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CMYK

CMYK

8

29- Pqsse 2013 Xn¶ƒ

ankvl-_v _n≥ kp-ss_¿, VIII B K-h. F-®v.F-kv.Fkv. sN-dp-Ip∂v, aS-°-c

29- Pqsse 2013 Xn¶ƒ padasala@thejasonline.com

H. Alvva-Zv bm-ko≥, IV B A¬l-d-ssa≥ Cw-•o-jv kv-Iqƒ, tIm-gn-t°mSv

P.V. ALEEMA ZOOMI, V A

NAJWA SHAHRIN, Std. 1

T. MUHAMMED SAHIM, LKG

AL HUDA ENGLISH SCHOOL Akkikkavu, Perumbilav, Thrissure

K.M.M.H. School Vairancode Malappuram

CMYK

CMYK

A.U.P.S Kizhisseri Mundumparamba

P. NAVANEETH, Std.1 Indian Public School, Koyilandy

N.P. FIDA, V A GMUPS, Chennamangallur

CMYK

P. AZHARUDHEEN, 10 E T.S.N.M HSS Kundoorkunnu, Nattukal, Mannarkadu

]e ]-e \m-fp-Iƒ Rm-s\m-cp Ip-S-bp-ambv ag-sb Im-Øn-cp∂p ta-Lw I-dp-Øp h-cp-tºm-sg√mw Ip-S-bp-am-bv Rm-\n-d-ßpw. ]-e ]e tIm-Wn¬ a-g s]-øp-tºmƒ C-Sn-sh-´ß-s\ tIƒ-°pw. sI´ nhcp-s∂m-cp JASEELA MUHAMMED, VI A a-g-sh-≈-Øn¬ Al Azhar E.M.H.S Ponjassery,Ernakulam Rm-s\m-gp°pw h-©n.

ºmƒ ø -] pts

ag-

Np´p-]p-I-bp∂p `qan Incm-Xi-‡n- X≥ ap-ºn¬ ¢m-hp]n-Sn-s®m-cp I-c-fn¬ sX-fn-bp∂p ssPhssh-hn-[y `q-an. ]-cn-l-kn-®p ho≠pw sh-´n-ho-gv-Øp∂p X≥ I-cƒ I-j-W-߃. Cu lcn-XPo-hn-X-Øn¬ sN-a-∂ \n-g¬ ho-g-vØp-∂p. Im-ew a-d-°p-∂ am-\pjm Hm¿°p-I, \msf Im¿-ap-In¬ Im-Wm-°n-\m-hmIpw.

CMYK

ap∂-dn-bn∏v


2 29- Pqsse 2013 Xn¶ƒ

29- Pqsse 2013 Xn¶ƒ

P-e-]-co-£-W߃

P-e-]cn-tim-[-\-bpw

P-e am-t\m-aoäÀ

Pe]-co-£-W-ß-fpw

kp-tc-{μ≥ sN-Øp-I-Shv

am

-en-\y-ß-fpw tIm-fnt^mw _m-Iv-‰o-cn-b-I-fp-sa-√mw tN¿-∂p \-Ωp-sS Po-h-P-esØ A-ip-≤-am-°p-I-bm-sW-∂ ap-d-hnfn \mƒ-°p-\mƒ D-b¿-∂p-h-cp-∂p. C- Xn¬ Nn-e-Xv Ip-∏n-sh-≈w hm-ßn ° -- m\p≈ I-º-\n-I-fp-sS Xm¬-∏-cy-am-hmw. F∂m¬ Ip-Snsh-≈w ip-≤-am-tWm F-∂v D-d-∏m-t°-≠-Xv A-\n-hm-cy-am-Wv. an-°h-cpw ss]-∏v sh-≈-sØ-bm-Wv B-{i-bn°p-∂-Xv F-∂-Xn-\m¬ hn-ti-jn-®pw. a-g°m-ew tcm-K-ß-fp-sS Iq-Sn am-k-am-Wt√m. sh-≈w ip-≤-am-tWm F-∂p Nn-e kq-{X-ß-fn-eq-sS \-ap-°pX-s∂ a-\- nem-°mw. A-Xn-\p-≈ Nn-e cm-k-]-cn-tim[-\-IfmWv Xmsg. {]-tXy-Iw {i-≤n-°p-I-˛ C-h-sb-√mw cm-k-h-kv-Xp-°-fp-]-tbm-Kn-®p-≈ ]-co-

£-W-ß-fm-b-Xn-\m¬ im-kv-{Xm-[ym-]I-s‚ k-lm-b-tØm-sS am-{Xw sN-øm≥ {i-an-°p-I. kv-Iqƒ im-kv-{X em-_n¬ e`y-am-hp-∂ cm-k-h-kv-Xp-°ƒ D-]-tbm-Kn®v sN-øm≥ I-gn-bp-∂ G-Xm-\pw ]-co-£W-߃ am-{X-am-Wv C-hn-sS sIm-Sp-°p∂-Xv. C-Xp {]m-Y-an-I ]-cn-tim-[-\-Iƒ am-{X-am-Wv. P-ew Xo¿-Øpw ip-≤-amtWm F-∂-dn-bm≥ Iq-Sp-X¬ kq-£v-a]cn-tim-[-\-Iƒ-°v Aw-Ko-Ir-X P-e-]-cntim-[-\m-tI-{μ-ß-sf B-{i-bn-°-Ww. ]T-\-{]-h¿-Ø-\-ß-fp-am-bn _-‘s∏-´-Xpw ]-e im-kv-{X-X-Øz-ß-fpw a-\ n-em-°m≥ I-gn-bp-∂-Xpw h-f-sc e-fnX-hpw sN-e-hp Ip-d-™-Xp-am-b Nn-e Pe]-co-£-W-ß-fpw C-hn-sS sIm-Sp-°p∂p. C-Xn¬ Nn-e-sX-√mw sN-bv-Xp-t\m°m-hp-∂-Xm-Wv. C-h-bv-°p ]n-∂n-se imkv-{X-X-Øz-߃ a-\- n-em-°m-\pw IqSp-X¬ Im-cy-߃ A-t\z-jn-®-dn-bm-\pw Iq-´p-Im¿ {i-an-°-p-a-t√m.

kƒ-t^-‰v km-∂n[yw A-dn-b¬ B-h-iyam-b km-[-\-߃

sS-ÃvSyq-_v km-ºnƒ P-ew t_-cn-bw t¢m-ssd-Uv emb-\n

cmk-h-kv-Xp-°ƒ D-]-tbm-Kn-®p-≈ ]-co-£-W-߃ im-kv-{Xm-[ym-]I-s‚ k-lm-b-tØm-sS am{Xw sN-øm≥ {i-≤n°pI

sS-kv-‰vSyq-_n¬ P-e-km-ºnƒ F-Sp-Øv A-Xn-te-°v A¬-∏w t_-cn-bw t¢m-ssd-Uv em-b-\n H-gn-°p-I. km-ºn-fn¬ sh-≈ I-e°v D-≠m-hp-∂p-s≠-¶n¬ kƒ-t^-‰n-s‚ km-∂n-[y-ap-≠m-bn-cn-°pw˛ sh-fp-Ø A-h£n-]v-Xw Iq-Sp-X-ep-s≠-¶n¬ kƒ-t^-‰ns‚ Aw-iw Iq-Sp-X-em-bn-cn-°pw. Ip-Sn-°p-∂ sh-≈-Øn¬ 400 mg/Litre B-Wv ]c-am-h[n A-\p-h-Z-\o-bam-b Af-hv.

sh-≈-Øn¬ e-bn-®pIn-S-°p-∂ Hm-Iv-knPs‚ Af-hv ]cn-tim-[n-°¬

B-h-iyam-b km-[-\-߃:

B-h-iyam-b km-[-\-߃

P-e-km-ºnƒ sS-Ãv Syq_v PH t]-∏¿ P-ew A-æ-Kp-W-ap-≈XmtWm £m-c-Kp-W-ap-≈XmtWm F-∂-dnbm-\p-≈-Xm-Wo ]cn-tim[\. PH aq-eyw 7 B-Wv- ip-≤P-ew. 7\v ap-Ifn-ep-≈Xv £m-cKp-W-hpw 7¬ Xmsg-bp-≈-Xv A-æ-Kp-W-hp-am-bn-cn°pw. km-ºnƒ P-ew H-cp sS-ÃvSyq-_nse-Sp-Øv PH t]-∏-dn-s‚ H-cp I-jWw A-Xn¬ ap-°n-sb-Sp-°p-I. At∏m-gp-≠m-Ip-∂ t]-∏-dn-s‚ \ndw PH Nm¿-´p-am-bn H-Øpt\m-°pI. PH aqeyw F-{X-bm-sW-∂-dn-bm≥ I-gn-bpw. PH aq-eyw 6.5 apX¬ 8.5 h-sc-bmWv Ip-Sn-sh-≈-Øn-\v A-\p-h-Z-\ob-am-b A-fhv.

