brought in reasonable initial bids, significant last-minute cost-to-complete claims at project’s end gave many senior leaders who were accustomed to firm-fixed rules the perception that cost-plus was an open check to contractors. The lastminute claims played havoc on program budgets and left little room for refusal when the government did not agree with the claim. However, using U.S. contractors as primes had distinct advantages. With the U.S. contractors came U.S. skills and standards in both construction management and trades that were passed on to local subcontractors. Additionally, the U.S. contractors were motivated by Construction Contractor Appraisal Support System (CCASS) ratings, and it was much easier to work day-to-day issues through 52

the U.S. project management staffs, which were responsible for working with the local subcontractors. On the other hand, the USACE contracts where significantly more stable from a cost perspective and offered more options for challenging questionable claims. However, because the contracts were with local Iraqi companies, the ability to pass on U.S. construction management and trades was limited to a caseby-case basis and left primarily to the USACE government inspectors. In addition, a poor CCASS rating was useless as a motivation tool, as most Iraqi contractors did not compete in the international or American markets.


On-site inspection was the third distinct difference that separated the two models. While the AFCEE approach contracted site inspection through a U.S. Title 2 contract that required full-time inspectors on the majority of its sites, USACE used traditional U.S. government inspectors for most sites augmented by locallyhired engineers the larger sites. Because USACE had its own security contract, the frequency with which U.S. government personnel could get on site was much higher than through AFCEE’s approach, which relied on the U.S. construction contractor’s security teams for transportation. However, at times when the government inspectors could not be on site, AFCEE’s approach had the advantage of not using local national engineers, who were more susceptible to contractor intimidation and corruption. Because local engineers typically worked in close proximity to their own communities, intimidation by construction contractors and their subs was more effective, as the inspectors’ family members could be targeted with threats or bribes. Conversely, the AFCEE inspectors, who were either American or, more typically, third-country national, lived on site or returned daily to a secure compound, and thus their exposure to intimidation was far lower. As the GRS District Commander, I lost or had to move local inspectors several times due to threats and alleged financial coercion by construction contractors.


The final distinct difference was the manner in which the two models provided security. While the AFCEE model made security part of the construction contract, which was required to provide both Personal Security Team (PST) support and secure on-site billeting for construction inspectors, USACE directly contracted a personal security company to provide PST support for U.S. personnel. In both approaches, the construction contractor was responsible for the on-site security of construction operations. In the USACE model, inspectors could visit a site usually given a two- or three-day notice. Because the security teams worked directly for USACE, there was no need to inform the contractor that inspectors were on their way. This impromptu capability increased safety and provided a true inspection environment to assess site conditions. On the other hand, the AFCEE model required coordination with the U.S. contractors’ security staffs, which eliminated the element of surprise and sometimes took up to a week to coordinate because of preexisting contractor operational schedules.


Clearly, while this article does not capture all the nuances behind the reasons and factors that must be considered in building a good construction management approach in the contingency environment, it is clear the choices are not easy. There are many tradeoffs among effectiveness, cost, safety, flexibility and quality, all of which must be tailored to develop an appropriate approach. One thing is certain: The next war will not be like the last, and as military engineers we must continue to explore new ways to provide effective construction in less predictable and hospitable environments. We must learn and evolve from our mistakes and develop new approaches for the future that encompass the positive aspects of both of the above approaches. As military engineers we must always lead the way. Col. Jeffrey Knippel, M.SAME, USAF, currently serves as Chief, Environmental Restoration Division, AFCEE; 210-395-8784 or jeffry.knippel

The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011



Forward operating bases in Afghanistan typically contain a mixture of expeditionary and temporary construction. They are also multi-service and multi-national, adding additional challenges to managing current and future planning, development and maintenance.

Standardizing Base Camps: A New Foundation Implementing base camp construction standards across the services and with allies will yield efficiencies, enhance operational commanders’ battle space and ensure support to the force. BY LT. COL. CHRISTIAN KNUTSON, P.E., M.SAME, USAF Over the past 10 years of military operations, joint and coalition engineers in Afghanistan and Iraq have overcome dynamic and complex issues to provide full-spectrum engineering support to the warfighter. The engineer’s contributions to military operations during this period have been substantial; however, there are opportunities for improvement. One area is in standardizing base camps across the services and with our allies, which will yield substantial efficiencies in resource investment, planning and coordination and will ultimately benefit operational commanders. There are many hurdles to overcome to reach true joint and combined standardization of base camps, not the least of which is agreeing on the terminology associated with the phases and types of The Military Engineer • No. 670

camps and the style and type of construction undertaken. Capitalizing on these opportunities with the development of joint and combined standards, however, will aid engineers in planning and design, construction, operations and management, and environmental sustainability. This will, in turn, ensure the engineer’s ability to enhance the operational commander’s battle space and ensure support to the force.


Engineers use consensus standards such as Unified Facilities Code (UFC) daily as we plan, design and construct facilities and infrastructure. At garrison locations worldwide, U.S. military engineers have agreed on tri-service standards and adopted the UFC to maximize available resources and aide in cross-talk among the services’ various engineer agencies. However, in contingency locations, where resource conservation and a common op-

erating language can have significant operational impacts, such standards across the services are lacking. The differences in construction standards alone at sites across Iraq and Afghanistan can be significant. Adhering to a set of standards for base camps will allow master planning to normalize construction across the theater, thus allowing better resource planning, simplifying logistics, standardizing training across the services for enhanced interoperability and ultimately ensuring our joint force has adequate facilities and infrastructure from which to conduction operations. The development of a tri-service standard for base camps doesn’t have to begin from a blank sheet. The venerable Sand Book, well known to all engineers who have spent time in U.S. Central Command’s area of interest, is a good starting point. The document provides basic guidance for the planning and development of contingency and permanent bases. The service components refer to this docu53

JOINT ENGINEER CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS ment for programming of projects, and deployed engineers may periodically refer to the document for planning purposes. Although the Sand Book is not a true consensus standard at the service level and contains terminology that is not harmonized with service doctrine, it does offer a common benchmark from which to develop a true tri-service standard for base camp planning, development and operation.


The elements needed both to establish and support base camps in contingency environments are recognized by Department of Defense (DOD) leadership as vital to supporting operations, both today and in the future. To answer senior DOD leadership concerns, the services have undertaken efforts to cultivate engineer lessons learned into the doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities needed to standardize base camp establishment and operations. Separate initiatives focused on enhancing the ability of the U.S. military to efficiently place encampments at any location in the world are currently underway at the U.S. Army’s Maneuver Support Center of Excellence, the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the U.S. Marine Corps and the U.S. Air Force. It is certain that wars of the future will be joint and combined in nature. Therefore, the development of standard terminology, planning, programming, design and construction of base camps is necessary. For example, the lack of theater base master planning was identified as a major shortfall in Afghanistan due to organizational alignment and gaps between the joint engineer forces in theater. Introduction of the Air Force’s Expeditionary Prime BEEF (Base Engineer Emergency Forces) Group and Squadrons have filled the breach, providing much-needed master planning from regional centers. Along with design capabilities from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment and joint Forward Engineering Support Teams, base camp planning, programming, design and construction is beginning to coalesce into a coordinated process across the AOR. The efforts of 54

the services over the past two years are moving towards standardization for base camp establishment. These efforts are also reflected within the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), with that organization’s Military Engineer Working Group recently undertaking efforts to establish a policy for development of base camps.


The time is ripe for defining the necessary capabilities to maximize the operational effectiveness and efficiency in planning, design, construction, operations and management of base camps. To maximize the engineer’s perspective, it is vital that engineers be involved at the earliest stages of base camp establishment. Doing so invites the engineer’s perspective into the earliest stages of the deliberate planning cycle. This in turn helps avoid poor site selection, aids in minimizing the impact to the logistics machine for construction materials and invites discussions on how best to leverage construction and financial outlays for employing the local populace and civilian contractors. The contribution of the engineer to military planning, for both base camps and other activities, is not lost on NATO, where doctrine documents such as the Military Committee Policy on Military Engineering deliver policy for optimizing engineer expertise to senior command. Because future military operations are certain to include our European allies, it is imperative that the efforts of U.S. engineers serve to help inform the development and refinement of NATO doctrine and standards for base camp construction. One U.S. action worth codifying across the services and synchronizing with NATO is master planning, the first step in effective development and management of infrastructure. The need for effective master planning is seen today in Afghanistan, where the disparity in construction standards among sites and services is clearly evident. However, the disparities extend to the operations and maintenance of infrastructure and additional complexity introduced through the use of contract engineers and maintenance. The lack of a theater-wide master plan yields inef-

ficiencies for programming and planning as well as for direct support to the warfighters prosecuting operations in the field. This combined with the lack of an appropriate level theater headquarters engineer function to oversee and manage the master plan diminishes the effectiveness of the engineer contribution to the joint and combined fight.


The introduction of U.S. military forces overseas is a high-impact statement of our commitment to a mission. The overarching national defense strategy highlights the need for the U.S. to maintain its ability to operate in and from bases across the globe. At the Combatant Commands, master planning of operating locations is undertaken at the strategic level, with operational level planning conducted by the service components and tactical level accomplished at the regional or garrison level. This model works semi-effectively at static basing locations with robust longterm civilian government-service experts working in concert with contract architect-engineer firm augmentation. However, in contingency locations, the longterm expert overwatch and theater-wide management of base master planning doesn’t exist. Nor do consensus standards across the services and our allies for construction of the base camps themselves. The efforts underway to define standards for base camps will set the foundation for engineer planning in future military operations. Using lessons learned from current operations can open the door to establishing tri-service standards that will become second nature for application in the field. The benefits are known to all engineers who have operated in Iraq or Afghanistan in the past decade: efficient and effective management of limited resources for planning and design, construction, operations and management, and environmental sustainability of the battle space. Lt. Col. Christian Knutson, P.E., M.SAME, USAF, is Commander, 49th Civil Engineer Squadron, Holloman Air Force Base, N.M., and U.S. Delegate, NATO Military Engineer Working Group; 575-572-3071 or

The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011


TFB2: A Formula for Power in Kandahar A CERP-funded capacity-building initiative will help boost economic redevelopment and aid counterinsurgency efforts in southern Afghanistan.

Of 218 countries, Afghanistan is ranked in the bottom 10 percent for electrical consumption per capita. Homes and businesses in Kandahar City, its second-largest city, receive three to four hours of power every other day. Based on existing power in the city, an average of 115-W per household is available—enough for two light bulbs per family. The lack of power is crippling the city’s business development and severely limits commercial and manufacturing productivity. Erratic, insufficient and unreliable electrification in Kandahar City has constrained economic growth and affects the public’s confidence in the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (GIRoA). The lack of reliable power also feeds the insurgency by creating dissatisfaction with the central government. Kandahar City has a long history as a strategic link within Central Asia. Located in the Arghandab Valley—often considered the breadbasket of Afghanistan— Kandahar City’s potential for economic development is high. Pomegranates, pistachios, almonds, grain and other exports have declined in the absence of electricity and cold storage facilities. The city has suffered major economic setbacks in the last 25 years, with a severe decline in available infrastructure, especially electricity. The provision of power supports the Afghan government’s efforts to provide governance, economic development and security, thus creating a counterinsurgency effect. Based on assessments by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Afghanistan Engineer District–South (AES), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat, the national power utility, 50-MW of immediate, sustained and reliable power to Kandahar City will jump-start business and economic development. To deliver sustainable economic growth to Kandahar The Military Engineer • No. 670



Col. Anthony Funkhouser, Commander of the USACE Afghanistan Engineer District-South, shows factory owners in the Shurandam Industrial Park where the feeder lines transmit.

City, 160-MW of power is required. Kandahar City currently has a maximum of 26-MW of electrical power available, generated by the hydroelectric Kajaki Dam and two diesel generator plants located at Breshna Kot, the city’s only electrical distribution substation. Frequently, however, the 750,000 residents of Kandahar City receive about one-third of this power due to lack of maintenance or lack of fuel. Renewable power from Kajaki Dam is critical to the Southern Electrical Power System (SEPS). A sustainable solution to electrical power supply built by the United States in the 1970s, the dam serves villages in the Helmand and Kandahar provinces. Recent rehabilitation of two existing turbine generators restored power production to 32-MW, although Kandahar City does not reap the totality of benefits from this power generation. Security, transportation and materials have hampered completing the installation of a third turbine. Spear-

headed by USAID in conjunction with the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) Joint Command, the scheduled completion date of the turbine project, which will increase Kajaki Dam’s generation capacity to 52-MW, is summer 2012. Trading diesel generation for hydropower will ensure Kandahar City has available, sustainable power. The anticipated future SEPS connection to the Northeast Power System (NEPS) is necessary to bring the additional megawatts to Kandahar City. Kajaki Dam improvements and the NEPS-SEPS connection are long-term solutions for Kandahar City. However, Kandahar City was in critical need of a shortterm or bridging solution. So the question was asked: What can the U.S. Army and its partners do quickly—in a hostile environment—to assist the local government with increasing power to two key areas, fostering local business activity and thus establishing a counterinsurgency effect? 55


Task Force Breshna Barq (TFB2) was established as a quick-reaction force to bring breshna and barq—which translate to “electric power” in both Dari and Pashto languages—to Kandahar City within six months. Led by the AES Commander, TFB2 comprises soldiers from the 249th Engineer Battalion (Prime Power) and AES engineers, contracting, legal, public affairs and project management professionals. TFB2 partnered with Afghan, developmental and military agencies to develop a power bridging solution that will provide an additional 20-MW installed power (16MW de-rated power) through two diesel power plants on the east and west sides of Kandahar City. Intended as the three-year transition to sustainable power from the Kajaki Dam, the diesel generator power plants will function as independent island grids separate from the Breshna Kot power plant, relieving some of its demand. The diesel plants are located in secure generator compounds, and additional capacity could be obtained through the installation of more generators as demand grows. Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat energized the first power plant in cooperation with TFB2 in early December 2010. The Shurandam Industrial Park power plant, constructed in 120 days, has added 8-MW to a feeder east of Kandahar City, providing increased power to local factories and small businesses. The power plant’s location allowed the existing feeder to be divided, thus allowing independent distribution to the north and south. A third feeder connected two weeks later isolated the industrial complex surrounding the plant. The future installation of a fourth feeder will break out a heavily loaded section from the south feeder, which will optimize the support of up to 6-MW of industrial demand. Because of the lack of inexpensive continuous power, businessmen had been reluctant to invest in industry in those areas. Already, as a result of the bridging solution, an abandoned cotton gin is now bustling, operating 16 hours per day. A second 10-MW plant is being constructed on the west side of the city, at Bagh-e-Pol, and will come on line in March 2011. The power plants employ identical configurations: eight containerized 56

Caterpillar 3515B diesel engines with SR4B generators rated at 1.4-MW each at 50-Hz. AES is managing the construction and the operations and maintenance contract for the diesel plants. The project is funded through the Commander’s Emergency Response Program (CERP), which supports projects or services that immediately assist the population. While the physical construction of the plants is critical, ultimate project success depends on a sound partnership with Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat. Accordingly, Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat and TFB2 are working closely to distribute power and maintain continuous operations. The utility identified the key areas for industry to grow, and its engineers isolated the 20-KV medium-voltage distribution feeder from the Breshna Kot substation so the new diesel power plant could energize the feeder safely. Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat engineers are performing repairs and maintenance on the feeder lines as AES commissions the system and as businesses hook up. TFB2 has been working closely with the utility’s chief electrical engineer during the commissioning and is training his staff on plant operations. AES also awarded a contract that provides Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat with spare parts and tools to repair distribution networks, acquire maintenance vehicles, prepare connections to the power plants and perform other maintenance services to sustain the increase in power. TFB2 also is working hand-in-hand with Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat to install thousands of residential and commercial meters for the utility’s commercialization plan, which will increase its revenue.


