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thÀ-]mSv

KOCHI

27 s^{_phcn 2014 hymgw

cm-a³ \-¼n-b-¯v A-´-cn-¨p ap-l-½-Zv Ip-ªv B-e-∏p-g: B-e-∏p-g \-K-ck-` tÃ-Un-bw hm¿-Un-¬ X-]m¬-∏-d-ºv ho-´n¬ apl-Ω-Zv Ip-™v (53)-lr-Zbm-Lm-[-sØ Xp-S¿-∂v acn-®p. C-∂-se ssh-Io-´v A-©-c-tbm-sS Pn-√m Bbq¿-th-Z B-ip-]-{Xn-bn-¬ h-®m-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. `m-cy: JZo-Pm _o-hn. a-°ƒ: apwXm-kv, a-lv-_q-_v. C-∂v cm-hn-se H-º-Xn-\v B-e∏p-g In-g-s° Pp-am-a-kv-PnZv J-_¿-ÿm-\n-¬ J-_-S°pw. t]m-]p-e¿ {^-≠v Hm-^v C-¥y k-Po-h {]h¿-Ø-I-\pw F-kv.-Un.]n.sF. h-en-b-a-cw {_m©v ssh-kv {]-kn-U-‚p-w A-k-‰n-s‚ am-t\-Pn-Mv {SÃv saw-_-dp-am-bn-cp-∂p.

ss\-\

A¶w

_n-tPjv

I-f-a-t»cn: k-tX¨ sa‰¬ C≥-U-kv-{So-kv D-S-a X-S-Øn¬ ss\-\(85). `mcy: ]-tc-Xbm-b \-_ok. a°ƒ: k-eow, d-kn-b, sj-co^v, _m-_p(bp.Fkv.F), ]-tc-Xbm-b dwe. a-cp-a°ƒ: jm-lp¬ laoZv, ko-\Øv, \n-j.

s]-cp-ºm-hq¿: tN-ema‰w t]m-Ø≥-ho-´n¬ h-dpKo-kn-s‚ `m-cy A∂w(77). a°ƒ: F¬kn, tPmbn, sU-bvkn, ssj\n, jo-_. a-cpa°ƒ: sP-bnwkv, sUbvkn, tXm-akv, tPmk^v, B‚∏≥. kw-kvIm-cw C-∂p cm-hnse 9.30 \v h√w sk‚ v.sX-tckm-kv s^m-tdm-\ ]-≈nbn¬.

tIm-X-aw-Kew: A-ø-¶mhv h-≈n-bn¬ ]-tc-X\mb Sn H tXm-a-kn-s‚ aI≥ _n-tP-jv(34). `mcy: B¬-^n(tIm-S\m-Sv Nn-db-Øv Ip-Spw_mw-Kw). aI≥: km≥-tPm. kw-kvIm-cw C-∂v cm-hnse 9.30 \v tIm-X-awK-ew sk‚ v.tPm¿-Pv I-Øo{U-en¬.

_m-e-Ir-jv-W³ \m-bÀ t]m-Ø≥-tIm-Sv: A-bncq-∏m-d tc-h-Xn-bn¬ Irjn-h-Ip-∏v dn-´. D-tZym-Kÿ≥ _m-e-Ir-jv-W≥ \m-b¿ (73). `m-cy: e-fnXm-`m-bn. a-°ƒ: _n-μp, _m-_p-cmPv , ]-tc-X-\m-b _n-Pp.

cm-lp Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-cw: ASq¿ {io ssi-ew ho-´n¬ cm-lp¬ (35˛-am-t\-P¿, F-®v-F¬-F¬ sse-^vsI-b¿ en-an-‰-Uv). `m-cy: tUm. A-iz-Xn.

Nn-Zw_cw

]-d-hq¿: tN-μ-awK-ew ap-f-hp-Im-Sv sIm-®n-em-´ v]-tc-X\m-b cm-a≥ aI≥ sI B¿ Nn-Zw-_cw(95). dn-´.an-en´-dn F≥-Pn-\o-b-dn-Mv k¿-hokv. `mcy: F-cq¿ sh-´p-then¬ ]-tc-Xbm-b hn F≥ e-£van. a°ƒ: Ata-b tdm-bv(dn-´.Imen-°‰v bq-\n-th-gv-kn‰n), kp-[o¿ tdm-bv(d`m-Ko-c-Yn-b-½ _¿ t_m¿Uv, F-d-Wms\-Sp-a-ßm-Sv: B-\m-Sv Ip-fw), kpP-\n tdm]p-t√-t°m-Ww ]p-Xpbv(Pp-Uo-jy¬ ^-Ãv h≥ ]p-Ø≥ ho-´n¬ `m- ¢m-kv a-Pn-kv-t{S-‰v tIm-SKo-c-Yn-b-Ω (94). `¿-Øm- Xn, F-d-Wm-Ip-fw). a-cphv: ]-tc-X-\m-b tI-i-h- a°ƒ: F≥ ]n c-a-Wn, ]n-≈. an\n, P-b-Ip-am¿.

X-¦-¸³-]n-Å t]m-Ø-≥-tIm-Sv: ]-¥-et°m-Sv tZ-ho-\-K¿ s\-Sphn-f s]m-bv-I ho-´n¬ X¶-∏≥-]n-≈ (86). a-°ƒ: e-fn-X-Ω. C-μn-c, cm-tP{μ≥ \m-b¿, i-in-[-c≥ \m-b¿ (ko-\n-b¿ knhn¬ t]m-en-kv Hm-^nk¿ aw-K-em-]p-cw). a-cp-a°ƒ: ]-tc-X-\m-b tkm-ati-J-c≥ \m-b¿, cm-[mIr-jv-W≥ \m-b¿, joPm \m-b¿, _n-μp.

Im-cn-¨n-b-½ \o-te-iz-cw-: s\-√n-b-Sp°w tKm-]m-e-s‚ In-fnb-fw an-®-`q-an-bn-se Imcn-®n-b-Ω (70). a-°ƒ: Aw-_n-I, _m_p, c-a-Wn, tim-`.

A-l-½-Zv-Ip-«n sIm-Sp-ß-√q¿: ta-Øe F-S-ap-°v F-d-aw-K-eØv ]p-fn-°-]-d-ºn¬ A-l-Ω-Zv-Ip-´n(91). hn-ap-‡ `-S-\m-bn-cp∂p. `m-cy: \-Sp-hn-e-I-Øv sF-i-Ip-´n. a-°ƒ: A-–p¬ Icow, d-kn-bm ap-l-Ω-Zen, ^m-Øn-a, sa-lv-dp∂o-k, h-lo-Z, ]-tc-X\m-b I-Zo-Pm-_n, jwkp-±o≥. a-cp-a-°ƒ: Fw Fw kn-±o-Jv, kp-ss_-Z, sI hn kn-±o-Jv, \-Ppap-∂n-k, C-kv-a-bn¬, apw-Xm-kv, jw-kp-±o≥.

N-{μ³-ta-t\m³ ]-d-hq¿: K-h¨-sa‚ v F¬.]n.Pn. kv-Iq-fn-\p k-ao-]w I-Wn-®n-emgØp ho-´n¬ sI sI N{μ≥ ta-t\m≥(89). ]-dhq¿ \-¥ym-´p-Ip-∂w Fkv.F≥.hn. kw-kv-Ir-Xw kv-Iqƒ dn-´.sl-Uv-amÿ B-bn-cp∂p. a°ƒ: D-jm-Ip-am-cn(tÉv _m-¶v Hm-^v C-¥y tN¿-Ø-e), _o\(sl¬-Øv k¿-ho-kv U¬-ln), Ir-jv-W-Ipam¿, an\n. a-cp-a°ƒ: AUz.am-[-h≥-Ip-´n, kp-[, i-in-Ip-am¿, ]-tc-X\m-b i-in-[c≥. kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v cm-hn-se H-º-Xn-\v tXm-∂y-Im-hv s]m-Xp-iam-i-\-Øn¬.

X-¦-¸³

FÂ-kn tem-d³kv

Ip-cym-t¡mkv

knÔp

tPmk^v

Hm-a-\

Ir-jv-W³

C-S-s°m®n: A-Izn-\m-kv tIm-f-Pn-\p k-ao-]w ]-tg°m-Sv F¬-kn tem-d≥kv(52). kw-kv-Im-cw C∂v H-º-Xn-\v sk‚ v.ta-cokv ]-≈n sk-an-tØ-cnbn¬.

tIm-X-aw-Kew: tIm-´∏Sn ap-´-Øp]m-d sIm-®pIp-Sn-bn¬ Ip-cym-t°mkv(Ip-™p-tam≥˛70). `mcy: a-dn-bm-Ω. a-°ƒ: \-thman, A-\n-X, t_kn¬. a-cp-a°ƒ: _m_p, sdPn, kv-an-X. kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v cm-hnse ]-Øn-\v tIm-´∏-Sn I¬-°p-t∂¬ am¿ Koh¿-Ko-kv kl-Zm ]-≈nbn¬.

s\-Sp-ß{]: ]-øm¬ Ip∂-Øp-Ip-Sn ]p√≥ t__n-bp-sS `m-cy kn‘p(42). a°ƒ: kv-t\l, kp\n-X(hn-Zym¿-YnIƒ). kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v cm-hn-se 10.30 \v s\-Spß{] sk‚ v.B‚-Wo-kv ]≈n-bn¬.

A-cq¿: s\-Spw-]-d-ºn¬ F≥ ]n tPm-k-^v(73). `mcy: Iq-´p¶-Ø-d Atπm-\n-b. a°ƒ: Pm-kvan≥, P-Ãn≥. a-cp-aI≥: {]n≥kv. kw-kv-Im-cw C∂v 8.30 \v A-cq¿ sk‚ v.A-K-Ãn≥-kv ]≈n-bn¬.

tX-h-e-°-c: ]m-e-bv°¬ ]-\-®-hn-f-bn¬ ho´n¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b sIm-®pth-ep-hn-s‚ `m-cy Hm-a-\ (68). a-°ƒ: c-a-W≥, X-¶a-Wn, k-t¥m-jv, A-\n-X. a-cp-a-°ƒ: cm-[, k-Xy-]me≥, Zo-], A-\n¬.

sh-¶n-S-ßv: ]m-Sq¿ IWn-®n-bn¬ Ir-jvW≥(75). `m-cy: Aw-_p-P. a-°ƒ: _o-\, kp\n¬, _n-μp, k-t¥mjv. a-cp-a-°ƒ: kXy≥, kp-_n, tK-m-]n\-m-Yv, P-b-¥n.

d-^o-J-¯v sIm-´n-bw: D-a-b-\-√q¿ hS-°pw-I-c In-g-°v Fw.C.F-kv. kv-Iq-fn-\v k-ao-]w h-S-°-Xn¬ ho´n¬ A-–p¬ d-lo-an-s‚bpw A-j-d-^-bp-sS-bpw a-Iƒ F B¿ d-^o-JØv (16). J-_-d-S-°w C-∂v cm-hnse H-º-Xn-\v D-a-b-\-√q¿ a-kv-Pn-Zv J-_¿-ÿm\n¬.

Ip-ªn-ap-l-½-Zv lm-Pn

am-Xyq-]-Wn-¡À

hn-P-b³ I-cp-\m-K-∏-≈n: Im-´n¬I-S-hv B-Zn-\m-Sv sX-°v sIm-√-t»-cn¬-X-d hn-Pb≥(55).

I-cp-\m-K-∏-≈n: Im-´n¬I-S-hv B-Zn-\m-Sv sX-°v ]m-´-Øn¬ ta-t°-Ø-d P-\m¿-±-\≥(87). `m-cy: ]tc-X-bm-b Pm-\-In.

Ip-≠-d: Aw-_n-s]m-bvI h-S-t°-∏p-c-bn¬ Fw am-Xyq-]-Wn-°¿ (_n-Pp˛48) knw-K-∏q-cn¬ \ncym-X-\m-bn. A-_v-ZpÃ-t¡m-b tIm-gn-t°mSv: ]-≈n°- kw-kv-Im-cw \m-sf D-®≠n ss_-Øp¬ B-bn- bv-°v c-≠n-\v Ip-≠-d i-_n-bn¬ Fw ]n A-_v- sk‚ v tXm-a-kv Hm¿-ØtUm-Iv-kv ]-≈n sk-anZp√-t°m-b (74). tØ-cn-bn¬.

iym-a-f

am-½³ hÀ-Ko-kv

A-¸p

h¿-°-e: In-Sm-h-Øp-hnf πm-hn-f ho-´n¬ iym-af (62). `¿-Øm-hv: am-[-h≥. a°ƒ: iym-a, hn-Zy. a-cp-aI≥: kp-[o-jv.

