The Linguist Issue 5 May 2013
A magazine for language learners and culture vultures
LE MARIAGE POUR TOUS : LA CONCLUSION
Idioms- Where’s the logic in that?
THE TRIALS AND TRIBULATIONS of being halb Deutsch
INNER MONGOLIA: A WEEK I’LL NEVER FORGET
HELLO ONCE MORE LANGUAGE LEARNERS AND CULTURE VULTURES! Welcome to the last issue of The Linguist this academic year. We have had a fantastic year; we won the award for the most OUTSTANDING SOCIETY in the Guild and launched our dynamic website which has unlimited space for all your articles. If you haven’t seen it yet, check it out: thelinguistmagazine.org. Our 4 strong committee, our 14 editors and Photo by Chloe Osborne taken in Rome, Italy numerous freelance writers have put all they have into making our magazine a stimulating and diverse publication. We are happy to have achieved our aim of building a platform for students to learn about world cultures and to have a voice in the foreign languages that they learn. I introduce this May issue with a sense of sadness that I will be passing on the reins to a new committee next year. However, I have every faith in new chair Julie Ledesma and the newly elected team to take the magazine onto bigger and better heights. Thanks to funding from University Alumni the future looks bright for the development of The Linguist. I hope the enthusiasm for the world and for language learning continues to grow. Enjoy reading this issue and I look forward to seeing more and more of your articles next year on my year abroad! Maddie Kilminster
LIFE AND STYLE 6-7 4-5 8
TRAVEL 10-11 15
The attitudes and opinions expressed in this magazine are in no way related to those of the Chartered Institute of Linguists or their publication The Linguist.
CAL CAREERS AT UOB Your guide to a career with languages. ARE YOU GRADUATING THIS SUMMER? If so, you’re probably wondering how fast the past four years have gone, and be thinking about life after graduation with varying degrees of anticipation and concern. If any of this is about jobs and careers Careers Network is ready as ever to help. We’re constantly updating our vacancies website-jobs and placements can come in anytime from any employer so keep an eye on this and other job websites such as Prospects and Targetjobs. To book careers appointments and see our vacancy listings go to https://bham.targetconnect.net/student/login.html.
You can continue to use our services after graduation and can create a new login when your university username expires. We can help you by email and on the phone if that’s easier for you, and we’re here all through the summer break. On 13TH JUNE GRADUATE CAREERS INTENSIVE provides a one day programme to help you identify your strengths and abilities, career ideas and use them in a job search plan. More details at www.birmingham.ac.uk/graduatecareers Several speakers at our Careers with Languages events used language recruitment agencies to find their first job and they never looked back. From now we’re putting information about recruitment agencies on new careers sections in WebCT and are planning an event with an agency or two later in summer
www.intranet.birmingham.ac.uk/careers - choose your college
© Google Images
NUCLEAR THREATS FROM NORTH KOREA: A CAUSE FOR CONCERN OR OVERBLOWN RHETORIC? By Melanie Adey While there have been tensions between North and South Korea dating back to before the Korean War in the 1950s, there has been a recent intensification of hostility coming from North Korea which is of growing international concern. As one of the few remaining communist ruled dictatorships left in the world today, it is increasingly isolated, and with its heightened nuclear threats over the past two months the nation is perhaps now beginning to lose its only true ally, China. Though the threat of nuclear testing is far from new in the region and South Korea has been the frequent victim of aggressive, combative rhetoric from its northern neighbour, more recent events have caused a global stir. In February of this year, North Korea announced that it had successfully carried out its third nuclear test, following those undertaken in 2006 and 2009 respectively. While this may not seem especially disconcerting, there is concern that North Korea has made technological advances since 2009, and may now be able to create a nuclear weapon small enough to fit onto a missile, thus enabling them to be mobile. Following this third nuclear test, joint US-South Korean military exercises were carried out, and it is thought that this caused North Korean threats to increase. World leaders are now questioning the seriousness of these threats. Prime Minister David Cameron has stated that he is "very concerned" about North Korea. Despite a warning from the North Korean government about the safety of British diplomats in the country, the UK has said it has no current plans to withdraw British citizens. On 11th April, US President Obama warned North Korea to stop its threats, stating that the USA “will take all necessary steps to protect Americans”. However, just four days later on 15 th April, North Korea declared that it would not warn South Korea if they decide to launch an attack. It claimed that it was responding to insults from a rally in Seoul against North Korea, that it described as a “monstrous criminal act”, though it could also be seen as retaliation against Obama’s statement. While it could be concluded that North Korea has become a serious threat, it is important to take note that initiating a nuclear war would effectively be suicidal. Rather, reports have suggested that Kim Jong Un, who succeeded his father as supreme leader in December 2011, is perhaps trying to prove his toughness to his own country and military, in attempting to persuade the world he ought not to be taken lightly. 4
A CITY ON LOCKDOWN, GRASPED IN FEAR By Katharine Vousden The annual Boston Marathon is one of the world’s most prestigious road-racing events, but on 15th April 2013 the world’s attention was drawn to the event for a more sinister reason. At 2:49pm, two separate bombs were detonated near the finish line of the Boston Marathon, killing three and injuring 282 people. The two bombs exploded roughly 100 yards apart, the first bomb detonated 100ft from the finish line with the next blast following only seconds afterwards. The police officers, medical staff and many of the competitors at the scene aided the injured, guiding them to safety. Three days after the bombings, on 18th April, the investigation released CCTV images of the suspects, later naming them as brothers Tamerlan and Dzhokhar Tsarnaev. Following the release of these photos, the two brothers shot and killed MIT police officer, Sean Collier, and hijacked a nearby car. It was this car that the two were spotted in on 19 th April, leading to a fierce gunfight in Watertown, Massachusetts in which the elder of the two brothers, Tamerlan, was apprehended and later died from his injuries. The residents of Watertown were subsequently told not to leave their homes as the police issued a shelter-in-place order and searched for the escaped suspect. The town became the centre of a manhunt, showing scenes of a suburban town paralysed with fear, the presence of semi martial law all too apparent as military helicopters circled the town and FBI agents swept through the streets. The younger of the two brothers was tracked down soon after the shelter-in-place order was lifted, injured and hiding in a boat in a resident’s backyard. Dzhokhar Tsarnaev has recently been transported from hospital to a secure Federal Medical Centre where he will continue to be treated as he awaits trial where he could face the death penalty. Recent discoveries have been made in which the 19 year-old suspect is said to have admitted to plans to attack Times Square in New York following the Boston Marathon Bombings. The events of 15th April 2013 and the following days leaves five dead (including Tamerlan Tsarnaev) and many critically injured. Dzhokhar Tsarnaev now awaits trial and sentencing, but as investigations get under way there are many speculations that he many not hear of his fate until summer 2014, leaving many injured victims and grieving families in limbo as they await a verdict.