Three themes emerged as lessons learned for future host-nation community power generation projects supporting the counterinsurgency strategy and the contingency environment. First, the success of a bridging solution depends on interagency support and coordination. GIRoA, ISAF Regional Command–South, USAID and the Kandahar Provincial Reconstruction Team were key partners to AES in integrating a technical and engineering solution. The bridging so-

lution evolved from intensive, integrated, thorough plans by all partners. Communication with all stakeholders is challenging during high operations tempo projects and the bridging solution network was no exception. The challenges were met through creating high-level interagency boards following meetings with the Ministry of Energy and Water, as well as daily and weekly meetings and discussions to keep all partners focused on the critical delivery dates. Second, the appetite for immediate electrical production must not supplant relationships with the host-nation community and its own strategic plan and vision. TFB2’s on-the-ground collaboration with Afghan engineers and Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat employees is critical to empowering the national utility to assume responsibility for the power plants in 2014. Building Afghan capacity to sustain the project is as vital as the construction effort and can only be accomplished through a sustainable training program. Lastly, operational considerations must never be underestimated during a contingency operation. The U.S. military strategy of “Clear-Hold-Build” drove the timing of the plants’ initiations. Material delivery, security challenges, interoperability of equipment, fuel specifications and battle space owner requirements must sync with project timelines. Failure to consider these factors would have derailed the largest CERP project in Afghanistan. The three-year Kandahar City power initiative will invest more than $600 million in the Southern Electrical Power System as it serves the Kandahar, Helmand and Uruzgan provinces. After the first year, the initiative will add 26.5-MW of new power to Kandahar City, a 100 percent increase of available power. Over the next decade, the Afghan and U.S. governments will remain focused on delivering sustainable and affordable power generation capacity and distributing it effectively in Kandahar City.

Col. Anthony C. Funkhouser, P.E., M.SAME, USA, is Commander, USACE Afghanistan Engineer District–South and Task Force Breshna Barq; (DSN) 318-841-2631 or

The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011



JEOC is designed to help prepare joint service and civilian engineers for worldwide joint engineer operations. In this photo, Capt. Seth Platt, USAF, Kapisa Provincial Reconstruction Team Civil Engineer, meets with locals in December 2010 during a site survey for the proposed Abdul Hadi Padar secondary school in the Nijrab Valley, Afghanistan.

The Joint Engineer Operations Course JEOC offers critical support to combatant commands by providing joint engineer officers with the knowledge, skills and abilities to operate effectively in contingency operations. BY LT. COL. DOMINIC SPARACIO, P.E., M.SAME, USA, and LT. COL. SHAWN P. HOWLEY, M.SAME, USA (RET.) “As the Department of Defense continues to engage in ongoing operations, we must also prepare for our future challenges by learning from the past, building on the present and taking advantage of opportunities to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of our institution.” To achieve this objective, articulated by Secretary of Defense Robert Gates in his 2009 Quadrennial Roles and Missions Review Report, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff refined his joint training program implementation policy and guidance to the combatant commands, services, reserve components, combat support agencies, Joint Staff and joint organizations. According to a report published by the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 2010, “The Joint Learning Continuum concept is built upon our experience that the core competencies and capabilities of the colThe Military Engineer • No. 670

lective services have been and will continue to be the critical foundation of our military’s ability to achieve national aims.” Fundamental to developing core competencies and increasing the effectiveness and efficiencies of our service engineer community is the Joint Engineer Operations Course (JEOC). JEOC is a key educational component of our service engineer educational curriculum and is focused on improving joint engineer readiness in joint engineer contingency operations. JEOC develops the joint operational engineering skills, knowledge and abilities of our service engineer officers, non-commissioned officers, warrant officers and Department of Defense (DOD) civilian leaders preparing for joint operations worldwide.


In September 2002, the Joint Staff J-4 (Logistics Directorate) conducted an engineering capabilities study focused on identifying capabilities gaps identified in joint engineer operations during overseas

contingency operations. One of the gaps identified in the study was that engineer officers assigned to Joint Task Force engineer staffs were not properly versed in joint engineer operations. After further study by the Joint Operational Engineer Board, a general and flag officer steering committee chaired by the Joint Staff J-4, JEOC was developed. In existence since 2006, JEOC was developed with the support and expertise of the service engineer institutions. The program consists of two phases. The first phase is an eight-module online learning course focused on building the fundamental joint engineer knowledge necessary to establish a firm joint engineering foundation. The second phase is a five-day resident educational class focused on the application of joint engineer skills, knowledge and abilities in the operational environment through large group lectures and small group practical exercises and discussion. The resident phase is offered in four different locations and hosted by each of the four service engineer institutions on a 57

JOINT ENGINEER CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS rotational basis. The training objective of the program is to provide the knowledge and skills and enhance the abilities of students to be more effective engineer staff officers upon initial assignment to a joint or combatant command staff.


The JEOC team deployed the program to directly support combatant command engineer training requirements outside the continental U.S. (OCONUS) for the first time when U.S. Pacific Command (PACOM) requested and hosted a JEOC class in September 2010. Planning for the class began in coordination with U.S. Joint Forces Command (USJFCOM) and the Joint Staff J-4 Engineering Division in June 2010. The concept of the course was to plan, prepare and execute a JEOC class to improve the PACOM joint engineer staff ’s, and its subordinate Joint Task Force engineer staff ’s, capabilities in joint engineer operations. The JEOC class was supported by and conducted in the Navy Education Center at Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam, Hawaii. The class trained and educated 59 joint, service component and select DOD civilian engineers from across the PACOM area of responsibility (AOR). The class consisted of five resident training days supported by subject matter experts from PACOM, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Pacific Ocean Division and Naval Facilities Engineering Command Pacific. Preparing for the class was conducted through a series of interim progress reviews attended by representatives from PACOM, USJFCOM, the Joint Staff J-4 Engineering Division and the JEOC team. The sessions reviewed key milestones such as facilities, subject-matter experts, facilitators, class size and student participation. The JEOC team arrived at Pearl Harbor a few days before the start of the class. During the preparation days, the JEOC team finalized facility coordination and, to ensure consistency in education, conducted a facilitator training class to familiarize the facilitators with the current course information and class schedule. Executing the training and education started early on Monday and continued with a coordinated schedule of large and 58

small group briefings and practical exercises. The resident class concluded by noon Friday. The training week consisted of service engineering capability briefings supported by small group practical exercises, Joint Task Force engineer observations, PACOM engineer operations, and briefings and discussions on interagency, intergovernmental organization and inter-organizational coordination. One of the key lessons in the resident class is the Contractors on the Battlefield Panel. Supported by the Honolulu Post of the Society of American Military Engineers (SAME), the panel was moderated by Robert D. Wolff, Ph.D., P.E., F.SAME, SAME Executive Director, with support from current in-theater contingency contractor leaders. The discussion facilitated an improved understanding between military and contingency contract construction efforts in a theater of operation. The PACOM JEOC course was uniquely beneficial to the students, all of whom work in the PACOM AOR. Through interaction with the JEOC team and subject-matter experts from across DOD, the students, subject-matter experts and facilitators from PACOM were able to conduct valuable, in-depth discussions related to PACOM topics. Students could easily relate their job experiences to the topics and to each other—something not always accomplished at other JEOC classes.


JEOC is scheduled to conduct four resident classes each year. The first class for the FY2011 training year was successfully hosted by the U.S. Marine Corps University in November 2010. The U.S. Army Engineer School will host the second class, currently scheduled for April, at Fort Leonard Wood, Mo. The third class will be hosted by The Civil Engineer School, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, in June, and the final core class will be hosted by the U.S. Navy Civil Engineer Corps Officer School at Port Hueneme, Calif., in August. Additionally, the JEOC team might be called upon again to support a PACOM JEOC Class at Pearl Harbor in fall 2011.

To enroll in the course, students must first have an active Army Knowledge Online (AKO) or Defense Knowledge Online (DKO) account. Once an AKO/ DKO account is established, students should contact their JEOC course service representatives, or the course administrators, or Dwayne Boeres at 573-563-7065 or to process their enrollment. The JEOC course is accredited by USJFCOM J-7; as such, students who successfully complete the course receive joint professional military education credit. More information about the JEOC program can be found at the JEOC webpage, accessible through the Joint Knowledge Online network at suite/page/631937. Additional information about the course can be found on the Army Training Requirements and Resource System under course code number 4A-F16/030-F20. JEOC is listed on the Air Force Institute of Technology curriculum catalogue as MGT 590, and JEOC course information also is accessible from the Civil Engineer Course Officers School registrar’s catalogue. The JEOC program continues to incorporate lessons learned from individual and unit deployments to maintain its relevance to the joint engineer community from joint engineer contingency operations. A key adjustment to the JEOC program this year is the inclusion of multinational engineer students into the course. The opportunity to include our multinational engineer partners helps improve the understanding of our coalition engineer partners and improve our interoperability in joint engineer contingency operations worldwide.

Lt. Col. Dominic Sparacio, P.E., M.SAME, USA, is Chief, Engineer Operations and Plans Branch, U.S. Pacific Command Engineering Division; 808-477-6011 or Lt. Col. Shawn P. Howley, M.SAME, USA (Ret.), is Program and Course Manager, Joint Engineer Operations Course; 573-563-5088 or

The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011


Afghanistan Construction Challenges: Lessons Learned The 2010 troop surge provided engineer construction units deployed to Afghanistan a significant amount of work and a number of unique challenges.

The U.S. Army 92nd Engineer Battalion deployed to Afghanistan in May 2010 to provide construction support for incoming units that were to arrive in theater as part of the troop surge. While there, the battalion executed a number of complex and rewarding missions; however, it also faced numerous challenges that resulted in delays and threatened to compromise the quality of its completed projects. The challenges confronted by the battalion can be organized into three general categories: (1) bill of materials (BOM) procurement; (2) customer expectations and involvement; and (3) insufficient predeployment construction training. One of the battalion’s first projects was to construct a brigade-sized camp on Forward Operating Base (FOB) Sharana to include a beddown area for 1,100 soldiers, command and control facilities, and a motor park. The horizontal tasks consisted of leveling and compacting a 380,000-ft2 area and providing a perimeter of HESCO barriers. The vertical tasks consisted of building eight Southeast Asia huts and a 50-ft radio tower. By initial estimates, the project should have taken three months to complete, but because of the three challenges noted, the timeline was extended an additional two months.


The BOM procurement process has long tested construction units in Afghanistan and is probably the most difficult of these challenges to overcome. BOM was a greater challenge than usual for the 92nd Engineer Battalion because of increased demand across Regional Command–East (RC-E) and a shortage of construction materials at the FOB Sharana yard: Specifically, all construction units required similar materials from the same yard. If a particular item was depleted, the only soThe Military Engineer • No. 670



Equipment operators with the 92nd Engineering Battalion conduct grading operations in preparation for formwork at Forward Operating Base Sharana, Afghanistan.

lution was to order it through the supply channels, a process that could take up to three months from the date of order to arrival at FOB Sharana. One example of the BOM problem faced by the battalion was a country-wide shortage of corrugated metal roofing. The metal roofing was needed for the construction of the command and control facilities and was critical to protecting the buildings during the approaching rainy season. Rather than let construction come to a halt, the battalion opted to continue work and install the roofing when the materials arrived. After a few months, the framing and sheathing was completed on the buildings, but the metal roofing sheets were still missing. The rain ultimately arrived before the materials, causing substantial damage to the buildings and delaying the project by two weeks.

Because the BOM procurement is so slow in Afghanistan, the only solution to avoid problems such as the shortage of metal roofing is to take preventive measures before deployment and stock up on as much material as possible. BOM should be ordered against the typical designs and plans that the construction unit is projected to build. If the construction unit is not yet in the theater of operations, prior coordination with deployed construction units is essential. These deployed construction units can send typical designs and plans and offer their own lessons learned regarding BOM procurement. Prior coordination for BOM procurement can eliminate the hassle of going through the supply channels while deployed, especially during the early months of deployment when the unit does not yet have supply accounts established. 59


In addition to coordinating the BOM procurement process during the early stages of projects, construction units must also coordinate with their customers. This proved more difficult during the troop surge, however, because the customers were not in theater during the planning stages or when construction began. As a result, the 92nd Engineer Battalion could not coordinate construction meetings with the customer during the construction of the brigade camp. Instead, the battalion had to rely on information and plans provided by its higher engineer headquarters. When the advanced party for the infantry brigade did arrive,

“Preparing and organizing a unit to deploy is time consuming, but without proper construction training, future projects will suffer.” its intent and requests did not match what was actually being built. As a result, the battalion was faced with additional requirements including a new floor plan, a 50-ft radio tower, new HVAC layout, additional electrical requirements and, as a result, a project timeline extended by two months. Furthermore, because the additional requirements from the customer were added towards the end of the project, there were additional BOM shortages and design challenges. Before a project begins, there must be a pre-construction conference between the customer and the construction unit to discuss customer requirements and project scope of work. It is likely that the customer will request additional demands throughout the project timeline, but a detailed pre-construction conference can help the construction unit identify these requests early on. In addition to the preconstruction conferences, having regular 60

construction meetings with the customer can keep the requirements of the customer in line with the current progress of the project. If the customer is not in theater, conference calls or scheduled video teleconferences are a viable option. The construction unit can also coordinate for the customer’s advance element to arrive earlier and visually inspect the progress of the project. Being proactive during the planning phase by incorporating the customer into the initial scope of work can greatly reduce issues that could surface once the project is near completion.


