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CMYK

CMYK

8

24 s^{_phcn 2014 Xn¶ƒ

kvss‰¬ kv-ss‰¬ _m-ey-Øn-s‚ \n-jv-I-f-¶ ku-μ-cyw In-co-S-ap-b¿-Øn-b kmbm-lv-\w. kv-ss‰-e≥-am-cp-sS-bpw kv-ss‰-e-Øn-I-fp-sS-bpw Zn\w. A-Xm-bn-cp-∂p tX-P-kv ]mT-im-e "ssÃ-en-s\m-cp k-Ωm\w' a¬-k-c k-Ωm-\-Zm-\ N-S-ßv. tIm-gn-t°m-Sv ao-©-¥-bnse tX-P-kv Hm-Un-t‰m-dn-b-Øn¬ \-S-∂ h¿-W-a-t\m-l-c N-Sßn-te-°v H-cp ^v-fm-jv _m-°v

24 s^{_phcn 2014 Xn¶ƒ padasala@thejasonline.com

h\nX mZn\w

hnP-bn-Iƒ ]p-c-kv-Im-c-ß-fp-ambn

tXP-kv F-Un-‰¿ F≥.]n sN-°p-´n

CMYK

CMYK

Btcm-Ky-ap-≈ Ip-Spw_w: k-¥p-„ Ip-Spw-_w F-∂ hn-j-b-Øn¬ F®v. sF kn.sI \m-k¿ A-l-ΩZv

hnP-bn-Iƒ k-Ωm-\-߃ G-‰p-hm-ßp∂p

H∂mw k-Ωm-\-w t\Sn-b kn.F®v enw-\ am-t\-Pn-Mv F-Un-‰¿ {]-^. ]n. tIm-b-bn¬ \n-∂v k-Ωm-\w kzo-I-cn°p-∂p

A-eq-^v

d-Pm d-a-Zm≥

t{]m¬-km-l-\ k-Ωm-\w t\Snb F. B-bn-i-bp-sS ]n-Xm-hv ]c-ky hn-`m-Kw am-t\-P¿ hn.F a-Po-Zn¬ \n-∂v k-Ωm-\w kzo-I-cn-°p-∂p

B-bn-jm k-P

ss\-\m ^mØna

CMYK

Zn-b

kv{Xo-Iƒ cm-jv{Sß-fp-sS I-Sn-™m¨ \n-b-{¥n-°p-∂ A-h-ÿ-bn-te-°v C-∂v tem-Iw am-dn-bn-cn-°p∂p. F√m-bn-SØpw h-\n-X-Iƒ-°p kw-h-c-W-hp-ap≠v. F-∂m¬, kv{Xo]o-U-\-Øn-\p am{Xw H-cp Ip-d-hp-an√. am¿-®v 8 tem-I h-\n-Xm-Zn-\-amWv.

t]Pv 2 Fkv.F-kv.F¬.kn km-aq-ly-im-kv{Xw

t]-Pv 4

k-Ωm-\-߃ kv-t]m-¨-k¿ sN-bv-X-Xv a-e-∏p-dw F-S-h-Æ-bn-se sF jm¿-]v sl¿-_¬ ¢n-\n-Iv Fw.-Un. keow ssh-Zy¿

Fkv.F-kv.F¬.kn sF.Sn

CMYK

Cem≥ kn.sI

c≠mw k-Ωm-\-Øn-\v A¿-lbm-b kn.hn dm-\n-b


2 24 s^{_phcn 2014 Xn¶ƒ

d-km-Jv B-cm-{ºw

24 s^{_phcn 2014 Xn¶ƒ

kmaq-ly-im-kv{Xw

Hm-¿°pI: tIm-gn-t°m-Sv Pn√-bn-se hSs° A-‰-Øp-≈ H-cp k¿-°m¿ hn-Zym-e-bØn-¬ ap-gp-h≥ hn-j-b-߃°pw A+ t\Sn-b Ip-´n-Iƒ B-sI c-≠v. F-∂m¬, km-aq-lyim-kv-{X-Øn¬ am{Xw A+ t\-Sn-b-h¿ 34! C-\n \-ap-°v H-cp am-Xr-Im tNm-Zy-°-S-emkv ]-cn-N-b-s∏-Smw. 80 kv-tIm-dn-\p-≈-XmWn-Xv. c≠c a-Wn-°q¿ ka-bw F-Sp-°mw. tNm-Zy-߃ hy-‡-am-bn hm-bn-®p t\m-°nb- ti-jw F√m tNm-Zy-߃°pw DØ-cw F-gp-Xp-I. DØ-cw F-gp-Xn-°-gn-™ ti-jw am{Xw C-tXm-sSm-∂n-®v sIm-Sp-Øn-cn-°p-∂ D-Ø-c kq-Nn-I-bp-am-bn Xm≥ F-gpXn-b DØ-c-߃ H-Øp-h-cp-∂pt≠m F-∂p ]cntim-[n-°pI.

kv-‰m-t‚¿-Uv 10

Im-en°-‰v hn-I-emw-K hn-Zym-ebw sIm-fØ-d˛ tIm-gn-t°mSv

Iq-´p-Im-tc, F-kv.F-kv.F¬.kn. ]-co-£-bv-°p-≈ X-øm-sdSp-∏v G-Xm-≠v ]q¿-Øn-bm-bn-°m-Wpw At√? kabw hn-e-s∏-´-Xm-sW-∂v Hm¿a-bp-≠-t√m. ]t£, ]-co-£-bm-sW-∂p I-cp-Xn Bcpw t]-Sn-t°-≠. ]co-£ \n-߃ F-¥p ]Tn-®n√ F-∂p t\m-°m\√, a-dn-®v \n-߃ F-¥p ]Tn-®p F-∂p t\m-°m≥ am-{X-amWv. km-aq-ly-im-kv-{Xw {]-tXy-In-®pw. AXp-sIm-≠p \-ap-°v ]-co-£ F-∂p ]-d-tb-≠. aq-ey\n¿W-bw F-t∂m hn-e-bn-cp-ج Ft∂m ]-dbmw. km-aq-ly-im-kv{XØn\v \n-ß-fn¬ h-f¿-∂ km-aqly-t_m-[hpw am-‰hpw hn-e-bn-cp-Øp-∂ X-cØn-em-bn-cn°pw tNm-Zy-߃ X-øm-dm-°n-bn-´p≠mhp-I. km-aq-ly-im-kv-{X-Øn-\v \nc-¥-c hn-e-bn-cpج (CE), h¿-jm-¥y hn-e-bn-cp-ج (TE) F-∂nß-s\ 100 kv-tIm-dn-\m-Wv aq-ey-\n¿Wbw F-∂v A-dn-bm-a-t√m? \n-c¥-c hn-e-bn-cp-Ø-en-\p≈ 20 kv-tIm-dn¬ ]-c-amh-[n C-t∏mƒ X-s∂ e-`n-®pIgn™p. _m-°n-bp-≈ 80 kv-tIm-dn¬ 72 kv-tIm¿ In-´n-bm¬ \n-߃-°v A+ D-d-∏n-°mw. A-[ym-]-I¿ X-∂ t\m-´pIƒ, ssK-Up-Iƒ Xp-S-ßn-b-h \n-ßfp-sS ssIh-iw Im-Wpw. A-h-sbm-s° \n-߃ hm-bn-t®m-fq. ]t£, A+ D-d-∏n-°m≥ sS-Iv-Ãv _p°v hm-bn-°¬ X-s∂-bm-Wv G-‰hpw D-NnXw.

B-i-b-߃ I-s≠-Øn en-Ãv sN-ømw sS-Iv-Ãv _p-°v hm-b-\-bn-eqsS A+ D-d-∏n-°m≥ H-cp kq-{X-∏-Wn-bp≠v. Hmtcm A-[ym-bhpw hm-bn®pI-gn-™m¬ A-h-bn¬ {]-[m-\-s∏-´ B-i-b߃ G-sXm-s°-bm-sW-∂v BZyw en-Ãv sN-øpI. \m-tem At©m t]¿ H-cp-an-®n-cp-∂p hm-bn®m¬ C-Xv F-fp-∏-Øn¬ \-S-°pw. B-i-b-߃ {i≤n-°m-sX hn-´p-t]m-hp-∂Xpw Cß-s\ ]Tn-°p∂-Xn-eq-sS H-gn-hm-°mw. \-ap-°v H-cp DZm-lc-Ww t\m-°mw. km-aq-ly-im-kv-{Xw 1 se 8mw A-[ymbw "B-[p\n-I tI-cfw' a-dn-®pt\m°q. Im-Wp-tºmƒ t]-Pv Iq-Sp-X¬ D-s≠-∂p tXm-∂pw. ]-t£, hm-bn®p t\m-°n-bm¬ \mtem At©m B-i-bßtf Cu ]mT-`mK-Øv D-≈q F-∂p I-s≠-Ømw. A-h G-sXm-s°-bm-Wv F-∂p t\m-°q. {_n-´n-jp-Im-cp-sS Zp¿-`c-Ww ˛ a-e-_m-dn-se I¿j-I I-em-]߃ tI-c-f-Øn-se hn-Zym-`ym-k h-f¿® km-aq-lnI ]-cn-h¿-Ø\w tZio-b {]-ÿm\w, \n-b-a-ew-L\w sF-Iy tIc-fw cq-]o-I-cWw Cu A-©v B-i-bßfpw F-¥m-sW-∂p ]pkvX-Iw ]cn-tim-[n-®p I-s≠-Øq. C-\n Im-cy-ambn-s´m∂pw Cu `mK-Øp ]Tn-°m≥ D-≠m-hn√. 8ma-sØ A-[ym-bw \mw ]Tn-®pI-gn-™p, km-aqly-im-kv{Xw Ip-d-®p-Iq-Sn F-fp-∏-am-bn tXm-∂p∂nt√?