SYRIA. QUESTIONS TO ASK BEFORE THE WORST CASE SCENARIO By Sofia Majorová Two years of struggle, daily bombs and blasts, rising death toll… why does no one intervene? There is more into the issue of the potential Syrian intervention besides the constant Russian and Chinese veto, and fears of another Iraq and Afghanistan; an intervention in Syria would undermine the stability of an already unstable Middle East. First of all, who would be willing to intervene and what would be their driving force? Secondly, what would be the immediate objectives and long-term aims of such an action? A possible scenario would be a humanitarian military intervention lead by the US and NATO with Syria’s neighbours Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar (US allies) being the main factors. Without permission from the UN Security Council, this action would be regarded as illegal, resembling the Iraq war. Both China and Russia have their own interests in Syria, especially in terms of arms trade. Would they stand up to oppose an intervention to protect their interests? The US, Russia and China possess nuclear weapons. Syria’s neighbour Iran promises to fight any intervention against Assad’s regime together with their controversial nuclear programme and Assad’s chemical weapons (e.g. the use of sarin against rebels, classified as a weapon of mass destruction by UN Resolution 687) would make the threat of nuclear war more real, not affecting only the Middle East, but the whole world. Would Assad really resign or fall as a result? Is it really the suffering Syrian population with over 70,000 civilian deaths the moral duty and the responsibility to protect the main reasons for international community to intervene? Or is the estimate that Iran’s sectarian regime will fall consequently, weakening Lebanese Hezbollah supplied by weapons through Damascus? Would Israel be keen to join in too, in order to defeat Iran? Furthermore, what would happen after the intervention itself? If the main objective is to remove Assad, who would govern instead? Would the intervening countries appoint someone from outside? Would the rebels and opposition be able to democratically elect a leader or would the country be split between more dictators, as currently in Libya and Iraq? Syria is home to several religious and ethnic groups such as Shia and Sunni Muslims, Alawites, Armenian Christians, and Jews to name a few. Russia has its naval bases near Tartus in the region inhabited by Alawites, Turkey would be concerned with the Kurdish population and their potential nationalism which could encourage Turkish Kurds’ independence. Could the intervention result is ethnic or religious clashes similar to the ones in Yugoslavia? However, the most important question to ask is whether an intervention would make any difference to the country’s hopeless situation. 5
LIFE AND STYLE THE ANTWERP SIX By Jacob Hall ALL YOUNG, TALENTED AND HARD-WORKING, THEY WERE THE FIRST GROUP OF DESIGNERS TO INTRODUCE ANY REAL GROUND-BREAKING EXPERIMENTAL IDEAS INTO THE WORLD OF COMMERCIAL FASHION.
The “Antwerp Six” refers to a collection of six (not seven, as is frequently stated) designers that all graduated from the Antwerp Academy of Fine Arts in the year 1980-1981. All young, talented and hard-working, they were the first group of designers to introduce any real ground-breaking experimental ideas into the world of commercial fashion.
Perhaps the most well-known of the six designers, Dries Van Noten started with a cult following and has slowly expanded his profile, starting his own eponymous label in 2005 and going on to win several awards, as well as dressing women such as Cate Blanchett for the Academy Awards. The rest of the group consists of Dirk Van Saene, Marina Yee, Dirk Bikkembergs, Walter van Beirendonck and Ann Demeulemeester, who were responsible for the new wave of experimental designers that came up throughout the 1990s. Their aesthetic was significantly different to the luxury houses that were dominating the fashion scene – several of the six produced heavily conceptual collections with an emphasis on the dark side. As a result, many of the early shows produced by the Six have gone on to be described as “funereal” and “gothic” – a trend which, thanks to designers such as Nicola Formichetti and Riccardo Tisci, is more prominent than ever in the sphere of modern fashion. The group were also renowned for focussing on more streamlined silhouettes, placing an emphasis on simplicity as opposed to luxury. Many early pieces were almost clinical in their aesthetic and deceptively simple in their construction – a radical move at the time considering the huge “logo culture” that brands such as Louis Vuitton and Prada had established in the 1990s. More than anything, the Antwerp Six was highly responsible for placing the spotlight on Antwerp as a city and broadening the minds of the general public. The fact that many of the members originally came from an art background meant that they took a different perspective to fashion design, often using obscure references to marry the worlds of art and design in a way which hadn’t previously been done. In essence, the group helped establish fashion as an art form as opposed to a commercial product, helping the fashion industry to regain the respect of many of its critics. Although designers such as Yohji Yamamoto and Rei Kawakubo carried a huge influence, the Antwerp Six were undoubtedly the main sources of inspiration for many of fashion’s major players, changing the landscape of fashion as we know it.
NEW LOOK £24.99
RIVER ISLAND £35
OLÉ! THE MATADOR TREND THAT WILL SPICE UP YOUR SUMMER
By Amy Rose Wakeham With the runway seal of approval being given from both sides of the Atlantic, and the high street fully welcoming (ahem, being ‘inspired by’) the looks sent down the runway by the likes of Saint Laurent and Ralph Lauren, we can well and truly say that the matador trend is definitely having a moment. Whether you want to embrace your inner conquistador fashionista in copious amounts of fringing, embossed leather and a natty hat, or merely give a nod to the trend with a fiercely studded bag or lacy detail, the matador trend is a sure fire way to put a little ‘¡Olé!’ into your summer wardrobe.