DO t_m-´n¬

(Un-tkmƒ-hv-Uv Hm-Ivkn-P≥ I-s≠-Øm-\p-≈ ]-co-£W-Øn-\p-]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂ {]-tXy-I t_m-´n¬) t{Um∏¿ (a-jn-sb-Sp-°m-\p-]-tbmKn-°p-∂ ^n√¿ a-Xn) t\¿-∏n-® kƒ-^yq-dn-Iv B-knUv amw-K-\o-kv t¢m-ssd-Uv emb\n (Winkler-A)

s]m-´mkyw A-sbm-ssUUv= s]m´mkyw ssl-t{UmIv-ssk-Uv emb\n (Winkler-B) tkm-Un-bw X-tbm-kƒ-t^-‰v em-b\n Ãm¿-®v em-b\n

C-cp-ºn-s‚ Aw-iw ]cn-tim-[n°¬ B-h-iyam-b km-[-\-߃:

sS-kv-‰v Syq_v P-e km-ºnƒ A-tam-Wn-bw Xtbmkƒ-t^-‰v em-b-\n

H-cp DO t_m-´n-en¬ 20 an. en-‰¿ Pe km-ºn-sf-Sp-Øv C-Xn¬ c-≠p Xp≈n hoXw Winkler-Abnepw Winkler- Bbnepw H-gn-°p-I. Ip-∏n AS-®v \-∂mbn Ip-ep-°p-I. A¬-∏-k-a-bw h-®n-cp∂ ti-jw Ip-∏n Xp-d-∂v 4 Xp-≈n t\¿∏n-® kƒ-^yq-dn-Iv Bkn-Uv H-gn-®v ho≠pw Ip-ep-°p-I. t_m-´n-en¬ \n-∂v 10 an. en-‰¿ emb-\n H-cp sS-kv-‰v Syq-_n¬ F-Sp-Øv A-Xn-te-°v H-cp Xp-≈n kv‰m¿-®v emb-\n H-gn-°p-I. A-t∏mƒ emb-\n \o-e- \n-d-am-Ipw. C-Xn-s‚ \oe am-dp∂-Xp h-sc tkm-Un-bw X-tbmkƒ-t^-‰v em-b-\n Xp-≈nXp-≈n-bm-bn H-gn-°p-I. \n-dw am-‰-Øn-\v F-{X Xp≈n-bm-bn F-∂p I-s≠-Øp-I. Un-tkmƒ-hv-Uv Hm-Iv-knP-s‚ A-fhv = Xp-≈n-I-fp-sS F-Æw -X 0.4 Mg/Litre Ip-Sn-°m-\p-≈ sh-≈-Øn¬ an-\naw 6 mg/Litre D-≠m-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xm-Wp \√-Xv.

sS-ÃvSyq-_n¬ 10 ml km-ºnƒ P-e-sa-Sp-Øv A-Xn-te-°v Ht∂m ct≠m Xp-≈n A-tam-Wn-bw Xtbmkƒ-t^-‰v emb-\n H-gn°p-I. \n-dw c-‡-®p-h-∏m-Ip-∂p-s≠-¶n¬ C-cp-ºn-s‚ km-∂n[yw sX-fn-bp∂p. am-Ivknaw 0.3 mg/Litre B-Wv Ip-Sn-sh-≈-Øn-\v A-\p-h-Z-\o-bam-b A-f-hv.

AS-∏v sIm-≠v ssS-‰v sN-øp-I. ]-ºv D-]-tbm-Kn-®v Ip∏n-°-Sn-bn-ep-≈ hm¬-hn-eq-sS Im-‰v A-Sn-®p I-b-‰pI. \-∂m-bn A-Sn-®p I-b‰n-b ti-jw hm¬hv Du-cnsb-Sp-°p-I. tdm°-‰v Xm-tg-°p sh-≈w No-‰n-s°m≠v Ip-Xn-®p-b-cp∂-Xp Im-Wmw. \yq´-s‚ aq∂mw N-e-\\n-b-a-am-Wv C-hn-sS {]tbm-Kn-®-Xv.

kv-^nKvtamam-t\m-ao-‰¿ F-∂p Iq-´p-Im¿ tI-´n-cn°p-a-t√m. c-‡-k-Ω¿-±w A-f-°m≥ tUm-Œ¿-am¿ D]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂-Xm-WnXv. A-Xn-s‚ sNdn-sbm-cp cq]-am-WnXv. _-eq-Wn-sebpw a-‰pw a¿-±-a-f-°m≥ CXp-]tbm-Kn-°m-hp-∂-Xm-Wv. kv-^nKvtamam--t\m-ao-‰dn-\I-Øp sa¿-°p-dn-bm-Wv D-]-tbm-Kn-®n-cn-°p∂Xv. \-mw A-Xn\p ]I-cw P-e-am-Wv C-hn-sS D-]tbm-Kn-°p-∂-Xv.

Ip-¸n-bn ]m-ªpI-b-dp-¶ shÅw

B-h-iyam-b km-[-\-߃:

B-h-iyam-b km-[-\-߃

ta-k¨ ss]∏v (1 ao-‰¿) kv-sI-bn¬

_-eq¨ Pew

{]-h¿Ø\w: ta-k¨ ss]-∏v U B-Ir-Xn-bn¬ hf-®v ]n-Sn-°p-∂p. ]-‰p-sa-¶n¬ H-cp t_m¿Untem at‰m Dd-∏n-®p \n¿-Øm-hp-∂-XmWv. C-Xn¬ ]-IpXn-tbm-fw P-e-sa-Sp-°p-I. A-t∏mƒ P-e-hn-Xm-\w c-≠p `mKØpw Hcp-t]m-en-cn-°pw. Cu ÿm-\w am¿-°v sNbv-Xp h-bv-°p-I. Xp-S¿-∂v G-sX-¶nepw H-c‰-Øv H-cp Du-Xn-ho¿-∏n-® _-eq¨ D-d-∏n-°p-I. A-t∏mƒ Pehn-Xm-\w B `mK-Øp Xm-gp-I-bpw a-t‰ `mK-Øv Db-cp-Ibpw sN-øpw. B-Zy-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂ ÿm\-Øp \n∂v C-t∏m-gp-≈ P-e-hn-Xm-\-Øn-te-°v \o-fw A-f-

tlm¿-en-Iv-kv Ip∏n (k-am-\am-b G-sX-¶nepw Ip-∏n a-Xn) ta-k¨ ss]-∏v (1 ao‰¿) Ão¬ tπ-‰v Pew {]-h¿-Ø\w: Ão¬ tπ‰n¬ ap-°m¬ `m-K-tØm-fw sh-≈-saSp-°p-I. G-sX-¶nepw \n-dw sIm-Sp-Ø sh≈-am-bm¬ \∂v. Im-enbm-b H-cp tlm¿-en-Iv-kv Ip∏n C-Xn¬ I-a-gv-Øn hbv-°p-I. ta-k¨ ss]∏n-s‚ Hc-‰w Ip-∏n-bp-sS hm-bv `mK-Øp Iq-Sn D≈n-te-°p Ib-‰nh-bv°p-I. a-t‰ A-‰w hm-bn¬ h-®v A¬-∏w hm-bp h-en-s®-Sp-°p-I. sh-≈w Ip∏n-°p-≈n¬ ]m-™pI-b-dpw. hm-bp a¿-±w F-∂ Bi-bw hy-‡-am-°p-∂p.

kz-bw I-d-§p-¶ Ip¸n B-h-iyam-b km-[-\-߃

tImebpsStbm at‰m Ip-∏n˛ h-ep-Xv 1 (A-Sn-hi-Øv N-cn-™ sN-Øp-I-fp-≈-Xv) B-Wn \q-¬ _°-‰v sh-≈w

\n߃°pw \-SØmw P-e-]cn-tim[-\ A-æ˛£m-c- ]cn-tim[-\ (PH aq-ey- ]cn-tim-[\)

3

s∂-Sp-°p-I. D-Zm-l-c-W-Øn-\v 2 sk.-ao-. B-Wv In-´nb-sX-¶n¬ _-eq-Wn-\I-sØ a¿-±w "2cm Pew' F∂p ]-d-bm-hp-∂-XmWv. _-eq-Wn-\-I-Øp-≈ hm-bp Iq-´nbpw Ip-d-®p-sa√mw ]-co-£-W-߃ B-h¿-Øn°pI. a¿±-Iw F-∂ Bi-bw F-fp-∏-Øn¬ {K-ln-°m≥ C-Xp k-lm-b-I-am-Ipw.