]´n-I X-øm-dm°mw C-\n a-s‰m-cp kq-{XhnZy ]-d-bmw. 6mw A-[ymbw "]-sØmºXpw C-cp-]Xpw \q-‰m-≠p-I-fn-se ss[-jWn-I {]-h-W-X-Iƒ' t\m-°p-I. C-Xn-¬\n-∂p Npcp-ßn-bXv c-≠p kv-tIm-dn-\p≈ tNmZyw {]-Xo-£n-°mw. Cu ]mT-`m-K-Øn-se h-kv-Xp-XIsf \-ap-°p ]-´n-I-bn¬ en-Ãv sN-øm-w. H-cp amXrI t\m-°q.

ss[-j-Wn-I {]-h-W-X-Iƒ

{][m-\ B-i-b-߃

h-‡m°ƒ/km-ln-Xy-Im-c≥-am¿

Im¬-∏\n-I {]-ÿm\w

{]-]-©kv-t\lw t{]aw, Nn-¥m-kzm-X-{¥yw

Nmƒ-kv Un-°≥kv, hn-IvtXm¿ bqtKm, hneyw th¿-Uv-kvh¿Øv

(Romanticism)

b-YmX-Y {]-ÿm\w (Realism)

h-kv-Xp-X-I-sfbpw h-kv-Xp-°-sf bpw A-tX cq-]-Øn¬ A-h-X-cn-∏n -°pI

P¿-a≥ B-i-b-hmZw

B-i-b-am-Wv {]-Y-ahpw {]-[m-\-hpw

C-Ωm-\p-h¬ Im‚ v, slK¬

`uXn-IhmZw

temI-sØ am-‰na-dn-°p-I-bm-Wv {]-[m\w

Im-ƒ am-¿Ivkv

Cu ]mT-`mK-Øp\n-∂v X-s∂ X-øm-dm-°m-hp-∂ a-s‰m-cp ]´nI t\m°q D-Ø-cm-[p-\n-IX

tNmw-kvIn

]-cnWm-a kn-≤m-¥w

Nmƒ-kv Um¿-hn≥

P-\n-X-I im-kv{Xw

{Kn-K¿ sa≥U¬

B-t]£n-I kn-≤m-¥w

B¬-_¿´v sF≥-Ão≥

H-∂ma-sØ A-[ym-bw"B-[p\nI tem-I-Øn-s‚ D-Zbw' C-hn-sSbpw CXp-t]m-se ]-´n-I-s∏-Sp-Øm-hp-∂ [m-cm-fw km-[y-X-Iƒ D≠v.

tNm-Zy-߃ h-cp-∂hgn C-Xph-sc-bp≈ tNm-Zy-°-S-em-kp-Iƒ ]cn-tim-[n-®Xn¬\n∂p ]mT-`m-K-߃-°p \¬-Ip-∂ kv-tIm¿ sh-bnt‰-Pv G-Xm-≠v Xm-sg sIm-Sp-Ø co-Xn-bnembncn°pw F∂p a-\- n-em-°m-hp-∂-Xm-Wv.

SS 2

1 ap-X¬ 7h-sc 8 ap-X¬ 12 h-sc

D-b¿-∂ kv-tIm-dn-\p≈ tNm-Zy-߃°v tNm-bvkv

`q-]-S-Øn¬ am¿-°v sNømw ap-gp-h≥ kv-tImdpw t\-Smw

am-Iv-kv- πm¶v

]mT-`m-K-߃ 1 ap-X¬ 8 h-sc 9 ap-X¬ 12 h-sc

tdm-_¿-´v {_u-WnMv, am-Xyp B¿-t\mƒUv

6 kv-tIm-dn-\p≈ c-≠p tNm-Zy-߃ km-aq-lyim-kv-{Xw 1,2 `m-K-ß-fn¬\n-∂m-bn D-≠m-hpw. tNmbv-kv X-cp∂-Xp sIm-≠v \-ap-°v G-‰hpw A-dn-bmhp∂-Xv Xn-c-s™-Sp-Øv F-gp-Xm≥ km-[n-°pw.

Izm-≠w _-e-X-{¥w

SS1

1. {_n-´n-jp-Im¿ \-S-∏m°n-b `q-\n-b-a-߃ tI-c-f-Øn-se I¿-j-I-cp-sS Po-hn-X-Ønep-≠m°n-b Zp-cn-X-߃ F-s¥√mw? 3 2. A-æ-h¬-°c-Ww F∂-XpsIm-≠v D-t±-in°p∂-Xv F-¥m-Wv? A-æ-h¬-°c-Ww aqew Zp-cn-Xwt\-cn-Sp-∂ `q-{]-tZ-i-߃-°v D-Zm-lc-Ww F-gp-XpI? 2 3. F-¥m-Wv _-P‰v? k¿-°m-cn-s‚ km-ºØn-I {]-h¿-Ø-\-ß-fn¬ _-P-‰n-\p-≈ {]m-[m\yw hy-‡-am-°p-I. 3 4. A, B tIm-f-ß-fn¬ hn-´ `mK-Øv A\p-tbmPy-am-b-h Iq-´n-t®¿-Øv ]´n-I ]q¿-Ønbm-°p-I.

kv-tIm¿ 25 15

40

25 15

40

B-sI

80

ap-gp-h≥ ]mT-`mK-Øp\n∂pw tNm-Zy-߃ {]-Xo-£n°-Ww. Nn-e-t∏mƒ hn-hn-[ A-[ym-b-߃ Iq´n-t®¿Øpw tNm-Zy-߃ {]-Xo-£n-°mw. H-cp tNm-Zy amXrI t\m°q. "⁄m-t\m-Z-b Im-e Nn-¥-I-tfm-Sp-≈ hn-{]-Xn-]-Øn-bmWv Im¬-∏-\n-IIm-e km-ln-Xy-Ir-Xn-I-fn¬ I-≠p-h-cp∂Xv. F-¥m-Wv C-Xn-\v Imc-Ww?' km-aq-ly-im-kv-{Xw 1se A-[ymbw 1, 6 C-h Iq´n-t®¿ØmWv Cu tNmZyw Xøm-dm-°n-bn-´p-≈Xv. A-[ym-bw 1 ap-X¬ 6 h-sc H-‰ bq-\n‰m-bn hm-bn-®p a-\- n-em-°m≥ {i-an-®m¬ CØ-cw tNmZy-߃-°v \n-jv-{]-bm-kw DØ-cw F-gp-Xmw. i-cm-i-cn 25 tNm-Zy-ß-fm-Wv ]-co£bv-°p I-≠ph-cp-∂Xv. F-gp-Xm≥ c≠-c a-Wn-°q¿ e-`n-°pw. 2,3,4,6 kv-tIm-dn-\p≈ tNm-Zyß-fm-Wv Iq-Sp-Xepw {]-Xo-£n-°m-hp-∂-Xv.

km-aq-lyim-kv-{Xw 11¬ \n-∂p 4, 5 kv-tIm-dn-\v `q]-S-Øn¬ `q-hn-h-c-߃ A-S-bm-f-s∏-Sp-Øm≥ D≠m-hpw. C-h 4,5 A-[ym-b-ß-fn¬\n-∂m-bn-cn°pw D-≠m-hp-I. H-cp \-Zn, Xp-d-apJw, ]¿hXw C-h ÿnc-am-bn I-≠ph-cp-∂-XmWv. sd-bn¬-th-bp-sS Bÿm-\w, \n›n-X A-f-hn¬ a-g e-`n-°p-∂ {]-tZi߃, a-Æn-\߃, G-sX-¶nepw H-cp kw-ÿm-\tam {]m-[m-\y-ap-≈ ÿ-etam A-S-bm-f-s∏-Sp-ØpI F∂n-ß-s\bpw I-≠ph-cm-dp≠v. TB t]-Pv 115¬ sIm-Sp-Øn-´p-≈ {][m-\ ÿ-e-߃ `q-]-S-Øn¬ Is≠-Øm≥ ]-cn-io-en-°pI. \-Zn ]-¿h-Xw Xp-d-ap-Jw/]´-Ww , Xp-S-ßn-b Nn-”-߃ D-]-tbm-Kn-®v A-S-bm-f-s∏Sp-Øm≥ {i-an-°p-I. `q-]-S-Øn-se ap-gp-h≥ kvtImdpw t\-Sn-sb-Sp-°m≥ {]-tXy-Iw {i-≤n-°p-I. ❋