ASOS £8 TOPSHOP £75 NARS LIPSTICK
TOPSHOP £48 8
CULTURE AN INTERVIEW WITH CASSA PANCHO, ARTISTIC DIRECTOR OF BALLET BLACK By Amy Rose Wakeham I first saw Ballet Black perform at Latitude festival in 2010, and was immediately enthralled by the raw, emotive majesty of the dancers and choreography. The relationship between classical ballet and dancers of black or Asian decent has long been a complicated one, troubled by years of prejudice and discrimination. As much as audiences loved and admired Carlos Acosta when he appeared on the ballet scene in the early 90s, he was a passionate, fiery and talented one off. A talented young songwriter once said though, ‘the times they are a-changing’, and for ballet, they certainly have. In 2001, ex-dance student Cassa Pancho decided something must be done to provide young dancers with inspiration and opportunities to showcase their talent to the dance world. As a result, she founded Ballet Black, a ground breaking neo-classical dance company that would enable dancers of black and Asian descent to expand and grow as dancers, providing inspiration for themselves, and others, along the way. “The main ethos of BB is to inspire people,” explains Cassa, recounting the tale of how the company was formed. Twelve years on, things have grown at an exhilarating rate. Now “we have a full-time company, an Associate Programme for dancers aged 14 and upwards, and a Junior Ballet School in Shepherd's Bush,” all of which are expanding at a phenomenal rate. Since 2001 they have gained Acosta as Patron, become an Associate Company of the Royal Opera House and won series of prestigious awards, the most significant being Cassa’s recognition in the New Year’s Honours’ List. In February this year she received her MBE, an experience she describes as being “surreal”. However, despite the fame and international acclaim that is steadily growing alongside the company, Cassa’s favourite part of the week is still “teaching the Baby Ballet Class on a Saturday at 9am”. Playing a very significant role in handing over the admirable ethos of equal opportunities and inspiration onto another generation, you could say.
IDIOMS- WHERE’S THE LOGIC IN THAT? By Rébecca Abia © Google Images
Cultural differences are, self-explanatorily, what makes a people distinct from another with regard to culture. For most people, this concept encompasses traditions, upbringing and dishes. However, as we look deeper into the language of different people, we become aware of a certain peculiarity, which makes us realize that there is more to it than that. These peculiarities are to do with the concept of culture as a way of seeing the world. Expressions which are specific to a certain culture or people are called idioms. The word “idiom” is of Latin etymology and stems from “idiõma”, which refers to a peculiarity of language. Already, this begins to clarify the striking difference in these expressions, as their meanings cannot be predicted from the ones of their constituent words. Speaking English as a second language myself, I would say that the main way in which we start to comprehend the meaning of these idiomatic expressions is by encountering them. However, the most enlightening thing we can do is to learn about the idioms’ origins. Idioms are related to culture, and since culture consists in passing down an entity of some kind from one generation to the next, all idioms indeed have a history. To kick the bucket, for example, is now used as a kind of euphemism to say “to die”, but do you know why? It seems a bit strange at first sight, but it all started…with pigs. Indeed. In slaughterhouses, pigs are hung on a rail known as the bucket bar to drain off the blood. However, muscle spasms after death sometimes led to the dead pig twitching, as if to kick the bucket bar, and this is how one of these peculiarities came to life. I apologize for my example not being the nicest to visualise, but next time you see one of these “silly” sentences, have a go at looking where it came from. You will soon find yourself getting idioms…down to a T! 8
FOOD & DRINK BANANA TARTE TATIN
By Amy Rose Wakeham
Tarte Tatin is a French favourite, however this recipe from the francophone island of Martinique is a lovely Caribbean twist on that classic. Even better it’s a cheat dessert that requires hardly any preparation at all! It would make a great end to a dinner party or cosy meal with friends – serve with vanilla ice cream and some more caramel sauce. Prep Time: 5 minutes Cook Time: 25 minutes Total Time: 35 minutes Serves: 8 Ingredients: 1 sheet frozen puff pastry 30g butter 150ml caramel sauce, plus more to serve 3 bananas, cut crosswise into ½-inch slices Cinnamon, to serve Preparation: 1) Preheat the oven to 200oc. On a clean surface, roll the pastry dough into an 11-inch circle. 2) Melt the butter in a shallow 10-inch ovenproof frying pan then add the caramel sauce and bring to a simmer. 3) Remove from heat and arrange the banana slices in a single layer in the hot caramel sauce in the pan. Drape the pastry over the bananas, trimming the overhang round the sides of the pan. 4) Bake in the preheated oven for 22-25 minutes, until the pastry turns golden brown. 5) Cool the tarte tatin in the frying pan for 30 minutes before inverting it onto a large serving plate. 6) Dust well with cinnamon and then slice and serve with vanilla ice cream and some more warm caramel sauce.
MARTINIQUE COCKTAIL By Anna Johnson With the nights getting lighter and the weather becoming a little warmer, it seems like summer is finally around the corner. So for all of you who are feeling the revision blues why not take a break with a delicious a French –Caribbean inspired cocktail which will bring back that tropical feeling! This recipe uses Crème de Cassis which, although a little more expensive, is a delicious French blackcurrant liqueur and a little goes a long way. Preparation: Fill a tall glass with ice, add all the ingredients (the liqueurs first then the fruit juices) and stir with a cocktail stirrer. Garnish as you like, and voilá! Enjoy!