Xn-cp-h-√: h-≈w-Ip-fw aÆm-c-tØm-´n¬ am-Ω-\v h¿-Ko-kv (83). kw-kv-Imcw C-∂v ssh-Io-´v aq-∂n\v I-hn-bq¿ …o-_ am¿tØm-a ]-≈n sk-an-tØcn-bn¬. `m-cy: ]-tc-X-bmb G-en-bm-Ω. a-°ƒ: {]km-Zv, sd-Pn, k-Pn, joem-Ω, ]-tc-X-bm-b F¬kn. a-cp-a-°ƒ; tam-fn-°p´n, _m-_p, Ip-™ptamƒ, km-en, A-\n.

c-ta-i³ am-´q¬: t\m¿-Øv P-ko¥ kv-t‰m-∏n-\p k-ao-]sØ ]-tc-X-\m-b ]-fl\m-`-s‚-bpw No-‰n¬ Pm\-In-bp-sS-bpw a-I≥ kn c-ta-i≥ (48). `m-cy: kp\n-X. a-°ƒ: {ip-Xn, kq-cy, kq-c-Pv. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: c-hn (Ip-ssh-Øv), a-Wntam-l≥ (Hm-t´m ss{Uh¿).

P-\mÀ-±-\³

I-Zn-bp-½ F.B¿ \-K¿: ]m-e-aTØn-®n-\- I-≈n-b-Øv apl-Ω-Zn-s‚ `m-cy I-Æn-bßm-´v ]p-Ø-e-Øv I-Znbp-Ω (77).

cm-[m-a-Wn

kp-Ip-am-c³-\m-bÀ

sN-ß-∂q¿: sh-≈p-tcØv ]-tc-X-\m-b hn F \m-K-∏-\m-Nm-cn-bp-sS `mcy cm-[m-a-Wn (77). kwkv-Im-cw \-S-Øn. a-°ƒ: tKm-]m-e-Ir-jv-W≥, cmPm-tKm-]m¬, A-cp-Wm-New, Ip-am-c-kzm-an, hn-P-be-£v-an, _o-\, cm-tP-izcn. a-cp-a-°ƒ-: -cm-[m-a-Wn, A-P-¥, cm-[m-a-Wn, c©p, ]-tc-X-\m-b ssZz-ckzm-an, tkm-a-cm-P≥, kptc-jv.

]-Ø-\w-Xn-´: I-√-d-°-Shv {io-\n-e-b-Øn¬ Pn kp-Ip-am-c≥-\m-b¿ (77) \n-cym-X-\m-bn. `m-cy : `mc-Xn-b-Ω. a-°ƒ : {io-Ip-am¿, {ioIm-¥v (A-kn. F-Iv-kn. F-©n-\o-b¿ kn-]n-Uªyp Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-cw). a-cp-a-Iƒ : an-\p {io-Im¥v. kw-kv-°m-cw \-SØn.

]mÀ-h-Xn A-´À-P-\w- F-S-∏mƒ: h-´w-Ip-fw Icp-hm-´v-a-\ \o-e-I-WvT≥ \-ºq-Xn-cn-bp-sS `m-cy ]m¿-h-Xn A-¥¿-P-\w.

hÂ-k-½ So-¨À hm-Wn-ta¬: hm-Wnta¬ {I-k‚ v ssl-kvIqƒ dn-´. A-[ym-]n-I hf-b-sØ B-em-bn¬ h¬-k-Ω So-®¿ (62). `-¿Øm-hv: Ip-am-c≥.

sI BÀ \m-cm-b-W³ C³-Ìn-äyq-«v Hm-^v hn-jzÂk-b³-kn ASp-¯- hÀjw apX ]T\w XpS§pw

Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-cw: kw-ÿm-\ k¿-°m-cn-s‚ sI B¿ \m-cm-bW≥ C≥-Ãn-‰yq-´v Hm-^v hnjz¬- k-b≥-kv B‚ v B¿-Svkn¬ A-Sp-Ø A-[y-b-\-h¿jw ¢m-kv Xp-S-ßp-sa-∂v ap-Jy-a{¥n D-Ω≥-Nm-≠n {]-Jym-]n-®p. C≥-kv-‰n-‰yq-´n-s‚ t{]m-kv-s]-Œkv ap-Jy-a-{¥n {]-Im-i-\w sNbv-Xp. kv-{In-]v-‰v-ssd-‰n-Mv B‚ v U-b-d£≥, F-Un-‰n-Mv, kn-\ntam-t´m-{K-^n, Hm-Un-tbm-{K-^n B-\n-ta-j≥ B≥v hn-jz¬ C^-Œv, B-Iv‰n-Mv F-∂n-hbmWv tIm-gv-kv. π-kv-Sp tbm-KyX-bm-°n-bp-≈ tIm-gv-kp-I-fmWv Xp-S-ßp-I. A-Jn-te-¥ym {]th-i-\]-co-£-bp-sS A-Sn-ÿm\-Øn-em-Wv Xnc-s™-Sp∏v.

t]-bm-Sv: hn-´n-bw i-ch¨ `-h-\n¬ A-∏p (86). `m-cy: kp-Ip-am-cn. a°ƒ: km-hn-{Xn, k-Zm-\μ≥, k-Zm-in-h≥, k\¬, k-Xy≥, k-Xo-jv, ]-tc-X-\m-b ssi-e≥. acp-a-°ƒ: I-cp-Wm-I-c≥, Ko-X, a-Rv-Pp, k-Pn-X, im-en-\n, c-ay.

Xn-cq-cß - m-Sn: sIm-Sn™n ]m-e] - m¿-°v a-WnI-≠Ø - n¬ Ip-™n-ap-lΩ-Zv- lm-Pn (75). `m-cy: kp-lvd - m-_n. a-°ƒ: tImb, Im-kva - nw, A-–p-¬ djo-Zv (A-_q-Z_ - n), A–p-∂m-k¿ (dn-bm-Zv), J_o¿, A-∫m-kv, kn-±o-Jv (A-_q-Z_ - n).

Ge-½

tam-l-\³-]n-Å tX-h-e-°-c: A-cn-\-√q¿ ao-\-tج ]p-Ø≥-ho´n¬ tam-l-\≥-]n≈(50). `m-cy: Aw-_n-Im -Ip-am-cn. a-°ƒ: A-\-¥p, A-Jn¬.

A-b-½-Zv-Ip-«n

A-¶-amen: N-º-∂q¿ Xncp-X-\-Øn¬ ]utem tPmk-^v `m-cy G-eΩ(65). F-Sp-∂v ss]-\mSØv I-d-º≥ Ip-Spw-_mwK-am-Wv. a°ƒ: km_p, ssk-a¨(Aw_p-P kna‚ vkv, Kp-P-dm-Øv), AUz.k-Pn tPmk-^v(AUz-t°-‰v B-eph). a-cpa°ƒ: do-\(So-®¿), kp\n-X, \nΩn. kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v ssh-In-´v \m-en-\v N-º-∂q¿ sk‚ v.do-Ømkv ]-≈n sk-an-tØ-cnbn¬.

am-ln: Nm-e-°-c, tN-cn°p-∂p-Ω¬ dn-´. kv-]n∂n-Mv an¬ Po-h-\-°mc≥ kn _m-e≥ (78). `mcy: I-a-e. a-°ƒ: c-Xn, ca, c-Po-{μ≥ (_mw-•q¿). a-cp-a-°ƒ: hn-P-b≥, apIp-μ≥, _n-μp.

Xm-a-c-t»-cn: Hm-S-°p-∂v (I-Æ-∏≥-Ip-≠v ) sN{º-°p-∂-Øv A-b-Ω-ZvIp-´n (77). `m-cy: J-Zo-P. a-°ƒ: D- -bn≥ Ip-´n am-ÿ ( Pn.hn.F-®v.Fkv.F-kv, Xm-a-c-t»-cn ),A-–p-¿d-lv-am≥, bqkp-^v (Zp-_bv) , B-bni, ap-l-Ω-Zv _-jo¿ (JØ¿), C-{_m-low, hlm-_v (sN-ss∂).

P-em-ep-±o³

ap-l-½-Zv Ip-ªv

A-k-\m-cp-Ip-ªv

Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-cw: Xn-cph-\-¥-]p-cw {]-m-h-®-ºew sh-≈w-sI-´p-hn-f Ipf-Øn-¶-c ho-´n¬ P-em-ep±o≥ (65). `m-cy: sF-jØv _o-hn. a-°ƒ: k-_o\, Xm-ln-d, sj-co-^v (]tc-X≥). a-cp-a-°ƒ: ap-lΩ-Zv- A-kv-ew, sk-ø-Zv. I_-d-S-°w sh-≈-bm-Wn Pp-am-a-kv-Pn-Zn¬ \-S-∂p.

B-e-∏p-g: \-K-c-k-` B-en-ti-cn hm¿-Un¬ Nn-d-bn¬ ho-´n¬ F®v._n. ]m-S-Øp ]-tc-X\m-b A-–p-√m-bp-sS aI≥ ap-l-Ω-Zv Ip-™v (78). `m-cy: lm-Pn-d _o-hn. aI≥: A-–p¿-d-low. acp-a-Iƒ: apw-Xm-kv.

A-i-dv -^v

cm-a³

Im-bw-Ip-fw: Io-cn-°m-Sv sX-°v sF-Iy-P-Mv-j≥ k-°o¿ a≥-kn¬ A-k\m-cp-Ip-™v (75). J-_d-S-°w C-∂v cm-hn-se 11\v ]p-Ø≥-sX-cp-hv Ppam-a-kv-Pn-Zv J-_¿-ÿm\n¬ \-S-°pw. `m-cy: JZo-Pm _o-hn. a-°ƒ: j-d-^p-±o≥, kenw, Ip-™p-tam≥, A–p¬ I-emw, \u-jm-Zv, d-ko-\, k-°o¿ lpssk≥, d-Pn-tamƒ, kPo¿. a-cp-a-°ƒ: ko-\, ssje-P, jo-P, kp-\n-X, kp\n, km-Zn-Jv, jm-\n, \ujm-Zv.

_m-e³

]q-t°mw: s]-cn-ßf - w {Km-a∏ - © - m-bØ - v ap≥ {]kn-U‚p-am-b ]n ]n Ip™n-aq-k am-Ãd - p-sS-bpw J-Zo-Pb - p-sS-bpw a-I≥ ]p-Ø≥-]p-cb - n¬ A-ivd - ^v (45). `m-cy: _p-jvd - .

{_-“-aw-K-ew: G-dwIp-f-Øn¬ cm-a≥ (68). kw-kv-Im-cw \-S-Øn. `m-cy: c-a-Wn. a-°ƒ: {]-km-Zv, {]-Zo]v, {]-Pn-X. a-cp-a-°ƒ: \n-j, {]n-b, kp-tc-jv.

hn-P-b³ h¿-°-e: ]p-Ø≥-N-¥ A-°-c-°p-∂n¬ ho-´n¬ hn-P-b≥ (78).

k-Xo-jv ta-t\m³ sh-fp-Øq¿: \-¥n-e-Øv k-Xo-jv ta-t\m≥(52). kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v cm-hnse H-º-Xn-\v ]q-¶p-∂w ]m-d-tΩ-°m-hv im-¥n-L´n¬. `m-cy: hn-P-b-e-£van.

ap-l-½-Zv-Ip-«n

sh-≈-d-S: C-¥y≥ \m-j\¬ tIm-¨-{K-kv (sF) B-cy≥-tIm-Sv a-fi-ew {]-kn-U‚m-bn Zo¿-L-Imew tk-h-\w A-\p-„n-® X-¶-∏≥ (80). -kw-kv-Im-c N-S-ßn¬ tI-{μ-a-{¥n iin-X-cq¿, F Sn tPm¿-Pv Fw-.F¬.F, U-]yq-´n kv-]o-°¿ F≥ i-‡≥, X-ºm-\q¿ c-hn, Pn-√m ]©m-b-Øv {]-kn-U‚ v A≥-k-Pn-Xm d-k¬, sI.]n.kn.kn sk-{I-´-dn B¿ h¬-k-e≥, tkm-fa≥ A-e-Iv-kv, hn-P-b-N{μ≥, Z-kv-X-Io¿ ]-s¶-SpØp. ssh-Io-´v \m-en-\v H-‰-tiJ-c-aw-K-ew P-Mv-j-\n¬ Iq-Sn-b A-\p-tim-N-\ tbm-Kw F Sn tPm¿-Pv Fw.F¬.F D-Zv-Lm-S-\w sN-bv-Xp. a-fi-ew {]-knU‚ v th-e-∏≥ \m-b¿ A-[y-£-X h-ln-® tbmK-Øn¬ hn-hn-[ cm-{„ob kmw-kv-Im-cn-I km-aqln-I t\-Xm-°ƒ kwkm-cn-®p. `m-cy: k-n-knen. a-°ƒ: kp-io-e, t{Xky, ]p-jv-]w, kv-‰o-^≥, tPm-bn, P-kv-‰n≥.