Ime-K-W\ {I-a-Øn¬ {I-a-s∏-Sp-Ømw Im-e-K-W-\ A-Sn-ÿm-\-am-°n F-gp-tX-≠ Nne tNm-Zy-ßfpw I-≠ph-cm-dp≠v. ssSw sse≥ C-t∏mƒ Im-Wm-dn√. N-cn-{Xh-kvX - p-XI - ƒ A-h kw-`h - n-® {Ia-Øn¬ (Chronological Order) Hm¿-an-®ph-bv-°m-\p-≈ I-gn-hv Dt≠m F-∂v ]cn-tim-[n-°p-∂X - n-\m-Wv CØcw tNm-Zy߃. H-cp amXrI t\m-°q. A. B. C. D. E.

tdm-_-kv-hn-b¿ Kn√-‰n-\v hn-t[-b-ambn _m-kv-Xo-bv tIm-´-bp-sS ]-X\w hm-´¿ eq bp≤w s\-t∏m-fn-b≥ t_m-W-∏m¿-´v A-[n-Im-c-Øn¬ tZio-b A-kw-ªn {^m≥-kn-\v H-cp `-c-W-LS-\ X-øm-dm-°n c-≠ma-sØ A-[ymbw "hn-π-h-ß-fp-sS Imew' F-∂ ]mT-`m-K-Øn-se {^-©v hn-π-hhpw Xp-S¿-∂v s\-t∏m-fnb-s‚ `-c-Whpw hm-bn-®p a-\- n-em°n-b Ip-´n°v B,A,E,D,C F-∂ {I-a-Øn¬ i-cn-bm-bn DØcw F-gp-Xn 5 kv-tIm¿ F-fp-∏-Øn¬ t\-Sn-sb-Sp-°m≥ I-gn-bpw.

Un-ssh≥ tIma-Un ...................... tkm-jy¬ tIm¨-{Sm-Iv‰v ......................

...................... s_m-°m-®n-tbm ....................... am-Iy-sh√n

2 5. {]Xy-£ P-\m-[n-]-Xy-Øn-s‚ ta-∑-Iƒ F-gp-Xp-I? C-¥y-sbt∏m-ep-≈ cm-Pyß-fn¬ Cu P-\m-[n]-Xy amXr-I {]mtbm-Kn-I-a√ ˛F¥p-sIm-≠v? 3 6. a-‰p h≥-I-c-I-fp-am-bn Xm-c-Xayw sN-øptºmƒ `q-an-im-kv-{X ssh-hn[yw sIm-≠v G-sd {i-t≤-b-am-Wv G-jy≥ h≥-Ic ˛ ]cn-tim-[n-°p-I. 2 7. C-¥y-bn¬ P-\-kwJym hn-X-c-W-Øn¬ Im-W-s∏-Sp-∂ A-k¥p-en-Xm-hÿ-bv°v Im-c-W-߃ F-gp-Xp-I. 3 8. kzX-{¥ C-¥y-°v \n-ch-[n {]-iv-\-߃°v ]-cn-lm-cw Im-tW-≠-Xp-≠m-bn-cp∂p. A-h-bn¬ H-∂m-bn-cp-∂p `m-jm-Sn-ÿm-\Øn¬ kw-ÿm-\-ß-fp-sS cq-]o-I-cWw. Cu {]-iv-\w s\-lv-dp k¿-°m¿ ssIImcyw sN-bv-X-sX-ß-s\? A-s√-¶n¬ H∂mw ]-©-h¬-k-c ]≤-Xn ap≥K-W-\ \¬-Inb-Xv G-Xv ta-J-ebv-°m-bn-cp∂p? C-Xn-s‚ ^-e-߃ hn-e-bn-cp-Øn Cßs\ H-cp ap≥K-W-\ kzX-{¥ C-¥y-bn¬ A-\n-hm-cy-am-bn-cpt∂m F-∂v ]cn-tim[n-°p-I. 6 9. D-Ø-c]¿-hX ta-J-e C-¥y-bp-sS kw-kvIm-c-sØbpw P-\-Po-hn-X-sØbpw kzm[o-\n-®-sX-ß-s\? 3 10. B-cm-Wv D-]-t`m-‡mhv? D-]-t`m-‡m-hns‚ {][m-\ A-hI - m-iß - ƒ F-s¥√mw? 3 11. B-tKm-f-h¬-°-c-W ]-cn-]m-Sn-Iƒ-°v B-°w Iq-´m-\m-bn C-¥y kzo-I-cn-® \-S]-Sn-I-fn¬ c-s≠-Æw F-gp-Xp-I? 2 12. hy-hkmb˛Im¿jn-I hn-π-h-߃ tImf- \ nh¬°c- W - Ø n\pw km- { am- P y- X z hn- I - k - \ - Ø n\pw k- l m- b - I- a m- b - s Xß-s\? 3 13. Ir-jn-b-[n-jvTn-X hy-h-km-b-߃ {]-[m\-ambpw D-Ø-c a-lmk-a-X-e {]-tZ-i-ß-

fnepw [m-Xp A-[n-jvTn-X hy-h-km-b߃ D-]-Zzo]o-b ]oT-`q-an-I-fnepw BWv tI-{μo-I-cn-®n-cn-°p-∂Xv. C-Xv F¥p-sIm-≠m-sW-∂v ]cn-tim-[n-°pI. A-s√-¶n¬ C-¥y-bn¬ Ir-jn sN-øp-∂ {][m-\ `£y-hn-f-Iƒ G-sX√mw? C-h-bn¬ GsX-¶nepw c-s≠-Æ-Øn-\v B-h-iyam-b `q-anim-kv-{X {]-tXy-I-X-Iƒ F-gp-XpI 6 14. B-{^n-°-bp-sS ho-Xwh-bv-]v km-{am-PyXz A-Xym¿-Øn-bp-sS G-‰hpw \√ D-Zml-c-W-amWv. k-a¿-Yn-°p-I? 3 15. G-sX√mw L-S-Iß-sf A-Sn-ÿm-\-am°n-bm-Wv am-\-hhnI-k-\ kqNn-I Xøm-dm-°p-∂-Xv? am-\-h hn-I-k-\hpw km-ºØn-Ih-f¿®bpw X-Ωn-ep-≈ ]-c-kv-]-c_-‘w hy‡-am-°p-I. 3 16. sF-Iy-cm-{„ kw-L-S-\-bp-sS {][m-\ `m-Kam-b kpc-£m k-an-Xn-bn-te-°v Xm¬-°men-I Aw-Kß-sf Xn-c-s™-Sp°p∂-Xv F-ß-s\? 2 17. B-tKm-f a¿-± ta-J-e-I-ƒ-°v ÿm-\-am‰w kw-`-hn-°p∂-Xv F-ß-s\-sb-∂v hni-Zo-I-cn-°p-I? 4 18. F-¥m-bn-cp-∂p sam-tdm°≥ {]-Xn-k‘n? Cu {]-Xn-k-‘n-°v ]n-∂n-ep-≠mbn-cp-∂ km-{am-Py-Xz Xm¬-∏-cy-߃ F-s¥√m-am-bn-cp-∂p? 4 19. `q-hn-h-c hy-h-ÿ-bn¬ hn-h-c-߃ ]mfn-I-fm-bn ti-J-cn-®v h-®n-cn-°p-∂XpsIm-≠p-≈ ku-I-cy-߃ F-s¥√mam-sW-∂v hn-h-cn-°p-I. 3 20. A-Xn-cpI-S-∂ tZ-io-b-X tZ-i-hn-cp-≤am-hp-∂-sX-ß-s\-sb-∂v ]cn-tim-[n°p-I? 3 21. k-lI-c-W _m-¶p-I-fp-sS e-£y-߃ F-s¥√mw? C-h {Kmao-W ta-J-e-bp-sS ]p-tcm-K-Xn-°v Im-c-W-am-hp-∂-sX-ßs\? 4 22. P¿-a≥ B-i-b-hm-Z-Øn-s‚bpw `uXnIhm-Z-Øn-s‚bpw B-i-b-߃ Xm-cXayw sNbv-Xv e-Lp Ip-dn-∏v X-øm-dm°p-I? 2 23. a-e-_m-dn-se I¿-j-I I-em-]-߃-°v ]n-∂n-ep-≠m-bn-cp-∂ b-Ym¿-Y Im-c-W߃ F-s¥√m-am-bn-cp-∂p? Cu I-em-]ß-sf {_n-´n-jp-Im¿ am∏n-f e-l-f F-∂p hn-fn®-Xv F¥p-sIm-≠mbn-cp-∂p? 3 24. c≠mw tem-I-bp-≤-Øn-s‚ K-Xn am‰n-b c-≠v B-{I-a-W-ß-fm-bn-cp-∂p P¿a-\n tkm-hnb-‰v bq-\nb-s\ B-{I-an-®Xpw P-∏m-s‚ t]ƒ lm¿-_¿ B-{I-a-Whpw. c≠mw tem-Ibp-≤-Øn-s‚ ]-cy-hkm-\w ]cn-tim-[n®v Cu {]-kv-Xm-h-\ hn-e-bn-cp-Øp-I. 4 25. C-¥y-bp-sS cq-]-tc-J-bn¬ Xm-sg sImSp-Øn-cn-°p-∂ `q-hn-h-c-߃ A-S-bm-fs∏-Sp-ØpI. A. tKm-Zmh-cn \-Zn B. hn-‘y ]¿-h-X\nc C. I-≠v-e Xp-d-apJw D. A-cp-Wm-N¬ {]-tZ-iv 4