The third and final challenge cannot be solved during the planning phase or even after the constructing unit has arrived in theater. It must be a part of the unit’s predeployment plan. Preparing and organizing a unit to deploy is time consuming, but without proper construction training, future projects will suffer. A common problem with construction units is the lack of dwell time. Most units are challenged to conduct the right amount and the right kind of construction training during pre-deployment. Because a typical construction unit has only 12 to 18 months of dwell time, construction training should be incorporated into the unit’s long-range training calendar. Within this 12- to 18-month timeline, it is possible to organize the construction training schedule into two identical, six-month training programs. The first six month training program will instruct the entire unit on the fundamentals of construction, while the second six-month training program will focus on redundancy and incorporating the new influx of soldiers that units commonly absorb just before deploying. The six-month training would be organized into three phases: classroom work, application and capstone. The classroom phase would provide soldiers the opportunity to study from field manuals. The second phase would incorporate what soldiers have learned and apply it to small construction projects, by which leadership would assess the soldiers’ proficiency at their military occupational skill-level tasks. Following this assessment, the lead-

ership would then determine a capstone project that is tailored to the skill set of each specific unit. This training program surely could have benefited the 92nd Engineer Battalion. One observation from the battalion’s experiences in Afghanistan is that soldiers need practice in their individual military occupational skills. An example of this concerned the battalion’s equipment operators. These soldiers arrived at their first unit lacking sufficient training in the operation of horizontal construction equipment. Therefore, it was incumbent on the unit to focus on that shortcoming. During the beginning of the deployment, some of the battalion’s horizontal construction projects were delayed due to a lack of experience in site preparation tasks such as leveling, grading, water and compaction. The equipment operators had to learn through trial and error how to apply their skill sets to an actual construction project. These delays could have been avoided if additional military occupational skill training had been incorporated into the battalion’s pre-deployment plan.


The construction in support of the troop surge in Operation Enduring Freedom was a great experience for the 92nd Engineer Battalion, but for the benefit of follow-on engineers it is critical that lessons learned and challenges are shared. To minimize construction delays, construction units must take into account the challenges outlined in this article. The battalion was successful in completion of the brigade complex project at FOB Sharana, but a substantial amount of effort and time could have been saved if more emphasis had been placed on coordinating BOM procurement, customer involvement and pre-deployment construction training.

Capt. Jacob R. Kondo, USA, is S3 Construction Officer, 92nd Engineer Battalion; jacob.kondo@

The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011


The Military Engineer Team A junior engineer officer shares his perspective on how the Army Engineer Regiment can best support full-spectrum operations and benefit maneuver units on the ground.

As a battalion engineer currently serving in Kandahar City, Afghanistan, I have found the processes involved in seeing a construction requirement come to fruition to be disjointed, nontransparent when tracking progress, and bogged down by the mass of requirements across the battle space. When I mention the word contracting in my proposals for execution, my leadership cringes. In a results-oriented profession, the availability of money in the form of Field Ordering Officer funds and Afghan Security Forces Funds are a godsend. This, in turn, results in band-aid solutions that are not sustainable and are implemented with knowledge that the problem could fester again. In the end, these short-term and expeditious solutions consume limited resources in the form of money, troop labor and time. I propose that the U.S. Army Engineer Regiment advocate for a new type of unit, the Military Engineer Team (MET), designed to localize the project cycle at the brigade level and allow for the concentration of improved engineer effort. The organization will consist of project managers, technical experts and contracting officers possessing a wide range of capabilities suited for a unit operating in a deployed environment.


Consider the requirement for a new checkpoint. The MET on the ground submits the requirement to the battalion engineer, who formalizes the request and presents it to the brigade engineer for action. The brigade engineer, in turn, prioritizes the requirements among those existing or forthcoming in the brigade based on guidance from the brigade commander. Rather than relinquishing direct oversight and requesting support from The Military Engineer • No. 670



Local contractors provide ongoing improvements and new construction at a police substation in Kandahar City, Afghanistan.

echelons above brigade, the brigade engineer turns to the engineer programmer, who applies programming guidance from the division headquarters. Should that guidance support the build for the new checkpoint and funding is available, the programmer assigns the project to a project manager responsible for design and delivery. The project manager will have a number of technical experts available to provide input on the design. Considering the size of the checkpoint, the design may require a site survey or geotechnical assessments, a force protection assessment, and electrical, plumbing, or carpentry work. All the necessary subject-matter experts will be readily available, as they are organic assets to MET. Once the project manager and his or her team of experts have completed the drawing and specifications, statements of work and cost estimates, the project can proceed to an organic contracting officer. Funding will have been deemed available before proceeding to the design process because the program manager will have determined the availability and authorization of funds to a certain threshold. The contracting officer solicits and awards

the contract and returns to the project manager for execution. During construction of the checkpoint, the project manager will interface with the contractor and ensure quality assurance and quality control until completion of the project. If the project manager determines that troop labor is most advantageous, he or she can request that the program manager solicit such support from assets organic to the brigade or from echelons above brigade. In the case of the former, the project manager will verify the quality of the work and contract compliance and submit a report of completion to the program manager, completing the cycle.


The concentration of effort in one central location will allow for substantial benefits in comparison to the existing system. First and foremost, the brigade and subordinate units will have greater control and visibility of the process through the brigade engineer. The brigade engineer will be able to track progress and implementation issues through one point of contact, i.e. the program manager. Also, the ability for MET personnel to interact face-to-face 61

JOINT ENGINEER CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS eliminates interface time accumulated through missed and dropped phone calls or responses to e-mails. Because MET is limited to requirements from units in one brigade, requirements can be actioned more promptly. Considering the number of personnel available within MET, delegation of the request to an implementer for delivery could be minimal. Project planners should be able to greatly reduce time reserved in planning considerations for bureaucratic red tape. Furthermore, given the level of expertise organic to MET, the Contracting Officers Representative (COR) requirement for contracting and the training prerequisites for COR certification could be eliminated. The concept makes too many assumptions and assumes too many risks, especially the one that suggests that anyone capable of passing an Army certification is capable of ensuring that a building is properly wired or that enough reinforcement is provided to carry loads in a structure. Nevermind that COR responsibilities are an additional duty competing for attention among operational demands, or even that COR has regular immediate visibility on a project. The proposed unit will ensure that a project is completed according to the statements of work, drawings and determined specifications.


The headquarters for MET would work for the theater command, which would allow teams to create continuity of effort over the long term. Each MET should be assigned down to a brigade as an enabler rather than an organic asset. Ideally, METs would be designated an area of responsibility (AOR) to maintain until the battle lines are compressed with the withdrawal of our forces from theater. This arrangement would mitigate the effects expected of the consistent rotation of units in and out of theater. In addition, strategic engineer priorities determined by one battle space owner would not die with the transfer of authority. Rotation within MET itself should be on an individual basis in order to reduce the possibility of the loss of effort or situational awareness in transition. This benefits project managers both in working 62

with engineer support and contractors within their specific AOR. Project managers will possess knowledge of the natural and built environments in their areas, and knowledge of the availability of materials and their competitive market prices. Also, the MET concept recognizes the value of relationships in the implementation of projects and the cultural significance of trust garnered over time in current theaters. Furthermore, some semblance of detachment from the brigade will protect program managers from pressure they may receive from the maneuver brigade due to the conflict in operational requirements and limitations on the ability of the program manager to provide those requirements for reasons beyond control.


The adoption of full-spectrum operations has pushed the regiment to the forefront of ongoing conflicts. For this reason, engineers must assume more pronounced ownership of the “Build” in Clear–Hold– Build. Recognition in the military community of engineers as problem-solvers and technical experts must parallel this assumption. Within the regiment, the lack of technical expertise among the officer corps has been identified as a handicap. We pride ourselves on our diversity relative to other branches, and this extends to the Engineer Basic Officer Leadership Course (EBOLC). However, despite the comprehensive nature of EBOLC, we were assured that the course was not intended to make us experts in the regiment, but rather to make us better managers of our soldiers by understanding their capabilities. Once deployed, there were a number of things that we wished EBOLC had, in fact, made us experts in. I would suggest that EBOLC offer engineers ABET-accredited undergraduate degrees in engineering as an incentive to complete advanced coursework at EBOLC to achieve the technical depth required in military engineering, especially with regards to construction planning and management. The schoolhouse should target engineers who have passed the Fundamentals of Engineering Exam. The curriculum should include a thorough knowledge of design software, surveying,

force protection and obstacles, contracting, quality assurance-quality control, the U.S. Central Command Sand Book and the Army Facilities Components System. The curriculum should allow for proficiency in the language of the current theater in consideration of the amount of interaction required of engineers in the field with locals or local national contractors and government officials. The graduates of this certification and advanced learning program could then fill the billets available to program managers within MET, inserting a knowledge base that would not be so readily available today. A secondary effect of the proposed change to EBOLC would result in assisting engineer officers in acquiring the experience necessary to qualify for a Professional Engineer license. This would significantly augment the number of licensed engineers available to the regiment with the retention of senior captains. In addition, the proposed method for inserting highly-qualified engineers as program managers in METs would create a small community that would naturally collaborate to improve methods in theater, in time solidifying the reputation of the regiment as surefire enablers.


The introduction of MET would provide an immediate means for brigades to address their engineer requirements. The brigades and brigade engineers would be assured of the competence of the METs and find an able partner in the program manager and subordinate project managers. Construction in theater will benefit from a streamlined design cycle that allows more shrewd management of funds and resources, serious quality assurancequality control and, overall, more concrete solutions during the initial execution of a project. The concept of MET stands to elevate the Army Engineer Regiment as a key player in full-spectrum operations and provide a direct benefit to maneuver units on the ground. Lt. Shawn Debarge Goodin, USA, is Battalion Engineer for the 504th Military Police Battalion, 42nd Military Police Brigade; (DSN) 318-6430523 or

The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011


Focused Effort: The 36th Engineer Brigade in Iraq The 36th Engineer Brigade increased efficiency and effectiveness to support a robust mission set despite a dramatic reduction in assets. BY MAJ. THOMAS L. GALLI, USA Serving in Iraq as the Theater Engineer Brigade in 2010, the U.S. Army 36th Engineer Brigade (Joint Task Force Rugged) faced unique challenges not experienced by engineer units in previous years. First, Operation Iraqi Freedom culminated and transitioned to Operation New Dawn, which involved the well-publicized directed force reduction across theater to 50,000 U.S. military personnel by the end of September. Second, conditions had to be set for the successful transition between the Iraqis and U.S. Mission–Iraq (USM-I), as well as retrograde of U.S. forces and assets, to meet the conditions established in the Security Agreement. As a result, the strategic and operational focus at the theater level changed from conducting combat operations to advising and assisting the Iraqi forces while concurrently reducing the overall military footprint and force structure in a relatively short timeframe. The challenge facing engineers was a drastic reduction in assets and capability without a commensurate decline in mission requirements. As U.S forces reduced in size and footprint, total engineers throughout theater decreased from three engineer brigades to one. By August 2010, there were little more than 1,000 engineers in Iraq to support and accomplish a wide array of missions. The problem the 36th Engineer Brigade had to confront was, given far fewer assets, how to remain positioned and postured to provide adequate assured mobility—route clearance, repair and bridging—and general engineering support—horizontal, vertical, design and technical, topographic, power generation and construction divers—while actively engaging the Iraqi Army engineers. The Military Engineer • No. 670


The purpose of the engineer’s assured mobility mission is to ensure freedom of maneuver across the theater primarily for U.S. forces, but also for Iraqi forces and to support the populace. Engineers execute this mission by ensuring routes remain open by emplacing and maintaining military bridges, conducting targeted route clearance against improvised explosive devices (IED) and repairing damaged routes. By summer 2010, there was only one Multi-Role Bridge Company (MRBC) remaining in theater. This lone unit had the mission to maintain, repair and emplace bridges across Iraq, as well as train the Iraqi Strategic Bridge Company. To further complicate this multi-faceted mission set, all military bridges in theater were to be either transferred to the Government of Iraq or removed by the end of 2011, which would obviously involve significant planning and involvement by the MRBC. Bridge removal had previously been a tenuous process, causing considerable friction between Iraqi and U.S. forces and also among the various U.S. maneuver units that relied on the bridges. It became essential to alleviate this friction quickly and early in the deployment. The 36th Engineer Brigade, in conjunction with the U.S. Forces–Iraq (USF-I) Engineer Directorate, developed a plan that involved a comprehensive and holistic analysis to accurately prioritize the importance of bridges throughout Iraq. First, the 36th Engineer Brigade queried the U.S. divisions and Theater Expeditionary Support Command for U.S. force traffic and utilization rates across each bridge as well as proximity to U.S. bases and major routes. Second, the brigade collected data from Human Terrain Teams on Iraqi utilization rates (both military and civilian) and the proximity of the bridges to

A soldier from 739th Engineer Multi-Role Bridge Company prepares a watercraft during an Improved Ribbon Bridge removal mission in Qayyarah, Iraq, in June 2010. ARMY PHOTOS BY STAFF SGT. EDWARD REAGAN


JOINT ENGINEER CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS significant centers of commerce and religious sites. These data provided the atmospherics required to present a logical argument to both the U.S. divisions and USF-I for concurrence—and ultimately the USF-I Commander’s approval—on the prioritization and proposed timeline of removal. This process was critical as it allowed all stakeholders to understand the relative importance of each bridge and enabled the operational mission to take precedence. Between March and November 2010, the number of route clearance teams in theater decreased by one-third, which meant that precedence for route coverage came at a premium and needed greater fidelity and synchronization to accurately focus and execute targeted operations. The 36th Engineer Brigade, working closely with the various IED-defeat and counter-IED organizations in theater and at USF-I, developed new criteria and metrics to identify specific areas along routes


of increased IED threat. These areas are referred to using the tactical term Named Areas of Interest (NAI). The objective of this effort was twofold. First, it enabled a single threat-based common operating picture for all route clearance operations in theater. Second, it allowed for a greater focus on targeting IEDs and networks with a combined arms approach, instead of merely increasing the volume and frequency of clearance patrols. One example of this approach was found north of Baghdad in Diyala Province, where the Theater Engineer Brigade-developed NAIs helped focus the Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance coverage of the 2nd Brigade, 25th Infantry Division. This coordination led to better communication and a greater unity of effort among all involved in rapidly detecting and countering the emplacement of IEDs and attacking the individuals emplacing the devices to gain information on the larger networks involved.