Prep Time: 5 mins Serves: 1 Ingredients: 50ml crème de cassis 50 ml peach schnapps 60ml cranberry juice 60ml fresh orange juice
TRAVEL INNER MONGOLIA: A WEEK I’LL NEVER FORGET By Chloe Saunders We’ve all had the holiday from hell, but I doubt you’ve experienced one as bad as my trip to Inner Mongolia. After a month of settling in to my year abroad in Beijing, the University informed us that we would have a week off for Mid-Autumn Festival. Great! However to my disappointment my passport was being updated for my residency visa and without it I could not travel by plane/ train or stay in a hotel. Determined not to spend the week moping around campus, I went to the on campus travel agency recommended by my new Irish friends who had decided to go to Inner Mongolia. No passports were needed so it seemed ideal. Showing my interest to the tour operator, his eyes lit up and dutifully gave his spiel. £250 lighter and Inner Mongolia here I come! Told it would only take 7 hours to get to Inner Mongolia from Beijing we were on the bus until 10pm that night! As we journeyed we received no information about where we were stopping, eating nor most importantly tourist attractions. It was only when we were welcomed by a large mountain enveloped in the muggy skyline that we realised we were at our next destination, The Hanging Temple. It was beautiful and certainly a sight for sore and rather tired eyes. The temple was built into the side of this mountain, literally hanging by mere pieces of wood. Quite surreal to think at any moment it could collapse but we didn’t care for it was stunning. Arriving at our next destination, the Datong Yungang Buddhist Caves our ‘tour guide’ was downing baijiu shots. With no choice but to investigate it for ourselves we got off to discover a monk melting candle wax. My friend asked for a picture and a few moments later he started chasing her around the temple. His monk friend then grabbed a fistful of grapes and proceeded to feed them to us. Another took his very incongruous modern smart phone from his pocket and asked us to pose for a picture. I will never look at monks in the same way again. The next destination was a vast improvement, a luxurious resort nested next to the splendour of the Gobi desert. The following day we headed early to the desert and only having a few hours I WILL NEVER LOOK AT we had to make the most of it. We went zip lining across the desert, rode quad bikes and took a MONKS IN THE SAME camel ride around the sand dunes. Fantastic! Yet despite an enjoyable day, tensions were high WAY AGAIN on the bus. A French girl decided to confront the tour guide about his incompetence. Not in the most sober of states he started to get aggressive. Like a Watchdog investigation she took out her expensive camera to record his drunk behaviour. He went ballistic and attempted to punch her, much to the shock of the other passengers. Her boyfriend retaliated by attacking the tour guide and threw him to the carpeted floor. Bemused by the chaos the bus driver decided to stop the bus. Some male passengers marched to the front in an attempt to help but due to the lack of space they just stood there and watched. The tour guide then launched a series of threats against them for the next hour. Morale was low and we weren’t in the mood for any more touristy stuff. Much to our delight an early drive back to Beijing was decided. At our final stop in Huhhot out of nowhere the tour operator who sold me the ‘holiday’ arrived. He tried to mollify our disappointment by ordering a free Macdonald’s for us at 2am in Beijing. Not very hungry and too tired to think straight I grabbed my case and ran to my student dorm, afraid that I might have to stay on the bus for a minute longer. The nightmare was over and I collapsed into bed. I’ll think twice before booking a tour in Beijing. 10
WWOOF AWAY, BUT KNOW THE CONSEQUENCES… By Chloë Osborne
© Google Images
Last summer, a group of friends and I decided that we would try and find a way to practise our French skills, travel round France, get some sun, see some places, and above all, do it on the mega-cheap. It took us no time at all to discover Wwoofing, an ingenious way for like-minded people from around the world to travel and work on organic farms in exchange for food and a bed. Generally speaking, this is a brilliant idea. There are plenty to choose from, and in France, we discovered projects from donkey leading and strawberry picking to manure farming and baking. All that the wwoofer is required to pay is the price of getting to the farm.
IT LOOKED QUAINT, BUT CLEAN AND CUTE, AND ABOVE ALL, TOTALLY FREE. THE REALITY WAS SOMEWHAT DIFFERENT
It seemed perfect. Our minds immediately conjured images of sunbathing, picking strawberries and then making jam, cycling around sunny southern French fields in our spare time, and sipping rosé after an afternoons relaxed work in our little farm house terrace. We began making inquiries, and finally received an email from a farm near Toulouse, which specialised in vegetable chutneys, fresh fruits and salads, homemade bread and potted meats. It looked quaint, but clean and cute, and above all, totally free. The reality was somewhat different.
We arrived in France, fresh and ready to deal with the farm work, meet the owners, and begin our holiday. The farm was owned by a Danish couple with two young girls, and they seemed friendly enough, and spoke perfect French to us which allowed us to practise; education was of course our premier interest, not the chilling wine and gourmet cheese that we assumed would come with it. We were shown our room, and horror set in. We were to stay not in the clean, sweet little flat that we had been shown online, but instead in a tiny flat next to the family part of the house, which was so derelict and bare it looked like it was uninhabitable. Dust covered everything, from the broken toilet in the corner to the pile of filthy mattresses and sheets that were filled with dead flies and mysterious yellow stains. It was so dark that in the evenings we would have to huddle around the window for light, as there was only one bare bulb on a string available to see by. There were wires poking out of the ceiling, and spiders everywhere, so big that even someone capable of keeping tarantulas as pets would have felt repulsed. In terms of food, we could take what we liked from their kitchen, but we were so limited in what we could cook, or make, that we consisted on vegetable paste, stale bread, and salad for the two weeks. I think we might have considered leaving that night. The work was ok; we were working in bare fields in the boiling sun, weeding huge rows of vegetables for hours on end. Occasionally we got to pick berries, or green beans, which was a nice change, but the work was fairly monotonous. Despite the setbacks, we all left the farm feeling that our time there hadn’t been a waste. The sun and spiders caused general hysterics, and so much of the day was spent laughing at each other and our situation that we managed to enjoy ourselves, practise our French, get a bit of a tan and lose half a stone each by the end of the fortnight. Although our expectations were totally wrong, it wouldn’t stop me from doing it again, or from recommending it to others. We got a bad farm, we really did, but you can always make the best of it, and it really is a way of getting a true taste of pastoral life. So wwoof away, but make sure you know what you’re getting into…
FRANÇAIS DÉCOUVREZ MONSIEURDREAM Par Deniz Sezis Comme presque tous les étudiants, moi aussi j’aime un peu de procrastination durant les brefs moments de repos entre deux essais et une présentation. Mais que diriezvous si je vous disais que j’ai trouvé une solution de procrastiner en apprenant un peu de langue et de culture française en même temps ? J’ai finalement découvert la chaine YouTube de MonsieurDream ! Blogueur, podcasteur et animateur français, Cyprien a une des plus visionnées chaines YouTube. La majorité des vidéos de Cyprien représentent son propre point de vue sur des différents aspects de la vie quotidienne et il exprime ses sentiments et ses petits souffrances domestiques dans une manière très comique. Un de mes moments préférés est l’histoire de son déménagement à Paris et sa merveilleuse technique pour avoir un appart sur Paris : beaucoup de chance! D’autres vidéos exposent tous les petits moments quotidiens qui nous donne un sentiment de « Ah, oui, je reconnais ça ! Moi aussi je le trouve très énervant ! » Ce type de sketch serait plus attractif aux jeunes, principalement parce que la majorité de ses problèmes sont ce qu’on appelle « First World Problems ». Ça veut dire, des inconvénients mineurs comme le fait que la batterie d’un IPhone tienne seulement 48 heures aujourd’hui et pas presque une semaine comme « avant ». Néanmoins, la prochaine fois que vous vous retrouvez dans une expédition internaute improductive rappelez- vous de ma méthode excellente pour s’amuser en découvrant des détails captivants de la culture française. Si j’ai suscité votre curiosité n’hésitez pas à aller sur www.cyprien.fr!