3

D-Ø-c kq-Nn-I `q-an-bp-sS A-h-Im-iw P-∑n-am¿-°v am-{X-am-bn-cp-∂p. b-Ym¿-Y Ir-jn-°m¿-°v `q-an-bn-se A-h-Im-iw \n-tj-[n®p. `q\n-Ip-Xn A-an-X-am-bn h¿-[n-∏n®p. \n-Ip-Xn ]-W-am - bn sIm-Sp-°m≥ B-h-iy-s∏-´p.

1 1

A-¥-co-£-Øn-se Im¿-_¨ ssU HmIv-ssk-Uv a-g-sh-≈-Øn-eq-sS k-ap-{Z-Øn-se-Øp∂p. C-Xv k-ap-{Z P-e-Øn-se A-æ-X h¿-[n-∏n-°p∂p. D-Zm-lc-Ww e-£-Zzo-]v.

1

H-cp km-ºØn-I h¿j-sØ {]-Xo-£n-°p-∂ sN-e -hn-s\bpw h-cp-am-\-sØbpw Im-Wn-°p-∂ [-\-Im-cy tc-J. C-Xv k¿-°m-cn-s‚ km-ºØn-I\ne-sb {]-Xn-^-en∏n-°p∂p. k¿-°m-cn-s\ km-ºØn-I ]p-tcm-K-Xn-bn-te-°v \-bn°p-∂-Xn-\v.

1

4.

Un-ssh≥ tIma-Un ˛ Um-s‚ U-°m-a-d¨ ˛s_m-°m®nsbm tkm-jy¬ tIm¨-{Sm-IvSv ˛ dq-t m cm-Pm-hv ˛ am-°y-h√n

2 2 2 2

5.

P-\m-[n-]-Xy-Øn-s‚ G-‰hpw ]q¿-Wam-b cq]w. ]u-c-∑m-¿-°v t\-cn-´v `-c-W-Øn¬ ]-¶m-fn-I-fm-hmw. h¿-[n-® P-\-kw-Jybpw hn-im-eam-b `q-{]-tZ-ihpw Imc-Ww C-¥y-bn¬ {]m-tbm-Kn-I-a√.

1 1

6.

tem-I-Øn¬ G-‰hpw a-g e-`n-°p-∂ {]-tZ-iw. tem-I-Øn¬ G-‰hpw Db-cw IqSnb sIm-Sp-apSn. G-‰hpw D-b¿-∂ {]-tZ-i-Øp-≈ X-Sm-Iw etc.

1 1 1 1

7.

]¿-h-Xta-J-e-I-fn¬ s]m-Xp-sh P-\-kw-Jy Ip-d-hmWv. D-]-Zzo]o-b ]oT-`q-an-bn-se K-Xm-K-Xku-I-cy-ßfpw hm¿-Øm-hn-\n-a-b kw-hn-[m-\-ß-fpw. D-Ø-tc-¥y≥ k-a-X-e-Øn-se sU¬-‰-Ifpw Xo-c k-aX-e-ßfpw P-\-kw-Jy h¿-[n-°m≥ Im-c-W-am-bn.

1.

2.

3.

8.

H-tc `m-jbpw Po-hn-X-ssi-enbpw D-≈-h¿ hyXykv-X {]-tZ-i-ß-fn¬ `m-jm-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ kw-ÿm-\ß-sf ]p-\ w-L-Sn-∏n-°-W-sa-∂ i‡am-b B-hiyw ˛ B-{‘-{]-tZ-in¬ t]m-‰n {iocm-a-ep-hn-s‚ \n-cmlm-c k-a-chpw c-‡-km-£nXzhpw ˛ 1953¬ B-{‘-{]-tZ-iv kwÿm-\ cq-]o-IcWw˛ P-Ãn-kv ^-k¬ A-en I-Ωo-j≥˛ 1956¬ tIc-fw Dƒ-s∏-sS `m-jm A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ 14 kwÿm-\-ß-fp-sS cq-]o-Ic-Ww A-s√-¶n¬ Zm-cn-{Zyhpw £m-ahpw ]-´n-Wnbpw kz-X-{¥ C-¥ybn-se ap-Jy {]-iv-\-ß-fm-bn-cp∂p. H∂mw ]-©h¬-k-c ]≤-Xn Ir-jn-°v {]m-[m\yw \¬In˛ Im¿jn-I ta-J-e-bn¬ b-{¥-h¬-°-c-Whpw ˛P-etk-N-\ ]-≤-Xn-Ifpw A-Xyp¬-∏m-Z-\ ti-jn-bp≈ hn-Øp-Ifpw Im¿jn-I K-th-j-W ÿm-]-\ßfpw D¬-∏mZ-\w K-Wy-am-bn h¿-[n-∏n®p. lcnXhn-π-h-Øn-\v \m-μn-bm-bn.

3x1=3

1

2x1=2

1

1

3x1=3

1

2x4=2

3x1=3

1

1

3x1=3

3x1=3

1

6x1=6

6x1=6

9.

hntZ-i B-{I-a-W-Øn¬\n∂p kw-c£-Ww ˛ DØ-tc-¥y≥ k-a-X-e-Øn-se P-e-kº-Øv ˛ kp-JI-cam-b Im-emh-ÿ, h\, Hu-j-[ hn-`-h߃

3x1=3

10

km-[-\-ßtfm tk-h\-ßtfm hn-e-sIm-Sp-Øp hm-ßp-∂ Bƒ D-]-t`m-‡m-hv ˛i-cnbm-b A-fhv, Xq-°w, Kp-Ww C-h D-]-t`m-‡m-hn-s‚ A-h-Im-i߃ ˛ ew-Ln-°-s∏-´m¬ D-]-t`m-‡r X¿-° ]-cnlmc tIm-S-Xn-sb k-ao-]n-°mw.

3x1=3

11.

C-d-°pa-Xn Xocp-h L-´w-L-´-am-bn Ip-d-®p. s]m-Xp-ta-J-e-bv-°p am-{X-am-bn \o-°n-h-®n-cp-∂ ]-e ta-J-e-I-fpw kz-Im-cy ta-J-e-bv-°p Xpd-∂psIm-Sp-Øp.

2x1=2

D¬-∏mZ-\w h¿-[n-®t- Xm-sS D¬-∏∂ - ß - ƒ an-®w h∂p. A-kw-kvIr-X h-kv-Xp-°ƒ ti-J-cn-°m\pw D¬-∏-∂ -߃ hn-‰-gn-°m\pw tIm-f-\n-Iƒ B-h-iy-ambn. Ip-d-™ Iq-en--°v ]-Wn-sb-Sp-°p∂ sXm-gn-em-fnI -fpw A-kw-kv-Ir-X h-kv-Xp-°fpw tIm-f-\n-I-fn¬ e-`y-am-bn-cp∂p.

3x1=3

12


CMYK

CMYK

4 24 s^{_phcn 2014 Xn¶ƒ

16.

17.

CMYK

18.

19.

20.

21.