Although the decrease in route clearance assets was significant in 2010, the reduction in engineer construction assets was even more dramatic. Between March and September, construction assets at the Theater Engineer Brigade were reduced roughly 80 percent. However, the requirements for engineers to provide construction support did not decline in kind, and initially construction assets and forces were being pulled in many different directions by different units and organizations with competing demands. To resolve this problem, the 36th Engineer Brigade, in conjunction with the USF-I Engineer Directorate, developed and agreed on a new set of weighted criteria by which to assign and track projects. This allowed the command to weigh risk and provide both options and impacts if assets had to be reallocated. The criteria were based on both the specified priority of effort as well as who the stakeholders

The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011

JOINT ENGINEER CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS were, or who would be affected. For example, a life, health, or safety issue at the USF-I level would receive priority over a routine upgrade request for a single unit. The result of the new process was to remove any gray areas or undue influence by specific units or commanders attempting to increase the visibility and priority for their projects without cause. From this, the 36th Engineer Brigade was able to develop more reliable short- and longrange construction calendars and utilization projections.


Improving the efficiency and effectiveness of existing functions was fundamental to all facets of the Theater Engineer Brigade mission in 2010. This also extended into the critical area of advising, training, assisting and equipping the Iraqi Headquarters for the Field Engineering Regiment and the Iraqi Strategic Bridge Company. Given limited time to assist in

establishing an enduring strategic bridge capability and institutional infrastructure, positive progression could only be made by first gaining Iraqi input and buy-in to the training. The training objectives also had to be different than what U.S. forces had determined were “minimally essential,” a rather pejorative term that the Iraqis resented. The 36th Engineer Brigade responded in kind by referring to the objectives alternatively as “most important missions.” These were objectives developed and supported by the Iraqis, where U.S. engineers were mere enablers. This process will continue through Operation New Dawn under a different Theater Engineer Brigade, but the foundation for the way ahead and Iraqi engineers is solid.


These are only a snapshot of the many types of missions the 36th Engineer Brigade supported and executed as Theater Engineer Brigade. Through its assigned

U.S. Air Force Expeditionary Prime BEEF Squadron, the brigade played in integral role in the design and master planning for all hub and spoke bases throughout theater and power generation support. These efforts proved to be a key element in ensuring the readiness of USM-I during Operation New Dawn. Overall, the success of the engineer brigade in 2010 was due in part because it understood the necessity and importance of developing new processes and criteria that enhanced the efficiency and effectiveness of ongoing missions, which assisted in developing a more expeditionary mindset throughout the force. All of this was accomplished despite the natural constraints of force reductions and transitioning missions. Maj. Thomas L. Galli, USA, is Brigade Plans Officer, 36th Engineer Brigade; (DSN) 318-4855567 or

Soldiers from 739th Engineer Multi-Role Bridge Company, 724th Engineer Battalion, 36th Engineer Brigade prepare to remove an Improved Ribbon Bridge in Qayyarah, Iraq, in June 2010. The Improved Ribbon Bridge was removed in preparation for the Qayyarah Bridge’s grand opening.

The Military Engineer • No. 670


ENERGY The new 220,000-ft2 headquarters of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colo., is targeting LEED Platinum certification and achieves the maximum possible points for energy efficiency. PHOTOS BY FRANK OOMS


The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011


Achieving Executive Order 13514—20 Years Early A performance-based design-build delivery approach helped facilitate the design and construction of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s innovative new headquarters. BY LEANDRA THOMPSON, DBIA, LEED AP, M.SAME The Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) had a vision in 2007 to design the world’s most energy-efficient building. The Research Support Facility, the new NREL administrative headquarters in Golden, Colo., needed to be a Class A office building that could hold up to 800 people; however, as NREL is the nation’s renewable energy laboratory, it couldn’t be just any Class A office building. NREL’s mission is to find more effective ways to harvest energy from sources such as wind, solar and hydrogen and bring these technologies to market for the betterment of our nation. NREL chose to prove its research by designing its Class A headquarters facility to a zero-net-energy standard. One of the mission-critical objectives of the Research Support Facility is that the building’s design be easily and affordably replicable by other federal agencies. The

owner team determined that the best way to achieve these high-risk objectives was to use a performance-based design-build approach to procure the facility. Performance-based design-build is a robust delivery method that, when executed in accordance with best practices, can achieve goals both highly unusual and basic. Two-Phase Competition. The owner chose to use a two-phase competition as allowed by the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR). In fall 2007, the owners offered a request for qualifications that generated eight responses and then offered a request for proposal (RFP). Shortlist to Three. In accordance with FAR, the RFP went to only three firms, an approach the owner believed would result in a more focused, innovative competition. The owner shortened the time to award by reviewing only three proposals and believed that if one firm dropped out, two firms would still provide the necessary competition for a federally-funded job. Interim Interviews. The owner team and contracting officer held interim inter-

All workstations in the Research Support Facility are day lit, and all south-facing windows are equipped with sun shades to control day lighting and heat gain.

The Military Engineer • No. 670

views during the design-build competition. The purpose was to make sure each design-build team was on the right track, and, if not, to help adjust the designs to the RFP requirements and ensure all teams had a fair chance to win the project. Performance Specifications. The owner utilized performance specifications based on the Construction Specifications Institute’s Uniformat II Standard. The owner did not use bridging documents—usually identified as 30 percent complete design. Rather, the owner chose performance specifications to shift risk of designing to budget to the design-builder, which had the freedom to solve the cost-budgetschedule problem as long as the solution met the owner’s performance criteria. Stipends. For this project, the owner offered stipends of $250,000 per non-award team. Each design-build team spent approximately $750,000 to compete, so the stipend went a long way to help mitigate costs for the two teams that did not win. Shortlisting to three firms allowed the owner to pay fewer stipends, as there were only two non-award teams. Award Fee Plan of Incentives. Per FAR, the owner offered an award fee plan of incentives valued at $2 million. The award fee is only offered for superior design-builder performance in six separate stages: preliminary design; design development; final design; construction; closeout; and warranty and commissioning. Each of the six stages has unique criteria. The design-builder is given a monthly rating of superior, excellent, satisfactory, or unsatisfactory and may improve performance prior to the incentive award at the end of each stage. Best Value Selection. NREL believed it would receive higher quality and fewer headaches by awarding the project to the best value design-builder. Best value means that the owner may select a higher price if greater value is offered. 67


Interestingly, during the competitive phase, all three shortlisted teams declined to finish the competition due to the difficulty of accomplishing the high-risk goals outlined in the performance specifications. Each team believed it would be possible to accomplish the energy goals but not for the congressionally-approved budget of approximately $64 million (including furniture). NREL worked with the Design Build Institute of America to re-engage the competition by developing a two-part contract that mitigated risk for each competing design-build team. Part I of the design-build contract lowered risk for the winning design-build team by allowing four months of paid design time to prove the team’s solution could actually be designed and constructed for $64 million. There was one caveat: If a design-build team did not achieve the performance criteria and budget within the four months, the team would be paid only one-half of its design fee. If a team did achieve these goals, it would be paid its full four-month fee and win Part II of the contract for the final design and construction of the facility.


The NREL Integrated Project Team awarded the project, its first design-build project, in July 2008 to Haselden Construction and RNL Design. Although the two firms had worked together on previous design-build projects, the builder had never completed a federal project. Northstar Project Management, which specializes in performance-based designbuild for public projects, was contracted to serve as the owner’s representative. This combination of design-build experience created a strong team composition. Initially, the key sub-consultants to the designer balked after the contract award. Once into the project, they wanted more money to create the unique design. The designer showed strong leadership and held the line, guiding team members to focus on design solutions within their proposed fees. What the team discovered in the first four months was that every de-


sign solution required foresight, and that it must hash out ideas and concepts as a team before putting pen to paper. The builder understood design-build in the private market but had not experienced it in the federal arena. Although the firm was committed to the designer, it was unsure of its role in the first four months. As a result of a meeting held in August 2008, the builder came to understand its role as a collaborative partner to the designer and owner, and the builder made a fundamental switch in how it implemented construction. This switch has led to a complete restructuring of the builder’s company and phenomenal growth. The role of the owner’s representative was to create new procedures suited to performance-based design-build and to verify and substantiate that the designbuilder was meeting the performance criteria. Not all of the sub-consultants understood the differences between designbid-build and design-build as an owner’s representative, and several had to be removed from the project because there was no time to teach them how to do the work. The result of this unique collaborative partnership is the Research Support Facility, an innovative but elegantly simple facility. The design-build team repeatedly used existing technologies in new and different ways to accomplish the performance requirements within the budget. The facility incorporates numerous innovative solutions: • A narrow, 60-ft-wide floor plate enables day lighting and natural ventilation for all occupants. • Labyrinth thermal storage in the crawlspace stores energy and provides a passive heat resource for the building. • A transpired solar collector, a technology developed by NREL, preheats air for the labyrinth. • All workstations are day lit using light bounced into the center of the building. • All windows are triple glazed, some windows are operable to allow fresh air into the building and south-facing windows have sunshades to control day lighting and heat gain. • An energy-efficient data center with hot and cold aisle configuration features air-

side-economizer cooling with evaporative boost and captures waste heat for reuse within the building. • Through a Power Purchase Agreement with Excel Energy, a 1.6-MW photovoltaic array was installed on the roof of the building.


The Research Support Facility is approximately 220,000-ft2 and houses 800 occupants. The facility, including the highperformance data center, uses 35-kBtu/ft2 per year and has bested the ASHRAE 90.1 2004 standard by 50 percent. The project is currently targeted for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Platinum certification and achieved the maximum points available for energy efficiency. The Research Support Facility team achieved substantial completion on June 10, 2010. The construction of the Research Support Facility II, an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-funded north wing addition to the existing structure, is currently underway. Executive Order 13514, “Federal Leadership in Environmental Energy and Economic Performance,” signed by President Barack Obama in October 2009, calls for “…in 2020 and thereafter, ensuring that all new Federal buildings that enter the planning process are designed to achieve zero net energy by 2030...” This zero-netenergy standard can be achieved by acres of photovoltaic arrays or wind turbines; however, the greater challenge to the design and construction community is to create sustainable, energy-efficient buildings while employing a combination of alternate energy sources to achieve the zero-net-energy requirement. The NREL Research Support Facility accomplished both objectives. The project team designed and constructed a highly energy-efficient, sustainable building that, through the installation of a rooftop photovoltaic array, has achieved the zero-net-energy goal two decades ahead of schedule. Leandra Thompson, DBIA, LEED AP, M.SAME, is President, Northstar Project Management Inc.; 303-362-1949 or

The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011

Biomass and the Air Force


The Air Force is researching biomass as one of a portfolio of potential solutions as it prepares to meet the energy challenges of the future.

U.S. Air Force facility energy experts are taking a deliberate approach to seek out and use all available renewable energy resources on installations. Past efforts focused on obvious, strong resource locations such as solar power in the southwest U.S. and wind energy in Alaska. Recently, engineers at the Air Force Facility Energy Center (AFFEC), located at the Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla., worked with scientists from the Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to conduct a series of renewable energy studies at 57 major U.S. installations. The studies highlighted a major area of potential growth: biomass. Using renewable energy is a priority for the Air Force. Currently, completed projects with a capacity of 40-MW are in operation on 45 installations. They produce more than 71,000-MWh of renewable energy a year, or nearly 6 percent of all facility energy consumed by the Air Force. Over the next three years, the Air Force plans to construct new solar, wind, wasteto-energy and biomass projects generating an additional 65-MW. This would bring the annual renewable energy percentage to roughly 11 percent of all facility energy used in the Air Force. A number of federal mandates and legislation guide future energy use in the federal government. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 requires that 15 percent of electricity come from renewables by 2015, and the Energy Independence and Security Act 2007 requires 30 percent of domestic hot water to come from solar energy in all new construction and retrofits if cost effective. Furthermore, The U.S. Code requires that 25 percent of energy come from renewables by 2025, and Executive Order 13514 mandates a 34 percent reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2020. The Military Engineer • No. 670



Ron Omley, Environmental Chief for Air Force Special Operations Command, explains the function of the primary furnace spool to Dr. Werner J.A. Dahm, Chief Scientist of the U.S. Air Force, at the Plasma Waste2-Energy System facility at Hurlburt Field, Fla., in April 2010.


The first-ever Air Force renewable energy feasibility studies turned up 175 opportunities, based on natural resource strength, preliminary economics and state incentive programs. The next step in the Air Force’s three-step process to address federal energy mandates is to look at site

and mission impacts and fine tune the economic analysis for each opportunity. Under current estimates, the Air Force needs to generate approximately 4-million-MWh annually to meet the requirement of 25 percent of total facility energy use by 2025. The newly-identified opportunities should have the potential to pro69

ENERGY duce 6-million-MWh a year, with 90 percent of that power coming from biomass resources, which include waste-to-energy and landfill gas.


Biomass is biological material from living or recently living organisms such as wood and waste. Biomass energy often involves the controlled combustion of dead trees, yard clippings, wood chips, garbage, methane and syngas. Industrial biomass is grown from numerous types of plants, and the particular plant material dictates the processing used. Although fossil fuels have their origin in ancient biomass, they are not considered renewable. The carbon they contain has been “out” of the carbon cycle for a long time, and their combustion unbalances the carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere. Current biomass use is considered a low- or no-carbon solution through carbon capture effect, as plant growth actively removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.