QUE DIRIEZ-VOUS SI JE VOUS DISAIS QUE J’AI TROUVÉ UNE SOLUTION DE PROCRASTINER EN APPRENANT UN PEU DE LANGUE ET DE CULTURE FRANÇAISE EN MÊME TEMPS ?
LE MARIAGE POUR TOUS : LA CONCLUSION Par Emily Brickell On ne peut pas ignorer ce sujet, récemment, les débats houleux sur le mariage homosexuel ont dominé les unes des journaux en France. Même le magazine Linguist a suivi le conflit – allez sur notre site web pour voir l’article d'Angelica Ottoway qui explique les faits principaux de la proposition. Depuis que François Hollande a annoncé qu’il voulait légaliser le mariage et l’adoption homosexuels, les pours et les contres ont manifesté lors de nombreux évènements à Paris. Les opinions en France ont été fractionnées en deux par le sujet. Hollande occupe une position très difficile : à peine a-t-il fêté son premier anniversaire présidentiel qu'il a divisé les Français. Pourtant, Hollande tenait sa promesse, et le mardi 23 Avril, (ce qu'on ne peut pas dire de tous les anciens présidents!) L'Assemblée Nationale a voté cette loi le mardi 23 Avril et le mariage pour tous a triomphé avec une majorité de votes pour la législative. Il reste encore beaucoup d'opposés au mariage pour tous en France, mais l’objectif le plus grand a été atteint. Deux hommes de Montpellier se préparent à s'épouser dans quelques semaines, ce qui constituera la première cérémonie de mariage homosexuel en France. 13
ESPAÑOL BANANA SKIN FLIP FLOPS
Por Julie Ledesma
Banana Skin Flip SI ESTÁS PENSANDO VIAJAR A Flops se ha convertido en mi blog SUR AMÉRICA O A COLOMBIA EL favorito sobre BLOG DE VICKI ES LA GUÍA PERLatino América y FECTA PARA ESTE RECORRIDO Y específicamente sobre Colombia. TE TENDRÁ CAPTIVADO POR LAS Su autora es Vicki HISTORIAS QUE CUENTA. Kellaway una chica Inglesa, periodista, que viajó a Colombia con un plan de recorrer el continente, pero hace más de 3 años que tomó una gran decisión de quedarse a vivir en Colombia. Colombia se ha convertido en un país popular, al igual que Sur América, especialmente por su cultura, su gente y su ambiente. En los últimos años Colombia se ha transformado en el hogar de muchos extranjeros que por equivocación o por suerte han encontrado oportunidades que sólo este país les puede ofrecer. Si estás pensando viajar a Sur América o a Colombia el blog de Vicki es la guía perfecta para este recorrido y te tendrá captivado por las historias que cuenta. No solamente ella escribe sobre el turismo en el país pero también de otros temas como la política, el arte, la cultura y la educación y por eso es mucho más interesante que un blog sólo de viaje. Su blog ha sido premiado como el mejor Blog del Norte-Sur América en el 2011, también como mejor Blog de Colombia y mejor web blog de Latín América en el 2012. Vicki también escribe sobre Cuba, Chile, Perú, Argentina y muchos otros países, hace poco fui muy afortunada de poderla entrevistar y de preguntarle algunas cosas básicas sobre su nueva vida en Colombia, y porqué el cambio tan radical. Si quieres leer la entrevista de Vicki entra a nuestra página www.thelinguistmagazine.org , tambien puedes leer el blog en http://bananaskinflipflops.com/.
UN VIAJE QUE DESPIERTA Por Alvin Vega Valle Como el estudiante internacional que soy, veo esta gran oportunidad de estudiar en Europa como un evento oportuno que me ha cambiado la vida. Este continente tiene tanto que ofrecer, tantas culturas cerca una de la otra, una gastronomía impresionante, una arquitectura moderna y a la vez clásica, que te deja sin aliento, y todo esto es especialmente hermoso para la época de Navidad. De hecho este año pasado para Diciembre 2012 por primera vez tuve la oportunidad y la suerte de viajar a Francia, uno de mis países favoritos – y que de hecho he querido visitar desde hace ya varios años – compartir con un gran amigo y conocer su ciudad: Estrasburgo. Como resultado de mi bachiller en Mercadotecnia y Empresas siempre estoy atento a experiencias de aprendizaje cultural; me fijo en el comportamiento de las personas, qué comen, qué les gusta hacer en su tiempo libre, qué se anuncia en la televisión, en las carteleras de la cuidad, cómo son los anuncios de las empresas inter© nacionales, etc., y este viaje fue una de esas experiencias.
© Google Images
Luego de visitar museos, ciudades pequeñas de producción de vinos, restaurantes locales y varios mercados de Navidad me di cuenta que siempre hay algo que hacer, ESTE VIAJE HA SIDO EL algo nuevo por experimenPREÁMBULO MIS DE VIA- tar. Viajar y conocer el mundo es una excelente forma de JES FUTUROS, ME HA crecer en conocimiento, emoABIERTO LOS OJOS A UN ciones, personalidad, pensaMUNDO HERMOSO QUE miento crítico, tolerancia, paciencia, etc., en fin, te ayuda a ESPERA CON ANSIAS QUE crecer como un ser humano LO VISITE más sensible. Este viaje ha sido el preámbulo mis de viajes futuros, me ha abierto los ojos a un mundo hermoso que espera con ansias que lo visite. Luego de éste vendrán muchos más y estoy seguro de que volveré a ver a mi gran amigo y juntos caminaremos por Paris y muchas aventuras surgirán. Así que, estudiantes internacionales ¿qué esperan? Aprovechen esta oportunidad única, hay mucho que ver, no tan solo localmente pero allá afuera y solo un poco de mar se interpone entre nosotros y la libertad de viajar.