Xn-cq-c-ßm-Sn: sIm-Sn™n I-Sp-hm-fq¿ ]-tcX-\m-b ]-b-°-c sam-bvXo-s‚ `m-cy C-Øm-®p (82). a-°ƒ: Ip-™o-Zp (Pn±), ]-tc-X-\m-b tIm-b. a-cp-a-°ƒ: P-ao-e, J-ZoP.

Xn-cp-\m-hm-b: F-S-°pfw Im-Z-\-ßm-Sn-bn-se Ip-‰n-∏-d-ºn¬ ap-l-Ω-ZvIp-´n (68). `m-cy: dw-e. a°ƒ: lp-kbv≥, ap-kv-X^, A-–p- -a-Zv, i-d-^p∂o-k, J-Zo-P, Xm-ln-d, D-Ωp-ssd-lm-\-Øv, dw-eØv, \n-km-ap-±o≥. a-cp-a°ƒ: J-Zo-P, kp-sse-J, k-eo-\, ap-l-Ω-Zv-Ip-´n.

kp-io-e sI \m-bÀ

I-eym-Wn

Ip-ªp-Ir-jv-W-]n-Å

N-h-d: ap-Ip-μ-]p-cw apg-ßn-\m¬ (sIm-´p-Im´p In-g-°-Xn¬) ]-tc-X\-m-b Ip-am-c-s‚ `m-cy I-eym-Wn(88). a-°ƒ: im-¥, Xp-f-ko[-c≥, B-\-μ≥, c-tai≥, k-c-kz-Xn, ]-tcX-\m-b i-in-[-c≥. a-cp-a-°ƒ: hn-P-b-Ω, kp-Ip-am-c≥, X-¶-a-Wn, an-\n, sse-e, c-Lp.

I-√-d: ap-√-°-c Ir-jvW hn-em-k-Øn¬ Ip™p-Ir-jv-W-]n-≈ (80). `m-cy: Ir-jv-W-Ω. a°ƒ: kp-\n¬-Ip-am¿, _n-Pp. a-cp-a-°ƒ: A-izXn, {]n-b.

C-¯m-¨p

sIm-√w: I-cn-t°m-Sv sNdp-h-≈n-bn¬ ho-´n¬ ]tc-X-\m-b B¿ sI \m-bcp-sS `m-cy kp-im-e sI \m-b¿ (68). a-°ƒ: ]-tc-X-\m-b km_p sI \m-b¿, ap-Po-_v sI \m-b¿, cm-ap sI \mb¿, hm-kp sI \m-b¿. acp-a-Iƒ: c-iv-an ap-Po-_v.

A-tim-I-³ am-ÌÀ hm-Wn-ta¬: Ip-dp-ht¥-cn bp.]n kv-Iqƒ A[ym-]-I≥ hn-jv-Wp-aw-Ke-sØ ]m-fiy‚-hn-S A-tim-I≥ am-ÿ (49). `m-cy: jn-_n-P (_yq´ojy≥ I-°-´n¬). a°ƒ: A-a-b-jn-t‚m, FUzn≥- B≥-{Un≥.

cm-a³-Ip-«n h-Sp-X-e: tN¿-Ø-e \-Zv h-Øp \-K¿ a-S-Øn-X-d \-I¿-Øn¬ cm-a≥-Ip-´n (70). `m-cy: im-¥. a-°ƒ: ssj-Pp, sse-Pp, ssj-a.

imcZ ]mWm-h≈n: Xr-®m-´pIp-fw Xp-cp-Øn `m-Kw s\-bv-ti-cn¬ c-ho{μssI-a-fp-sS `m-cy im-c-Z (54). a°ƒ: cay, tc-J. a-cp-a°ƒ: kp-[o¿ Ipam¿, k-t¥mjv.

C-kv-a-m-bnÂ-Ip-«n a-ßm-´p-]p-ew: ap-Xp-°m´n¬ C-kv-am-bn¬-Ip-´n (90). a-°ƒ: ^m-Øn-a, B-ky.

J-Zo-P In-g-t°m-Øv: I-t®-cnap-°n-se aq-°≥am-°nbn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b A–p-¿d-lvam≥Ip-´n-bpsS `m-cy J-Zo-P (88).

^nen-¸v Ipa-fn: C-e-hp-¶¬ tbml-m≥ ^n-en-∏v(82). kwkv-Im-cw C∂p ssh-Io-´v \m-en-\v Ipa-fn A-∏kvtXm-en-Iv s]-¥-t°m-kvXv ]-≈n sk-an-tØ-cnbn¬. `mcy: ]-tc-Xbm-b ta-cn. a-°ƒ:]m-ÿ tPm, amXyp, kPn, en n, Pm≥kn, ]-tc-X\mb tPm-k^v.

tPmÀ-Pv tPm-k-^v

A-¶-½ hÀ-Ko-kv

ssh-°w: Im-´p-a-\ tPm¿-Pv tPm-k-^v (Ipt™-´≥-˛82). kw-kv-Imcw C-∂v cm-hn-se 10\v sk‚ v tPm-k-^v s^mtdm-\ ]-≈n-bn¬. `m-cy: t_-_n, I-dp-Ip-‰n ss]\m-S-Øv Ip-Spw-_mw-Kw. a-°ƒ: tPm¿-Pv(_m_p), tPm-kn, jn-Ωn, sd-kn tdm-_n≥-k¨. acp-a-°ƒ: sP-kn Ip-fwIp-Øn-bn¬, A-Xn-c-ºpg, eq-bn-kv tPm-k-^v ss]-\m-S-Øv I-dp-Ip-‰n, tUm. tXm-a-kv sI. amXyp a-‰-Øn¬ (bp.Fkv.F.), tdm-_n≥-k¨ B‚-Wn ta-t®-cn¬.

Ip-e-ti-J-c-aw-K-ew: ]m-S-Øp-]-d-ºn¬ ]tc-X-\m-b h¿-Ko-kns‚ `m-cy A-∂-Ω h¿Ko-kv (90). kw-kv-Im-cw am¿-®v H∂n-\v cm-hn-se 11˛-\v sN-ºv sk‚ v tXm-a-kv bm-t°m-_m-b ]-≈nbn¬. a-°ƒ: tXm-a-kv (bp.F-kv.F.), eo-emΩ (bp.F-kv.F.), tPm¨ (bp.F-kv.F.), ]u-tem-kv a¿-®‚ v (sN-ºv), tPm¿-Pv (bp.F-kv.F), sP-kn. a-cp-a-°ƒ: X-¶-Ω Koh¿-Ko-kv, tPm-b-Ω, tacn-°p-™v, {_n-Pn-‰v, tPm-bn-°p-´n.

13 Im-c-sâ Xn-tcm-[m-\w 19 hÀ-j-¯n-\p-ti-jw tem-I -`-£y-kw-L-S-\-bp-am-bn [m-c-W sIm-e-]m-X-I-sa-¶p sX-fn-ªp; {]-Xn A-d-Ìn sIm-®n: 19 h¿-jw ap-ºv Im-WmXm-b 13Im-c≥ sIm√-s∏-´-XmsW∂p sX-fn-™p.- {]-Xn A-dÃn¬. N-ß-\m-t»-cn a-[p-aq-ebn¬ hn-iz-\m-Y≥ B-Nm-cn-bpsS a-I≥ a-lm-tZ-h-s‚ Xn-tcm[m-\-am-Wv ss{Iw-{_m-©v At\z-j-W-Øn¬ sIm-e-]m-X-Iam-sW-∂p sX-fn-™-Xv. kw-`-hØn¬ N-ß-\m-t»-cn a-©m-Sn-°c C-f-ap-dn-bn¬ ho-´n¬ l-cn-Ipam-dn(D-Æn-˛41)s\ F-d-Wm-Ipfw ss{Iw-{_m-©v F-®v.F-®v.Uªyp. c-≠v A-d-Ãv sN-bv-Xp. 1995 k-]v-Xw-_¿ F-´n-\m-Wv a-lm-tZ-h-s\ Im-Wm-Xm-b-Xv. hn-iz-\m-Y≥ B-Nm-cn-bp-sS ]cm-Xn-bn¬ N-ß-\m-t»-cn t]meo-kv tIsk-SpØp. C-Xn-\n-sS

a-lm-tZ-h≥ I-kv-‰-Un-bn-eps≠-∂pw ]-Ww \¬-I-W-sa∂pw `o-j-Wn-s∏-Sp-Øn- hn-izm\m-Y≥ B-Nm-cn-°p I-Øp-Iƒ e-`n-®p. XpS¿-∂v hn-iz\m-Y-s‚ Bh- i y- { ]- I mcw 1996 P-\ph-cn c-≠n-\v A-∂-sØ ap- J y- a - { ¥n l-cn-Ip-am-¿ tI-kt\z-jWw ss{Iw-{_m-©n-\p hn-´p. ]ptcm-K-Xn-bp-≠m-hm-Xn-cp-∂-Xns\ Xp-S¿-∂v C-h¿ A-t\z-jWw A-h-km-\n-∏n-®p-sIm-≠v 2001 s^-{_p-h-cn 17\v N-ß-\mt»-cn Pp-Uo-jy¬ H-∂mw ¢m-kv

a-Pn-kv-t{S-‰v tIm-S-Xn-bn¬ dnt]m¿-´v \¬-In. C-Xn-s\-Xn-tc hn-iz-\m-Y≥ ssl-t°m-S-Xn-sb k-ao-]n-°p-I-bpw ssl-t°m-SXn- D-Ø-c-hv {]-Im-c-w F-d-WmIp-fw ss{Iw-{_m-©v F-®v.F®v.U-ªyp. c-≠v F-kv.]n sI Pn ssk-aWns‚ t\-Xr-Xz-Øn¬ tI-kv A-t\z-j-Ww G-s‰-Sp-°pI-bm-bn-cp∂p. a-lm-tZ-h≥ [-cn-®n-cp-∂ 10 {Kmw Xq-°-ap-≈ kz¿-W-am-essI-°-em-°p-∂-Xn-\m-bm-Wv a[p-aq-e PMvj-\n¬ ssk-°nƒ I-S \-S-Øn-bncp-∂ l-cn-Ip-am¿ sIm-e\-S-Øn-b-sX-∂v ss{Iw {_m-©v ]-d-™p. a-lm-tZ-h-s‚ am-Xm-]n-Xm-°ƒ C-t∏mƒ Po-hn®n-cn-∏n-√.

Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-cw: kw-ÿm-\sØ s]m-Xp-hn-X-c-Wkw-hn[m-\w \-ho-I-cn-°p-∂-Xn-s‚ `m-K-am-bn \-S-∏m-°p-∂ k-ºq¿W I-w-]yq-´¿h¬-°-c-W ]-≤Xn-bp-sS \-S-Øn-∏n-\p-≈ kmt¶-Xn-I-k-lm-bw e-`y-am-°p∂-Xn-\v `-£y-s]m-Xp-hn-X-c-W h-Ip-∏pw tem-I-`-£y-kw-L-S\-bp-am-bn [m-c-Wm-]-{Xw H-∏ph-®p. ssX-°m-Sv K-h. K-Ãv lukn¬ a-{¥n A-\q-]v tP-°-_ns‚ km-∂n-[y-Øn¬ \-S-∂ N-Sßn¬ `-£y-˛-s]m-Xp-hn-X-c-W h-Ip-∏v sk-{I-´-dn kp-a≥_n-√bpw thƒ-Uv ^p-Uv t{]m-{Kmw I¨-{Sn sl-Uv ssa-°¬ P≥k-\p-am-Wv [m-c-Wm-]-{XØn¬ H-∏p-h-®-Xv. P-Ãn-kv hm-[zm I-Ωo-j≥ dnt]m¿-´n-s‚ A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ kp-{]nw-tIm-S-Xn hn-[n-°v A-\p-

kr-X-am-bn tI-c-f-Øn¬ \-S-∏m°p-∂ k-ºq¿-W I-w-]yq-´¿h¬-°-c-W ]-≤-Xn-bn¬ kmt¶-Xn-I D-]-tZ-iw \¬-Ip-I F∂-Xm-Wv U-ªyp.F-^v.]n \¬Ip-∂ tk-h-\w. k-ºq¿-W I-w-]yq-´¿-h¬-°c-W ]-≤-Xn-bp-sS L-S-I-ß-fmb Kp-W-t`m-‡m-°-sf I-s≠ج, k-ssπ sN-bn≥ am-t\Pv-sa‚ v, \ym-b-hn-e tI-{μ-ßfp-sS (td-j≥ I-S-Iƒ) B-[p\o-I-c-W-hpw em-`-I-c-am-°-epw Kp-W-t`m-‡r ]-cm-Xn]-cn-lm-ckw-hn-[m-\w F-∂n-h-bnepw tdj≥ I-S-I-fp-sS B-[p-\o-I-cW-hpw em-`-I-c-am-°-epw F-∂ L-S-I-Øn¬ km-t¶-Xn-I D-]tZ-iw, {]-hr-Øn-]-cn-N-bw, hn-ZKv-[-sc \¬-I¬ Xp-S-ßn-b klm-b-ßfpw U-ªyp.F-^v.]n \¬-Ipw.