Biomass generation far exceeded other technologies evaluated in the Air Force studies. For starters, biomass generation rate estimates proved more economical than other technologies at times, even without the reliability of state incentives. Furthermore, when compared to intermittent sources such as wind and solar, biomass’s ability to generate energy continuously makes it a more attractive development venue to address energy security concerns. Also, biomass for energy generation can benefit both the community and installation efforts by avoiding other waste-handling costs and liabilities and creating jobs. When compared to solar, biomass projects have a larger capacity factor, allowing them to provide much more renewable power annually, occupy a smaller footprint and cost 50 percent less. The Air Force is considering adding biomass projects at six installations, including Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. When comparing the proposed 25-MW biomass plant at Eglin to the 14-MW solar array at Nellis Air Force Base, Nev., the biomass plant would benefit the Air Force in several ways: 70

• 76 percent greater capacity; • 640 percent greater annual production; • 365 percent greater yield; • 50 percent cost savings; and • 30 times more energy per acre. Adding biomass to the Air Force renewable energy portfolio would fast-forward the service’s attempt to increase renewable energy consumption to 25 percent by 2025. Biomass facilities not only provide large amounts of power, they provide reliable and consistent energy, unlike solar and wind. The sun does not always shine, and the wind does not always blow, but biomass plants can operate 24 hours a day.


Supported by grants from the Foreign Comparative Testing Office, the Canadian government and the Air Force Surgeon General as well as funding from the Air Force Smart Operations for the 21st Century program, a $7.3 million Plasma Waste-2-Energy System facility is nearly complete at Hurlburt Field, Fla. The plasma system will gasify municipal solid waste, medical waste and classified waste and aims eventually to be permitted for hazardous waste. The plasma system uses intense heat to gasify the organic portions of waste streams, turning these into syngas (H2 and CO). This gas goes through a cleaning process to remove acids, sulfur, mercury and particulates before being introduced as a fuel into a commercially-available syngas engine. The engine turns a generator producing enough electricity to run the system and supply a portion of the host installation’s electrical load. The engine also produces heat that also can be used for various processes. Elsewhere congressionally-mandated demonstration project also is being implemented through the Air Force Materiel Command at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, and the Air Force Research Lab at Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska. This demonstration aims to produce the ability to burn and use solid waste to generate usable energy. Further preliminary studies currently underway at Robins Air Force Base, Ga., also indicate economic feasibility potential for implementation of the technology.


In December 2010, the Air Force hosted its first ever Renewable Energy Industry Day, which included more than 200 industry representatives. Waste-to-energy and biomass was one of four specific technology areas that were highlighted in breakout sessions. A request for information will be released soon on the Federal Business Opportunities website to gain ideas and inputs from industry and other agencies to improve the Air Force program to use biomass as a component of its renewable energy portfolio. The Air Force is interested primarily in biomass projects that may be developed through third-party investments on installations using Power Purchase Agreements, which allow the Air Force to gain energy through a cooperative partnership with a developer. The developer provides capital and a technical solution to provide energy, which the Air Force commits to buy through a utility contract. The projects must be economically feasible to the Air Force through the asset’s life. Benefits to the Air Force also include avoided cost and guaranteed risk abatement. As the renewable energy program in the Air Force matures, additional sources of energy will be added and considered. While solar and wind energy are conventionally considered the most “green,” engineers must develop a portfolio of solutions to meet the full demand of the Air Force. Based on varied geography, diverse natural resources, different missions and number of communities, the solution for the Air Force as a whole and any individual installation will be a combination of solutions that provides the greatest value, mission surety and sustainability. The challenge of powering Air Force installations beyond 2025 is enormous. Every possible source must be exploited and integrated into a comprehensive solution, and biomass is the next major area to explore. Ken Gray, P.E., CCM, is Chief, Energy Rates and Renewables Branch, Air Force Facility Energy Center; 850-283-6357 or Rafael Márquez, P.E., is Biomass Technical Advisor, Portage Inc.; 850-283-6342 or

The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011


The 35,000-ft2 Special Operations Forces Aviation Battalion Education Center far exceeded new standards for building envelope efficiency that were released in 2009. PHOTOS COURTESY STO CORP.

Sealed and Delivered

A fluid-applied building sealant helped the project team exceed stringent USACE air leakage requirements at the SOF Aviation Battalion Education Center at Lewis-McChord Air Force Base, Wash. BY LISA PETSKO Lewis-McChord Air Force Base, Wash., is in the process of building. The Special Operations Forces (SOF) Aviation Battalion Education Center, a new 35,000-ft2 building that has applied for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Silver certification, needed to meet new U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) air barrier standard requirements. The facility was the first project the general contractor had constructed under the government’s air barrier requirements, which so far had not been met at this level at Joint Base Lewis-McChord. The U.S. Army’s building air tightness and building air leakage testing requirements are outlined in the protocol titled U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Air Leakage Test Protocol for Measuring Air Leakage in The Military Engineer • No. 670

Buildings, which was distributed in a USACE Engineering and Construction Bulletin in late 2009. The protocol explains Army requirements for building air tightness and building air leakage testing for new and renovation construction projects in or after 2010. According to Lee Durston, Director of Building Science for Brown Connally Rowan Architects and an author of the protocol, there had previously been no USACE air barrier requirements for air leakage except for verbiage in the ASHRAE 90.1 standard that required the sealing of gaps, cracks and holes. Beyond that, there was no end-of-construction verification test to prove the standard had been met. As a result of the new guidelines, however, there are specific requirements for design, air barrier materials and performance verification testing of the completed building.


These requirements are being implemented as an energy conservation measure in order to comply with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, both of which are federal mandates requiring reductions in energy usage. “Energy conservation is the main purpose of these new requirements; however, USACE is finding that the overall level of design and construction needs to be brought to a higher level in order to meet the requirement,” said Durston. “The end product is more sustainable buildings, not just energy-efficient, but better indoor air quality, occupant comfort, acoustics and more durable building enclosures.” “With all new requirements there is an education factor,” Durston continued. “As soon as the designer and the contractor understand the requirement and what 71

ENERGY can be done to meet the requirement, it is fairly straightforward.” The team at Lewis-McChord needed to demonstrate that the air leakage rate of the SOF Aviation Battalion Education Center building envelope did not exceed 0.25 cubic feet per minute per square foot (CFM/ft2) at a pressure differential of 0.3w.g. (75 Pascal) in accordance with the ASTM E 779 or ASTM E 1827 standards. Testing needed to demonstrate the air leakage rate using both pressurization and depressurization. The building was to be surveyed using infrared thermography to find air leakage pathways created during construction. In addition to reporting the normalized air leakage, the testing agency also was required to report the correlation coefficient and 95 percent Confidence Intervals to determine the accuracy of the data collected and the quality of the relationship between flow and pressure that was established during the test.


The SOF Aviation Battalion Education Center comprises 35,000-ft2 of classrooms and an auditorium. The building was framed with steel stud framing, and double-sided membrane tape was used to bridge the 1-in gap between the first and second floors for seismic movement. This created another design concern, as a fluid-applied waterproof air barrier was to be applied over the entire surface of the exterior. Gypsum sheathing applied over the top of the membrane bridged the gap between the two floors and the 1-in separation of the board. The fluid-applied waterproof air barrier with tape and fabric installed at all the seams was applied over the sheathing, then the rigid insulation and finally the brick. A double-sided membrane tape was used to seal the backside of the brick ties. Nearly 650-G—or 50,000-ft2—of the air barrier was called for to complete the exterior and some of the interior of this large building. With the fluid-applied air barrier, an applicator coated the entire exterior of the building and inside the building above the drop ceiling to create a building envelope on the second floor ceiling and ensure a tighter building. Including the exterior penetrations and ceiling 72

Roughly 50,000-ft2 of fluid-applied air barrier was applied to the exterior and interior of the Special Operations Forces Aviation Battalion Education Center at Lewis-McChord Air Force Base, Wash.

penetrations for all mechanical, electrical, plumbing and fire sprinkler systems, there were more than 2,000 penetrations in the building envelope. The applicator also used a product for the rough openings and ensured that all mechanical construction was completed, particularly all penetrations and joints, before the building was finally sealed.


The team was still concerned about passing the air barrier test, particularly considering the new air barrier guidelines. According to the project superintendent, meeting the stringent USACE requirements on a building the size of the SOF Aviation Battalion Education Center was challenging enough—trying to establish a new benchmark under the air barrier guidelines raised the bar considerably for all involved. Another concern was applying the air barrier system in the dead of winter, which also is rainy season in the Pacific Northwest. The initial test on the building, conducted while construction was still in process, passed between 0.18-CFM/ft2 and 0.19-CFM/ft2. The initial test was to measure the entire barrier system with the building substantially complete. The final test was performed one month later with the building nearing completion. The bar-

rier was reported as being complete, all exterior doors (but not all door finishes) had been installed. All walls were complete, but flooring and baseboards were still in progress. Wall outlets also were not complete. The mechanical system roughin was complete and all exterior dampers were closed and sealed. The barometric relief damper in the auditorium was covered with plastic at the time of the test. According to the project superintendent responsible for the project, the final test of the building performed at a level that had not been accomplished at Joint Base Lewis-McChord since the requirement for such testing began—at an exceptional rate of 0.11-CFM/ft2 at a pressure differential of 0.3-w.g. This accomplishment did not happen by accident. In fact, this exceptional outcome was due to a strong team comprising an architect, general contractor, manufacturer, air barrier applicator and testing contractor that conducted the test for the USACE Seattle District. Collectively, the group invested significant time, money, resources and effort understanding the project and resolving any challenges before they became issues. Lisa Petsko is LEED Green Associate and Product Manager, Sto Corp.; 678-553-3267 or

The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011


Implementing a DOD Net-Zero Strategy A balanced, thoughtful energy strategy will help DOD address financial, social and ecological interests while supporting the operational mission. BY WENDI GOLDSMITH, M.SAME, COL. BARTON BARNHART, CFM, PMP, M.SAME, USAF, and AL HURT, M.SAME


Various recent executive orders and public laws establish a requirement for federal agencies to make big changes in their approaches to management of energy and other resources. Additionally, the Quadrennial Defense Review highlights the military significance of managing water, energy and waste in efficient and resource-conserving ways, especially in light of climate change and its broadening impacts. As a consequence of these drivers, and in the interest of economics and consolidation of effort, it makes sense for the Department of Defense (DOD) to consider a net-zero strategy for sustainable energy, waste and water management at military installations. For reference, the DOD and Department of Energy’s Net-Zero Energy Initiative (NZEI) Task Force has defined net-zero military installations as those producing as much energy on or near the installation as it consumes in its buildings and facilities. This will, of course, come as a result of maximizing the use of renewable energy resources. From an installations perspective, the goal is to enhance an installation’s capability to support the operational mission while addressing the triple bottom line of financial, social and ecological interests. A sound net-zero strategy makes investments designed to reduce energy and water consumption and waste generation, increases the supplies of renewable and alternative energy sources, and provides efficient handling of sewage, stormwater and solid waste. These practices have the added benefit of helping DOD achieve sustainability goals established by the various federal mandates. To that end, the military services are all looking at various net-zero initiatives to include net-zero installations. No doubt the first net-zero installations will be well-studied, drawing on all available government and privatesector expertise to better guide the way forward.


This proposed net-zero initiative builds upon years of increasingly creative and well-integrated progress executed around the country. Several DOD installations have made noteworthy progress on improving sustainability in terms of building construction, supporting infrastructure, and operations and training. Many have saved money in the process. However, installations have often focused on one area, such as energy, with little or no integration between energy, water and waste goals. This is unfortunate, as there are numerous examples that demonstrate the merit of combining solutions to these problems for greater benefits and cost savings. The Military Engineer • No. 670

Members of Naval Mobile Construction Battalion 1 drilled three 800- to 1,000-ft-deep holes for the U.S. Navy Geothermal Program Office to support research on local geothermal energy potential at Twentynine Palms, Calif.


ENERGY DOD leaders recognize integrated resource management practices can help achieve synergistic energy, water and waste management to best attain efficiencies in infrastructure operations while capturing resource streams previously “wasted” such as “waste” heat and “waste” water. DOD also recognizes the potential benefits of tapping private investment for infrastructure and energy-efficiency improvements. This means harnessing the latest techniques used by the private sector to help achieve net-zero goals. Fortunately, a growing number of private developers, and also investors willing to form public-private partnerships, have gained experience in this arena. DOD hopes to leverage that experience and expertise. Fundamentally, sustainable systems are cyclical, rather than one-way processes. However, we typically do not design most infrastructure and other built systems this way, so there exists a broad category of untapped room for improvement. Cyclical infrastructure systems enable the capture of outputs from one process as inputs to another process, rather than allowing the value of those outputs to be lost. For example, an agency can design or retrofit sewage treatment systems to allow utilization of heat from sewage digestion for district heating and cooling, much like ground-source geothermal systems; it can design treatment plants to capture combustible gases and use them for cogeneration (reducing greenhouse gas emissions and producing energy); and it can convert biosolids to compost for application as a soil amendment conducive to water conservation. In total, these types of systems can reduce water and energy demand by 50 percent or more. This approach represents a systems-approach assemblage of existing technology, interconnected to function much like an ecosystem. Results from this approach include the possibility of substantial cost savings, and in certain cases revenue generation.