t¢m-ssd-Un-s‚ km-∂n-[yhpw A-fhpw ]cn-tim-[n°¬ B-h-iyam-b km-[-\-߃

sS-kv-‰v Syq-_v km-ºnƒ P-ew kn¬-h¿ ss\-t{S-‰v em-b-\n t\¿Ø s]m-´m-kyw t{Im-ta-‰v em-b-\n t{Um-∏¿ sS-ÃvSyq-_n¬ 10 ml km-ºnƒ P-es -- aSp-Øv A-Xn-te-°v H-cp Xp-≈n t\-¿Ø s]m-´mkyw t{Im-ta-‰v emb-\n tN¿-°pI. A-t∏mƒ t¢m-ssd-Un-s‚ Aw-i-ap-s≠¶n-¬ emb-\n a-™\n-d-am-Ipw. C-Xn-te-°v t{Um-∏¿ D-]-tbm-Kn-®v Xp-≈nXp-≈n-bm-bn kn¬-h¿ ss\-t{S-‰v emb-\n H-gn-°p-I. em-b\n-bp-sS a-™-\n-dw am-dn Nph-∏p I-e¿-∂ {_u¨ \n-d-am-Im≥ F-{X Xp-≈n F-Sp-Øpsh-∂p I-s≠-Øp-I. P-e-km-ºn-fn-se t¢mssd-Un-s‚ Af-hv = Xp-≈n-I-fp-sS FÆw X 1.77 ppm.

Ip-Sn-sh-≈-Øn-¬ A-\p-h-Z-\o-bam-b amIv-kn-aw A-f-hv 250 ppm BsW-¶n-epw 600 h-sc Ip-g-∏-an√ F-∂v ]-d-b-s∏-Sp-∂p.

P-e-tdm-¡äv B-h-iyam-b km-[-\-߃

πm-Ãn-Iv Ip-∏n ssk-°nƒ Syq-_v hm¬-hv Im-‰v A-Sn-°p-∂ ]-ºv \q-¬ sk-t√m-Sm-∏v kv-t{Sm {]-h¿Ø\w: πm-Ãn-Iv Ip-∏n-bp-sS ]pd-sa H-cp-hiØp sNdn-sbm-cp I-jWw kv-t{Sm sk-t√m-Sm-∏v D]-tbm-Kn-®v \-∂m-bn D-d-∏n-°p-I. H-cp \o-f-ap-≈ \q-se-Sp-Øv kv-t{SmbpsS D-≈n-eq-sS I-S-Øp-I. \q-en-s‚ Hc‰w D-b¿-∂ H-cp ÿ-eØv, a-cs°mºn-tem _n¬-Un-Mn-s‚ apIfntem at‰m sI-´p-I. a-t‰b‰w Xm-sg F-hn-sS-sb-¶nepw sI-´n-bp-d-∏n-°p-I. Ip-∏n°-Sn-bn¬ sNdn-sbm-cp Zzm-c-an-´v A-Xn-eq-sS ssk-°nƒ Syq-_n-s‚ hm¬-hv I-S-Øn-h-bv°p-I. Ip-∏n-bn¬ ap-°m¬ `m-Kw sh-≈-sa-Sp-Øv

{]-h¿-Ø\w: Ip-∏n-bp-sS A-Sn-h-i-Øp-≈ N-cn-™ sN-Øp-I-fn¬ Hm-tcm-∂nepw H-tc h-i-Øm-bn Hmtcm- Zzm-c-ß-fn-Sp-I. Ip-∏n-bp-sS hm-bv `m-Kw H-cp \q-¬ D-]-tbm-Kn-®p sI-´p-I. Ip-∏n _-°-‰n-se sh-≈Øn¬ Xm-gv-Øns°m-≠v sh-≈w \n-d-bv-°p-I. A-Xn\p-ti-jw \q-en-s‚ kz-X-{¥am-b A‰-Øp am{Xw ]n-Sn®p-sIm-≠v Ip-∏n- D-b¿-Øp-I. Ip-∏n A-Xn-thKw I-d-ßn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p∂-Xp Im-Wmw. \yq-´-s‚ aq∂mw N-e-\-\n-b-a-am-Wv C-hn-sS {]tbm-Kn®-Xv.

sh-Åw sIm-v I-¯p¶ tlm-a-Ip-Þw! B-h-iyam-b km-[-\-߃

kv-‰o¬ tπ‰v I-S-emkv

tkm-Unbw Pew

{]-h¿-Ø\w: kv-‰o¬tπ-‰n¬ I-S-em-kv I-j-W-߃ Iq-´n-bn-´v Iq-\-bm-°p-I. C-Xn-s‚ ap-I-fn-ep-≈ H-cp I-S-em-kv I-j-W-Øn¬ hf-sc sNdn-sbm-cp I-jWw tkm-Un-bw h-bv-°p-I. A¬-∏w P-ew ssI-bnse-Sp-Øv ct≠m aqt∂m Xp-≈n tkm-Un-b-Øn-\p apI-fn-te-°v C-‰n-°p-I. I-S-em-kv Iq-\ ]pI-™v ]pI™v B-fn-°-Øpw. tkm-Un-bw P-e-hp-am-bp-≈ {]h¿Ø-\w Xm-]-tam-N-I {]-h¿-Ø-\-amWv (Exothermic Reaction).

{]-tXy-Iw {i-≤n-°pI: Cu ]-co£-Ww Iq-´p-Im¿ kz-bw sN-ø-cpXv. im-kv-{Xm-[ym-]I-s‚ k-lm-btØm-sS am-{X-ta sN-ømhq. Imc-Ww, tkm-Un-bw A-]-I-S-Im-cn-bmWv. A¬-∏w P-ew \-\-™m¬ IØpw˛ C-Xv km-[m-c-W-bm-bn a-sÆ-Æ-bn¬ B-Wv kq-£n-°p-∂-Xv.


CMYK

CMYK

4 29- Pqsse 2013 Xn¶ƒ

29- Pqsse 2013 Xn¶ƒ

5

kv-t^m-S-\km-[y-X-Iƒ A-Sn-ÿm-\-am-°n A-·n-]¿-h-X-ß-sf aq-∂m-bn Xn-cn-°m-dp-≠v k-Po-h- A-án-]À-h-X-§Ä: A-Sp-Ø-Ime-Øv C-S-bv-°n-sS kv-t^m-S-\-ß-fp≠m-Ip-∂-h-bm-Wv k-Po-h- A-·n-]¿h-X-߃. B¥-am-\n-se _m-c≥ Zzo]p-Iƒ, kn-kn-en-bn-se F-‰v-\, C-IztUm-dn-se tIm-t´m-]m-Iv-kn F-∂n-h C-Ø-cw A-·n-]¿-h-X-߃-°v D-Zm-lc-W-ß-fm-Wv.

AKvv-\n-]¿-h-X-߃ k-ap-{Z-Øn-\-Sn-bn¬ t]mepw D-≠mhp∂p. `q-an-bp-sS ]p-dw-]m-fn-bn¬ I-\w Ip-d-™ `m-K-ß-fn-epw hn-S-hp-Iƒ D-≈ ta-J-e-I-fn-epw A-·n-]¿-h-X-߃ cq-]-s∏-Sm≥ km-[y-X-bp-≠v.-