H-‰-∏m-ew: ap≥-Im-e kn-\n-am \n¿-am-Xm-hpw F-gp-ØpIm-c-\pw \-S-\p-am-b cm-a≥ \-ºn-b-Øv (90) A-¥-cn®p. H-‰-∏m-ew ]-Øw-Ip-f-sØ \-ºn-b-Øvho-´n-em-bncp-∂p A-¥yw. {io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp-hn-s\ B-kv-]-Z-am°n 1961¬ \n¿-an-® Im¬-∏m-Sp-Iƒ B-Wv cm-a≥ Ct±lw \n¿-an-® kn-\na. G-sd -{i-≤bm-I¿jn-® Cu Nn-{X-Øn-\v \m-j-\¬ C‚-t{K-j≥ A-hm¿-Uv e-`n-®n-´p≠v. tb-ip-Zm-kn-s\ ]n-∂Wn Km-b-Icw-K-Øv FØn-®-Xv cm-a≥ \-ºn-bØn-s‚ Cu Nn-{X-Øneq-sS-bm-sW-∂ {]tXy-I-X-bp-ap-≠v. ]n∂o-Sv kz-¥-am-bn kn-\na \n¿-an-®n-s√-¶n-epw \n-c-h-[n kn-\n-a-I-fn¬ sN-dp-Xpw h-ep-Xp-am-b th-jan-´p. \n-W-a-Wn-™ Im¬-]m-Sp-Iƒ, Im-]m-en-I, \n-dam-e F-∂o kn-\n-a-Iƒ C-Xn¬ Nn-e-Xp-am-{Xw. Im¬∏m-Sp-Iƒ ap-dn-∏m-Sp-Iƒ F-∂ t]-cn¬ kz-¥w B-flI-Y- c-Nn-®n-´p-≠v. A-Sp-Ø Im-e-Øm-bn Im-Øn-cp-∂ Im-ew, kv-am-c-I-in-e-Iƒ Xp-S-ßn G-Xm-\pw ko-cn-bep-I-fn-epw A-`n-\-bn-®p. Xr-iq¿ I-≠-imw-I-S-hv kz-tZ-in-bm-b \-ºn-bØv 1968em-Wv H-‰-∏m-e-Øv F-Øn-b-Xv. kv-Iqƒ hnZym-`ym-kw I-≠-imw-I-S-hn-em-bn-cp-∂p. kn-temWn¬ sa-{Sn-°p-te-j-\pw a-lm-cm-Pm-kv tIm-f-Pn¬ C‚¿-ao-Un-b-‰pw ]q¿-Øn-bm-°n. Km-‘n-Pn `-Iv-X\m-bn-cp-∂ Ct±lw s]m-Xp-cw-K-Øv k-Po-h-am-bn-cp∂p. A-\-ß-\-Sn a-fi-ew tIm¨-{K-kv {]-kn-U‚ v, A-\-ß-\-Sn {Km-a∏©m-b-Øv {]-kn-U‚ v F-∂o ÿm-\-ß-fpw h-ln-®n-´p-≠v. `m-cy: ]-tc-X-bm-b ]-flm-h-Xn-b-Ω. a-°ƒ: _nμp, _o-\ (H-‰-∏m-ew tªm-°v ]-©m-b-Øv kv-‰m≥UnMv I-Ωn-‰n sN-b¿-t]-gv-k≥), F≥ B¿ c-Rv-Pn-Xv (kn.]n.Fw tem-°¬ I-Ωn-‰n Aw-Kw). a-cp-a-°ƒ: kzm-an-°p-´n, cm-P≥, do-\.

]-cn-t¡-äp Nn-InÂ-k-bn-en-cp-¶ bp-hm-hv a-cn¨p

I-f-a-t»cn: Hm-t´mbpw Imdpw Iq-´n-bn-Sn®v A-]I-S-Øn¬ ]-cnt°-‰v Nn-In¬-k-bn-embn-cp-∂p bp-hm-hv acn®p. a-™p-Ω¬ aq-e∏-d-ºn¬ X-¶-∏≥ aI≥ jn-en≥(40) BWv a-cn-®Xv. H-cp am-kw ap-ºv I-f-at»-cn Im¿-t_m\-Ww P-Mv-j-\n¬ sh-®m-Wv A-]I-Sw \-S-∂Xv. `mcy: {]k-∂. aIƒ: {io-tZ-hn.

B-Zn-hm-kn- bp-hm-hv a-cn¨p

Ipa-fn: s]-cn-bm¿ I-Sp-hm k-t¶-X-Øn-\p-≈n¬ BZnhm-kn bp-hm-hv Ipg-™p ho-Wp a-cn®p. ap-cn-°m-´pIp-Sn kz-tZ-in kp-[o-jv(26)B-Wv a-cn-®Xv. C∂se D-®-tbm-sS-bm-Wv kw-`hw. s]-cn-bm¿ I-Sp-hm k-t¶X-Øn-\p-≈n-se ap√-°p-Sn-bn¬ Im-´p-Xo X-Sbp∂Xn-\m-bn ^b¿-sse≥ \n¿-am-W-Øn¬ G-¿s∏-´n-cp-∂ sXm-gn-em-fn-bm-Wv kp-[o-jv. C∂-se D-®-tbm-sS im-cocn-I A-kz-kv-X-X-Iƒ D-≠m-b-Xn-s\ Xp-S¿-∂p Ipg-™p ho-gp-I-bm-bncp∂-p-. G-Xm\pw k-a-b-Øn-\p-≈n¬ C-bmƒ a-cn-®-p. ar-X-tZ-lw Ip-a-fn-bn-se kz-Im-cy B-ip-]-{Xn-bn-se tam¿-®-dn-bn¬. Ipa-fn a-m-°p-Sn kz-tZ-inbm-b Ip™p-tam-fm-Wv `mcy. C-h¿°v aq-∂p-am-kw {]m-bap-≈ H-cp Ip-´-nbp-≠v.

I-S-_m-[y-X aq-ew Kp-fn-I I-gn-¨v _m-¦v Po-h-\-¡m-c³ a-cn-¨p

Im-´m-°-S: hn-f-∏n¬-im-e sIm-√w-tIm-Ww A-a¿-®n ho-´n¬ cm-[m-Ir-jv-W≥ \m-b¿ (54) B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. C-°-gn-™ Xn-¶-fm-gv-N 40 Hm-fw Kp-fn-I-Iƒ I-gn-®-Xns\ Xp-S¿-∂v sa-Un-°¬ tIm-f-Pv B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ NnIn¬-k-bn-en-cn-s° C-∂-se \m-tem-sS-bm-Wv a-cn-®Xv. ]q-h-®¬ F-kv._n.Sn-bn-se Po-h-\-°m-c-\m-Wv. arX-tZ-lw sa-Un-°¬ tIm-f-Pv tam¿-®-dn-bn¬ hn-f-∏n¬im-e t]m-en-kv tI-sk-Sp-Øp. `m-cy: im-¥-Ip-am-cn.

im-´n-a-μn-c-¯n-se A-t´-hm-kn Zp-cq-l- km-l-N-cy-¯n a-cn-¨p

B-e-∏p-g: \-K-c-k-`-bp-sS im-¥n-a-μn-c-Øn-se At¥-hm-kn Zp-cq-l-km-l-N-cy-Øn¬ a-cn-®p. B-en-t»cn im-¥n-a-μn-c-Øn¬ aq-∂p-h¿-j-am-bn I-gn-bp-∂ aÆ-t©-cn kz-tZin B-en-_m-h-bm-Wv (90) a-cn-®-Xv. C∂se cm-hn-se B-dp-a-Wn-tbm-sS-bm-Wv kw-`-hw. i-–w-tI-´v Hm-Sn-sb-Øn-bt∏mƒ B-en-_m-h h-cm¥-bn¬ ho-Wp-In-S-°p-∂Xv I-s≠∂pw F-gp-t∂¬∏n-®-t∏mƒ A-\-°-an-√mbn-cp-∂p-sh-∂p-am-Wv Poh-\-°m¿ ]-d-™-Xv. F-∂m¬, s\-‰n-bp-sS h-e-Xp-h-i-Øm-bn ap-dn-th‰-Xv kw-i-b-Øn-\n-S-bm°n-. B-g-Øn-ep-≈ ap-dn-hn¬ \n-∂p c-‡w hm¿-∂n-cp∂p. ]-cn-k-c-Øp-≈ tUm-Iv-S¿ F-Øn-bm-Wv a-c-Ww ÿn-co-I-cn-®-Xv. \m-´p-Im-cp-sS ]-cm-Xn-sb Xp-S¿-∂v ku-Øv kn.sF. jm-Pn-tam≥ tPm-k-^n-s‚ t\-XrXz-Øn¬ t]menkv F-Øn ]cn-tim-[-\ \SØn. t^m-d≥-kn-Iv hn-`m-K-w sX-fn-hp-Iƒ ti-J-cn-®p. ar-XtZ-lw B-e-∏p-g sa-Un-°¬ tIm-f-Pv B-ip-]-{Xnbn¬ t]m-kv-‰v-tam¿-´-Øn-\-b-®p. B-kv-Xv-a tcm-Kn-bm-bn-cp-∂p B-en-_m-h. I-tk-cbn¬ \n-∂v F-gp-t∂¬-°p-∂-Xn-\n-sS Ip-g-™p-hoW-t∏mƒ X-e I-´-nen-s‚ t_mƒ-´n¬ X-´n ]-cn-t°-‰psh-∂v kw-i-bn-°p-∂-Xm-bm-Wv Po-h-\-°m¿ t]m-enkn-t\m-Sv ]-d-™-Xv. ho-gv-N-bn¬ izm-k-X-S- w D≠mb-Xm-Wv a-c-W-Im-c-W-sa-∂m-Wv t]m-kv-‰v-tam¿-´-Ønse {]m-Y-an-I kq-N-\-sb-∂v t]menkv ]-d-™p. B¥-cn-Imh-b-h-߃ hn-i-Z]-cn-tim-[-\-°v A-b-®n´p≠v. ar-X-tZ-lw t]m-kv-‰v-tam¿-´-Øn-\p-ti-jw h-´∏-≈n kv-‰-Un k¿-°n-fn-\v ap-ºn¬ s]m-Xp-Z¿-i-\Øn-\v h-®p. Xp-S¿-∂v a-Æ-t©-cn-bn-se k-tlm-Z-cnbp-sS ho-´n¬ F-Øn-®-ti-jw ]-Sn-™msd Pp-am-a-kvPn-Zv J-_¿-ÿm-\n¬ J-_-d-S-°n.

F³-.F-k.v-F-kv-. P-\-dÂ- sk-{I-«-dntIm-am-fn-sb-¶v- sI.F-kv-.bp-. {]-kn-UâvsXm-Sp-]p-g: a-lm-∑m-cp-sS ap-JØv- I-cn-sIm-≠v- tIm-ewh-c-bv°p-∂ tIm-am-fn-bm-Wv- F≥-.Fkv-.F-kv-. P-\-d¬- sk-{I-´-dnkp-Ip-am-c≥-\m-b-sc-∂v- sI.Fkv-.bp-. kw-ÿm-\ {]-kn-U‚ vhn- F-kv- tPm-bn.- km-ap-Zm-bn-Icw-K-Øv- k-t¥m-jv- ]-fin-‰ns‚ \n-e-hm-c-Øn-te-°v- kp-Ipam-c≥-\m-b¿- A-[∏-Xn-s®-∂pw hn F-kv tPm-bn sXm-Sp-]p-gbn¬ hm¿-Øm-k-tΩ-f-\-Øn¬ ]-d-™p. kp-Ip-am-c≥-\m-b-cpw- C-Sp°n- _n-j-∏v- am-Xyp- B-\n-°p-gn°m-´n-epw- F-kv-.F≥-.Un-.]n.tbm-Kw P-\-d¬ sk-{I-´-dn- sh≈m-∏-≈n- \-tS-i-\pw- \-S-Øp∂ {]-kv-Xm-h-\-I-fpw- C-S-s]-Sep-I-fpw- A-Xn-cp-hn-Sp-I-bm-Wv.a-∂-Øp ]-fl-\m-`≥ F≥.-F-

kv.-F-kn-s‚ kz-Im-cy kz-Ø√. A-t±-lw \-thm-∞m-\ \m-bIcn¬ H-cm-fm-Wv. tZ-io-b{]ÿm-\-Øn-s‚ kw-`m-h-\-bm-b a-∂-Øp ]-fl-\m-`-s\ kp-Ip-amc≥ \m-b¿ kz-Im-cykz-Øm°m≥ {i-an-°p-I-bm-Wv. a-lm\m-b a-∂-Øp ]-fl-\m-`-\pw am\y-\m-b \m-cm-b-W-∏-Wn-°-cpw C-cp-∂ I-tk-c-bn¬ tIm-am-fnsb t]m-se kp-Ip-am-c≥-\m-b¿ C-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv. F≥.-F-kv.-Fkv. B-ÿm-\-Øv ]p-√p- ]-dn°m≥ h-∂ kp-Ip-am-c≥ \m-b¿ C-∂p t]m-∏m-sW-∂v ]-d-s™¶n¬ \m-sf ]-S-t®m≥ B-sW∂v {]-Jym-]n-°pwap-ºv s]-cp-∂bn¬ \n-∂v C-bm-sf ]-Sn-b-S-®p ]n-fiw h-bv-°m≥ F≥.-F-kv.F-kv. t\-Xr-Xzw X-øm-dm-hWsa∂pw tPmbn ]d-™p.