{]-Xo£n-X B-bp¿ssZ¿-Lyw, km-£-cX˛sam-Ø kv-Iqƒ {]th-i\w, {]-Xn-io-¿-j h-cp-am\w. am-\-h-ti-jn-bp-sS icnbm-b hn\n-tbm-K-Øn-eq-sS km-ºØnI h-f¿-®-bp-≠m-hp∂p. km-ºØn-Ih-f¿® s]m-Xp-hn-I-k-\Øn-\v km-[y-am-hp-∂p. 5 Xm-¬-°men-I Aw-K߃˛ s]m-Xp-k-`-bp-sS aq-∂n¬ c-≠v `qcn-]-£-tØm-sS 2 h¿-j Im-e-b-f-hn¬ Xm¬-°men-I Aw-Kßsf Xn-c-s™-Sp-°p∂p. am¿-®v 21, k-]v-Xw-_¿ 23 Xn-ø-Xn-I-fn¬ kq-cy≥ `qa-[y tcJbv°p ap-I-fn¬. C-cp-h-i-hpw 5 Un{Kn h-sc \yq-\a¿-± taJ-e. Pq¨ 21 h-sc D-Ø-cm-b-\hpw Un-kw-_¿ 22 h-sc Z-£n-Wm-b\-hpw. 5 Un-{Kn ap-X¬ 10 Un-{Kn h-sc h-S-t°m´pw sX-t°m´pw F√m a¿-±-ta-J-e-Iƒ°pw ÿm-\-am‰w. sam-tdm-t°mbv-°p th-≠n-bp-≈ A-hIm-iØ¿-°w. 1904se Cw•-≠v {^m≥-kv c-l-ky-°-cm¿. I-cm-dn-s\ P¿a-\n F-Xn-¿Øp. sam-tdm-t°m- ssIh-iwh-bv-°p-∂-h¿-°v Pn-{_mƒ-´≥ IS-en-Sp-°n-s\ \n-b-{¥n-°mw. C-Xn-eq-sS a-[y-[-c-Wym-gntbbpw˛ - C-Xm-bn-cp-∂p km-{am-Py-Xz Xm¬-∏cyw. hn-h-c-߃ sh-tΔ-sd-bm-bn ti-J-cn-®ph-bv-°mw. B-h-iym-\pk-cWw s]-s´-∂p Xn-c-™v I-s≠-Ømw. ]-´n-I, {Km-^v XpSßn B-h-iym-\p-kc-Ww {]-Z¿-in-∏n-°mw. C-X-c cm-{„-ß-tfm-Sv shdp∏pw hn-tZz-jhpw. kw-L¿-j-߃°pw bp-≤-߃°pw Im-c-W-am-hp∂p. hn-I-k-\-Øn-\v D-]-tbmKn-t°-≠ ]-Ww B-bp-[-߃°pw bp-≤-߃°pw th-≠nh-cp∂p. D-Zm-lc-Ww, H∂pw c≠pw tem-Ibp-≤-߃ ˛ ^m-jn-kw, \m-kn-kw. e-£y߃:- {Kmao-W P-\-ß-fn¬ k-ºm-Zy-io-ew h-f¿Øp-I, {Kmao-W \n-t£-]w h¿-[n-∏n-°-p-I etc. {Kmao-W ta-J-e-bn¬ Ir-jnbpw P-\-߃-°v kz-bwsXm-gn-en-\v hm-bv-]bpw e-`n°p∂p˛ {Kmao-W ta-J-e-bn¬ ]-p-tcmK-Xn D-≠m-hp∂p.

22

P¿-a≥ B-i-b-hm-Zw ˛ B-i-b-am-Wv {]-Y-ahpw {]-[m-\hpw. `uXn-Ihm-Zw ˛ `uXn-I i-‡n-I-fm-Wv am-‰-߃ D-≠m-°p-∂-Xv.

23.

P-∑n-am-cn-eq-sSbpw \m-Sp-hm-gn-I-fn-eq-sSbpw A-[n-Im-cw \n-e-\n¿Øm≥ {_n-´njp-Im¿ {i-an-®p ˛ Ir-jn`q-an A-[n-Ihpw C-h-cp-sS ssI-bn-em-bn-cp∂p. IpSn-sbm-gn-∏n-°-epw Aan-X \n-Ip-Xnbpw ]m´hpw C-Xn-s\-Xn-tc I¿-j-I-cp-sSbpw km-[m-c-W-°m-cp-sSbpw sN-dp-Øp\n¬∏v. I¿-j-I-cn¬ A-[n-Ihpw am-∏n-f-am-cm-bn-cp∂p. P-∑n-am¿ A-[n-Ihpw ln-μp°fpw ˛ `n-∂n-∏n-®p `-cn-°¬ F-∂ {_n´n-jv X-{¥w.

24

P-∏m≥ t]ƒ lm¿-_¿ B-{I-an-®-Xv A-ta-cn° bp-≤-Øn¬ {]th-in-°m≥ Im-c-W-am-bn. A-\m-{I-a-W k-‘n- ew-Ln-®v P¿a\n tkm-hnb-‰v bq-\nb-s\ B-{I-an-®-t∏mƒ D≠m-b Xn-cn®-Sn t\-cn-Sm≥ P¿-a\n-°p I-gn-™n√. bp-≤-Øn-s‚ B-Zy-L-´Øn¬ ap-t∂dn-b A-®pX-≠v i-‡n-Iƒ ]-cm-P-b-s∏-Sm≥ C-Xp Im-c-W-am-bn.

Xm-sg-bp-≈ C-c-´ kw-Jy-Iƒ {]-Z¿-in-∏n-°p∂-Xn-\p-≈ t{]m-{Km-am-°n am-‰pI. Applicatiion programming IDLE Xp-d-°p-I. F∂n-´v ssS-∏v sNøpI.

kv-‰m-t‚¿-Uv 10

C.sI. A≥-h¿ kmZ-Øv tNμ-aw-K√q¿ F-®v.F-kv.Fkv-

5x1=5

3x1=3

H-cp a-Wn-°q¿ ka-bssZ¿-Ly-ap-≈ 10mw- ¢m-kv C-≥-^¿-ta-j≥ sSIv-t\m-fPn (sF.Sn.) ]-co-£-bv-°v Xn-b-dnbpw {]m-Œn-°epw Iw-]yq-´-dn¬ X-s∂ sN-bvXp-Xo¿-°-Ww. F-fp-∏-Øn¬ A+ t\-Smhp-∂ H-cp hnj-bw B-b-Xp-sIm-≠v t]SnIqSm-sX Iw-]yq-´-dn-\p ap-∂n¬ C-cn°m≥ {i-≤n-°p-a-t√m.

4x1=4

3x1=3

3x1=3

3x1=3

4x1=4 2x1=2

kv-Iq-fn-s‚ kn¬-h¿ Pq-_n-en {]N-mc-W {]-h¿-Ø-\-hp-am-bn _-‘-s∏-´v Xm-sg ImWn-®Xp-t]m-se Hcp t]m-kv-‰¿ C-¶v-kvtI-∏n¬ X-øm-dm°p-I. \n-ß-fp-sS cPn-ÿ \-º¿ ˛tNmZy \-º¿ ^-b¬ \ma-am-bn \¬-In U-kvIv tSm-∏n¬- tk-hv sN-øpI. Applications graphics editor

Graphics

Inkscape vector

B-h-iyam-b h-ep∏-Øn¬ Im≥-hmkv \n¿-an-°m≥ File Document Properties F-Sp-°p-I. A-f-hp-Iƒ 800x800 B-°p-I. t¢m-kv sN-øp-I. Tool box¬ \n-∂v hr-Ø-sa-Sp-Øv A-Xn-s\ A¿-[-hr-Ø-am°p-I, \n-dw \¬-IpI. Edit Duplicate F-∂ co-Xn-bn¬ a-s‰m-cp A¿-[-hr-Øw \n¿-an-®v, A-Xn-s\ sN-dp-Xm°n, \n-dw sh-≈-bm-°pI. Im≥-hm-kn-\p ]pdØv Text tool A D-]tbm-Kn®v Chennamangallur HSS F-∂pw Golden jubilee F∂pw ssS-∏v sN-øpI. Cu t]-cv ske-Œv sN-bv-Xv A¿-[-hr-Ø-sØbpw ske-Œv sN-øp-I. (Shift key D-]-tbm-Kn-°Ww.) ap-I-fnse Text put on path ¬ ¢n-°v sN-øp-I. B-h-iyam-b am-‰ßƒ h-cpØn File Save sIm-Sp-°p-tºmƒ DesktopB-°n ^-b¬ \m-aw 999999˛1 F-∂p sIm-Sp-°pI.

3x1=3

2. Iyq-Pnkv

4x1=4

Iyq-Pn-kv tkm-^v-‰vsh-b¿ Xpd-∂v `q]Sw Dƒ-s∏-Sp-Øp-I. ]pXn-b H-cp ho-Sv Dƒs∏-Sp-Øp-I. F√m ho-Sp-I-fp-sSbpw hn-h-cß-f-Sßn-b ]´n-I {]-Z¿-in-∏n-°p-I. C-Xns‚ kv-{Io≥ tjm-´v F-Sp-°p-I. tk-hv sNøpI.

(d) Processor

6. sh-_vssk‰v

Iw-]yq-´-dn-s‚ {]-h¿-Ø-\ß-sf \n-b-{¥n-°p-∂p. kv-Iq-fn-s‚ sh-_vssk‰v Kompozer tkm-^v-‰v sh-b-dn¬ X-øm-dm-°pI.

>>>a=2 >>>while (a<20): print a a=a+2)

F-∂n-´v c-≠p-{]m-hiyw Enter key A-a¿-Øp-I. DØ-cw In-´pw.

am¿-°v coXn CA

10

4. B-\n-taj≥

Xn-bdn

10

_m-‰n¬\n∂p sX-dn®p-t]m-hp-∂ ]¥v Cu ^b¬ Tupi tkm-^v-‰vsh-b¿ Xpd-∂v ]-¥v ]n-Sn°m≥ {i-an-°p-∂ I-fn-°mc-s‚ A-Sp-sØ-Øn-®v B-\n-ta-j≥ ]q¿-Øn-bm-°p-I.