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DEUTSCH THE TRIALS AND TRIBULATIONS OF BEING HALB DEUTSCH By Anon As anybody who has the pleasure of learning German with me will know, I am half German. I’ve never lived there and can’t speak the language fluently, but still it’s a fact that basically everybody needs to know– a certain je ne sais quoi or das gewisse Etwas if we’re keeping it German. Having never picked up the Aryan looks, nobody believes my half German heritage until they see BE GRATEFUL THAT YOUR DAD my Vater, originally from Frankfurt and basically a walking German stereotype. Here are some reasons why he is the biggest German to have ever existiert: he is grade 5 accordion; he only ONLY BOUGHT THAT SOFT-TOP eats rye bread; a staunch supporter of everything Aldi; his handlebar moustache; and his name CAR AND RIDES AROUND IN IT is Norbert. (Please note that taking up the accordion is probably one of the biggest German mid- WITH HIS TOP OFF, LISTENING TO life crisis’ you could have. Be grateful that your dad only bought that soft-top car and rides around in it with his top off, listening to The Clash) Having been subjected by my father to Leder- THE CLASH hosen from a young age, a half German heritage has also guaranteed that all those baby photos of me will be a damn lot more embarrassing than yours. The most annoying thing, apart from the Lederhosen, is the first response to my half-Germaness: ‘So are you half Nazi then?’. Well, erm, how do I put this? No. Then usually followed by a rant of the long list of reasons why I don’t support the Third Reich. And just because my German grandparents might have fought for the enemy doesn’t make me a neo-Nazi. So, all you educated university students, the Nazi jokes were never funny and never will be – see Joan Rivers. Her recent offensive holocaust joke about Heidi Klum teaches us that these kinds of jokes are old and distasteful, whilst reminding us of the drawbacks of plastic surgery – see Joan Rivers’ face. And then there’s the fact that I can’t actually officially have both German and English citizenship. To become a proper German citizen, I’ve got to give up my debt-ridden country with its high cost of living and a Prime Minister with a 5-head (work it out), and trade it for a country headed by the Queen of Europe, otherwise known as Angela Merkel, and her great Brüste. The woman has her own Barbie doll for Christ’s sake. I could never imagine a “Cameron Action Doll” on the shelves of Toys ‘R’ Us, wedged between two members of One Direction to try to boost sales. However, you’ve probably guessed that I am very proud of my heritage. A country which is the second largest consumer of beer in the world, a country where the hipster Olympics take place (with skinny jeans tug-o’-war and the thick rimmed glasses throw) and a country where Disney castles really do exist. However, England, you’re alright too. I’d miss the free healthcare, so I think I’ll just stick to saying I’m half of each.
ANGELA MERKEL – GÖTTIN DER DEUTSCHEN Angela Merkel hat uns bezaubert. Aber wieso? Hier schreibe ich nur fünf der Gründe warum Angela die Göttin der Deutschen genannt werden soll: 1 Sie hat promoviert – Dr Merkel. Weise und schön wie Athena. 2 Ihr zweiter Vorname ist Dorothea: Angela Dorothea Merkel.. wirklich Deutsch oder? 3 Es gibt eine Merkel-Barbie. 4 Sie ist die erste KanzlerIN um politisch zu sein 5 Ihre Brüste. Gott in Himmel. Wie das Foto zeigt, sind sie herrlich. Ein Kommentator beschrieb sie als ‚wohlgenährte Zeppeline‘. 14
РУССКИЙ ЯЗЫК БЕЗУМНО, ПРОСТО...
By Chloe Woodward
Когда мы решили изучать русский язык, мы не ожидала таких странных опытов...Вот некоторые из наших любимых: 1 Вы видите лощадь около метро и катающуюся на ней женищину, продающую билеты на катание. 2 Вы заказываете стаканчик воды, а получаете – джина. 3 Вы начинаете плакать во время устного экзамена и преподавательница просто тебе даёт бумажные платки и говорит «теперь всё у тебя хорошо, давай» 4 Преподавательница к вам подбегает на работе, когда вы заняты каким-то делом, и спрашивает, готовы ли вы к устному экзамену по русскому... 5 Вы просите у хозяйки, можно ли готовить ужин, и она тебе отвечает «ладно, я богата, у меня два телевизора и радио» 6 Вы только что покушали и хозяйка тебе показывает некоторые фотографии кошки. В одной из них кошка умирает на том же столе, за котором вы сидите. 7 Вы теряете телефон в кино, а его тебе возвращают через месяц:
Осенью я зашел в кино посмотреть фильм. Прежде пойти в зал каким-то способом оставил мобильник на раковине - десять минут спустя его уже не было. На следующий день открываю электронный ящик и нахожу емайл от моей ученицы, что ей позвонили и хотят вернуть мобильник - в декабре получил его обратно. 8 Вы сами начинаете разговаривать о чём-то безумном с неизвестными вам людьми:
Мы пошли с другом съесть кебаб в нашем любимом "Кафе бистро", но благодаря дню рождения друга, спустя 2 часа мы пили водку с какими-то местными Кыргызамидворниками и обсуждали превосходство братских народов польского и кыргызского над гнилым Западом. 9 Преподавательница тебя видит и говорит "в течение семестра, ты был очень плохим мальчиком, на устном экзамене я была очень proud of you. Молодец! Very хорошо." 10 Вы начинаете кушать сметану вилкой. 11 Вы едите пельмени/икру/жаренные макароны с сыром на завтрак и ничего странного. 12 Вы играете «Duck, duck, goose» с детьми в Сибири и пол обрушивается под вами. 13 Вы обедите и вам сказанно, что надо молчать из-за присутствия осматривающих медицинский документы детей врачей – у вас нет этих документов и, возможно, депортация
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汉语 MADE IN CHINA By Nadia Dillon Shopping in China can be very different to shopping in the UK. Nadia Dillon gives us an insight into her battle for a bargain on a typical day in Guangzhou. Apart from eating, the best part of China had to be the shopping experience. The bargaining power we had was limitless; it was like an episode of The Apprentice! A typical conversation would go: Me: “这个多少钱？” [How much is this?]
This is me flaunting my Chinese and “this” probably referred to some of kind of fake designer bag. Salesperson: “1000 RMB.”
This is them not accepting my attempt at Chinese and speaking English.
I WOULD WALK OUT OF THE SHOP – A TACTICAL MOVE I WASN’T SURE WOULD WORK
Me: “太贵了! 一百” [Too expensive! I’ll give you 100 RMB]
This is my refusal to speak English. Salesperson: “No way miss, you are killing me!”
Apparently she doesn’t want to speak Chinese, at this point I’m questioning if she even can. Me: “Okay, 150 RMB.”
To help her I speak English, (but only for her sake!) Salesperson: “No, miss! You are not nice miss.”
I would then walk out of the shop - this was purely a tactical move, one that I wasn’t sure would work. Salesperson: “Miss come back, I give you the bag for 300!”
This was normally said whilst running down the street chasing me. Me: “Okay!”