8

thÀ-]mSv

KANNUR

27 s^{_p-h-cn 2014 hymgw

cm-a³ \-¼n-b-¯v A-´-cn-¨p A-i-dv -^v

Ip-ª-¼p- \m-bÀ

l-\o-^ dm-hp-¯À

t{X-kym-½

cm-tP-{μ³

Im-cn-¨n-b-½

_m-e³

c-ta-i³

]q-t°mw: ap-kve - nw eo-Kv t\-Xm-hpw s]-cn-ßf - w {Km-a∏ - © - m-bØ - v ap≥ {]kn-U‚p-am-b ]n ]n Ip™n-aq-k am-Ãd - p-sS-bpw J-Zo-Pb - p-sS-bpw a-I≥ ]pØ≥-]p-cb - n¬ A-ivd - ^ - v (45). `m-cy: _p-jvd - . a°ƒ: an-kv_ - m-lv (hnZym¿-Yn, ]m-Syw K-h. lb¿-sk-°≥-Ud - n kvIqƒ), an≥-lm-Pv (hn-Zym¿Yn, ]n.B¿.Fw.F-®v,Fkv.F-kv). k-tlm-Zc - ߃: kp-sse-am≥, Ako-kv, ap-lΩ - Z- e - n (k-_v {S-jd - n, am-\¥ - h - m-Sn), lmP-d, B-bn-i, ku-ZØ - v.

\o-te-iz-cw-: I-cn-¥-fw Io-gv-am-e-bn-se a-\n-tbcn Ip-™-ºp \m-b¿ (92). `m-cy: ]-tc-X-bm-b Ip-dp-hm-´v Ip-™-Ωm-dΩ. a-°ƒ: cm-a-N-{μ≥, Ip-™n-Ir-jv-W≥ (sI-.F-k.-v-C.-_n, `o-a-\-Sn), ap-c-fn, Im-¿-Xym-b-\n. acp-a-°ƒ: Ip-™-ºp \mb¿, iym-a-f, an-\n. ktlm-Z-c-߃: ]m¿-hXnb-Ω, D-Ø-Ω, ]-tc-Xcm-b tI-fp \m-b-¿, IΩm-c≥ \m-b¿, N-¥q™n \m-b¿, Nn-cp-tX-bn A-Ω.

F-e-∏p-≈n: am-bw-¶p-fw tNm-gn-bw-]m-°v ap-l-ΩZn-s‚ a-I≥ l-\o-^ dmhp-Ø¿ (98). `m-cy: ]-tcX-bm-b sa-l-_q-_. a°ƒ: C-kv-a-mCu¬, _Z-dp-±o≥, k-eow, _¬°o-kv, ^m-Øn-a, B-bnjm-∏m, dm-hn-b, \q¿-Plm≥, d-“-Øv. a-cp-a°ƒ: lm-Pn-d, \-kv-ko\, ^-ko-e, I-cow, ^mdq-Jv, A-–p¬ k-Øm¿, jm-lp¬ l-ao-Zv. J-_-dS-°w C-∂v cm-hn-se 11\v ]m-d F-dm≥-t©-cn ]≈n J-_-¿ÿm-\n¬.

s]-cn-tßmw: I-cn-¥-SsØ C-S-Ø-´ cm-tP{μ≥ (55). `m-cy: iy-m-a-f. a-°ƒ: A-cp¨-cm-Pv, A\p-{io. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: c-ho-{μ≥, cm-[m-Ir-jvW≥ (dn-´. s]-cn-tßmw k-_v c-Pn-kv-{Sm¿ Hm-^nkv), c-Xv-\-a-Wn, cm-P-aWn (C-cp-h-cpw U¬ln), A-Uz. cm-tP-jv C-SØ-´ (sN-ss∂), ]-tc-Xbm-b c-a-Wn.

\o-te-iz-cw-: s\-√n-b-Sp°w tKm-]m-e-s‚ In-fn-bfw an-®-`q-an-bn-se Im-cn®n-b-Ω (70). a-°ƒ: Aw_n-I, _m-_p, c-a-Wn, tim-`, c-P-\n, \-fn-\n. acp-a-°ƒ: \m-cm-b-Wn, tam-l-\≥, cm-P≥, Ir-jvW≥.

am-ln: Nm-e-°-c, tN-cn°p-∂p-Ω¬ dn-´. kv-]n∂n-Mv an¬ Po-h-\-°mc≥ kn _m-e≥ (78). `mcy: I-a-e. a-°ƒ: c-Xn, ca, c-Po-{μ≥ (_mw-•q¿). a-cp-a-°ƒ: hn-P-b≥, apIp-μ≥, _n-μp.

am-´q¬: t\m¿-Øv P-ko¥ kv-t‰m-∏n-\p k-ao-]sØ ]-tc-X-\m-b ]-fl\m-`-s‚-bpw No-‰n¬ Pm\-In-bp-sS-bpw a-I≥ kn c-ta-i≥ (48). `m-cy: kp\n-X. a-°ƒ: {ip-Xn, kqcy, kq-c-Pv. k-tlm-Z-c߃: c-hn (Ip-sshØv), a-Wn-tam-l≥ (Hmt´m ss{U-h¿).

\m-cm-b-W³

kp`-{Z hm-c-kymÀ

X-e-t»-cn: am-\-¥-hm-Snbn-se t{X-kym-Ω B‚-Wn B-cy-∏-≈n¬ (63). `¿-Øm-hv: B‚Wn B-cy-∏-≈n¬. a°ƒ: A-\n-e (J-Ø¿), A-Po-jv B‚-Wn, tUm. A-`n-em-jv B‚Wn (bq-tdm-f-Pn-kv-‰v, Cμn-cm-Km-μn tlm-kv-]n‰¬, X-e-t»-cn), A¿-®\ (e-≠≥). a-cp-a-°ƒ: tSm-an Ip-∏-Øm-\-Øv (J-Ø¿), do-\ G-ewIp∂-Øv, tUm. am-b A-`nem-jv (e-≠≥). kw-kvIm-cw C-∂p ssh-Io-´v aq-∂n-\v am-\-¥-hm-Sn Su¨ N¿-®v sk-an-tØcn-bn¬.

I-eym-Wn

]-ø-∂q¿: B-Zy-Im-e I]-ø∂ - q¿: I-≠¶ - m-fn-bnΩyq-Wn-Ãv ]m¿-´n {]-h¿se sIm-bn-te-cn-®n I-eym- Ø-I≥ G-cyw B-e-°mWn (85). `¿-Øm-hv: ]-tc-X- s´ tIm-´-°o¬ \m-cm-b\m-b an-∂m-S≥ tKm-]mW≥ (65). e≥. a-°ƒ: A-Ωn-Wn, b- `m-cy: ]p-Xn-b ho-´n¬ Itim-Z, \m-Wn, tZ-hn, e-£v- eym-Wn. a-°ƒ: kp-`, a-W≥. kp-a. a-cp-a-°ƒ: ka-cp-a° - ƒ: \m-cm-bW - ≥ t¥m-jv, D-Æn. k-tlm-Z(dn-´. sd-bn¬-th, tIm-gnt°m-Sv), am-[h - ≥ (dn-´. {]- c-߃: A-Nyp-X≥, ][m-\m-[ym-]I - ≥), tI-fp, Xva-\m-`≥, _m-e≥, btim-Z, I-eym-Wn. Ir-jvW - ≥, t{]-ae - X - .

]p-Ø-\-Øm-Wn: ]-tcX\m-b ]p¬-∏-‰ hm-cnbXvv am-[-h hm-cy-cp-sS `m-cy s\√phm-b hm-cnbØv kp`-{Z hm-c-kym¿ (76). a°ƒ: ap-c-fo-[-c≥ (ImSmºp-g tZ-h-kzw, kq-{]≠v), D-Æn-Ir-jvW≥ (B-cyssh-Zy\n-ebw, a[pssc). a-cp-a-°ƒ: a[p-aXn, tPymXn.

Ip-ªn-cm-a³ \m-bÀ ]-ø-∂q¿: sN-dp-hn-t®cn-bn-se C-S-h≥ ]p-Xnbho-´n¬ Ip-™-n-cma≥ \m-b¿ (83). `m-cy: ]p-fp-°q¬ Im¿Xym-b-\n-b-Ω. a-°ƒ: \-fn-\n, {]-k-∂. a-cp-a°ƒ: k-Zm-\-μ≥]n≈n, Ir-jv-W-Zm-kv.

tPm¬-

J-eo-ep-Àd-lv-am³

F-S-∏mƒ: I-≠-\-Iw B-\-°-c tdm-Un¬ DØpw-ßm-\-I-Øv J-eoep-¿d-lvam≥ (65). `m-cy: a-dn-bw B-an-\. a-°ƒ: jm-Pn Iq-Øp-]-d-ºv: I-Æ-∏-d(A-_q-Z-_n), kn-bm-kvº-Øv h-cn-t°m-fn hod-lvam≥ (A-·n-i-a-\´n¬ ]n Fw a-dn-bw (74). {io-am-\p-®n \mbÀ tk-\, s]m-∂m-\n), kIpcp-h-´q¿: Im-cm-´p-Xmgw Rv-Po-Zv, k-ao-d. a-cp-aa-°ƒ: bq-kp-^v, C-kvam-Cu¬, B-bn-i, ssk- sN-dp-°m-hn¬ {io-am-\p- °ƒ: kp-sse-am≥, dw\-_, ap-l-Ω-Zv, _-jo¿, Æn \mb¿ (ss{U-h¿ D- e, ^u-kn-b. Æn-\m-b¿-˛77). `m-cy: K-^q¿, lm-cn-kv, d-^o{ioa-Xnb-Ω ]m-d-ßm´v. ]p-jv-]-cm-P³ Jv, \u-^¬, l-ko-\. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: N-{μ≥ ]-c-∏-\-ßm-Sn: Nn-d-aw-KB-\-μ³ \mb¿, ]-tc-X\m-b _m- e-sØ In-g-t°-ho-´n¬ Iq-Øp-]-d-ºv: am-ßm-´n- e≥ \mb¿. a-°ƒ: t{]- ]p-jv-]-cm-P≥ (55). `mSw In-W-‰-n‚-hn-S-bn-se ae-X, ssje-P, {]-im-¥v cy: jo-P. I-f-cn-°m-Sv ho-´n¬ B-\- Ip-am¿, a-tl-jvIp-am¿, a-°ƒ: _n-_n≥-cm-Pv, μ≥ (39). `m-cy: im-en-\n. {]-_o-jvIp-am¿. a-cp-a_n≥-j-cm-Pv, _n-\n-Øv a-°ƒ: A-izn-\n, A-`n°ƒ: tam-l-\≥ t\m-°- cm-P≥. a-cp-a-I≥: A-\pem-jv. cq-]v (dn-bm-Zv). t©cn, D-j, kn\n. Xm-\q¿: F-d-Wm-Ip-fw Xm-\q¿ ]-\-ßm-´q-¿ sIm√w-]-d-ºn¬ tPm¨ (75). `m-cy: A-Ωp-Æn. a-°ƒ: tPm¿-Pv, km-_p, ao-\.

tZ-h-Zm-k-³ F-c-™n-∏m-ew; I-Æ®w-ho-´n¬ sI hn tZ-hZm-k≥ (81). \-S-°m-hnse Im-en-°-‰v td-Untbm k¿-ho-kv ÿm-]\w \-S-Øp-I-bm-bn-cp∂p. `m-cy: F-S-Øn¬ cmP-e-£v-an. a-°ƒ: ssjP, tPm-jn. a-cp-a-°ƒ: kp-t\m-Pv, So-\. k-tlmZ-c-߃: k-Zm-\-μ-≥, ]tc-X-\m-b {io-[-c≥.