From an operational perspective, energy and water availability affect military operations in some very direct ways. Without question the most devastating impact to DOD and our nation come from the casualties incurred while pro74

tecting convoys carrying fuel and water to support missions in hostile areas. Reducing the level of demand through improved technology and behavior patterns has great potential to reduce this risk; accomplishing this objective will require culture change supported by updates in planning, purchasing, training and other areas. Prudent and resourceful conservation of water, energy and waste can promote greater resiliency in the face of climate change and may also make incremental contributions to its mitigation. As climate change alters sea level, rainfall patterns and seasonal extremes of temperature, the demand for energy and water may lead to local shortages, price increases and, in the worst cases, conflicts. If we do not consider an integrated management approach, efforts to resolve these problems may improve, for instance, energy supply while increasing pressure on other resources and thus undermining broad conservation outcomes. Military operations have a unique opportunity to facilitate development and spread familiarity with methods of net-zero resource management and to reduce vulnerability both within and outside DOD in the process. To that end, the Secretary of the Navy (SECNAV) has directed the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations to research the viability of making U.S. Navy installations net-zero energy installations. This initiative is aligned with SECNAV energy goals that state 50 percent of Navy installations will be net-zero installations by 2020. SECNAV established several other energy goals to increase warfighting capability, both tactically and strategically. Tactically, the objective is to use energy sources available on location and increase energy efficiency to reduce the volatility and risk associated with long fuel supply lines. From a strategic perspective, the objective is to reduce reliance on fossil fuels. The Navy’s energy strategy centers on energy security, energy efficiency and environmental stewardship while maintaining maritime dominance. The key objectives recognize that energy security is critical to mission success. The Navy energy branch has taken the initiative to explore future net-zero opportunities and has aligned FY2011 funds for net-zero studies (to focus on renewable sources of energy). In parallel with this ef-

fort, the Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program, via the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, funded the first in-depth pilot NZEI study in the first quarter of FY2011 at Naval Support Activity South Potomac to study potential renewable energy resources with “region-diverse challenges.”


DOD is evaluating strategies and will prioritize those with the highest merit based on highest performance and best value rather than lowest cost. By viewing energy, water and waste infrastructure and management strategies as fully integrated elements within a functional ecosystem, DOD can assess and evaluate both positive and negative resource impacts, costs and revenues. The results will help DOD focus efforts towards achieving the greatest return on investment for military installations and surrounding energy, environmental and ecological systems, measured by both financial merits and environmental integrity. The benefits of the approach are its applicability across installations with different missions in varying geographies. This approach also allows maximization of lifecycle cost savings through installationspecific adaptive management of measures addressing technological, enterprise, economic, regulatory and other factors to significantly impact the performance of netzero strategies across energy, water and waste. DOD expects significant long-term savings in terms of resource conservation and reduced utility bills, plus improved operational security and reduced risk. A well considered net-zero strategy can help DOD achieve these expectations. Wendi Goldsmith, M.SAME, is CEO and Al Hurt, M.SAME, is Vice President, Sustainable Energy Innovations, Bioengineering Group. They can be reached at 978-224-3107 or, and 858-334-8453 or, respectively. Col. Barton Barnhart, CFM, PMP, M.SAME, USAF, is Chief, Environmental Management Planning, Programming, Budget and Execution Office, Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Installations & Environment); 703604-1831 or

The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011


Customizing Lighting Control The Department of State’s Office of Facilities Management Services has successfully tailored lighting control solutions based on building type, use and other factors.

The stateside operations of the U.S. Department of State comprise numerous buildings covering more than 6-millionft2, all of which is managed by the Office of Facilities Management Services (FMS). FMS serves as the operational backbone of the Department of State and is responsible for maintenance, repair, small renovations and efficiency of these facilities. As greater emphasis is placed on making the government more energy efficient, lighting control is seen as a key strategy for creating more efficient buildings. Achieving greater energy efficiency is a primary goal of Donald Traff, Division Chief of the FMS Domestic Environmental and Safety Division. And because keeping the lights on is the single highest operating expense for a typical office building, higher even than HVAC, Traff focused first on improving lighting systems. The initiative wasn’t driven by executive orders or department mandates but an inherent need to reduce energy use and costs. This provided the FMS team with greater flexibility and freedom to design and execute the best solution, but it also meant increased scrutiny and pressure to succeed, which would help ensure future lighting projects would receive funding.


Traff started analyzing data covering two months of research on possible lighting control strategies. Armed with the insight of having worked at one of America’s largest lighting manufacturers, combined with knowledge from years of work with building controls, he was able to understand the range of technical solutions available with lighting control. To gain further knowledge of each supplier’s capabilities and determine which solutions would be most appropriate for his faciliThe Military Engineer • No. 670



Daylight harvesting and other energy-efficiency strategies implemented at the Department of State’s Building 84 in Charleston, S.C., save more than 60,000-KWh per year.

ties, Traff visited several lighting control manufacturers to witness demonstrations and evaluate options. During his visits, Traff ascertained the quality of the products, interviewed the engineers, assessed the type of technical support the various companies would offer and discussed installation strategies specific to State Department buildings and projects. Traff learned about the products and software inside and out. With a greater understanding of the equipment and its capabilities, he was able to better design the application of the systems. “We largely based our selection on the ability to implement a complete lighting system, from dimmer switches and ballasts to state-of-the-art software and controls,” Traff said. “We chose a system that could be easily configured to provide us the maximum number of energy savings strategies per application.”


Traff and his team selected the Harry S. Truman Building, the main State Department facility in Washington, D.C., for its first retrofit project. The building’s main

corridor spans two city blocks and contains more than 150 lighting fixtures. But that’s just a sliver of the building, which contains 34,000 fluorescent lights with ballasts in its 2.6-million-ft2 structure. The limited space of the corridor was ideal for the first retrofit because the project would not interfere with the 8,000-plus employees who work in the building’s offices. Also, fewer elements of a larger integrated lighting control system could be “tested” on site in the corridor. In total, dimmable ballasts were incorporated into 156 lighting fixtures, testing fluorescent dimming as a lighting strategy. Dual-technology (infrared and ultrasonic) sensors were installed and programmed to detect when sections of the corridor are empty and shut off the lights until someone enters the space, testing occupancy sensing as a lighting strategy. The long corridor was split into four zones, and occupancy sensors were placed to provide uniform coverage throughout the extended hallway. New high-performance lamps also were installed at a color temperature that enhanced the wall colors to provide a more pleasing appearance. 75


By replacing this legacy lighting system with new fixtures, dimming ballasts and occupancy sensors, one State Department building garage saved more than 400,000-KWh, or about $64,000 in electricity costs, annually—an estimated 83 percent energy savings from the baseline.

The optimal light level was defined to balance energy efficiency with occupant comfort and safety. During the day, lights are at 30 percent of full output when the corridor is occupied, achieving a 70 percent reduction in energy from the baseline. The sensors automatically turn the lights down to 10 percent after five minutes of inactivity, providing additional savings. At night, lights are set to 10 percent and increase when employees or security workers enter the corridor. Despite using only two lighting strategies, this system still saves 30,000-KWh from the legacy lighting in the corridor. In achieving an immediate 70 percent lighting energy savings, FMS also dimmed the corridor lights using a high-end trim feature that allowed the maximum light level to be set to a value of less than 100 percent. The human eye can barely distinguish between a 100 percent light level and an 80 percent light level, for example, and setting lights to less than 100 percent can significantly reduce energy costs. Unexpectedly, building employees noticed and commented on the lighting improvements. In the 18 months since the corridor light project was completed, FMS has yet to receive a negative comment. 76

The success of the Harry S. Truman Building corridor paved the way for other lighting projects. To gain concrete reporting and metrics, Traff wanted to expand the lighting-control strategies beyond using high-end trim, scheduling, and occupancy and vacancy sensing, and incorporate greater control and reporting mechanisms. Using the Washington, D.C., FMS offices as the next test site, Traff and his team implemented as many lighting-control solutions as possible in the 7,000-ft2 space. This time the goal was to measurably save energy by maximizing the use of daylight and minimizing energy waste in spaces with multiple functions: individual offices, open cube space and conference rooms. With an expected two-year return on investment, there are several key components of the fully integrated lighting control system at FMS, including: Lighting-control software. State-of-theart lighting control software enables FMS personnel to configure, control, manage, monitor and report on lighting usage from a central location to minimize maintenance and operating costs and achieve optimal energy performance. The system manages both electric light and daylight to simplify operations and improve the comfort and productivity of building occupants. The same software can be easily scaled to control the entire building in the future as the new lighting technology is more widely installed. Light-level tuning. Dimmable ballasts were retrofitted throughout the space and programmed at 60 percent of full output, reducing energy and setting the appropriate light level for each space. Daylight harvesting. Large windows naturally illuminate the space, allowing lights to be further dimmed when it is bright outside. Occupancy sensing. Ultrasonic infrared sensors turn lights off when a space is empty and turn lights on when a person enters the space. Personal light control. Although typical lighting is ideal for paperwork, it is usually two to three times brighter than is ideal for computer work. Localized dimming controls provide additional op-

portunities for individuals to reduce the amount of light in a space, creating a more ideal workspace for different tasks. Controllable window shades. Solaradaptive shading software automatically adjusts window shades based on the sun’s position throughout the day. This capability effectively manages light, reduces glare, increases solar heat and decreases heat loss to save lighting and HVAC energy costs. Scheduling. The lights are programmed using an astronomic time clock to control light relative to sunrise and sunset, as well as to specific office hours.

“The complexity and sophistication of a lighting system depends on the type and use of a building” COOKIE CUTTERS ARE FOR BAKING

The complexity and sophistication of a lighting system depends on the type and use of a building; a parking garage is a simpler structure than an office building. Solutions and systems also can differ for retrofit installations or new construction. In short, no lighting control project can be done using a cookie-cutter approach. The early successes of FMS are only the beginning. According to Traff, achieving greater energy efficiency will continue to be a primary goal for the many facilities under his division’s oversight. “The consensus is that there is no comparison to our legacy lighting systems. The dimming capability created a better environment. We have reporting where we didn’t have reporting, and we have control where we didn’t have control. Our goal is to use the metrics the lightingcontrol system provides to secure funding each fiscal year to incorporate more systems into each of our buildings.” Andy Wakefield, M.SAME, is Government Business Development Director, Lutron Electronics; 610-533-4693 or

The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011

t Engineer Training Join

Conference & Expo

Attendee registration is now open for the

2011 Joint Engineer Training Conference & Expo May 24-27, 2011

Gaylord Texan Resort & Convention Center Grapevine, Texas Co-hosted by SAME HQ and the Fort Worth Post

Join us at the A/E/C industry’s most highly anticipated event of the year—the SAME 2011 Joint Engineer Training Conference & Expo (JETC). You’ll find the people, products and practices you need to guarantee success in the DOD market. Only at the 2011 JETC can you interact with leaders and decision makers from each of the uniformed services and other federal agencies, and participate in some of the industry’s most insightful panel discussions and technical sessions. The 2011 JETC has an information-packed agenda centered around six technical tracks addressing timely issues affecting A/E/C and related fields, including:



TRACK 1: Contingency Operations TRACK 2: Installation Management TRACK 3: Design and Construction TRACK 4: Water Resources TRACK 5: Energy TRACK 6: Acquisition The JETC technical program lays the foundation for the conference and is supported by a robust, informational expo area that features 250 booths with premier A/E/C companies, suppliers and government agencies. Exciting technical tours and ample networking and social events round out the event.

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Supporting Contingency Operations Engineers of all military services are working in concert to support combat operations in Afghanistan.

B A. A concussion rocks the ground and a ball of smoke,


C 78

flame and debris erupts into the air after Army combat engineers detonate a mine-clearing line charge to clear a section of road in the Gor Tepa region of Kunduz Province in northern Afghanistan in December. (Army photo by Sgt. 1st Class John Queen) B. Builder 3rd Class Sunni Jensen, USN, of Naval Mobile Construction Battalion (NMCB) 3, puts together the base of a communications tower at Camp Leatherneck, Afghanistan, in January. NMCB-3 is deployed to southern Afghanistan to provide construction and engineering support to the region’s combatant commanders. (Navy photo by MC3 Christopher Carson) C. Lance Cpl. Matthew Dark, USMC, welder, Maintenance Platoon, Support Company, 8th Engineer Support Battalion, 1st Marine Logistics Group (Forward), watches as Sgt. Kenneth Cole, USMC, welder chief, welds pieces of steel during the fabrication of a non-standard bridge at Camp Leatherneck, Afghanistan, in December. Built by the battalion out of steel and wood, the bridge will serve as a permanent replacement for a medium-girder bridge in Marjah. (USMC photo by Cpl. Shannon McMillan) D. Active duty and reserve component Seabees assigned to NMCB- 40, NMCB-18 and NMCB-26 secure and fortify a remote combat outpost on the eastern edge of Khavejeh Molk, Afganistan. The village is located approximately 25mi north of Kandahar and is being used as a patrol base for the U.S. Army 1st Battalion, 66th Armored Regiment. (Navy photo by MCC Michael B. Watkins) E. Capt. Brian Jackson, USAF (center standing), Panjshir Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) lead engineer, Scott Davis (center kneeling), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) construction representative with Panjshir PRT, and Daniel Fredrickson, USACE PRT engineer, find a break during a canal inspection and take note of the grid coordinate in Rokha District, Afghanistan, in December. (Photo by French Army Staff Sgt. Romain Beaulinette) F. Sgt. Vincenzo Polistena, USMC, an expeditionary airfield specialist, and Cpl. Ubarnel Diaz, USMC, a combat engineer, both with Marine Wing Support Squadron 373, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing (Forward), use a gas-powered hammer to drive stakes to hold down the matting for the helicopter landing zone at Patrol Base Taalanda in Afghanistan in December. (USMC photo by Sgt. Deanne Hurla) G. Lt. Phil Compton, USAF, and Tech. Sgt. Eric Garcia, USAF, both engineers with the Panjshir PRT, check the quality of a bridge under construction on the main road in Paryan District, Afghanistan, in December. Panjshir PRT engineers conduct weekly quality control checks on Panjshir road projects to ensure the quality of construction meets work requirements. (Photo by French Army Staff Sgt. Romain Beaulinette) H. Senior Airman Jacob Cleer, USAF, uses a jackhammer to excavate a section of crumbling concrete on a runway at an air base in Southwest Asia in December. Airman Cleer is a heavy equipment operator assigned to the 386th Expeditionary Civil Engineer Squadron. (Air Force photo by Maj. Dale Greer)

The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011

IN MEMORIAM SAME honors the brave engineers who have given their lives while supporting operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Spc. Jose A. Delgado Arroyo, 41, of San Juan, Puerto Rico, was assigned to the 1013th Engineer (Sapper) Company of the Puerto Rico Army National Guard, Aguadilla, Puerto Rico. Staff Sgt. Vincent W. Ashlock, 45, of Seaside, Calif., was assigned to the 890th Engineer Battalion, 168th Engineer Brigade, Lucedale, Miss. Lance Cpl. Ardenjoseph A. Buenagua, 19, of San Jose, Calif., was assigned to 1st Combat Engineer Battalion, 1st Marine Division, I Marine Expeditionary Force, Camp Pendleton, Calif. Sgt. Jose M. Cintron Rosado, 38, of Vega Alta, Puerto Rico, was assigned to the 1013th Engineer (Sapper) Company of the Puerto Rico Army National Guard, Aguadilla, Puerto Rico. Staff Sgt. Justin E. Schmalstieg, 28, of Pittsburgh, Pa., was assigned to the 1st Explosive Ordnance Disposal Company, 7th Engineer Support Battalion, 1st Marine Logistics Group, I Marine Expeditionary Force, Camp Pendleton, Calif. Sgt. 1st Class James E. Thode, 45, of Kirtland, N.M., was assigned to the 1457th Engineer Battalion, 204th Maneuver Enhancement Brigade, Salt Lake City, Utah.