I would walk back to the shop and pay them. Salesperson: “Thank you Miss!”
The salespeople were always so polite once you had given them your money! Shopping in China was hilarious and for anyone that loves bargaining, the streets of China are the place for you.
By Nick Lanigan
Mandarin can seem a daunting language for Europeans to attempt to learn, but look beneath the surface and you’ll find both positives and negatives in comparison to other languages. Anyone who has ever studied Chinese will tell you that the writing system is one of the most complicated aspects to get your head around – with no alphabet, and bearing no resemblance to the spoken sound of the language, Chinese characters can seem completely impenetrable. But once you’ve broken the initial barrier of learning how to write a few useful sentences, you’ll quickly realise that Mandarin has, to begin with at least, a much less complex grammatical system than European languages. Verbs are not conjugated to agree with the subject, and don’t change according to tense. Tired of battling with past participles and imperfect subjunctives? Perhaps Chinese is for you! Another well-known reason to study Chinese is the fact that it has the most native speakers of any language in the world, so there’s no shortage of people to practise on. With China’s huge economic, political and cultural impact on the modern world stage, Mandarin has also never been more useful for use in professional contexts. Attempting to learn Chinese can feel like trying to climb the Great Wall – but stick with it and the benefits will follow!
TIRED OF BATTLING WITH GRAMMAR? PERHAPS CHINESE IS FOR YOU!
PORTUGUÊS O IMPACTO MODERNO E HISTÓRICO DO FUTEBOL EM PORTUGAL por Matthew Norley
O futebol vai sempre ser o desporto do povo Portugues, devido a sua importancia e a importancia que o jogo detém na cultura Portuguesa. Grandes jogadores incluindo o Eusébio, o Luis Figo, e atualmente o Cristiano Ronaldo, fizeram e continuam a fazer uma contribuição enorme ao futebol doméstico e internacional. Considerando que Portugal é um pais relativamente pequeno com apenas 10 milhões de habitantes, é realmente incrível que desde do campeonato Europeu em 2000, Portugal já chegou a 2 meias finais e a uma final desta competicao e também já atingiu uma meia final do campeonato do mundo em 2006. E o que é mais incrível é que o Sport Lisboa e Benfica, o clube mais sucedido em Portugal chegou a semana passada à final da Liga Europa! E além disso, está à beira de ganhar a liga nacional com dois jogos decisivos para jogar; será possível ganhar as duas tacas? Eu pessoalmente acho que sim, mas sendo um dos maiores adeptos em Birmingham (e potencialmente o único?) sempre serei radicalmente inclinado para o lado encarnado. Mas enfim; o futebol em Portugal também tem um aspeto histórico e cultural, representando a luta contra o fascismo no fim do século 21. É comum identificar três pilares do regime salazarista; futebol sendo um deles. O desporto foi utilizado pelo partido fascista do Salazar para demonstrar que os portugueses podiam batalhar coletivamente para fortalecer a unidade nacional. Infelizmente o futebol foi também utilizado para distrair o povo da depressão social que persistiu durante a fase posterior do século 20. É óbvio que este desporto coletivo tem tido os suas recentes impactos sobre Portugal e o resto da Europa. Mas o que torna este desporto mágico é a noção que o futebol é uma referência de unidade e liberdade para o povo português, e tem sempre estado presente em tempos de sofrimento e felicidade, tal é o facto que quando a Seleccao Nacional joga o pais pára para assistir aos seus jogos e nestas situacoes que se ve a uniao existente em Portugal. Agora só nos falta ganhar o Mundial, fácil!
LA DIADA DE SANT JORDI per la Georgina Morley El 23 d’abril és per a nosaltres, els anglesos, “Saint George’s Day.” A Catalunya la gent també celebra aquest dia del mateix sant que va influir en moltes coses a la història i la cultura catalana. La llegenda va començar al poble de Montblanc, on vivia un monstre terrible amb un alè tan pudent que la gent moria quan el respirava. Per calmar al drac els ciutadans li donaven un humà cada dia perquè el mengés. Els habitants van decidir fer un sorteig per escollir quina persona li donarien al drac cada vegada, fins que un dia va sortir el nom de la filla del rei. Per impedir la mort de la princesa, un cavaller muntat sobre un cavall blanc va viatjar des de molt lluny, es va barallar amb la bèstia i la va matar. La sang del drac es va convertir en una rosa i Sant Jordi la regalà a la princesa. L’any 1456, la Generalitat va declarar que el 23 d’abril seria la festa de la rosa, i que els homes donarien una rosa a la seva estimada per recordar l’acció heroica de aquest cavaller, Sant Jordi. Des del 1926, el dia 23 d’abril ha commemorat la llegenda, i la gent dona i rep llibres i roses, normalment a la parella. Els llibres celebren l’aniversari de la mort de Miguel de Cervantes i Shakespeare, que és el mateix dia. Si vas a Barcelona aquest dia, veuràs una bona celebració als carrers, amb molts llibres i roses allà on miri’s. Per tant, el drac de Sant Jordi és un símbol que pots veure per tot arreu a Barcelona. Un bon exemple és el teulat de la Casa Batlló d’en Gaudí, on hi ha moltes teules que prenen forma d’un drac que vetlla pel passeig de Gràcia.
BALOTELLI: I MOMENTI MIGLIORI da Helena Loyd-Hughes e Ed Barclay Il più famoso e discusso dei calciatori italiani, Mario Balotelli, è un personaggio controverso nel mondo del calcio. Alcune persone lo amano, altri lo odiano. Tuttavia, il ragazzo ha raggiunto un livello di riconoscimento che va ben oltre i suoi anni. Ci sono una serie di episodi per cui credo che Balotelli sia un individuo talentuoso ma strambo! Qui ci sono i suoi momenti migliori:
<<Perché io sono ricco!>> Dopo aver guidato pericolosamente, la macchina di Mario è stata fermata dalla Polizia. La macchina è stata perquisita e la polizia ha scoperto un sacco di soldi. Quando Mario è stato intervistato, ha detto che era ricco!
9 Le Multe delle Biblioteca: Molti studenti possono comprendere questa storiella. Mario si annoiava cosi ha camminato alla biblioteca dell’università di Manchester per pagare le multe in ritardo. Se solo Mario ha giocato per Aston Villa!
8 <<Bad Santa?>> Tutti sanno che Mario è generoso. Però la gente di Manchester ha visto la sua generosità quando Mario ha distribuito dei soldi in modo casuale. Mi sembra giusto fino a quando consideriamo che è stato vestito come Santa!