kv-t^m-S-\-Øn-s‚ Xo-{h-X-bv-°-\p-k-cn-®v A-·n-]¿-h-X-ß-sf B-dm-bn Xn-cn-®n-cn-°p-∂p -sF-kv-em³-Un-Iv: k-am-¥-c-am-b \o≠ hn-≈-ep-I-fn-eq-sS _-ln¿-K-an-°p∂ Xn-f-® _-kmƒ-´n-Iv em-h-bm-Wv sF-kv-em-≥-Un-Iv A-·n-]¿-h-X-ß-fpsS {]-tXy-I-X. l-hm-\n-b³: l-hm-\n-b≥ A-·n-]¿-hX-ß-fn-¬ ]¿-h-X-in-J-c-Øn¬-\n-∂pw hn-≈-ep-I-fn¬\n-∂pw _-ln¿-K-an-°p∂ em-h h-ep-∏-ap-≈-Xpw N-cn-hp Ip-d™-Xp-am-b A-·n-]¿-h-X-in-J-c-߃°p cq-]w\¬-Ip-∂p.-----kv-t{Smw-t_m-en-b³: C-S-bv-°n-sS-- kvt^m-S-\-߃ D-≠m-hp-∂ C-Ø-cw A·n-]¿-h-X-ß-fn¬ \n-∂pw hm-X-I-ßfpw em-h-bpw _-ln¿-K-an-°p-∂p. C-Shn-´p-≈ sN-dn-b hn-kv-t^m-S-\-߃ kw-`-hn-°p-∂-Xn-\m¬ C-‰-en-bp-sS hS-°p-In-g-°-≥ `m-K-Øp-≈ kv-t{Smwt_m-en Zzo-]n¬ ÿn-XnsN-øp-∂ kvt{Smw-t_m-en A-·n-]¿-h-X-sØ "saUn-‰-td-\n-b-\n-se sse-‰vlu-kv' F∂m-Wp hn-ti-jn-∏n-®n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. hÄ-Im-\n-b³: C-h an-X-am-b kv-t^mS-\-tØm-sS hm-X-I-ß-fpw Nm-c-hpw ]p-dwX-≈p-∂p. Ip-g-ºpcq-]-Øn-ep-≈ am-Kva-bm-Wv C-h ]p-d¥-≈p-∂-Xv. ]o-en-b³: C-h-bv-°p h≥ kv-t^m-S-\-

ti-jn-bm-Wp-≈-Xv. Nq-Sp-≈ A-·n-]¿h-Xin-e-I-fpw hm-X-I-ß-fpw A-S-ßp∂ em-h-bm-Wv ]o-en-b≥ A-·n-]¿-hX-ß-fn¬-\n-∂p ]p-d-Øp-h-cp-∂-Xv. CXm-Wv G-‰-h-pw hn-\m-i-I-c-am-b A·n-]¿-h-X kv-t^m-S-\w. ¹o-\n-b³: hm-X-Ikp-jn-c-ß-tfm-Sp IqSn-b A-·n-]¿-h-X J-fi-ß-sf-bm-Wv ]-an-kv(Pumice) F-∂p hn-fn-°p-∂-Xv. `mc-°p-d-hp-≈-Xpw kv-t]m-©p-t]m-se tXm-∂n-°p-∂-Xp-am-b C-h-bm-Wv sh≈-Øn-\p ap-I-fn¬ s]m-ßn-°n-S-°m≥ ti-jn-bp-≈ H-tc H-cp in-e.

C-¥y-bn¬ t]-cp h-∂ h-gn {Ko-°v ]p-cm-W-Øn-se A·n-tZ-h-\m-b thmƒ-I-s‚ t]cn¬ A-dn-b-s∏-Sp-∂ C-‰-en-bnse kn-kn-en-°-Sp-Øp-f-f thmƒ-Im-\n-Iv Zzo-]v F∂Xn¬ \n∂m-Wv A-·n-]¿-h-X-߃-°p thmƒ-°m-t\m F-∂p t]-cp-h∂-Xt{X. {In.--ti. 79-¬ sl¿°p-te-\n-bw, s]mw-t]-bv F∂o \-K-c-ß-sf H-∂m-sI \-in∏n-®p-I-f-™ sh-kq-hn-b-kv kv-t^m-S-\-sØ-°p-dn-®p tdma≥ N-cn-{X-tc-J-I-fn-ep-≠v. sXt° A-ta-cn-°-bn-se C≥-Im kw-kv-Im-c-Im-e-sØ P-\-߃ s]-dp-hn-se A-·n-]¿-h-X-ßsf ssZ-h-ß-fm-bn B-cm-[n-®ncp-∂p.--

hn-hn-[ X-cw A-·n-]¿-h-X-߃ jo¬-Uv A-·n-]¿-hX - ß - ƒ: ]-e hn-≈-ep-I-fn-eq-sS emhm{]-hm-l-ap-≠m-bn h-en-sbm-cp {]-tZ-i-Øp hym-]n-°ptºm-gm-Wv jo¬-Uv A-·n-]¿-h-X-߃ D-≠m-hp-∂-Xv. `q-J-fi-ß-tf-°m-ƒ I-S-en-em-Wv C-h-bp-≠m-hp-∂-Xv. kn-≥-U¿ tIm¨-kv: kv-tIm-dn-b-bpw ss]-tdm-¢m-Ãn-Ivkpw (]m-d-°-j-W-߃) H-cp {]-[m-\ hn-S-hn-eq-sS ]pd-tØ-°p-h-∂v A-Xn-\p Np-‰pw A-Sn-™p-Iq-Sp-tºm-gmWv kn-≥-U¿ tIm¨-kv D-≠m-hp-∂-Xv. 30˛40 ao-‰¿ D-bc-am-Wv C-h-bv-°p-≠m-hp-I. tIm¨ B-Ir-Xn-bm-Wn-hbv-°v. Paricutin(sa-Iv-kn-t°m), k¨-sk-‰v {Im-‰¿ (A-cntkm-W) F-∂n-h D-Zm-l-c-W-ß-fm-Wv. tIm-ºk - n-‰v A-·n-]¿-hX - ß - ƒ: Iq-S° - q-sS s]m-´n-sØ-dnbp-≠m-bn em-hb - pw ]m-d° - j - W - ß - f - pw H-cp hn-Sh - n-eq-sS ]p-dØ - p-h∂ - p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-tºm-gm-Wv C-Øc - w A-·n-]¿h-Xß - f - p-≠m-hp-∂X - v. ]p-dØ - p-hc - p-∂ h-kvX - p-°ƒ ]-e X-´p-If - n-em-bn A-Sn-™p-Iq-Sn-bn-cn-°pw. C-Øc - w A-·n]¿-hX - ß - ƒ- ]n-ca - n-Un-s‚ B-Ir-Xn-bn-em-bn-cn-°pw ImW-s∏-Sp-∂X - v. D-Zm-: au-≠v ^p-Pn- (P-∏m≥), ta-tbm-¨ (^n-en-∏o≥-kv), au-≠v sh-kq-hn-b-kv- (C-‰-en).

C-¥y-bn¬ A-·n-]¿-h-X-ßfp≈-Xv B¥am≥ ˛-\n-t°m-_m¿ Zzo-]p-I-fn-em-Wv. Cu Zzo]-k-aq-l-Øn¬-s∏-´ \m¿-t°m-≠w Zzo-]m-Wv A-h-bn¬ {]-[m-\-s∏-´-Xv. k-ap-{Z-Øn-s‚ ASn-Ø-´n¬-\n-∂v B-bn-cw ao-‰¿ D-b-c-Øn-em-Wv C-Xp ÿn-Xn sN-øp-∂-Xv. _m-c-Zzo-]m-Wv a-s‰mcp- A-·n-]¿-h-Xw. B¥-am≥-˛\n-t°m-_m¿ Zzo-]p-I-fn-se-bpw U-°m-\n-se-bpw A-·n-]¿-

h-X kv-t^m-S-\-ß-fpw tπ-‰v sS-Ivt‰m-Wn-Iv-kn-s‚ (Plate Techtonics) ^-e-am-bn kw-`-hn-®-h-bm-Wv.

A-·n-]¿-h-X kv-t^m-S-\-sØ A-Sn-ÿm-\-am-°n \n¿-an-® tlm-fn-hp-Uv N-e-®n-{X-am-Wv thmƒ-°m-t\m. 1997em-Wv C-Xp ]p-d-Øn-d-ßn-b-Xv. an-°v Pm-Iv-k≥ B-Wv Nn-{X-Øn-s‚ kw-hn-[m-b-I≥.

U-°m≥ ]oT-`q-an \q-dp-I-W-°n-\p In-temao-‰¿ \o-f-ap-≈ hn-≈-ep-Ifn¬-\n-∂v, I-c-bn-ep-≠m-b A- · n- ] ¿- h - X kv - t ^m- S - \ Øn-s‚ A-h-in-„-am-Wv U°m≥ ]oT-`q-an.