{]m-Iv-Sn-°¬

28

h¿-°v _p-°v

2

B-sI

50

(e) Processor Fan Application

Internet

Komposer h-gn

tkm-^v-‰v

s{]m-k-k-¿ Nq-Sm-Im-sX kq-£n-°p-∂-Xn-\v C-Xv klm-bn-°p-∂p.

sh-b-¿ Xp-d-°pI. Format Page colors and background ¢n-Iv sN-bvXv use custom colors¬ Sn-Iv am¿-°v C-Sp-I. background color ske-Œv sN-bvXv OK ¢n-Iv sN-øp-I. ho≠pw OK ¢n-Iv sN-øpI. Table Insert Table h-gn \m-ep

2x1=2

1. C-¶v-kv-tI]v

5

sk√p-Iƒ ske-Œv sN-bv-Xv A-Xn¬ Nn-{X-Øn¬ X-∂Xp-t]m-se ssS-∏v sN-øpI. Insert image h-gn kv-Iq-fn-s‚ Nn{Xw Xn-c-s™Sp-°pI. Don't use alternate text F-∂-Xn¬ Sn-Iv am¿°n-Sm≥ a-d-°-cpXv. F-∂n´v OK ¢n-Iv sN-øpI.

Application Science Quantum Gis F∂n´v File Open project F-∂n-´v QGis F∂Xv open sN-øp-I. CXn¬ Layer t_mIv-kn¬ F√mw icn ✓ C-SpI.

(Layer box C-s√-¶n¬ view pannel layers F-∂ cq-]-Øn¬ sN-bv-Xm¬ a-Xn.) House F∂ layer ske-Œv sN-bvXv layer new shape file layers h-gn Xp-d-°pI. A-t∏mƒ h-cp∂ t_m-Iv-kn¬ OK ¢nIv sN-øp-I, A-SpØ t_m-Iv-kn¬ point¬ ¢n-Iv sN-bv-Xv t]-cp-sIm-SpØv OK ¢n-Iv sN-øp-I. t]-cp-sIm-Sp-Øv tk-hv sNøpI. layer boxte°v Cu- t]-cv h-∂n-´p≠m-hpw. Toggle editing Io ¢n-Iv sN-bvXv Capture Point D-]-tbm-Kn-®v ]pXn-b ho-Sv AS-bm-f-s∏-Sp-Øp-I. aukv Right click sNbvXv Id No. sIm-Sp-°pI. House F-∂ se-b¿ ske-Œv sN-bvXv Atribute table ¢n-Iv sN-øp-I. F√m ho-Sp-Ifp-sSbpw hn-h-c-ß-f-Sßn-b ]´n-I ImWmw. C-Xv Io t_m¿-Unse prtscreen F-∂ Io D-]-tbm-Kn-®v H-cp kv-{Io≥ tjm-´v FSp-°p-I. c-Pn-kv-‰¿ \-º¿ sIm-Sp-Øv tkhv sN-øpI.

7. lm¿-Uvshb¿ (a)

aZ¿-t_m¿Uv Iw-]yq-´-dn-se F√m D-]-I-c-W-ßfpw L-Sn-∏n°p∂-Xv C-Xn-em-Wv.

(f) SMPS

Iw-]yq-´-dnse Hmtcm D-]-I-c-W-߃°pw B-h-iyamb A-f-hn¬ ssh-Zyp-Xn \¬-Ip-∂ D-]-I-c-W-am-Wn-Xv.

Application Graphics Tupi 2D magic F-∂ cq-]Øn¬- tkm-^v-‰vsh-b¿ Xp-d-°p-I. File open project hgn Home¬ \n∂v Cu B-\nta-j≥ Xp-d-°p-I. A-Xv a-‰p s{^-bn-ap-I-fn-te°pw copy sN-bv-Xv paste sN-øp-I. ]¥v (ball)s\ ske-Œv sN-bvXv Hmtcm s{^-bn-anepw ÿm-\w am‰n h-bv-°pI. Player _-´¨ ¢n-Iv sN-bvXv Animation {]-h¿-Øn-∏n-°pI.

CMYK

15.

A-Sn-a-°-®-h-S-Øn-s‚ {]m-[m\yw Ip-d™-Xv, bq-tdm-]y≥ hyhkm-bim-e-I-fn-te-°v Iq-Sp-X¬ A-kw-kvIr-X h-kv-Xp-°ƒ B-h-iy-am-bn h∂-Xv, C-h-bv-°p th-≠n-bp-≈ a¬k-cw bp-≤߃ H-gn-hm-°n, ho-Xwh-bv-]v th-K-Øn¬ \-S-∂p.

6x1=6

C≥^¿t aj ≥ sS-Iv-t\mfPn

(g) SMPS

tI-Sp-h-∂n-´pt≠m F-∂p ]cn-tim-[n-°m≥ Cu Nn-{X-Øn¬ Im-Wp-∂Xp-t]m-se ]-®, I-dp-∏v h-b-dpIƒ ]-c-kv]-cw _-‘n-∏n®v power \¬-In-bm¬ SMPSs‚ fan h¿-°v sN-øpw. tI-Sm-sW-¶n¬ fan I-d-ßn√.

5. Pn-tbm-Pn{_ Pn-tbm-Pn-{_ Xpd-∂v Xm-sg Im-Wp-∂ ]m-t‰¨ \n¿-an°pI. (b) SATA Cable

a-Z¿-t_m¿-Uv CD drive aZ¿-t_m¿Uv Hard disk F∂n-h IW-Œv sN-øp-∂-Xn-\v D-]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂p.

3. t{]m-{Kmw (a). ]-Øn-\p-Xm-sg-bp-≈

F-Ƭ-kw-JyIƒ {]n‚ v sN-øp-∂-Xn-\p≈ ss]ب t{]m-{Kmw Xm-sg \¬-Ip∂p. CXv ssS-∏v sN-bv-Xv {]-Z¿-in-∏n-°pI.

(h) UTP Cable Network sN-øp-∂-Xn-\v

D-]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂ h-b-dm-WnXv. C-Xn¬ 8 hy-Xykv-X \n-d-Øn-ep-≈ h-b-dp-Iƒ D-≠m-hpw.

a=1 while (a<10): print a a = a+1

Application

programing

(c) RAM

IDLE h-gn

Xp-

d-°p-I. Chn-S ssS-∏v sN-øpI >>> a=1 >>> while (a<10): print a a = a+1

F-∂n-´v c-≠p-{]m-hiyw Enter key A-a¿Øn-bm¬ DØ-cw In-´pw.

CMYK

14.

6x1=6

(b). C-tX t{]m-{Km-an¬ am-‰w h-cp-Øn C-cp-]-Xn-\p-

Application Education Geogebra F-∂n´v A, B F-∂o c-≠p _n-μp-°ƒ A-S-bm-fs∏-Sp-ØpI. Slider F-Sp-Øv A-Xn¬ Angle B°pI. F-∂n´v Apply sN-øpI. F-∂n´v Angle with given size F-Sp°pI B F-∂ _n-μp-hn¬\n-∂v Abn-eq-sS tIm¨ A-S-bm-f-s∏-

C-Xv Xm¬-°m-en-I- saΩ-dn B-Wv. _q-´n-Mn-\v k-lm-bn-°p-∂p. (i) RJ 45 UTP tI-_n-fpI-sf

Iw-]yq-´-dn-te-°v π-Kv sN-øp-∂-Xn\v D-]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂-XmWv RJ 45 Jacket.

Sp-Øp-I. A-t∏mƒ h-cp-∂ U-b-tem-Kv t_m-Ivkn¬ Angle F∂-Xv (B¬-^) B°n OK ¢n-Iv sN-øp-I. ]p-Xp-Xm-bn D≠mb B ¬ \n∂v Bbn-te°v H-cp hrØw h-c-bv-°p-I. hr-Ø-Øn¬ Right click sN-bvXv Trace on sIm-Sp-°pI. Slider¬ Right click sNbXv Animation HmWm-°pI. 1

CMYK

13.