Cpl. Eric M. Torbert Jr., 25, of Lancaster, Pa., was assigned to the 1st Combat Engineer Battalion, 1st Marine Division, I Marine Expeditionary Force, Camp Pendleton, Calif. Staff Sgt. Omar Aceves, 30, of El Paso, Texas, assigned to the 7th Engineer Battalion, 10th Sustainment Brigade, 10th Mountain Division, Fort Drum, N.Y. Cpl. Jarrid L. King, 20, of Erie, Pa., was assigned to the 7th Engineer Battalion, 10th Sustainment Brigade, 10th Mountain Division, Fort Drum, N.Y.

H The Military Engineer • No. 670

Spc. Benjamin G. Moore, 23, of Robbinsville, N.J., was assigned to the 7th Engineer Battalion, 10th Sustainment Brigade, 10th Mountain Division, Fort Drum, N.Y.







Reflections on 2010





With an 11 percent growth in total using social media primarily to push membership, a budget surplus that out information, we also plan to use SOCIETY NEWS ENGINEERS IN ACTION PERSPECTIVE has enabled enhancedHISTORICAL support to it for soliciting member feedback on Posts and members and an increase issues that impact SAME. the general reserves, and continued One of SAME’s main goals in the growth in the conference and conpast two years has been to expand tinuing education programs, there our continuing education offerings. is no question that 2010 was another In 2010, SAME bundled six courses banner year for SAME. and additional seminars with highSAME now has 27,600 members priority topics to create the SAME and more than 1,600 companies Continuing Education Program, with 4,700 Post memberships. If you which was offered at five locations recall, SAME set a goal to increase and provided education and trainuniformed membership by 450 in ing for 300 attendees. Our model is Dr. Wolff at the Post Leaders Workshop, Las Vegas, Nev. 2010—we exceeded this goal in goto attract roughly 40 percent publicing from 1,700 to 2,350, an increase of 650. Nonetheless, when sector and 60 percent private-sector attendees in our classes and, one considers the total number of officer and NCO engineers by in large, we accomplished this goal. We hope to continue to in the uniformed services, this number represents a very small grow the Continuing Education Program in the future. percentage, so SAME will continue to seek to increase our mili2010 also saw substantial increases in attendance at the Joint tary membership. We believe our new membership dues struc- Engineer Training Conference & Expo in Atlanta, Ga., and the ture that requires a one-time fee and no annual dues for the uni- SAME Small Business Conference in Grapevine, Texas, which formed services will help. However, what is most important is for attracted more than 2,200 and 1,900 attendees, respectively. The current members to recruit the military engineers they encoun- oversubscribed SAME Executive Forum in New Orleans, La., ofter to join SAME. Don’t be bashful—we need your help. Overall, fered 150 executives from SAME Sustaining Member Compaour public-sector membership increased from 19 to 20 percent nies an opportunity to dialogue with government subject-matter in 2010; I would very much like to see this percentage increase experts on areas affecting their businesses, the engineering proanother one percent in 2011. fession and national security. With the establishment of the Central Virginia Post and the SAME national committees last year provided excellent opCarolinas Region in 2010, SAME now has 107 active Posts. The portunities for our members and aspiring engineers. In support five new Student Chapters established in 2010 mean there are of SAME’s mentoring goals, the SAME Engineering & Construcnow more than 2,000 student members in 39 SAME Student tion Camps Committee excelled in conducting the three outChapters associated with engineering departments at outstand- standing camps to the great satisfaction of 180 high-school stuing colleges and universities nationwide. dents and 50 mentors and camp staff. The camps continue to be The Military Engineer continues to be an outstanding resource a capstone event for SAME. The SAME International Committee for members and subscribers for information on a variety of supported SAME events in Korea and Germany and hosted a wesubjects related to military engineering. We continue to receive binar series on international business opportunities. The SAME high-quality articles from both members and non-members, Joint Engineer Contingency Operations Committee hosted its and advertising revenue, which has grown each year since 2004, first meeting as part of the Executive Forum; the SAME Faciliexceeded $1 million for the second consecutive year in 2010. The ties Asset Management Committee conducted a successful joint Directory of Member Companies and Organizations continues to workshop with the International Facility Management Associabe a quality publication that provides a great resource for gov- tion; and the SAME Environmental Committee continued to ernment contacts and industry partnering. The Directory is now host high-quality webinars for its members. even more responsive to our emergency preparedness and diSAME is fortunate to have an exceptional 27-person headsaster response objectives with the inclusion of company emer- quarters staff, but it is the achievements of the several thousand gency contact information and NAICS codes. active, dedicated volunteer members that make SAME a truly SAME HQ continues to leverage emerging digital networking great organization. We enjoy doing all we can to serve you, and platforms to connect with members. Bricks and Clicks, the of- we’re looking forward to another successful year in 2011. ficial SAME blog, attracts thousands of monthly visitors, nearly 6,000 members now belong to the SAME group on LinkedIn, the Robert D. Wolff, Ph.D., P.E., F.SAME SAME Facebook page has more than 700 fans, and more than SAME Executive Director 500 members follow the SAME Twitter feed. While SAME HQ is


The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011





The newly redesigned SAME website is now accessible at Among the many new features of the homepage is the inclusion of current events, photos and news items showcasing SAME national and Post events, which provide visitors with up-to-date information on SAME and the A/E/C industry. Features of the SAME website redesign include: • an easy-to-navigate home page and menu that allows visitors to easily access information through the site; • a  simplified SAME calendar of events; • a newly-revamped section for SAME members and Post leaders called SAME Operations; • compatibility with devices such as the iPhone and Android systems; and • a comprehensive list of SAME national and Post social media activity. We encourage you to take a moment to explore and let us know what you think. Your feedback is important to us as we continue to evolve the new site. Please send your suggestions and comments to We look forward to hearing from you.


SAME has completed Phase I of the Century House renovation project, which included the restoration of the front windows on the first floor, rebuilding of the façade and balcony, and renovation of the kitchen. Phase II, which includes restoration of the front windows for the second and third floors, will begin in the spring. The project is being funded through donations made to the Century House Fund campaign, which raised money for the much needed renovations.


The SAME Board of Direction approved the following changes to Streamer requirements for 2011. Membership Streamer: The Membership Streamer will be awarded to Posts that have a net-positive growth in total membership by at least one person and a net-positive growth of at least one publicsector member. The Military Engineer • No. 670

Outreach and Communication Streamer: New Streamer criteria will require Posts to use mailings (newsletter or fliers) or electronic messages (e-mail) to communicate with their members on a quarterly or more frequent basis. A “desired element” was added to give Posts the option to have an event welcoming and mentoring new members. Education and Training Streamer: A “required element” that Posts develop education and training on specific topics was removed and replaced by a “required element” for Posts to award at least four Professional Development Hours a year. SAME HQ will send Post Presidents and membership points of contact the new membership baseline information with adjusted Post sizes. As of Jan. 1, 2011, the new Post size classification is: • Small Post Size: 0-150 • Medium Post Size: 151-350 • Large Post Size: 351+ Additional information on streamers may be found on the SAME website at


At its fall meeting in October 2010, the SAME Board of Direction approved several changes to its bylaws, including the

elimination of the Society Award of Merit, Student Program Certificate of Achievement and the Technology Advancement Team Award. The board also approved the inclusion of the new Post Service Award and the renaming of the NCO Medal to the Sgt. First Class Paul R. Smith NCO Medal.


Recognizing the achievements of our military service men and women is of great importance to SAME. As such, SAME has initiated a new award recognizing a graduating cadet at the U.S. Military Academy (USMA) at West Point, N.Y. The award, named the David M. Fraser Award for Engineering Excellence and Leadership, is named in honor of a member of the USMA class of 2004 who graduated with a degree in civil engineering and was killed in action in Iraq. To be eligible for the award, cadets must be working towards an engineering degree, have a 3.0 cumulative grade point average or above, have participated in engineer-related activities (such as sapper school, or SAME as a student leader or member) and serve as an informal leader and role model in the graduating class. 81




SOCIETY NEWS Sustaining Member Specialist Cherlyn Thompson,

Executive Director Robert D. Wolff, Ph.D., P.E., F.SAME,

Individual Member Specialist Christine Gruszkowski,

Chief Operating Officer Lt. Col. Paul Dinkel, P.E., USA (Ret.),

Membership Support Specialist Linda Jackson,

Executive Assistant Blair Davis, Continuing Education Director Lt. Col. Paul Dinkel, P.E., USA (Ret.),

Database Manager Natasha Rocheleau, P.E., Post Operations Specialist Kashae Williams,

Mail & Administrative Services Specialist Otis Carter,

Meetings & Exhibit Manager Necoya L. Tyson,

Member and Post Support Director Diana Dawkins,

Meetings & Exposition Manager Kathy Off,





With the right skills and knowledge, challenges become opportunities.





Working in and for the DOD market comes with its unique challenges.


Continuing Education Manager Lorrie Cerny,

Meetings and Expositions Director Ann McLeod, CEM, CAE,


In an effort to reflect the emphasis that SAME has placed on K-12 and college outreach initiatives, the SAME mission statement has been expanded to include the development of “future engineers through outreach and mentoring.” The new mission statement now reads: The mission of the Society of American Military Engineers is to promote and facilitate engineering support for national security by developing and enhancing relationships and competencies among uniformed services, public- and private-sector engineers and related professionals, and by developing future engineers through outreach and mentoring.

Looking for assistance? Contact the SAME staff for quick and easy answers.





The award will be presented annually beginning in 2011 at the SAME/Army Engineer Association Engineer Cadet Dinner, which honors the members of the USMA graduating class who have selected the Engineer Branch.


2011 Continuing Education Courses SAME Continuing Education Program Titles:

April 26-28 Norfolk, Va.

Increasing the Sustainability of Existing DOD Buildings (1 day, 8 PDHs) LEED for DOD Projects (1.5 days, 12 PDHs) Best Value Source Selection for DOD Projects (3 days, 24 PDHs) Project Management for DOD Practitioners (3 days, 24 PDHs)


June 21-23 St. Louis, Mo.

October 12-14 Seattle, Wash.




PMP Exam Prep Course (3 days, 24 PDHs)


Design Build for DOD Projects (2 days, 16 PDHs)


CMAA Construction Management Standards of Practice Course (3 days, 24 PDHs) IFMA CFM Review Course (1 PDHs) Energy Course (In Development) One-Day Seminars for DOD Projects (8 PDHs)



Sustainable Communities on DOD Installations (04/28/11)



Facility Asset Management (06/23/11)

Building Information Modeling (10/14/11)

Not all courses are offered at all sites, so please refer to the SAME Continuing Education Program website for updates. 82

The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011






Webinar Specialist Belle Febbraro,

Marketing Communications Specialist Stephanie Satterfield,

Registration Specialist Amira Ismail, Communications and Marketing Director and Editor-in-Chief L. Eileen Erickson, Editor John M. (Jack) Nank, Graphic Designer Natalie Kirkpatrick, Web Manager Josef Scarantino, Advertising Coordinator Emma Inwood,

Finance and Accounting Director Kathleen A. Wilson, CPA, Senior Accountant Luz Agustin, Accounting Specialist Katreana Jackson, TISP Director Bill Anderson, Executive Assistant Stacy Cardillo,


FY2012 DOD and Federal Agency Program Briefings March 23, 2011 Arlington, Va. Academy of Fellows Events AOF Luncheon, AOF Investiture and Golden Eagle Awards Dinner March 24, 2011 Arlington, Va. USMA Engineer Cadet Dinner Hosted by the SAME NY City Post March 29, 2011 West Point, N.Y. 2011 SAME International Webinar Series April 5-14, 2011 (Online) SAME Continuing Education Program April 26-28, 2011 Norfolk, Va.

Links are accessible from the SAME homepage at

SAME International Webinar Series Get real-time information on global A/E/C business opportunities Created by the SAME International Committee, the International Webinar Series provides up-to-date information on significant 2011-2013 global A/E/C projects for the Department of Defense (DOD) and other agencies specific to five of the ten unified Combatant Commands (COCOM) in DOD. Detailed information will be presented regarding the resources needed to support COCOM missions for the next three years. Ample time is set aside for Q&A, so you get the all the information you need to benefit from upcoming opportunities.

Register today! Registration packages are available for one or all five webinars listed below. U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM) U.S. African Command (AFRICOM) U.S. European Command (EUCOM) U.S. Pacific Command (PACOM) U.S. Southern Command (SOUTHCOM)

Tuesday, April 5, 10:00 a.m. EDT Thursday, April 7, 8:00 a.m. EDT Friday, April 8, 10:00 a.m. EDT Tuesday, April 12, 5:00 p.m. EDT Thursday, April 14, 9:00 a.m. EDT

To register contact Belle Febbraro at or visit

The Military Engineer • No. 670


Learning about Engineering and Construction Registration is opening for the annual SAME Engineering and Construction (E&C) Camps at the U.S. Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, Co.; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, Miss.; and U.S. Navy Seabee at Port Hueneme, Calif.

Here is what some of our past campers have to say about the E&C Camps The E&C Camp was my first true experience with larger scale building and designing. We encountered all aspects of engineering from sprinkler systems and concrete beams to deadlines and working on a team. As a result, I was inspired to pursue engineering for my degree program. My most significant takeaways were the team building and leadership training. These qualities are paramount when working at NASA Mission Control where I collaborate with people all over the country and world.