CMYK

CMYK

Wp em-h F-∂-dn-b-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. [q-a]-S-e-߃-s°m-∏w C-h hn-hn-[ hep-∏-Øn¬ Nn-X-dn-ho-gp-∂p. `q-an-bpsS B-¥-cn-I-`m-K-Øp cq-]wsIm≈p-∂ am-Kva ap-I-fn-te-°p-b-¿-∂p `q-an-bp-sS D-]-cn-X-e-Øn¬ _-ln¿K-an-°p-∂ {]-{In-b-bm-Wp "hƒ-°\n-kw' F-∂-dn-b-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. 900 apX¬ 1200 Un-{Kn sk¬-jy-kv h-scbm-Wv C-h-bp-sS Xm-]-\n-e. a-[y-A-‰v-em‚n-Iv ]¿-h-X-\n-c-bn¬ ^-e-I-߃ ]-c-kv-]-cw A-I-ep∂-Xp aq-e-am-Wv A-·n-]¿-h-X-߃ Im-W-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. ]-k-^n-Iv k-ap-{ZØn-\p Np-‰p-ap-≈ ]-k-^n-Iv A-·nh-f-bw F-∂-dn-b-s∏-Sp-∂ ta-J-ebn¬ ^-e-I-߃ ]-c-kv-]-cw Iq-´nbn-Sn-°p-∂-Xp aq-e-am-Wv A-·n-]¿h-X-߃ D-≠m-hp-∂-Xv. ^-e-I߃ A-cn-Ip-Iƒ h-gn \n-c-ßn-\oßp-∂-Xpw I-S-∂p-t]m-hp-∂-Xp-amb ta-J-e-I-fn¬ A-Kv-\n-]¿-h-Xß�� cq-]wsIm-≈p-∂n-√. `q-an-bpsS ]p-dw-]m-fn-bn¬ I-\w Ip-d-™ `m-K-ß-fn-epw hn-S-hp-Iƒ D-≈- taJ-e-I-fn-epw A-·n-]¿-h-X-߃ cq]-s∏-Sm≥ km-[y-X-bp-≠v.-A-·n-]¿-h-X ap-J-Øn-eq-sS ]-cs∂m-gp-Ip-∂ em-h-bpw Np-‰p-]m-Spw Nn-X-dn-ho-gp-∂ in-em-J-fi-ß-fpw A-Sn-™p-Iq-Sn kv-Xq-]n-Im-Ir-Xn-bnep-≈ Ip-∂p-Iƒ D-≠m-hp-∂p. C-hbp-sS a-[y-Øn-ep-≈ apJ-`mKw \mfo-cq-]-Øn¬- Im-W-s∏-Spw. C-Xns\-bm-Wv A-·n-]¿-h-Xh-Iv-{Xw F∂p ]-d-bp-∂-Xv. D-cp-In D-b-cp-∂ am-Kva, A-Kv-\n]¿-h-X-ap-J-Øn-s‚ h-i-߃ I-hn™p -]-S¿-s∂m-gp-Ip-∂ em-hm-{]hm-l-߃ kr-„n-°pw. Nn-et∏mƒ Xm-sg\n-∂p-≈ hm-X-Iß-fp-sS X-≈¬ \n-an-Øw am‹ A-t\-Iw ao-‰¿ D-b-c-Øn¬ H-cp ^u-≠-\m-bn D-b¿-∂p s]m-ßpw. am-Kva {Z-h-cq-]-Øn¬ H-gp-Ip-∂-Xn-\p ]-I-cw J-cm-hÿ-bn-ep-≈ ss]-tdm-¢m-Ãn-Iß-fm-bn ]pd-tØ°v i‡nbn¬ sXdn-°p-∂p.

CMYK

A

-·n-]¿-h-X-߃ F∂ t]-cp tIƒ-°ptºmƒ a-\- n-te°v Hm-Sn-sb-Øp-∂-Xp Xo-Xp-∏p-∂ ae-I-fm-Wv. `q-an-°-Sn-bn¬-\n-∂p Xnf-® am-Kva-bpw Nm-c-hpw `q-h¬-°Øn-se Zzm-cw h-gn ]p-d-tØ-°p hcp-∂-Xm-Wv A-·n-]¿-h-Xkv-t^mS-\w. ^-e-I-N-e-\ kn-≤m-¥-a-\p-kcn-®v, `u-tam-]-cn-X-e-Øn-se ]m-fnI-fm-b sS-Iv-t‰m-Wn-Iv tπ-‰p-Iƒ ASp-Øp-h-cp-I-tbm A-I-∂p-t]m-hpI-tbm sN-øp-∂ ÿ-e-ß-fn-em-Wv A-·n-]¿-h-X-߃ D-≠m-hp-∂-Xv. kv-t^m-S-\-^-e-am-bp-≈ em-h `q-anbp-sS D-]-cn-X-e-Øn-se-Øn L\o-`hn-®v in-em-cq-]-am-hp-∂p. em-hm-{]hm-l-Øm¬ \n¿-an-°-s∏-Sp-∂-hbm-Wv em-hm ]oT-`q-an-Iƒ. C-¥y≥ D-]-Zzo-]n-se U-°m≥ {Sm-]v ta-J-ebm-Wp tem-I-Øn-se G-‰-hpw h-enb em-hm ]oT-`q-an. `q-h¬-°-Øn-\-Sn-bn-se I-\-Ø Nq-Sp-aq-ew (3,000oC) ]m-d-I-sf-√mw D-cp-Ipw. C-Ø-c-Øn¬ D-cp-In-Øn-f® h-kv-Xp-hm-Wv am-Kva. `q-an-bp-sS D]-cn-X-e-Øn-\v 80-,160 In-.-ao-‰dn¬ Xm-sg-bm-Wv km-[m-c-W-bm-bn amKva D-≠m-hp-I. ]m-d D-cp-Ip-tºmƒ \n-c-h-[n hm-X-I-ß-fpw D-≠m-hpw. Cu hm-X-I-ß-fpw am-Kva-bpw Iq-Snt®¿-∂p-≠m-hp-∂-Xp `q-an-bp-sS D-]cn-X-e-Øn-\v aq-∂p In-.-ao-. Xm-sg-sbØp-tºmƒ H-cp A-d-t]m-se \n-d™p-In-S-°p-∂-Xm-Wv am-Kva A-d. C-Xn-\p Np-‰p-ap-≈ ]m-d-I-fn¬-\n∂p-≈ a¿-±w Im-c-Ww amKva s]m-´n-sØ-dn-°p∂p. D-]-cn-X-e-Øn-seØp-∂-Xn-\p ap-ºv amKva-bn-se hm-X-Iw th¿s]-Sp-I-bpw A-hn-sS-bp≈ hn-S-hn-eq-sS hm-X-Ihpw am-Kva-bp-sa-√mw ]p-dØp-h-cp-I-bpw sN-øp-∂p. ]p-d-Øp-h-cp-∂ {Zm-h-I-am-

H-cpIm-e-Øp s]m-´n-sØ-dn-® ti-jw, C-t∏mƒ im-¥-am-b A-h-ÿ-bn-ep-≈

CMYK

A-\p tkm-f-a≥

kp-jp-]v-Xn-bn-ep-Å A-án-]À-h-X-§Ä:

A-·n-]¿-h-X-ß-fm-Wn-h. F-∂m¬, C-h ho-≠pw s]m-´n-sØ-dn-°m≥ km[y-X-bp-≠v. D-Zm: C-‰-en-bn-se sh-kqhn-bkv. \nÀ-Po-h- A-án-]À-h-X-§Ä: H-cp-Im-eØp s]m-´n-sØ-dn-®v h-en-b \m-i-\„-߃ h-cp-Øn-b ti-jw C-t∏mƒ \n¿-Po-h-m-h-ÿ-bn¬ Xp-S-cp-∂-h-bmWv \n¿-Po-h A-·n-]¿-h-X-߃. Sm≥km-\n-b-bn-se In-fn-a-Rv-Pm-tcm A·n-]¿-h-Xw C-Xn-\p-Zm-l-c-W-am-Wv.


6 29- Pqsse 2013 Xn¶ƒ

29- Pqsse 2013 Xn¶ƒ

{Im-°-tØm-h kv-t^m-S-\w temIw

A≥h¿ anwerakp@gmail.com

D_p-≠p ssehv

c-l-ky-am-bnØ-s∂ C-cn-°s´.-\-√ h-kv-{X-a-Wn-™m¬ {]-iw-kn-°p-I-bpw \yq\-X-bp--s≠-¶n¬ kz-Im-cy-am-bn A-Xp t_m-[y-s∏-SpØp-I-bpw sN-øp-∂-Xp \-√ kp-lr-Øn-s‚ A-S-bmf-am-Wv. F-∂m¬, kp-Jn-∏n-®p-\-S-°p-∂-h-sc kq£n-°-Ww. t_m-d≥ j¿-´m-sW-¶n-epw tam-iw D-Sp∏m-sW-¶n-epw lm-bv, tSm-]v km-[-\w, I-e-°n Fs∂-√mw ]-d-bp-∂-h-sc kq-£n-°-Ww. {^-©v \n-cq]-I-\m-bn-cp-∂ πq-°m¿-´v ]-d-bp-∂p: ""Rm≥ X-e-bm´p-tºmƒ Iq-sS X-e-bm-´m≥ H-cp kp-lr-Øv th-≠. A-Xv F-s‚ \n-g¬ `w-Kn-bm-bn sN-øp-∂p-≠v. ''G-Xp Im-cy-Øn-\pw H-cp ]-cn-[n th-W-sa-∂m-W-t√m. kulr-Z-Øn-epw A-Xp-s≠-¶n¬ ]n-∂o-Sv \n-cm-i-s∏-tS≠n-h-cn-√.--

N-cn-{X-Øn-se G-‰-hpw h-en-b A-·n-]¿h-X kv-t^m-S-\-ß-fn¬ H-∂m-Wv 1883 B-Kkv-Xv 26˛27\v D-≠m-b {Im-°-tØm-h kvt^m-S-\w (Krakatoa). G-Xm-≠v 36,417 t]-cmWv C-Xn-s\-Øp-S¿-∂p acn®-Xv. I-S-en¬ i‡-am-b kp-\m-an-Øn-c-I-fpw B-™-Sn-®p. C-t¥m-\o-ky-bn-se kp-am{X, Pm-h Zzo-]pIƒ-°n-S-bn-ep-≈ kp-μ I-S-en-Sp-°n-emWv {Im-°-tØm-h-bp-sS D¬`hÿm\w.