D-½À_m-h lm-Pn I¬-∏-I-t©-cn: ]m-d-Ωe-ßm-Sn-bn-se ]q-tØ-cn D-Ω¿_m-h- lm-Pn (60). `m-cy: a-dn-bm-ap.

H-‰-∏m-ew: ap≥-Im-e kn-\n-am \n¿-am-Xm-hpw F-gpØp-Im-c-\pw \-S-\p-am-b cm-a≥ \-ºn-b-Øv (90) A¥-cn-®p. H-‰-∏m-ew ]-Øw-Ip-f-sØ \-ºn-b-Øvho-´nem-bn-cp-∂p A-¥yw. {io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp-hn-s\ Bkv-]-Z-am-°n 1961¬ \n¿-an-® Im¬-∏m-Sp-Iƒ B-Wv cm-a≥ Ct±lw \n¿-an® kn-\n-a. G-sd -{i≤bm-I¿-jn-® Cu Nn{X-Øn-\v \m-j-\¬ C‚-t{K-j≥ A-hm¿Uv e-`n-®n-´p≠v. tb-ipZm-kn-s\ ]n-∂-Wn Kmb-Icw-K-Øv F-Øn-®Xv cm-a≥ \-ºn-b-Øns‚ Cu Nn-{X-Øn-eqsS-bm-sW-∂ {]-tXyI-X-bp-ap-≠v. ]n-∂o-Sv kz-¥-am-bn kn-\n-a \n¿-an-®ns√-¶n-epw \n-c-h-[n kn-\n-a-I-fn¬ sN-dp-Xpw h-ep-Xpam-b th-j-an-´p. \n-W-a-Wn-™ Im¬-]m-Sp-Iƒ, Im]m-en-I, \n-d-am-e F-∂o kn-\n-a-Iƒ C-Xn¬ Nn-e-Xpam-{Xw. Im¬-∏m-Sp-Iƒ ap-dn-∏m-Sp-Iƒ F-∂ t]-cn¬ kz-¥w B-fl-I-Y- c-Nn-®n-´p-≠v. A-Sp-Ø Im-e-Ømbn Im-Øn-cp-∂ Im-ew, kv-am-c-I-in-e-Iƒ Xp-S-ßn G-Xm-\pw ko-cn-b-ep-I-fn-epw A-`n-\-bn-®p. Xr-iq¿ I-≠-imw-I-S-hv kz-tZ-in-bm-b \-ºn-bØv 1968em-Wv H-‰-∏m-e-Øv F-Øn-b-Xv. kv-Iqƒ hnZym-`ym-kw I-≠-imw-I-S-hn-em-bn-cp-∂p. kn-temWn¬ sa-{Sn-°p-te-j-\pw a-lm-cm-Pm-kv tIm-f-Pn¬ C‚¿-ao-Un-b-‰pw ]q¿-Øn-bm-°n. Km-‘n-Pn `-Iv-X-\mbn-cp-∂ Ct±lw s]m-Xp-cw-K-Øv k-Po-h-am-bn-cp∂p. A-\-ß-\-Sn a-fi-ew tIm¨-{K-kv {]-kn-U‚ v, A-\-ß-\-Sn {Km-a∏©m-b-Øv {]-kn-U‚ v F-∂o ÿm-\-ß-fpw h-ln-®n-´p-≠v. `m-cy: ]-tc-X-bm-b ]-flm-h-Xn-b-Ω. a-°ƒ: _nμp, _o-\ (H-‰-∏m-ew tªm-°v ]-©m-b-Øv kv-‰m≥UnMv I-Ωn-‰n sN-b¿-t]-gv-k≥), F≥ B¿ c-Rv-Pn-Xv (kn.]n.Fw tem-°¬ I-Ωn-‰n Aw-Kw). a-cp-a-°ƒ: kzm-an-°p-´n, cm-P≥, do-\.

Kp-Uv-kv Hm-t«m--bn-Sn-¨v Kr-l-\m-Y³ a-cn-¨p I-eym-Wn-b-½

A-Ðp-Àd-lvam³ lm-Pn

Iq-Øp-]-d-ºv: am-ßm´n-Sw Ip-dp-º-°-en-se {io Ir-jv-W-bn¬ ]tc-X-\m-b sN-tΩ-cn Ir-jv-W-s‚ `m-cy ]p-e∏m-Sn I-eym-Wn-b-Ω (85). a-°ƒ: \-fn-\n, N-{μ≥, h¬-k≥, \-μn-\n, kXn, tim-`. a-cp-a-°ƒ: hm-kp, tKmhn-μ≥, \m-Wp, eo-e, ]p-jv-].

Xn-cq¿: am¿-°-‰n-se hmg-°p-e I-®-h-S-°m-c-\pw tkm-jy-en-Ãv P-\-Xm Xn-cq¿ a-fi-ew ap≥- {]kn-U‚p-am-b A-∂m-c sIm-≠-®≥ ho-´n¬ A–p-¿d-lvam≥ lm-Pn (54). `m-cy: J-Zo-P. a°ƒ: j-co-^v_m-_p, \u-jm-Zv, a≥-kq-¿, keo-\, bm-k¿ A-d-^mØv, Xm-ln¿, bm-kn≥. a-cp-a-°ƒ: jw-ko-\, k\q-_n-b, A-ko-kv.

sk-bv-X-e-hn Xn-cq-c-ßm-Sn: sI-m-Sn™n A¬-A-ao≥ \K¿ ]-tc-X-\m-b Np°m≥ a-Ωp-Zp-hn-s‚ aI≥ sk-bv-X-e-hn (58). ^m-dq-Jv \-K¿ tlm´¬ Po-h-\-°m-c-\m-bncp-∂p. `m-cy: J-Zo-P. a-°ƒ: A-–p¬-k-emw, ap-lΩ-Zv km-Zn-Jv, k-°-cnb, bq-\p-kv, A-–p¬P-eo¬,A-kv-am-_n, dlvv-a-Øv, Ju-e-Øv. acp-a-°ƒ: A-\-kp-±o≥, kp-ss_-Z, dw-e.

A-b-½-Zv-Ip-«n

Xm-a-c-t»-cn: Hm-S-°p-∂v (I-Æ-∏≥-Ip-≠v ) sN{º-°p-∂-Øv A-b-Ω-ZvIp-´n (77). `m-cy: J-Zo-P. a-°ƒ: D- -bn≥ Ip-´n am-ÿ ( Pn.hn.F-®v.Fkv.F-kv, Xm-a-c-t»-cn ),A-–p-¿d-lv-am≥, bqkp-^v (Zp-_bv) , B-bni, ap-l-Ω-Zv _-jo¿ (JØ¿), C-{_m-low, hlm-_v (sN-ss∂) , d^o-Z, a-cp-a-°ƒ: i-co-^v s\-√mw-I-≠n, P-am¬ Iq-cm-Np-≠v, P-ko-\. A-_v-ZpÃ-t¡m-b jw-\, j-ao-\, k-tlm-ZtIm-gn-t°mSv: ]-≈n°- c-߃: aq-k lm-Pn, D≠n ss_-Øp¬ B-bn-  -bn≥ lm-Pn, ]-tc-Xi-_n-bn¬ Fw ]n A-_v- cm-b sam-bv-Xo≥-Ip-´nZp√-t°m-b (74). h-en-b- lm-Pn, ]m-Øp-ssΩ, Ipßm-Sn-bn-se Im-en-®m™m-®, a-dn-tbm-Ω, Ip°v sXm-gn-em-fn-bm-bn™m-an-\, Ip-™n-am-®. cp∂p. `mcy: B-bni_n. a°ƒ: P-ao-e, A- C-¯m-¨p kvv-a, j-co^v, k-eow, A- Xn-cq-c-ßm-Sn: sIm-Sn_vv-Zp¬ I-cow, kn-dm-Pp™n I-Sp-hm-fq¿ ]-tc-X±o≥, iw-kp-±o≥. a-cp\m-b ]-b-°-c sam-bv-Xoa°ƒ: sI D-kv-am≥, ap- s‚ `m-cy C-Øm-®p (82). l-Ω-ZvtIm-b, k-do-\, a-°ƒ: Ip-™o-Zp (Pn-±), k¿-Pm_n, k-eo-\, d]-tc-X-\m-b tIm-b. a-cpko-\, k-^v-kn\. a-°ƒ: P-ao-e, J-Zo-P.

ap-l-½-Zv-Ip-«n

\m-cm-bW - n-A½-

Ip-ªn-ap-l-½-Zv lm-Pn

J-Zo-P

\-^o-k

Xn-cp-\m-hm-b: F-S-°pfw Im-Z-\-ßm-Sn-bn-se Ip-‰n-∏-d-ºn¬ ap-l-Ω-ZvIp-´n (68). `m-cy: dw-e. a°ƒ: lp-kbv≥, ap-kvX-^, A-–p- -a-Zv, i-d^p-∂o-k, J-Zo-P, Xmln-d, D-Ωp-ssd-lm-\Øv, dw-e-Øv, \n-km-ap±o≥. a-cp-a-°ƒ: J-Zo-P, kp-sse-J, k-eo-\, apl-Ω-Zv-Ip-´n, A-–p¬ -dkm-Jv, ap-l-Ω-Zv, A-–p -emw, l-\o-^. ktlm-Z-c-߃: Ip™o≥ lm-Pn, D-tΩ-bn°p-´n l-÷p-Ω, B-bni-°p-´n, J-Zo-P.

sIm-bn-em-≠n: tN-at©-cn Nm-Ø\ - m-SØ - v bp sI \m-cm-bW - n-AΩ (87). `¿-Øm-hv; ]-tc-X\m-b Sn hn A-Nyp-X≥\m-b¿. a-°ƒ: _m-eI - rjvW - ≥, bp sI cm-Lh≥, X-¶w, Ko-X. a-cp-a°ƒ; {]-`m-hX - n, h-k¥ - , {io-[c - ≥, sI cm-Pt- Km]m-e≥.k-tlm-Zc - ß - ƒ: _m-e≥-\m-b¿, I-ae - m£n-AΩ - , tZ-hn-AΩ - .

Xn-cq-cß - m-Sn: sIm-Sn™n ]m-e] - m¿-°v a-WnI-≠Ø - n¬ Ip-™n-apl-ΩZ- v- lm-Pn (75). `m-cy: kp-lvd - m-_n. a-°ƒ: tIm-b, Im-kva - nw, A-–p¬ d-jo-Zv (A-_q-Z_ - n), A-–p-∂m-k¿ (dn-bm-Zv), J-_o¿, A-∫m-kv, kn-±oJv (A-_q-Z_ - n), \q¿-Plm≥, ssa-aq-\. a-cp-a°ƒ: im-^n, a-dn-bm-ap, _o-°p-´n, \-^o-k, ssk-\_ - , ko-\Ø - v, klo-d, kp-Pn-eØ - v, ]-tcX-\m-b bq-kp-^v.

In-g-t°m-Øv: I-t®-cnap-°n-se aq-°≥am-°nbn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b A–p-¿d-lvam≥Ip-´n-bp-sS `m-cy J-Zo-P (88). a°ƒ: ap-l-Ω-Zv ( tIm-´°¬ B-cy-ssh-Zy-im-e sIm-Sp-h-≈n), C-kv-amCu¬ ( dn-´. U-]yq-´n cPn-kv-{Sm¿, I-en-°-‰v bq\n-th-gv-kn-‰n), A-_q-_°¿ (^m-dq-Jv I-fIvj≥-kv, \-cn-°p-\n), A-–p¬ d-low ({]-knU‚ v, Iq-´m-°n¬ a-l-√v I-Ωn-‰n), A-_v-Zp¬ JmZ¿ (ku-Zn). a-cp-a-°ƒ: ssk-\-_ sIm-Sp-h-≈n, kp-sse-J \-cn-°p-\n, k-^n-b ap-´m-t©-cn, ssa-aq-\ sIm-Sp-h-≈n, k-do-\ Ip-μ-aw-K-ew.