Sarah Brumbaugh Snell, 2001 USAFA Camp NASA Space Suit Engineer Following my sophomore year in 2003, I attend camp. I had already entertained the idea of becoming an engineer but my experience at the camp cemented my interest in civil engineering and the military. I liked the small group learning environment coupled with the mentors’ genuine interest to teach and guide the campers. My experience encouraged me to seek a degree in engineering, enroll in Army ROTC and the National Guard. I served a tour in Iraq and completed my degree in May 2011.

Alex Kirchhoff, 2003 USAFA Camp North Carolina State University As a high school junior I had a desire to serve in the military; however, I was not sure if I was the right type of person. I attended the Seabee E&C Camp at a naval base in Port Hueneme, Calif. There I learned about the Navy, the military and about endless opportunities I could achieve. The SAME camp helped me with my decision for my future, and I now attend the U.S. Naval Academy.

Igor Vladimirov, 2009 Seabee Camp Cadet, U.S. Naval Academy The SAME E&C Camp opened my eyes to the opportunities engineering had to offer. I finally had an idea of what engineering actually was! The military personnel who were working the camp were extremely impressive; I was inspired to pursue a degree in engineering. As the time to leave for college arrived, I remembered back to the incredible staff from the camp and decided to also enroll in the ROTC program. I am now a civil engineering officer in the USAF.

2Lt Luke Johanson, USAF, 2003 Navy Camp USAF Civil Engineer Officer

This Camp really helped open my eyes to what engineers do! Beforehand, I just assumed engineers did pipework, and built bridges, but while I was at the camps, I was able to see the world is wide open to engineers. I met people who tested concrete (not cement!), designed the latest cars, and who support and provide engineering for our military and many more. This camp showed me that with a degree in engineering, the world is wide open.

Matthew Crum, 2010 Army Camp University of Illinois Champaign-Urbana The week I spent at the SAME E&C Camp was great. Every day was filled with challenging activities - building a bridge, trips to a super computer where high definition models are built and cruising the Mississippi River. The staff was amazing, always positive and motivating. I made friendships that will last a lifetime. My endurance, teamwork and disciplinary skills were increased; all valuable skills for my future engineering degree. I was honored to receive the prestigious Larry Harper Leadership award.

DeMarquis Seets, 2010 Army Camp Haughton High School The SAME E&C Camp became one of the best weeks I’ve experienced. I meshed so well with the others of my flight. Seeing how much fun being an engineer is and how often engineers are needed, greatly affected me. Also, my mentors and counselors (many being cadets) reminded me of my love for the military lifestyle. I’m am looking into ROTC or a service academy. It compelled me to add engineering to my list of future careers.

Abigail Ubbelohde, 2010 USAFA Camp Duchesne Academy High School The SAME E&C camp impacted my decision to major in civil engineering and also to join the military. The activities supplied me with real world concepts I would experience as an engineer and as a college student studying engineering. The military setting guided my choice to attend the U.S. Air Force Academy. Getting to know cadets in the engineering program and also academy alumni who are now engineers in the Air Force, led me to decide to attend the Academy.

Mike Vena, 2008 USAFA Camp, Cadet, U.S. Air Force Academy

Visit for dates and information.






On Sept. 27, 2010, President Barack Obama signed into law the Small Business Jobs Act, the most significant piece of small business legislation in over a decade. The new law is providing critical resources to help small businesses continue to drive economic recovery and create jobs. The new law extended the Small Business Administration (SBA) enhanced loan provisions while offering billions more in lending support, tax cuts, and other opportunities for entrepreneurs and small business owners. Placing Capital in the Hands of Entrepreneurs and Small Business Owners SBA Enhanced Loan Provisions: • SBA loan provisions, with the 90 percent guarantee and reduced fees, were extended through 2010. The $505 million in subsidy for Jobs Act loans supported more than $12 billion in overall small business lending.

NEWS • According to self-reported data,SOCIETY a significant share of Jobs Act loans went to rural (22 percent), minority-owned (21 percent), women-owned (16 percent) and veteran-owned (7 percent) businesses. Higher Loan Limits: • The law permanently increased 7(a) and 504 limits from $2 million to $5 million (for manufacturers in 504 loan program, up to $5.5 million). • The law permanently increased microloan limits from $35,000 to $50,000, helping more entrepreneurs with startup costs and small business owners in underserved communities. • The law temporarily increased the maximum amount of quick-turnaround SBA Express loans from $350,000 to $1 million (expires 9/27/2011). Alternate Size Standards: • The law expanded the number of small businesses eligible for SBA loans by increasing the alternate size standard to

ENGINEERS IN ACTION HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE those with less than $15 million in net worth and $5 million in average net income. Temporarily Allow for Commercial Real Estate Refinancing • Beginning in spring 2011, the law will allow some small businesses to refinance their owner-occupied commercial real estate mortgages into the 504 loan program (expires 9/27/2012). Small Business “Intermediary” Lending Pilot • The law provides for funding up to $20 million per year over the next three years for a pilot program that leverages local nonprofit organizations and other organizations that help small businesses that need loans up to $200,000 (target rollout mid-2011).

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SMALL BUSINESS NEWS Federal Contracting Opportunities for Small Business Equal Treatment across Federal Contracting Programs: • The law reaffirmed “parity” among federal small-business contracting programs. When awarding contracts that are set-aside for small businesses, contracting officers are free to choose among businesses owned by women and service-disabled veterans, as well as businesses participating in HUBZone and 8(a) programs. More Opportunities for Small Businesses: • The law eliminates the “Competitiveness Demonstration” program, which limited opportunities for small contractors in 11 industries where they excel, such as construction, landscaping and pest control. This will build on the $24 billion small businesses won in these industries in Fiscal Year 2009 (effective Jan. 31, 2011). • The law gives contracting officers the ability to reserve orders for small busi-


ness participation on contracts with multiple awards including the Federal Supply Schedule (GSA Multiple Award Schedule). The law makes it harder for agencies to “bundle” contracts, a practice that makes it more difficult for small businesses to compete. Combating Fraud, Waste and Abuse: • The law establishes a legal standing of “presumption of loss” when a business misrepresents its ownership status or size in winning a government contract. This allows a federal agency to claim a loss on the purchase, enabling those agencies, including the Department of Justice, to vigorously pursue fraudulent firms. • The law holds large prime contractors more accountable to their own subcontracting plans by requiring written justification when plans aren’t met and when small business subcontractors aren’t paid on time. This helps eliminate “bait-and-switch” tactics that occur when large primes – after winning the

prime contract – don’t follow through with their own plans to give subcontracts to small businesses. Promoting Training and Counseling • The law provides up to $50 million in grants to Small Business Development Centers across the country starting January 2011. Providing $12 Billion in Tax Relief to Help Small Businesses Invest in their Firms, Create Jobs Extension, Expansion of Tax Cuts (8 Small Business Tax Cuts) 1. The law increases the small business expensing limit to $500,000 for 2010 and 2011. 2. The law makes a permanent change to allow qualified small businesses to carry back their general business credits to offset five years of taxes. 3. The law temporarily puts in place for 2010 the elimination of all capital gains taxes for those who invest in small business.

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The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011



SMALL BUSINESS NEWS 4. The law temporarily increases the amount of start-up expenditures entrepreneurs can deduct for 2010. 5. The law permanently provides deductions for employer-provided cell phones 6. The law allows the self-employed to deduct health insurance costs for themselves and their family members this year. 7. The law changes, beginning this year, the limitations on penalties for errors in tax reporting that disproportionately affect small business 8. The law extended 50 percent bonus depreciation through 2010; however, the new Tax Relief Act of 2010 further extends and expands this to 100 percent of any productive capital investments in 2011. Incorporating Treasury Department Provisions Small Business Lending Fund–$30 billion: • The law provides smaller community banks with low-cost capital (as low as

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is bidding on government contracts, and meets SBA size standards included in solicitation. Size standard is based upon the North American Industrial Classification Standard (NAICS) assigned to the specific procurement dependent upon the product or service purchased. Woman-Owned Small Business (WOSB): Small business, at least 51 percent owned by one or more women, and management and daily business operations controlled by one or more women. Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB): Small business, unconditionally owned and controlled by one or more sociallyand economically-disadvantaged individuals who are of good character, citizens of the U.S., and SBA-certified. Small Disadvantaged Business 8(a) Certified [8(a)]: Small business, SBA-certified as a SDB, AND SBA-certified into the 8(a) Business Development Program for a period of nine years. Historically Underutilized Business Zone (HUBZone): Small business, owned

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1 percent) if they go above and beyond 2009 small business lending levels. Establishes State Small Business Credit Initiative: • The law provides up to $1.5 billion to support state-run small business lending programs. For more detailed information on the Small Business Jobs Act, go to www.sba. gov/jobsact.

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versities/Minority Institutions HBCU/ MI): HBCU is an accredited institution established before 1964 whose principal mission is education of black Americans. MIs are institutions meeting requirements of Higher Education Act of 1965 and Hispanic-serving institutions defined at 20 USC 1059. The Secretary of Education must designate HBCUs/MIs. A list is located at ocr/edliteminorityinst.html (Excerpt from the Small Business website at


SAME offers a discounted membership fee to small businesses. To qualify as a small business and get the discounted membership rate, companies must have 10 or fewer employees. In addition, SAME offers small business discounts on many conference registrations and exhibits and sponsorship opportunities. Discounted fees vary by


event. To determine the small business member discounted rate for an event, visit and click on the specific event. Details on pricing will be located on the registration page. Finally, SAME has put in place a special advertising program for small businesses looking to advertise in TME—The Military Engineer magazine. The program provides SAME small business members the opportunity to place a four-color, onesixth-page advertisement in six issues of TME (a full year of magazines) and one issue of the Directory of Member Companies and Organizations at the reduced price of $2,500. Purchasing these ads separately would total more than $16,000— it’s a tremendous deal for small businesses.


The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Small Business Program is an integrated network of small business advisors who provided support to 57 sites in the continental United States, Hawaii and Alaska.


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SMALL BUSINESS NEWS There are more than 50 small business advisors within USACE who serve and support USACE division commanders, district commanders, centers directors and the National Contracting Organizations’ more than 1,200 contracting professionals. Small business advisors are an integral part of the procurement process and work collectively with contracting officers as they plan and execute contracts. The Small business leaders represent USACE in all small business matters, and provide world-class support to ensure successful execution of the USACE mission. Information about procurement opportunities at USACE can be best obtained from the district and center small business leaders where solicitations and awards are released. To locate the small business advocate in your area, go to cesb/pages/smallbusinessadvocates.aspx. (Excerpt from the USACE website at www.


While all $275 billion in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act contracts, grants and loans have been awarded and the majority of projects are either underway or completed, projects of more than 12,000 awards totaling more than $23 billion  have not been started as of the last recipient  reporting cycle that ended in October 2010.  A new map in’s map gallery displays the location of these not-started projects. Clicking on a state or territory will display the contract, grant, and loan awards that haven’t been started in the location and the total amounts still to be paid out. also features a unique capability to hone in on recovery efforts in a specific area. For recovery information in your specific neighborhood, enter your zip code in the box on the home page and click “go” to see a close-up map of projects in your area. (excerpt from the website)


GET THE ATTENTION YOUR SMALL BUSINESS DESERVES Place your ad in the Small Business News section of TME. Contact the Ad Rep in your area for details.


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The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011




Army Engineers in Vietnam BY GEN. HAROLD K. JOHNSON, USA Reprinted from: The Military Engineer Vol. 59, No. 391—Sept.-Oct. 1967

Editor’s Note: The editorial “Army Engineers in Vietnam,” written by Gen. Harold K. Johnson, USA, and published in the September-October 1967 issue of The Military Engineer, is presented here in its entirety. It was not uncommon at the time for high-profile military officers to contribute short editorials to TME; Gen. Johnson was, at the time, the Army Chief of Staff. For the purpose of this historical piece, the text is reprinted as published in its original form. The performance of United States Army Engineers in Vietnam adds another brilliant chapter to their history. Ever since the 35th Engineering Group went ashore at Cam Ranh Bay in mid1965 the role of the military engineers in Vietnam has continued to grow more complex and demanding. There was no opportunity for an orderly build-up of engineer activities.

670 TheMilitary MilitaryEngineer Engineer• No. • No. 670

Badly needed port facilities such as those at Cam Ranh, Qui Nhon, Vung Tau, and Saigon had to share the available engineer support with combat activities being conducted over extremely formidable terrain. There were no easy engineering projects. The excellent harbor at Cam Ranh was almost surrounded by marshes, mountains, and shifting sand dunes. Construction of road, storage areas, and a jet airfield taxed the imagination and ingenuity of the engineers. Because the enemy chose to fight in terrain which best suited his own abilities there were few engagements in which engineers were not needed to hack helicopter landing pads out of the thick jungle of to assist in the finding and destroying of the enemy’s underground headquarters. In the two years that Army Engineer units have been in Vietnam the cargo handling capacity of the ports has been increased at least threefold and the frustrating sight of ships waiting at anchor for many days or weeks before they could unload has virtually disappeared. The road network in the Republic of Vietnam, particularly in the remotes areas, is rudimentary at best and highly vulnerable to interdiction by the enemy. Air transport has grown to be the most

reliable means for moving troops into combat and for keeping them supplied. As the search for communist forces has been pressed farther into the mountains and jungles, the engineers have responded by building scores of airfields which can support C-130 aircraft. Combat engineers with forward elements have cleared uncounted numbers of helicopter pads to make air mobility available when it is needed to support combat maneuvers. Many times the engineers have had to put down their tools and use their rifles when the enemy tried to stop their work. Perhaps one of the most remarkable aspects of engineering operations in Vietnam is that, faced with these monumental tasks in construction and combat support, the engineers have found time to come to the assistance of Vietnamese villages, hamlets, and families. They have constructed entire communities to provide shelter for refugees who have left their homes to escape Communist terrorism. In this era of scientific advancement the Army engineers have kept pace with technology in improving their machines and their techniques. In Vietnam, both machines and techniques are being applied by men with determination, imagination, and courage.

91 91





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The Military Engineer • March-April • 2011

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The Military Engineer - March/April 2011  

The premier engineering publication of SAME, The Military Engineer, features articles on the hottest topics in government and industry regar...

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