7 Lealtà di Squadra: Mentre Mario stava giocando per l’Inter-Milano, è stato visto vestire la maglia dei rivali del Milan. Ooops. 6 La Grande Fuga: Mario ama le ragazze. Gira voce che Mario sia arrivato alle porte di una prigione femminile per esplorare la situazione. Apparentemente, aveva questa voglia da molti anni!
5 Balotelli batte i bulli: Balo ha visto un bambino alle porte di Manchester City durante una sessione di allenamento. Mario l’ha incontrato e il bambino gli ha detto che era una vittima del bullismo ma amava il calcio. Mario l’ha riportato a scuola e ha dato al preside una lezione sul bullismo.
4 L’odore di pesce? Per scherzo, gli amici di Mario hanno riempito la sua macchina con dei pesci. L’odore era così cattivo che la sua Maserati andava rottamata!
3 Una Performance di Prima Classe: Durante EURO 2012, Balo ha giocato meravigliosamente ma non ha mai festeggiato. Perché? <<Sto solo facendo il mio lavoro, un postino non festeggia dopo che ha inviato la posta>>. Questa non è l’unica cosa che Mario ha in comune con un postino. La posta non viene inviata la domenica e in finale (di domenica), STO SOLO FACENDO IL l’Italia ha perso 4-0 con la Spagna. Come un postino, Balo non produce la domenica!
Tripudio Assoluto!: Dopo aver firmato per giocare nel Milan, Balo è uscito con il presidente in un ristorante. Dopo aver finito la cena, Mario è partito per festeggiare con la folla. Il disturbo è terminato con del gas lacrimogeno.
1 <<Why Always Me?>> La sera prima del derby di Manchester, i calciatori devono riposare
MIO LAVORO, UN POSTINO NON FESTEGGIA DOPO CHE HA INVIATO LA POSTA
per assicurare una buona performance. Invece, Balo aveva una festa. Questa festa è terminata accendendo i fuochi d’artifici in bagno, causando un incendio. Il giorno dopo, Mario ha segnato due goal contro lo United. Dopo aver segnato, si è tolto la maglia, scoprendone un’altra con scritto: <<Why Always Me?>>. Mamma mia Mario! 18
العربية “LITTLE YEMEN” By Farina Kokab Ever wondered what it was like to take a brief yet insightful look into the heart of a community? To grasp at its essential roots, it’s day to day functioning and glance at life as you don’t know it? Then wonder no more...I was recently fortunate enough to take such a journey through the photographic exhibition titled “Little Yemen” at the Midlands Arts Centre by Sonia Audhali. It was more than just a series of pictures; it was a depiction of life from the eyes of an intrepid social observer who picked up the delicate nuances and intricate details of what it means to be Yemeni in the Midlands. There is a contrast between images depicting daily life, women or men gathering at community centres to share common interest, explore their religious or political beliefs, cooking within the home and the depth with which certain character portraits have been taken. The pictures give so much information in true documentary style. You don’t just look at a group of people sitting down; you are made to feel absorbed by the environment they are in. Their surroundings feel familiar yet alien. It is England, but with a Yemeni twist! It works wonders in effortlessly stirring up the curiosity of the audience into the religious and cultural practices of this community, where capturing what it means to be Yemeni in the West Midlands is nothing short of an impressive effort in itself. What the exhibition does is show you the multiple dimensions of a community enveloped by their traditions and beliefs. Two pictures on display particularly captured my attention, two very different portraits of Sonia’s father. Both images depicted Mr Audhali as a businessman but the manner in which these pictures were taken revealed depth and intensity. One image portrayed a stern and committed entrepreneur, the other a softer portrait of a man burdened with many responsibilities. Sonia’s talents are not limited to character portraits, the stillness of the images is shaken up by the vivid colours of the subject’s homes, attire and the rich culturally embedded practices taking place. You get a real feel for how learning about Islam as well as practicing it are at the heart of the community. The exhibition does not fail to remind us how important it is to consider the multi-ethnic heritage of Great Britain today, laden with rich and intense cultures and passionate people.
ELECTION 2013 We are proud to announce a brand new team for next year. Not only have we replaced the positions of our current editors who will be going on years abroad or graduating, we have also added sections including International Sport and Japanese so look out for those! Here is a list of our new team: Chair - Julie Ledesma Secretary - Jess Mead Treasurer - Sam Lowe Proof Reader - Sam Lowe, Deputy Rachel Bliss Publicity - Holly Kettlewell
LINGUIST ANNOUNCEMENT French - Philippa Gent Spanish - Rachel Bliss German - Naomi Betteley Russian - Naomi Betteley Italian - Chanika Hikkaduwage Arabic - Farina Kokab Chinese - Chloe Saunders Japanese - Arisa Lee Potruguese – Matthew Norley Current Affairs - Saul Shimmin Travel - Holly Kettlewell Life&Style - Hannah Cluley Sports - Philippa Gent Culture – Stephanie White
Photo of the current Linguist Team winning Outstanding Society at UoB Guild Awards 2013
THE LINGUIST MAGAZINE NEEDS YOU! If you would like to know more about our magazine, our writers or have comments to make about our articles then feel free to check out our Facebook and Twitter pages or email us. We have an exciting new website launching soon which will post longer articles and link to social media so you can comment to your hearts content! If you have any gems of photos we’d love to display them online. We’re always looking for new writers and contributors, so don’t hesitate to get in touch. @Linguist_Mag /Thelinguistmagazine2012-13
Or email us at email@example.com Cover photo by Hedwig Quist
Back page photo by Georgie Morely
Life & Style
Food & Drink
Julie Ledesma Helena Lloyd Hughes
PHOTO COMPETITION! A chance to show off your camera skills, share your Year Abroad experience and win a PRIZE! The Department of Modern Languages and the Linguist will be offering a prize to the best photo that year abroad students can send us that epitomises their year away. We will pick the 10 best entries and then YOU can pick the final winner! The finalists will be shown in the Linguist and the facebook group https://www.facebook.com/groups/UoB.Photo.Comp/ will display the best entries and you can vote on your favourite. It will open in week 6 of this term, and will be open all summer. It will close in the 2nd week of the Autumn Term. Then you will have 1 week to decide which is the best and crown our winner! The Prize will be announced when the competition opens in week 6. 20
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