D-Ø-tc-¥y≥ k-a-X-e-Øn-se P-e-k-ºØv, ^-e-]p-„n-bp-≈ aÆv, K-Xm-K-X kw-hn-[m-\߃. Ir-jn-°v A\p-tbm-Pyam-b Im-emh-ÿ˛ D-]-Zzo]o-b ]oT-`q-an-bn-se [m-Xphn-`-h-ß-fp-sS e-`y-X, Im-emh-ÿ Du¿-P-Øn-s‚ e-`y-X, D-]-Zzo]o-b \-Zn-I-fnse P-e-k-ºØv˛ Xp-d-ap-J-߃, a-‰p K-Xm-K-X ku-I-cy߃. As√-¶n¬ s\√v, tKm-Xºv, _-Pv-d, dmKn, _m¿-en. C-h-bn¬ G-sX-¶nepw c-s≠-Æw Ir-jn sN-øp-∂-Xn-\v A\p-tbm-Pyam-b `q-an-im-kv-{X {]-tXy-I-X-Iƒ F-gp-XpI (]mT-]p-kvXIw SS II t]-Pv 85, 86 ]cntim-[n-°mw)

24 s^{_phcn 2014 Xn¶ƒ


6 24 s^{_phcn 2014 Xn¶ƒ

24 s^{_phcn 2014 Xn¶ƒ

8. kv-s{]-Uv jo‰v

7

h-\n-Xm tIm-S-Xn

kv-Iq-fn¬ \-SØn-b B-tcm-Ky k¿-th-bn-eq-sS ti-J-cn-® hn-h-c߃ Spread sheet¬ X-øm-dm-°n Xmsg X-∂n-´p-≈ am-\-Z-fi-Øn-s‚ A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ LOOKUP Function D-]-tbm-Kn-®v h¿-Ko-I-cn-®v Ia‚ v tIm-f-Øn¬ Dƒ-s∏-Sp-Øp-I. C-Xv tk-hv sN-øpI. Sl. No.

Name

Height

Weight

1

ABC

1.7

45

2

BCD

1.6

38

3

CEF

1.65

50

BMI

am¿-®v F-´v A-¥m-cm-{„ h-\n-Xm-Zn-\-am-Wt√m. tem-I-hym-]-I-am-bn h-\n-Xm-Zn-\w- B-N-cn-®p Xp-S-ßn-bn-´v 103 h¿-jw Xn-I-bp∂p . kv-{Xo-I-fp-sS km-aq-ln-I-k-a-Xz-hpw kp-c-£-bpw D-d-∏m-°m-\p-≈ {i-a-ß-sf ]-‰n-bpw {]-Xn-Iq-e km-l-N-cy-ß-tfm-Sv s]m-cp-Xn hn-P-bw t\-Sn-b kv-{Xo-I-sf°pdn®pw ]cn-N-b-s∏-Smw.

Comment

s]-Æn-s‚

Application office open office spread sheet F-∂n-´v file opn h-gn B-h-iyamb file Xp-d-°pI. Cu ]-´n-Ibn¬ BMI Im-Wp-∂-Xn-\v weight/Height2F-∂ kq-{X-

hmIyw D-]-tbm-Kn-°p-I. F-∂n-´v Xm-sg- Im-Wp∂ Table \n¿-an-°pI. 0

Under weight

19

Normal weight

25

Over weight

30

Obesity

p ‘ k v I Zo-]

tem-Iw

Cu ]-´nI-sb ske-Œv sN-bvXv Data Define range F-∂ cq-]-Øn¬ Xp-d-°p-I. H-cp- t]-cp sIm-Sp-Øv tk-hv sN-øpI. Spread sheet se ]-´n-I-bnse comment F∂ tIm-fØn¬ DØ-cw In-t´-≠ I-≈n-bn¬ Mouse pointer h®v Insert function A-Xn¬ Lookup s\ double ¢n-Iv sNøp-I. A-t∏mƒ h-cp∂ t_m-Iv-kn¬ search criteria:

(G-Xp kw-Jy-sb A-Sn-ÿm-\-am-°nbmtWm DØ-cw Im-tW≠-Xv B I-≈n ¢n-Iv sN-øp-I, A-t∏mƒ A-Xn-s‚ cell address A-hn-sS h-cpw) search vector:

(C-hn-sS t\c-sØ tk-hv sN-øp-tºmƒ sIm-Sp-Ø t]-cv sIm-Sp°p-I). F-∂n´v OK ¢n-Iv sN-øp-I. H-∂ma-sØ I-≈n-bn¬ DØ-cw h-∂n-´p-≠m-hpw. a-‰p I-≈n-I-fn-te-°pw drag sN-bv-Xn-SpI. File save h-gn C-Xns\ save sN-øpI.

n-Xm B-Zy -h-\ o-jØ s y P m Ω c I -cm-h-Im-i ap-Jy-hn-h o-]-Iv k-‘p Np-aW-dm-bn Z k-Xym-\-μ an-{i X-e-tb-‰p. -gn-hn-em-Wv C-h¿ hn-c-an-® H m-b-Xv. C-¥y≥ \n-b-an-X-ba-j≥ k-¿-ho-kv D C≥-^¿-t -bm-bn-cp-∂ C-h¿ tZym-K-ÿ -am-bn C≥-^¿-ta n {]-h¿ \m-ep-h¿-j o-j-W-dm-b j≥ I-Ω p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. Øn-®p-h-c

h-\n-Xm t]m-kv-‰v Hm-^n-kpw

h-\n-Xm _m-¶pw tem-I- h-\n-Xm-Zn-\m-N-c-WØn-s‚ `m-K-am-bn h-\n-Xm-Poh-\-°m¿ am-{X-ap-≈ cm-PysØ B-Zy-sØ t]m-kv-‰v Hm^n-kv 2013 am¿-®v F-´n-\v \yqU¬-ln-bn¬ Xp-d-∂p. s]mXp-_-P-‰n¬ \n¿-tZ-in-®n-cp∂ h-\n-X-I-fp-sS kz-¥w _m¶v B-dp {_m-©p-I-fp-am-bn 2013¬ {]-h¿-Ø-\w B-cw-`n®p. ]-©m-_v \m-j-\¬ _m¶n-s‚ F-Iv-kn-Iyq-´o-hv U-bd-Œ¿ D-jm A\¥ kp-{_-“Wy\m-Wv cm-Py-sØ B-Zy -aln-fm _m-¶n-s‚ ta-[m-hn. 2013 \-hw-_¿ 19\m-Wv C-Xns‚ D-Zv-Lm-S-\w \-S-∂-Xv. tI-c-f-Øn-se B-Zy-sØ k-ºq¿-W h-\n-Xm t]m-kvt‰m-^n-kv 2013 Pq-ss-e apX¬ Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-c-Øv ]n.-Fw.--Pn. P-Mv-j-\n¬ - {]-h¿-

F-kv.- _n.--sF-bp-sS B-Zy-h-\n-Xm sN-b¿-t]-gv-k¨

A-cp-‘-Xn `-´m-Nm-cy

1908

¬ \yq-tbm¿-°v \-K-c-Øn¬ 15,000 h\n-X-Iƒ X-ß-fp-sS A-h-Im-i-߃°m-bn H-cp k-a-cw \-S-Øn. tPm-en-ka-bw Ip-d-bv-°m-\pw Iq-en-h¿-[-\-bv-°pw thm-´-hIm-i-Øn-\pw th-≠n-bmbn-cp-∂p A-Xv. 1910¬ sXm-gn-se-Sp-°p-∂ kv{Xo-I-fp-sS A-¥m-cm{„ k-tΩ-f-\w tIm-∏≥tl-K\n¬ tN¿-∂p. 17 cm-Py-ß-fn¬-\n-∂m-bn \q-dn-te-sd {]-Xn-\n-[nIƒ ]-s¶-Sp-Ø B ktΩ-f-\-Øn¬ P¿-a≥ tkm-jy-¬ U-tam-{Im‰n-Iv ]m¿-´n t\-Xm-hm-bn- ¢m-c sk-‰v-In≥ cp-∂ ¢m-c sk-‰v-In\mWv "h-\n-Xm-Zn-\w' F-∂ B-i-bw B-Zy-am-bn apt∂m-´p-h-®-Xv. kv-{Xo-Iƒ A-\p-`-hn-°p-∂ {]-iv-\-߃ s]m-Xp{i-≤-bn¬ sIm-≠p-h-cm-\pw ]-cn-lm-c-߃ D-b¿∂p-h-cm-\p-am-bn F-√m cm-Py-ß-fn-epw Zn-\m-N-c-Ww th-W-sa-∂m-bn-cp-∂p ¢m-c-bp-sS \n¿-tZ-iw. ap-gph≥ {]-Xn-\n-[n-I-fpw C-Xn-s\ kzm-K-Xw sN-bv-Xp.

]-t£, G-Xp Zn-h-kw B-N-cn-°-W-sa-∂v Xo-cp-am\n-®n-cp-∂n-√. Hm-kv-{Sn-b, sU-∑m¿-°v, P¿-a-\n, kzn‰v-k¿-e≥-Uv F-∂o cm-Py-߃ am¿-®v 19\v tZ-io-b h-\n-Xm-Zn-\-am-bn B-N-cn-®p. 1913 ap-X-em-Wv B-tKm-f-X-e-Øn¬ X-s∂ Zn-\mN-c-Ww am¿-®v F-´n-te-°v am-‰n-b-Xv. d-jy, D-kv-_°n-kv-Xm≥, D-s{I-bv≥ Xp-S-ßn tem-I-Øn-s‚ ]e -`m-K-Øpw h-\n-Xm-Zn-\w A-h-[n Zn-h-kw Iq-Snbm-Wv. 1975¬ sF-Iy-cm-{„ k-` am¿-®v F-´v A¥m-cm-{„ h-\n-Xm-Zn-\-am-bn {]-Jym-]n-®p.