N-fn A-·n-]¿-h-Xw N-fn A-·n-]¿-h-X-ß-fn¬ `q-an-bpsS D-]-cn-X-ew t`-Zn-®p ]p-d-tØ-°p-hcp-∂ hm-X-I-߃ h-ln-®p-sIm-≠p-hcp-∂ a-W-epw I-fn-a-Æpw \m-fn-bp-sS Np-‰p-am-bn \n-t£-]n-°-s∏-Sp-I-bm-Wp sN-øp-∂-Xv. CXp Xp-S¿-®-bm-bp-≠mhp∂Xp aq-ew H-cp tIm¨ (cone) cq-]wsIm-≈p-∂p. sN-dn-b tXm-Xn-se-¶n-epw C-Xv H-cp A-·n-]¿-h-X-Øn-s‚ {]-XoXn P-\n-∏n-°p-∂p. ]-e N-fn A-·n-]¿h-X-ß-fpw F-Æ-∏m-S-ß-fn-em-Wp I≠p-h-cp-∂-Xv.

D

-_p≠p Hm-]-td-‰nMv kn-kv-‰-w I-w]yq-´-dn-¬ {]-h¿-Øn∏n-°m≥ C-≥-Ãmƒ sN-ø-W-sa-∂p \n¿-_-‘-an√. lm¿-Uv Un-kv-Iv C√mØ I-w]yq-´-dnepw kn.Untbm s]≥ss{U-thm D-]-tbm-Kn-®v D-_p-≠p- sse-hv {]-h¿-Øn-∏n-°pI-bpw s\-‰v {_u-kn-Mn-\p-th-≠nbpw B-h-iy-ap-≈ B-πnt°-j-\p-Iƒ {]-h¿-Øn-∏n-°p-∂-Xn-\p -th-≠n-bpw D-_p≠p-sse-hn-s\ D-]-tbmKn°p-I-bpw sN-ømw.

kn.-Un-/Un.-hn.-Unbn¬ \n-∂v D_p-≠p ssehv \mw I-w]yq-´-dn¬ C≥-Ãm-ƒ sN-øm≥ D-]-tbm-Kn-°p-∂ D-_p-≠p-hns‚-tbm F-Up-_p-≠p-hns‚tbm kn.-Un/Un.hn.-Un X-s∂-bm-Wv D-_p-≠p sse-hn-\p th-≠n-bpw D-]tbm-Kn-°p-∂Xv. Iw]yq-´-¿ ]-h-¿_-´¨ A-a¿Øn-b D-S-s\ Io-t_m-¿-Un¬ F8Io A-a¿-Øp-I-bpw Xp-d-∂ph-cp-∂ _q´v-sa-\p-hn-¬\n∂v kn-.Un-/Un-.hn.-Un ske-Œv sN-øp-Ibpw Try edubuntu without installing ¬ F‚¿ sN-øp-Ibpw D_p-≠p sse-hn-te-°v {]-th-in-°p-I-bpw sN-ømw.

s]≥-ss{U-hn¬ \n-∂v D_p-≠p ssehv s]≥-ss{U-hn¬\n-∂v D_p-≠p {]-h¿-Øn-∏n-°m-≥ BZy-am-bn H-cp Ãm¿-´-∏v(_q-´-_nƒ) Un-kv-Iv \n¿-an°-Ww. CXn-\m-bn F-Up-_p-≠p-hn-se Ãm¿-´-v sa-\p-hn-se kn-Ã-Ønep≈ A-Uv-an-\n-kv-t{S-j-\n¬ \n-∂pw Startup Disk Creator ¢n°v sN-øp-Ibpw Xpd-∂ph-cp-∂ hn-≥-tUm-bn-¬ D-_p-≠phns‚ C-ta-Pv ^-btem kn.Untbm ske-Œv sN-øp-I-bpw Disk to use F-∂n-S-Øp-\n-∂v s]≥-ss{U-hv ske-Œv sN-bv-Xv Ctd-kv _-´¨ A-a¿Øp-I-bpw sN-øpI. ti-jw Make startup disk ¢n-°v sN-bv-Xm¬ s]≥-ss{U-hv H-cp _q-´-_nƒ Un-kvIm-bn am-dp-∂-XmWv. s]≥-ss{U-hn¬\n-∂v D-_p-≠p {]h¿-Øn-∏n-°m-\mbn I-w]yq-´-¿ ]-h-¿_-´¨ A-a¿Øn-b DS-s\ Io-t_m-¿-Un¬ F8 A-a¿-Øp-I-bpw Xp-d-∂ph-cp-∂ _q´v-sa-\p-hn-¬ \n-∂v bp.-F-kv.-_n. s]≥-ss{U-hv sk-e-Œv sNbv-Xv Try edubuntu without installing¬ F‚¿ A-a¿-Øp-I-bpw sN-bv-Xm¬ D-_p-≠p sse-hv D-]-tbm-Kn-°mw.

B-Wpw s]-Æpw X-Ωn¬! ku-lr-Z-Øn-\p enw-K-t`-Z-an-√. s]¨-Ip-´n-I-fpam-bn kw-km-cn-°p-∂-Xn¬ sX-‰n-√; k-l-]mTn-tbmSm-hp-tºmƒ hn-ti-jn-®pw. F-∂m¬, {]-i-kv-X sFdn-jv \m-S-I-Ir-Øpw I-hn-bp-am-b Hm-kv-Im¿ ssh¬Un-s‚ A-`n-{]m-b-Øn¬, kv-{Xo-°pw ]p-cp-j-\p-an-Sbn¬ ku-lr-Zw km-[y-a-√. A-Xn-\p Im-c-W-am-bn A-t±-lw ]-d-bp-∂-Xv, kv-{Xo-Iƒ \-sΩ kv-t\-ln°p-∂p-sh-¶n¬ A-Xp \-Ωn-se \yq-\-X-I-fp-sS t]cn-em-bn-cn-°p-sa-∂m-Wv. \-Ω-fn-e-h th-≠-{X-bps≠-¶n¬ a-s‰-¥pw A-h¿ £-an-°pw, \-Ωp-sS _p≤n-a-l-Øz-sØ t]m-epw. B¨-Ip-´n-bp-sS G-‰-hpw A-Sp-Ø kp-lr-Øv B¨-Ip-´n-X-s∂-bm-bn-cn-°pw.

ss]-tdm-¢m-Ãn-I-߃

a-‰p {K-l-ß-fn¬

J-c-cq-]-Øn-ep-≈ A-·n-]¿-h-tXm¬-∏∂-ß-fm-Wv ss]-tdm-¢m-Ãn-I-߃ (Pyroclastic rock). sN-dn-b -X-cn-Iƒ ap-X¬ S¨ I-W°n-\p `m-c-ap-f-f h-en-b in-em-J-fi-߃ hsc CXn¬ Im-W-s∏-Sp-∂p.