^-tdm-°v t]-´: Ip-f-ßc-∏m-S-Øn-\-Sp-Øv sIm-S°-√v ]-d-ºn¬ B-‰-p-]p-dØv ]-tc-X-\m-b s\-√nho-´n¬ ap-l-Ω-Zn-s‚ `mcy \-^o-k (C-Ωp´n˛63). a-°ƒ: lm-cn-kv (B-‰p-]p-dw), d-^o-Jv (ssS-e¿), dw-e (So-®¿), d-ko-\. a-cp-a-°ƒ: \nkm¿ (sN-dp-h-Æq¿), A–p¬ d-jo-Zv a-S-∏-≈n, dm-ln-e, ssk-\-_. ktlm-Z-c≥: h-Sp-h-ß-c apl-Ω-Zv F-∂ _n-®m-∏p.

hÂ-k-½ So-¨À hm-Wn-ta¬: hm-Wnta¬ {I-k‚ v ssl-kvIqƒ dn-´. A-[ym-]n-I h-f-b-sØ B-em-bn¬ h¬-k-Ω So-®¿ (62). `¿-Øm-hv: dn-´. sl¬Øv C≥-kv-s]-Œ¿ Ipam-c≥. a-°ƒ: e- n, c-Rv-Pn-Xv Ip-am¿. a-cp-a-°ƒ: kp[o¿, l-Wn-a.

j-co-^m ^m-¯n-a ap-¯p-_o-hn Xn-cq¿: X-߃-kv tdmUv h-en-b Pm-d-Øn-߬ sN-dp-tIm-b-X-ß-fp-sS aI-fpw a-e-∏p-dw ap≥ Jmkn H ]n Fw ssl-t{Zmkv C-ºn-®n-t°m-b X-ßfp-sS `m-cy-bp-am-b j-co^m ^m-Øn-a ap-Øp-_ohn (78). a-°-ƒ: Ip-™n-_o-hn, sse-e-_n, B-bn-i -_ohn. a-cp-a-°ƒ: ssl-t{Zmk,v A-_q-_-°¿, Pm^¿, in-lm-_v, Ip-™nt°m-b X-߃.

A-tim-I-³ am-ÌÀ hm-Wn-ta¬: Ip-dp-ht¥-cn bp.]n kv-Iqƒ A[ym-]-I≥ hn-jv-Wp-aw-Ke-sØ ]m-fiy‚-hn-S A-tim-I≥ am-ÿ (49). `m-cy: jn-_n-P (_yq´ojy≥ I-°-´n¬). a°ƒ: A-a-b-jn-t‚m, FUzn≥- B≥-{Un≥. ]nXm-hv: Ip-™n-cm-a≥. amXm-hv: Pm-\p. k-tlm-Z-c߃: cm-P≥, i-in, kXo-j-≥.

A-_p ]-´n-°m-Sv: I-Æym-e Nmen-b-sXm-Sn A-_p (70). `m-cy: B-bn-i. a-°ƒ: DΩ¿, l-ao-Zv, d-^o-Jv, djo-Z. a-cp-a-°ƒ: A-kokv, ko-\-Øv, Xzm-ln-d, k-_o-d.

I-Zn-bp-½ F.B¿ \-K¿: ]m-e-aTØn-®n-\- I-≈n-b-Øv apl-Ω-Zn-s‚ `m-cy I-Æn-bßm-´v ]p-Ø-e-Øv I-Znbp-Ω (77). a-°ƒ: A-lΩ-Zv, A-–p¬ a-Po-Zv, A–p-¿d-lvam≥ (aq-h-cpw Pn-±), A-e-hn-°p-´n, ^mØn-a, ssa-aq-\-Øv. a-cpa-°ƒ: A-_p- lm-Pn kn±oJm-_m-Zv, ap-l-Ω-Zv Xncq-c-ßm-Sn. k-tlm-Z-c߃: aq-k, ap-l-Ω-Zv-Ip´n, \-^o-k.

sI BÀ \m-cm-b-W³ C³-Ìn-äyq-«v Hm-^v hn-jzÂk-b³-kn ASp-¯- hÀjw apX ]T\w XpS§pw

Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-cw: kw-ÿm-\ k¿-°m-cn-s‚ sI B¿ \m-cm-bW≥ C≥-Ãn-‰yq-´v Hm-^v hnjz¬- k-b≥-kv B‚ v B¿-Svkn¬ A-Sp-Ø A-[y-b-\-h¿jw ¢m-kv Xp-S-ßp-sa-∂v ap-Jy-a{¥n D-Ω≥-Nm-≠n {]-Jym-]n-®p. C≥-kv-‰n-‰yq-´n-s‚ t{]m-kv-s]-Œkv ap-Jy-a-{¥n {]-Im-i-\w sNbv-Xp. kv-{In-]v-‰v-ssd-‰n-Mv B‚ v U-b-d£≥, F-Un-‰n-Mv, kn-\ntam-t´m-{K-^n, Hm-Un-tbm-{K-^n B-\n-ta-j≥ B≥v hn-jz¬ C^-Œv, B-Iv‰n-Mv F-∂n-hbmWv tIm-gv-kv. π-kv-Sp tbm-KyX-bm-°n-bp-≈ tIm-gv-kp-I-fmWv Xp-S-ßp-I. A-Jn-te-¥ym {]th-i-\]-co-£-bp-sS A-Sn-ÿm\-Øn-em-Wv Xnc-s™-Sp∏v.

-tem-dn-bn-Sn¨v ss_¡v bm{Xn-I³ a-cn-¨p

Nn-‰q¿: tem-dn-bn-Sn-®v ss_-°v bm-{Xn-I-\m-b bp-hmhv a-cn-®p. ]p-Xp-\-K-cw Sn._n kv-{So-‰n¬ ap-l-Ω-Zv sambv-Xo-s‚ a-I-≥ \n-Pm-ap-±o≥ (28) B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. ss_-°n¬ H-∏-ap-≠m-b ]p-Xp-\-K-cw kz-tZ-in \q¿ap-l-Ω-Zns\ (38) \n- m-c- ]-cn-°p-I-tfm-sS B-ip-]{Xn-bn¬ {]-th-in-∏n-®p. _p-[-\m-gv-N ]I¬ 11.45Hm-sS- Nn-‰q¿ F-kv._n.sF _m-¶n-\p k-ao-]-ambncp∂p A-]-I-Sw. ]p-Xp-\K-cw `m-K-Øp-\n-∂p Nn-‰q-cn-te-°v ss_-°n¬ h-cp∂-Xn-\n-sS F-Xn-tch-∂ tem-dn-bn-Sn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp∂p. Kp-cp-X-c ]-cn-t°-‰ \n-Pm-ap-±o-s\ \m-´p-Im¿ Nn‰q¿ Xm-eq-°m-ip-]-{Xn-bn-epw ]n-∂o-Sv Pn-√m B-ip-]{Xn-bn-epsa-Øn-s®-¶n-epw c£n-°m-\m-bn√. Nn-‰q¿ t]m-en-kv C-≥-Iz-Ãv \-S-Øn. amXmhv: sF-jm-a-dn-b. `m-cy: j¿-an-f.

ss_-¡pw ]n-¡-¸v hm-\pan-Sn-¨v bp-hm-hv a-cn-¨p

im-´n-a-μn-c-¯n-se A-t´-hm-kn Zp-cq-l- km-l-N-cy-¯n a-cn-¨p

B-e-∏p-g: \-K-c-k-`-bp-sS im-¥n-a-μn-c-Øn-se At¥-hm-kn Zp-cq-l-km-l-N-cy-Øn¬ a-cn-®p. B-en-t»cn im-¥n-a-μn-c-Øn¬ aq-∂p-h¿-j-am-bn I-gn-bp-∂ aÆ-t©-cn kz-tZin B-en-_m-h-bm-Wv (90) a-cn-®-Xv. C∂se cm-hn-se B-dp-a-Wn-tbm-sS-bm-Wv kw-`-hw. i-–w-tI-´v Hm-Sn-sb-Øn-bt∏mƒ B-en-_m-h h-cm¥-bn¬ ho-Wp-In-S-°p-∂Xv I-s≠∂pw F-gp-t∂¬∏n-®-t∏mƒ A-\-°-an-√mbn-cp-∂p-sh-∂p-am-Wv Poh-\-°m¿ ]-d-™-Xv. F-∂m¬, s\-‰n-bp-sS h-e-Xp-h-i-Øm-bn ap-dn-th‰-Xv kw-i-b-Øn-\n-S-bm°n-. B-g-Øn-ep-≈ ap-dn-hn¬ \n-∂p c-‡w hm¿-∂n-cp∂p. ]-cn-k-c-Øp-≈ tUm-Iv-S¿ F-Øn-bm-Wv a-c-Ww ÿn-co-I-cn-®-Xv. \m-´p-Im-cp-sS ]-cm-Xn-sb Xp-S¿-∂v ku-Øv kn.sF. jm-Pn-tam≥ tPm-k-^n-s‚ t\-XrXz-Øn¬ t]menkv F-Øn ]cn-tim-[-\ \SØn. t^m-d≥-kn-Iv hn-`m-K-w sX-fn-hp-Iƒ ti-J-cn-®p. ar-XtZ-lw B-e-∏p-g sa-Un-°¬ tIm-f-Pv B-ip-]-{Xnbn¬ t]m-kv-‰v-tam¿-´-Øn-\-b-®p. B-kv-Xv-a tcm-Kn-bm-bn-cp-∂p B-en-_m-h. I-tk-cbn¬ \n-∂v F-gp-t∂¬-°p-∂-Xn-\n-sS Ip-g-™p-hoW-t∏mƒ X-e I-´-nen-s‚ t_mƒ-´n¬ X-´n ]-cn-t°-‰psh-∂v kw-i-bn-°p-∂-Xm-bm-Wv Po-h-\-°m¿ t]m-enkn-t\m-Sv ]-d-™-Xv. ho-gv-N-bn¬ izm-k-X-S- w D≠mb-Xm-Wv a-c-W-Im-c-W-sa-∂m-Wv t]m-kv-‰v-tam¿-´-Ønse {]m-Y-an-I kq-N-\-sb-∂v t]menkv ]-d-™p. B¥-cn-Imh-b-h-߃ hn-i-Z]-cn-tim-[-\-°v A-b-®n´p≠v. ar-X-tZ-lw t]m-kv-‰v-tam¿-´-Øn-\p-ti-jw h-´∏-≈n kv-‰-Un k¿-°n-fn-\v ap-ºn¬ s]m-Xp-Z¿-i-\Øn-\v h-®p. Xp-S¿-∂v a-Æ-t©-cn-bn-se k-tlm-Z-cnbp-sS ho-´n¬ F-Øn-®-ti-jw ]-Sn-™msd Pp-am-a-kvPn-Zv J-_¿-ÿm-\n¬ J-_-d-S-°n.

]-ø-∂q¿: ss_-°v \n¿Øn sam-ss_¬-t^mWn¬ kw-km-cn-°-sh KpUv-kv Hm-t´m-dn-£-bn-Sn-®v Kr-l-\m-Y≥ a-cn-®p. Ip™n-aw-K-ew Ip-Xn-cp-Ω-ense sIm-f-ß-c-Øv h-f∏n¬ cm-a-N-{μ≥ (53) BWv a-cn-®-Xv. C-∂-se cm-hnse 8.30Hm-sS- G-gn-tem-Sv-˛Im-cm-Sv tdm-Un-em-Wv A]-ISw. tdmU-cn-In¬ ss_°v \n¿Øn t^mWn¬ kwkm-cn-°sh ]n-∂n¬-\n-s∂-Øn-b Hmt´mdn-£bn-Sn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. D-S≥ ]-cn-bm-cw sa-Un-°¬ tIm-f-Pv B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ F-Øn-s®-¶n-epw c-£n°m-\m-bn-√. B-im-cn-∏-Wn-°m-c-\m-Wv. ]n-Xm-hv: ]-tc-X-\m-b am-[-h≥. `m-cy: eo-e. am-Xm-hv: ]m-dp. a-°ƒ: jn-t\mPv, jn-Pn-Øv.

]mÀ-h-Xn A-´À-P-\w- -

C-kv-a-m-bnÂ-Ip-«n

I-{Xo-\m-½

A-Ðp-Àd-lv-am³

B-bn-i l-Öp-½

^m-¯n-a-¡p-«n -

F-S-∏mƒ: h-´w-Ip-fw Icp-hm-´v-a-\ \o-e-I-WvT≥ \-ºq-Xn-cn-bp-sS `m-cy ]m¿-h-Xn A-¥¿-P-\w. h´w-Ip-fw kn.]n.F≥.bp.]n kv-Iqƒ A-[ym-]nI-bm-bn-cp-∂p. a-°ƒ: \o-e-I-W-vT≥, hm-kp-tZh≥, \m-cm-b-W≥. a-cp-a°ƒ: {]-Xn-`, hn-em-kn\n, k-‘y.

a-ßm-´p-]p-ew: ap-Xp-°m´n¬ C-kv-am-bn¬-Ip-´n (90). a-°ƒ: ^m-Øn-a, B-ky, kp-sse-am≥, kp-lv-dm-_n, ku-Z-Øv. a-cp-a-°ƒ: ap-lΩ-Zv, bq-kp-^-en, D-Ω¿, A–p¿-d-lv-am≥, B-cn-^. ktlm-Z-c-߃: A-–p-¿d-lvam≥, Ip-™n-ap-l-Ω-Zv, Ae-hn, ap-l-Ω-Zm-en, ]-tc-Xcm-b ssl-{Zp, Jm-Z¿.

a-t©-cn: a-™-∏-‰ sh-≈n°p-t∂¬ a-Øm-bn-bp-sS `m-cy I-{Xo-\m-Ω (93). a°ƒ: A-∏-®≥, ]m-∏-®≥, Ip-™p-tam≥, sP-bnw-kv, Ip-™-Ω, X-¶-Ω, eo-emΩ, ]-tc-X-\m-b tPm-kv. acp-a-°ƒ: Ip-t™m-Ωm®≥, tXm-am-®≥, sF-∏v, tdm-k-Ω, X-¶-Ω, ta-cn-°p´n, jo-_, P-bn-kn.