F-¥n-\m-Wv h-\n-Xm-Zn-\w B-N-cn-°p-∂-Xv? Im-ew F-{X ]p-tcm-K-an-®n-´pw kv{XoI-tfm-Sp≈ hn-th-N-\w Iq-Sn-h-cp-I-bm-Wv. H-∏w ssew-Kn-Ihpw A-√m-sX-bp-ap-≈ A-Xn-{I-a-ß-fpw. kv-{Xo-Itfm-Sp-≈ hn-th-N-\w k-aq-l-Øn¬-\n-∂p ]q¿-Wam-bn C-√m-Xm-°m≥ \-ap-°p I-gn-™n-´n-√. kv-{Xo-k-aq-l-Øn-s‚ {]-iv-\-߃ N¿-® sN-øpI, km-º-Øn-I, km-aq-ln-I, cm-{„o-b- ta-J-e-Ifn¬ A-h-sc ssI-]n-Sn-®p-b¿-Øp-I, A-ß-s\ km-aq-ln-I ]p-tcm-K-Xn bm-Ym¿-Yy-am-°p-I Xp-Sßn-b e-£y-ß-fn-te-s°-Øm≥ \-Ωp-sS Nn-¥-Isf ]m-I-s∏-Sp-tØ-≠-Xv A-Xym-h-iy-am-Wv. Cu e-£yØn\mbm-Wv am¿-®v F-´v A-¥m-cm-{„ h-\nXm-Zn-\-am-bn B-N-cn-°p-∂-Xv.

C-¥y-bn-se ap≥-\n-c _m-¶p-I-fn-se ta-[m-hn-I-sf-√mw h-\n-X-Ifm-Wv. h-\n-Xm sN-b¿-am-∑m-cm-b N-μ -sIm-®m¿ (ICICI), in-Jm i¿-a (B-Iv-kn-kv _m-¶v), ss\-\ em-¬ Izn-Zzm-bv (F-®v.F -- -kv._ -- n.--kn), ip`-e-£v-an ]m≥-sk (A-e-l-_m-Zv _m-¶v), hn.--B¿. A-ø¿, (_m-¶v Hm^v C-¥y). C-Xn-t\m-sSm-∏w F-kv._ -- n.--sF-bp-sS B-Zy-h-\n-Xm sNb¿-t]-gv-k-Wm-bn A-cp-‘-Xn `-´m-Nm-cy-sb \n-b-an-®p. tem-I- _m-¶pI-fn¬ 66mw ÿm-\-ap-≈ F-kv.-- _n.-- sF- cm-Py-sØ _m-¶n-Mv ta-Jebn¬- 20 i-X-am-\-hpw ssI-bm-fp-∂p. I-gn-™ \-hw-_-dn¬ Xp-S-ßn-b a-ln-fm _m-¶n-s‚ kn.-- C.-- H. Bbn D-jm A-\-¥-kp-{_-“-Wy≥ \n-b-an-X-bm-bn-cp-∂p.

D-jm A\¥ kp-{_-“-Wy≥ Ø-\w B-cw-`n-®p. U¬-lnbn¬ cm-Py-sØ B-Zy kºq¿-W h-\n-Xm t]m-kv-t‰m^n-kv B-cw-`n-®-Xn-\p ]n-∂mse-bm-Wv tI-c-f-Øn-epw h\n-X-Iƒ am-{Xw Po-h-\-°mcm-b Hm-^n-kv Xp-S-ßn-b-Xv. N-μ -sIm-®m¿

^-J-vdp-±o≥ ]-¥m-hq¿

kv-{Xo-Iƒ-°p t\-sc-bp-≈ AXn-{I-a-߃ kw-_-‘n-® tI-kpIƒ ssI-Im-cyw sN-øm≥ h-\n-Xm P-Uv-Pn-am-cpw Po-h-\-°m-cpw am-{Xap-≈ tIm-S-Xn ]-›n-a-_w-Km-fn-se amƒ-U-bn¬ 2013 P-\p-h-cn 23\v \ne-hn¬h-∂p. c-≠p ap-dn-Ifp-≈ tIm-S-Xn-bn¬ A-Uo-j-\¬ Pn-√m P-Uv-Pn-bpw a-Pnkv-t{S-‰p-ap-≠m-hpw. tI-kp-Iƒ hmZn-°m≥ ]p-cp-j-∑m-cm-b A-`n-`m-jI-sc A-\p-h-Zn-°pw. kv-{Xo-Iƒ-°p t\-sc-bp-≈ A-Xn-{I-a-߃ kw-_‘n-® tI-kp-Iƒ am-{X-ta C-hn-sS ]-cn-K-Wn-°p-I-bp-≈q.

ss\-\ em-¬ Izn-Zzm-bv

N-cn-{Xw c-Nn-® C¥y≥ h\n-X-I-fn¬ Nne¿ C-μn-cm-Km-‘n

°m-cn-bm-b C-h¿ cm-P-ÿm-s‚ B-Zy- h-\nXm K-h¿-W-dp-am-bn-cp-∂p.

{]-[m-\-a-{¥n ]-Zw A-e-¶-cn-® H-tc-sbm-cp h-\n-X. `m-c-X-c-Xv-\w t\-Sn-b B-Zy- h-\n-X. C-μn-cm-Km-‘n \mep X-h-W {]-[m-\-a-{¥n-bm-bn. {]-[m-\-a-{¥n-bm-bn-cns° sIm-√-s∏-´ G-I C-¥y-≥ `-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn.

c-ay

hn-P-b-e-£v-an ]-fin-‰v Im-_n-\-‰v a-{¥n-]-Z-hn h-ln-® B-Zy-sØ h-\n-X. sF-Iy-cm-{„ k-`m s]m-Xp-k-`-bp-sS B-Zy-sØ {]-knU‚m-bn Xn-c-s™-Sp-°-s∏-´p. 1937˛39 Im-e-b-f-hn-emWv hn-P-b-e-£v-an ]-fin-‰v Im-_n-\-‰v a-{¥n-bm-b-Xv. Ph-l¿-em¬ s\-lv-dp-hn-s‚ k-tlm-Z-cn-bm-b C-h¿ Ata-cn-°, tkm-hn-b-‰v bq-\n-b≥, sa-Iv-kn-t°m, kv-s]bn≥ F-∂n-hn-S-ß-fn¬ Aw-_m-k-U-dm-bn-cp-∂p.

{]-Xn-`m- ]m-´o¬ C-¥y-I-≠ H-tc-sbm-cp h\nXm cm-{„-]-Xn-bm-Wv Ch¿. 2007em-Wv C-h¿ cm-{„-]-Xn-bm-b-Xv. a-lm-cm-{„-

]-Xn-\-©mw tem-Ivk-`-bn-se t_-_n F∂ ]-Z-hn-°v A¿-l-bmb c-ay H-cp kn-\n-am \Sn Iq-Sn-bm-Wv. C-h¿ I¿Wm-S-I-Øn¬-\n-∂p-≈ tIm-¨-{K-kn-s‚ temIv-k-`m sa-º-dm-bm-Wv hn-P-bn-®-Xv.

ao-cm-Ip-am¿ tem-Iv-k-`-bp-sS B-Zy- h-\n-Xm kv-]o°¿. A-©p X-h-W tem-I-vk-`mw-K-am-b Ch¿ ap≥ tI-{μ-k¿-°m-cn¬ km-aq-ln-I-\oXn- a-{¥n-bm-bn-cp-∂p.

in-Jm i¿-a

ip-`-e-£v-an ]m≥-sk

hn.--B¿. A-ø¿

B-im-]q¿-Wm -tZ-hn ⁄m-\-]oT ]p-c-kv-Im-c tP-Xm-hm-b B-Zy h\n-X. _w-Km-fn km-ln-Xy-Øn-se C-Xn-lm-k hy‡n-Xzw. 1976 em-Wv ⁄m-\-]oTw e-`n-®-Xv. C-cp\q-dn-e-[n-Iw t\m-h-ep-Iƒ c-Nn-®n-´p-≠v.

kn.--_n.--sF-bp-sS X-e-∏-Øpw h-\n-X kn.--_n.--sF-bp-sS kv-s]-jy¬ U-b-d-Œ-dm-bn A¿-®-\m kp-μ-c-sØ \n-b-an-®-Xv Cu-bn-sS-bmWv. C-Xm-Zy-am-bm-Wv kn.-- _n.-- sF-bp-sS X-e-∏-Øv h-\n-X-sb \n-b-an-°p-∂-Xv. 1980 _m-®v X-an-gv-\m-Sv tI-U¿ sF.-- ]n.-- Fkv. Hm-^n-k-dm-Wv A¿-®-\. \m-ep ap-Xn¿-∂ sF.--]n.--F-kv. DtZym-K-ÿ-sc ]n¥-≈n-bm-Wv kn.-_n.--sF-bp-sS D∂- X - ] - Z - h n- b n¬ F-Øn-b-Xv.


Thejas Epaper school Edition 2014/02/24