ip-{I-s‚ D-]-cn-X-e-Øn-s‚ 90% _-kmƒ-´v B-Wv. C-Xv A-·n-]¿-h-X {]-h¿-Ø-\ km-[y-X h¿-[n-∏n-°p-∂p. sNm-Δ-bn¬ [mcm-fw \n¿-Po-h A-·n-]¿-h-X-߃ D-≈Xn¬ \m-se-Æw `q-an-bn-se G-Xv A-·n-]¿h-X-tØ-°m-fpw h-ep-Xm-Wv. ku-c-bq-Y-Øn-¬ G-‰-hpw IqSp-X¬ AKv-\n-]¿-h-X-{]-{In-b Im-W-s∏-Sp-∂-Xp hym-g-Øn-s‚ D-]-{K-l-am-b C-tbm-hn-emWv. hym-g-Øn-s‚ bq-tdm-∏ D-]-{K-l-Øn¬ P-ew h-an-°p-∂ A-·n-]¿-h-X-{]-h¿-Ø\w \-S-°p-∂p-≠v. 1989-¬ thm-tb-P¿ 2 s\]v-Syq-Wn-s‚ D-]-{K-l-am-b ssS-‰-Wn¬ CØ-cw A-·n-]¿-h-X -{]-h¿-Ø-\-߃ Is≠-Øn. 2005-¬ Im- n-\n t]-S-Iw i-\n-bpsS D-]-{K-l-am-b ssS-‰m-\n-epw A-·n-]¿-hX-{]-h¿-Ø-\-߃ I-s≠-Øn.--

^n-j¿ sh‚vv kv-t^m-S-\w \-S-°m-sX X-s∂ em-h _ln¿-K-an-°p-∂ hn-≈-ep-I-fm-Wp ^n-j¿ sh‚ v F-∂-dn-b-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. C-h thmƒ-Im\n-Iv ^n-j¿ F-∂pw A-dn-b-s∏-Sp-∂p.

A-·n-h-f-bw tem-I-sØ A-·n-]¿-h-X-ß-fn¬ 75 i-Xam-\-hpw tI-{μo-I-cn-®n-cn-°p-∂ ]-k-^n-Iv k-ap-{Z-Øn-se {]-tZ-i-am-Wv A-·n-h-f-bw (P-acific Ring of Fire) F-∂-dn-b-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. IpXn-c-em-S-Øn-s‚ B-Ir-Xn-bn¬ \m¬-∏-Xn\m-bn-c-tØm-fw In-tem-ao-‰¿ \o-f-ap-≈ {]tZ-i-am-Wn-Xv. tem-I-Ø-p≠m-hp-∂ sam-Øw `q-I-º-ß-fp-sS 90 i-X-am-\-hpw D-≠m-hp-∂Xpw C-hn-sS-bm-Wv. am-Kva A-s√-¶n¬ em-h X-Wp-Øp-d-™p- in-e-I-fp-≠m-hp-∂ {]-Xn`m-k-sØ am-Kvam-‰n-kw (Magmatism) F-∂p ]dbp-∂p.

A-·n-]¿-h-X D¬-∏-∂-߃ A-·n-]¿-h-X kv-t^m-S-\-Øn-s‚ `mK-am-bn hm-X-I-ß-fpw _m-jv-]-ß-fpw h≥-tXm-Xn¬ ]p-d¥-≈-s∏-Sp-∂p. D-{K kv-t^m-S-\-tØm-S-\p-_-‘n-®p-≠m-hp∂ hm-X-I-߃ [q-fn-I-fm-b ss]-tdm¢m-Ãn-I-ß-fp-am-bn I-e¿-∂p [q-a-]-Sew t]m-se-tbm ta-Lw t]m-se-tbm hym-]n-°p-∂p. C-h Iq-Sp-X-epw hn-j-en]v-X-am-bn-cn-°pw.

7

G-‰-hpw h-en-b A-·n-]¿-h-Xw sNm-Δm {K-lØ - n-se H-fnw-]k - v tam¨kv F-∂ A-·n-]¿-h-X-am-Wv C-Xn-\¿-lX t\-Sn-bn-cn-°p-∂X - v. 22 In-.- ao-‰d - m-Wv CXn-s‚ D-b-cw. sNm-Δ-bn¬ tπ-‰v sS-Iv-t‰mWn-Iv-kv C-√m-Ø-Xm-Wv C-Xn-\p Im-c-Wsa-∂m-Wv im-kv{- X-⁄c - p-sS \n-Ka - \ - w.

`q-an-bn-se G-‰-hpw D-b-c-ta-dn-b A-·n-]¿-h-Xw l-hm-bn-bn-se au-t\m In-b B-Wv. 4207 ao-‰-dm-Wv C-Xn-s‚ D-b-cw. sXm-´p-Xm-sg-bp-≈ au-\m tem-hbp-sS D-b-c-am-h-s´, 4169 ao-‰-dpw. jo¬-Uv A-·n-]¿-h-X-ß-fm-b C-h k-ap-{Z-Øn-s‚ A-Sn-Ø-´n¬ \n-∂m-Wv D-b¿-∂p-h-∂Xv. Chbv°v F-h-d-Ãv sIm-Sp-ap-Sn-tb-°mƒ D-b-cap≠v.

_-‘p-°ƒ i-{Xp-°ƒ!!

A-kv-_-d sI. _n. -´p-Im-cn-√m-Ø-h-cm-bn B-cp-ap-≠m-hn-√. F¬.-- sI.-- Pn-bn¬ ]Tn-°p-∂ Ip-™v apX¬ {]m-b-am-b A-∏q-∏≥- h-sc F-√mh¿-°pw kp-lr-Øp-°-fp-≠m-hpw. Ip-™p-∂m-fn¬ A-\n-b-t\m-Spw A-\n-b-Øn-tbm-Sp-sam-s°-bm-hpw ku-lr-Zw. kv-Iq-fn¬ t]m-hm≥ Xp-S-ßp-∂-tXm-sS X-s‚ C-„-ß-tfm-Spw Xm¬-∏-cy-ß-tfm-Spw tbm-Pn°p-∂ Ip-´n-I-fp-am-bn ku-lr-Z-ap-≠m-°p-∂p. kulr-Z-ap-≠m-°p-tºmƒ kz-`m-h-Kp-W-߃-°mWp \mw ]-cn-K-W-\ \¬-tI-≠-Xv.-{]-i-kv-X Cw-•o-jv I-hn-bm-b hn-eyw tª-°v ]-d™Xv, ]-£n-Iƒ-°p Iq-Spw Nn-e-¥n-°v h-e-bpw GXp-t]m-se-bm-tWm, A-Xp-t]m-se-bm-Wp a-\p-jy-\p kp-lr-Zv-_-‘-ß-sf-∂mWv. a-s‰m-cp Bw-K-te-b Fgp-Øp-Im-c-\m-b Nmƒ-kv tImƒ-´-s‚ A-`n-{]m-bØn¬, \-√ kp-lr-Øp-°ƒ B-tcm-Kyw t]m-se-bmWv. \-„-s∏-Sp-tºm-tg A-Xn-s‚ hn-e a-\- n-em-hq.

Iq

s_-kv-‰v {^-≠v? A-Ω-bm-Wp X-s‚ s_-Ãv {^-s≠-∂p ]-d-bp-∂ s]¨-Ip-´n-I-fp-≠v. Nn-e¿-°v A-—-\m-bn-cn-°pw ASp-Ø kp-lr-Øv. F-∂m¬, an-°-h¿-°pw kv-Iq-fn¬ Iq-sS ]Tn-°p-∂ Ip-´n-I-fp-am-bn-Ø-s∂-bm-bn-cn-°pw D-‰-ku-lr-Zw. A-h-tcm-Sv F-√mw Xp-d-∂p-]-d-bp-∂p.-D-Øa - \ - m-b kp-lr-Øv I-kvX - q-cn-hm-lI - s - \-t∏mse-bm-sW-∂m-Wv ap-lΩ - Z- v \-_n ]-Tn-∏n-®X - v. I-kvX - qcn-hm-lI - \ - n¬-\n-∂p \-ap-°X - p hm-ßmw. hm-ßn-bns√-¶n-epw A-Xn-s‚ kp-K‘ - w A-\p-`h - n-°mw. No-ØIq-´p-Im-c\ - m-hs - ´, D-eb - n¬ Du-Xp-∂h - s - \-t∏m-se-bmWv. \n-s‚ h-kv{- Xw A-h≥ I-cn-°pw. A-Xn-\m¬ \-√ Iq-´p-Im-cp-am-bn am-{Xw ku-lr-Zw Xp-Sc - p-I. No-Ø Iq´p-Im-tcm-Sp-≈ _-‘w A-hk - m-\n-∏n-°p-I. A-s√¶n¬ A-Xn-s‚ Zp¿-K‘ - w G-‰p-hm-tß-≠n-hc - pw. {]-apJ {Ko-°v X-Øz-Nn-¥I - \ - m-b tkm-{I-´o-kv ]-d™ p: ""kp-lr-Zv_ - ‘ - ß - ƒ h-fs - c sa-s√ am-{Xw ÿm-]n-

°p-I. F-∂m¬, ÿm-]n-®p-Ig - n-™m-tem, A-Xn¬ ZrV-am-bn D-d® - p-\n¬-°p-I.''

]p-©n-cn-bpw sam-ss_-epw Nn-cn-°m≥ Ip-c-ßn-\pw I-gn-bpw. F-∂m¬, ]p©n-cn a-\p-jy-s‚ am-{Xw {]-tXy-I-X-bm-Wv. ku-lrZ-Øn-s‚ Xp-S-°w ]-e-t∏m-gpw H-cp sN-dp-]p-©n-cn-bneq-sS-bm-hpw. ]p-©n-cn A-]-I-S-Im-cn-b-s√-¶n-epw Nne¿ N-Xn-bp-sS Nq-≠-bp-sS A-‰-Øm-hpw A-Xp L-Sn∏n-®-Xv. ]-Xn-hm-bn bm-{X-sN-øp-∂ _- n-se ¢o-\tdm I-≠-Œ-tdm s]¨-Ip-´n-I-sf h-e-bn¬-ho-gv-Øp∂-Xv H-cp ]p-©n-cn-bn-eq-sS-bm-hpw. ho-´n¬ A-—-\-Ωam-cn¬-\n-∂v \-s√m-cp hm-t°m km-¥z-\-tam X-temS-tem e-`n-°m-Ø Ip-´n-I-fm-Wp ]-e-t∏m-gpw C-Ø-c°m-cp-sS h-e-bn¬ ho-gp-∂-Xv. ]n-s∂ sam-ss_¬ \-º¿ ssI-am-d-epw hn-fn-I-fp-am-bn. C-°m-e-Øp ku-lr-Z-ß-fp-≠m-°p-∂-Xn-epw XI¿-°p-∂-Xn-epw sam-ss_¬-t^m-Wn-\v h-en-b ]¶m-Wp-≈-Xv. an-kv-Uv tIm-fn¬ Xp-S-ßn-b ku-lr-Zw km-¥z-\-am-bn s]-bv-Xn-d-ßn A-h-km-\w H-fn-t®m-´Øn-em-hpw Xo-cp-∂-Xv. A-«o-e sa-tk-Pp-Iƒ A-b°p-∂- kp-lr-Øn-s‚ D-≈n-en-cn-∏v a-‰p ]-e-Xp-am-sW∂p Xn-cn-®-dn-b-Ww. sam-ss_¬ hn-fn ]-cn-[n-hn-Sp-∂Xp I-≠m¬ kz-bw-X-s∂ Pm-{K-X ]p-e¿-Ø-Ww. C‚¿-s\-‰v D-]-tbm-K-Ønepw \n-b-{¥-Ww thWw.

kp-lr-Øn-t\m-Sv F-√mw ]-d-bm-tam? t]¿-jy≥ I-hn k-A-Zn ]Tn-∏n-®-Xv, \n-s‚ F-√m c-l-ky-ß-fpw kp-lr-Øn-t\m-Sp sh-fn-s∏-Sp-Ø-cpsX-∂m-Wv. H-cp-]-t£, A-h≥ \m-sf \n-s‚ i-{Xphm-tb-°mw.--- A-tX-t]m-se \n-s‚ F-√m Ip-X-{¥-ßfpw i-{Xp-hn-t\m-Sp ]-b-‰-cp-sX-∂pw k-A-Zn ]-d™p. Im-c-Ww, C-∂p i-{Xp-X-bp-≈-h≥ -H-cp-\mƒ \n-s‚ kp-lr-Øm-tb-°pw. dm-Kn-Mv D-Zm-l-c-Ww. C∂v dm-Kv sN-bv-X-h-cp-am-bn Nn-e-t∏mƒ {^-tj-gv-kv tU-°p-ti-jw \-√ ku-lr-Zw D-≠m-bn-°q-sS-∂n-√. X-Ωn¬ sX-‰p-∂-tXm-sS F√mw hnfn®p-]-d-™p i-{Xp-X Im-Wn-°p-∂-h-cp-≠v. AXn-\m¬ c-lkyw

_-‘p-°-fp-am-bn \-√ _-‘w Im-Øp-kq-£n-°p∂-tXm-sSm-∏w h-©n-°-s∏-Sm-Xn-cn-°m≥ {i-≤n-°pI. ho-´n-\p-≈n¬ Iq-Sp-X¬ kzm-X-{¥yw e-`n-°p-∂Xp _-‘p-°ƒ-°m-W-t√m. A-Xp Zp-cp-]-tbm-Kw sNøp-∂-h-cp-≠v. A-—-\-Ω-am-cn-√m-Ø-t∏mƒ Iq-´p-Im-c\p-am-bn ho-´n¬ X-\n-®m-hp-∂ A-h-ÿ D-≠m-hmsX t\m-t°-≠-Xp s]¨-Ip-´n-bm-Wv. B Iq-´p-Imc≥ _-‘p-hm-sW-¶n-epw i-cn. C-°m-cy-Øn¬ c£n-Xm-°ƒ Iq-Sp-X¬ Pm-{K-X ]p-e¿-Ø-Ww. s]¨-Ip-´n-Iƒ ]o-Un-∏n-°-s∏-´ kw-`-h-ß-fn¬ IqSp-X-epw {]-Xn-ÿm-\-Øp-≈-Xv _-‘p-°-fm-Wv F∂-Xn-\m-em-Wn-Xv. C-cn-´n-bn¬ s]¨-Ip-´n-sb ]o-Un-∏n-®p K¿-`n-Wnbm-°n ap-ßn-b ]-g-b-ßm-Sn-°m-c-\m-b _-‘p-hn-s\ B-dp-am-k-Øn-\p-ti-jw t]m-en-kv ]n-Sn-Iq-Sn-b hm¿Ø Iq-´p-Im¿ {i-≤n-®n-cn-°pw. C-ß-s\ F-{X-tbm kw-`-h-ß-fp-≠v. tIm-X-aw-K-e-Øv 15Im-cn-sb ]o-Un∏n-® tI-kn¬ {]-Xn-I-fn¬ H-cmƒ _-‘p-hm-bn-cp∂p. h¿-°-e I-√-º-e-Øv 9mw ¢m-kv hn-Zym¿-Yn-\n ]o-Un-∏n-°-s∏-´ kw-`-h-Øn-epw hn-√-∑m-cn-sem-cmƒ s]¨-Ip-´n-bp-sS _-‘p-hm-bn-cp-∂p. ]-e-t∏m-gpw hnhm-lw I-gn-°m-sa-∂p ]-d-™p {]-tem-`n-∏n-®m-hpw h-e-bn-em-°p-∂-Xv. A-—-\pw c-≠m-\-Ω-bpw sIm-®pIp-´n-I-sf D-]-{Zhn-® hm¿-Ø-Iƒ tI´v D-∏-tbm-Spw D-Ω-tbm-Spw kvt\-lw Ip-d-bm≥ C-S-h-cp-Ø-cp-Xv. A-—-\pw A-Ωbpw k-tlm-Z-c-ß-fp-sa-√mw kp-lr-Øn-\p-ti-jw F-∂ \n-e-bn-te-°p Im-cy-ß-sf-Øm-sX t\m-°Ww. ku-lr-Zw C-t∂m \m-sf-tbm A-h-km-\n°mw. F-∂m¬, c-‡-_-‘w H-cn-°-epw C-√m-Xm-hp∂n-√. \-√ Iq-´p-Im-c-s\ Xn-cn-®-dn-bm-\p-≈ am¿-K-amWv A-h-cp-am-bn km-º-Øn-I C-S-]m-Sn-¬ G¿-s∏-Sp∂-Xv. H-∂n-®p bm-{Xt]m-hp-tºm-gpw kp-lr-Øn-s‚ X-\n-\n-dw t_m-[y-am-hpw. Pq-sse 30 B-Wv 1958 ap-X¬ tem-I {^‚ v-jn-∏v tU B-bn B-N-cn-°p-∂-sX-¶n-epw C-¥y-bn¬ {^‚ v-jn-∏v tU B-K-kv-Xn-se B-Zy Rm-b-dm-gv-Nbm-Wv. Cu- h¿-j-sØ {^‚ v-jn-∏v tU X-]m¬ h-gn kp-lr-Øp-°ƒ-°v B-iw-k ssI-am-dm≥ D-]-tbmKn-°mw. C-˛-sa-bn¬ F-∂pw A-b-°m-hp-∂-Xm-b-Xn\m¬ H-cp sN-bv-©v B-hmw, A-t√.


Thejas Epaper school Edition 2013/07/29