\-Sp-h-´w: a-®n-e-I-Øv X≠m-]-d-º-Øv A-–p-¿dlv-am≥ (Ip-´n-tam≥˛82). `m-cy: ]-tc-X-bm-b s]m≥am-d-Øv I-®n-_n. a-°ƒ: Dss_-Zv (dn-bm-Zv), A-–p¬ k-a-Zv, \p-ssk-_, ku-Z, Pp-am-\. a-cp-a-°ƒ: _jo¿, A-_q-_-°¿, ^ntdm-kv.

Ip-μ-aw-K-ew: Ip-∂-Øv]Sn-°¬ B-bn-i l-÷pΩ (75). `¿-Øm-hv; I-e¥≥. a-°ƒ: dp-Jn-b, Pao-e, A-ko-kv, a-Po-Zv, km-_n¿ A-en, A-_q-_°¿. a-cp-a-°ƒ: j-co-^, k-Io-\, kp-l-d, dm-lo\, C-ºn-®n-t°m-b, ]-tcX-\m-b tIm-b- ≥.

Xn-cq-cß - m-Sn: Xm-sg-®n-\ ]-tc-X\ - m-b Ip-‰n-bn¬ apl-ΩZ- n-s‚ `m-cy A-¶Øn¬ ^m-Øn-a° - p-´n (93). a-°ƒ: A-–p-√, Al-ΩZ- v, A-–p-∂m-k¿, A_q-_° - ¿, lw-k, ]m-ØpΩm-a, dp-Jn-b. a-cp-a° - ƒ: ssk-Xe - h - n, lw-k, k-^nb, B-bn-i, J-Zo-P, J-ZoP, kp-sse-J.

A-¶-½

i-¦-c³

A_vv-Zp d-jo-Zv

sam-b-X v o³-tIm-b

\m-cm-b-Wn

C-kv-am-CuÂ

Ip-‰ym-Sn; s]m-bn-temwNm¬ Ip-cp-h≥-am-°¬ A-∂-Ω (68). `¿-Øm-hv; tPm-k-^v. a-°ƒ: tPmkv, tXm-a-kv, P-bv-k¨, k-t¥m-jv, kn-_n. a-cp-a°ƒ: t{K-kn, kp-P, ta-gvkn, Pn-j.

Ip-‰ym-Sn: sN-dn-b-Ip-º-fsØ h-S-°-bn¬ i-¶-c≥ (75). tIm¨-{K-kv ap≥ _qØv {]-kn-U-‚pw N-ß-tcmØv a-fi-ew I-Ωn-‰n \n¿hm-l-I-k-an-Xn- Aw-K-hpam-bn-cp-∂p. `m-cy: Pm-\p. a°ƒ: tUm. hn Ip-™n-°Æ≥, k-Xy≥, kp-\o-Xn.

sIm-t≠m´n: s]-cp-ßmhv Im-cn-∏pd-Øv Xm-a-kn°p-∂ A-_v-Zp¬ d-jo-Zv (44). `mcy; kp-sse-J. a°ƒ: A-Pva¬, \nlm¬, ^-kv-\. k-tlm-Zc߃; sk-bv-X-ehn, Cºn-®men, P-ao-e, a-dn-bpΩ, \-_ok.

tIm-gn-t°m-Sv: Ip-≠p߬ \-tS-eØ - v] - d - º - n¬ Sn sam-bvX - o≥-tIm-b (60). Ip-Øp-I√ - v im-Jm ap-kvenw e - o-Kv sk-{I-´d - nbmbn´p≠v. `m-cy: P-ao-e. a-°ƒ: sa-l_ - q-_v j-co-^v, kpl-dm-_n, X-kve - n-\. a-cp-a°ƒ: e-Øo-^v, _p-jd - .

sIm-bn-em-≠n: ]p-fn-bt©-cn I-c-s°-∏p-d-Øv Ip-™n-°-Wm-c-s‚ `m-cy \m-cm-b-Wn (63). a-°ƒ: P-b-{io, e-X, {io-Pp, kp¿-Pn-Øv. a-cp-a-°ƒ: in-h-Zm-k≥, _m-_p, \o-Xp. k-©-b\w i-\nbmgvN.

ssh-e-Øq¿: \-gv-k-dn-∏Sn ]-tc-X-\m-b A-Sn-a-∏d-ºn¬ bm-lp-lm-Pn-bpsS a-I≥ C-kv-am-Cu¬ (Ip-™m-∏p˛45). `m-cy: d-kn-b. a-°ƒ: iw-knb, lm-cn-kv, k-l-Zv. a-cpa-I≥: l-\o-^.

13Im-c-sâ Xn-tcm-[m-\w 19 hÀ-j-¯n-\p-ti-jw tem-I -`-£y-kw-L-S-\-bp-am-bn [m-c-W sIm-e-]m-X-I-sa-¶p sX-fn-ªp; {]-Xn A-d-Ìn sIm-®n: 19 h¿-jw ap-ºv Im-WmXm-b 13Im-c≥ sIm√-s∏-´-XmsW∂p sX-fn-™p.- {]-Xn A-dÃn¬. N-ß-\m-t»-cn a-[p-aq-ebn¬ hn-iz-\m-Y≥ B-Nm-cn-bpsS a-I≥ a-lm-tZ-h-s‚ Xn-tcm[m-\-am-Wv ss{Iw-{_m-©v At\z-j-W-Øn¬ sIm-e-]m-X-Iam-sW-∂p sX-fn-™-Xv. kw-`-hØn¬ N-ß-\m-t»-cn a-©m-Sn-°c C-f-ap-dn-bn¬ ho-´n¬ l-cn-Ipam-dn(D-Æn-˛41)s\ F-d-Wm-Ipfw ss{Iw-{_m-©v F-®v.F-®v.Uªyp. c-≠v A-d-Ãv sN-bv-Xp. 1995 k-]v-Xw-_¿ F-´n-\m-Wv a-lm-tZ-h-s\ Im-Wm-Xm-b-Xv. hn-iz-\m-Y≥ B-Nm-cn-bp-sS ]cm-Xn-bn¬ N-ß-\m-t»-cn t]meo-kv tIsk-SpØp. C-Xn-\n-sS

a-lm-tZ-h≥ I-kv-‰-Un-bn-eps≠-∂pw ]-Ww \¬-I-W-sa∂pw `o-j-Wn-s∏-Sp-Øn- hn-izm\m-Y≥ B-Nm-cn-°p I-Øp-Iƒ e-`n-®p. XpS¿-∂v hn-iz\m-Y-s‚ Bh- i y- { ]- I mcw 1996 P-\ph-cn c-≠n-\v A-∂-sØ ap- J y- a - { ¥n l-cn-Ip-am-¿ tI-kt\z-jWw ss{Iw-{_m-©n-\p hn-´p. ]ptcm-K-Xn-bp-≠m-hm-Xn-cp-∂-Xns\ Xp-S¿-∂v C-h¿ A-t\z-jWw A-h-km-\n-∏n-®p-sIm-≠v 2001 s^-{_p-h-cn 17\v N-ß-\mt»-cn Pp-Uo-jy¬ H-∂mw ¢m-kv

a-Pn-kv-t{S-‰v tIm-S-Xn-bn¬ dnt]m¿-´v \¬-In. C-Xn-s\-Xn-tc hn-iz-\m-Y≥ ssl-t°m-S-Xn-sb k-ao-]n-°p-I-bpw ssl-t°m-SXn- D-Ø-c-hv {]-Im-c-w F-d-WmIp-fw ss{Iw-{_m-©v F-®v.F®v.U-ªyp. c-≠v F-kv.]n sI Pn ssk-aWns‚ t\-Xr-Xz-Øn¬ tI-kv A-t\z-j-Ww G-s‰-Sp-°pI-bm-bn-cp∂p. a-lm-tZ-h≥ [-cn-®n-cp-∂ 10 {Kmw Xq-°-ap-≈ kz¿-W-am-essI-°-em-°p-∂-Xn-\m-bm-Wv a[p-aq-e PMvj-\n¬ ssk-°nƒ I-S \-S-Øn-bncp-∂ l-cn-Ip-am¿ sIm-e\-S-Øn-b-sX-∂v ss{Iw {_m-©v ]-d-™p. a-lm-tZ-h-s‚ am-Xm-]n-Xm-°ƒ C-t∏mƒ Po-hn®n-cn-∏n-√.

Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-cw: kw-ÿm-\sØ s]m-Xp-hn-X-c-Wkw-hn[m-\w \-ho-I-cn-°p-∂-Xn-s‚ `m-K-am-bn \-S-∏m-°p-∂ k-ºq¿W I-w-]yq-´¿h¬-°-c-W ]-≤Xn-bp-sS \-S-Øn-∏n-\p-≈ kmt¶-Xn-I-k-lm-bw e-`y-am-°p∂-Xn-\v `-£y-s]m-Xp-hn-X-c-W h-Ip-∏pw tem-I-`-£y-kw-L-S\-bp-am-bn [m-c-Wm-]-{Xw H-∏ph-®p. ssX-°m-Sv K-h. K-Ãv lukn¬ a-{¥n A-\q-]v tP-°-_ns‚ km-∂n-[y-Øn¬ \-S-∂ N-Sßn¬ `-£y-˛-s]m-Xp-hn-X-c-W h-Ip-∏v sk-{I-´-dn kp-a≥_n-√bpw thƒ-Uv ^p-Uv t{]m-{Kmw I¨-{Sn sl-Uv ssa-°¬ P≥k-\p-am-Wv [m-c-Wm-]-{XØn¬ H-∏p-h-®-Xv. P-Ãn-kv hm-[zm I-Ωo-j≥ dnt]m¿-´n-s‚ A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ kp-{]nw-tIm-S-Xn hn-[n-°v A-\p-

kr-X-am-bn tI-c-f-Øn¬ \-S-∏m°p-∂ k-ºq¿-W I-w-]yq-´¿h¬-°-c-W ]-≤-Xn-bn¬ kmt¶-Xn-I D-]-tZ-iw \¬-Ip-I F∂-Xm-Wv U-ªyp.F-^v.]n \¬Ip-∂ tk-h-\w. k-ºq¿-W I-w-]yq-´¿-h¬-°c-W ]-≤-Xn-bp-sS L-S-I-ß-fmb Kp-W-t`m-‡m-°-sf I-s≠ج, k-ssπ sN-bn≥ am-t\Pv-sa‚ v, \ym-b-hn-e tI-{μ-ßfp-sS (td-j≥ I-S-Iƒ) B-[p\o-I-c-W-hpw em-`-I-c-am-°-epw Kp-W-t`m-‡r ]-cm-Xn]-cn-lm-ckw-hn-[m-\w F-∂n-h-bnepw tdj≥ I-S-I-fp-sS B-[p-\o-I-cW-hpw em-`-I-c-am-°-epw F-∂ L-S-I-Øn¬ km-t¶-Xn-I D-]tZ-iw, {]-hr-Øn-]-cn-N-bw, hn-ZKv-[-sc \¬-I¬ Xp-S-ßn-b klm-b-ßfpw U-ªyp.F-^v.]n \¬-Ipw.

I¬-∏-‰: ss_-°pw ]n-°-∏v hm-\pw Iq-´n-bn-Sn-®v bphm-hv a-cn-®p. e-°n-Sn kz-tZ-in I-\-I-bp-sS a-I≥ Bc-Zv \n-hm-kn¬ hn-\o-Xv (21) B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. C-∂-se cm-{Xn H-º-Xpa-Wn-tbmsS I¬-∏-‰-bn¬ \n-∂p e-°n-Sn-bn-te-°v t]m-hp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂ hn-\o-Xv k-©-cn-® ss_-°n¬ F-Xn-tc-h-∂ ]n-°-∏v hm-≥ CSn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. hn-\o-Xn-s\ I¬-∏-‰-bn-se kzIm-cy B-ip-]-{Xn-bn-se-Øn-s®-¶n-epw c-£n-°m-\mbn-√.

s]mÅ-teäv a-cn-¨p

s]-cn-tßmw: Xos°m-fpØn Po-h-s\m-Sp-°m≥ {ian-®v Nn-In¬-k-bn-em-bn-cp∂ bp-h-Xn a-cn-®p. Hm-e-bºm-Sn-bn-se s]m-∑-e-°pt∂¬ en≥-kn sN-dn-bm≥ (35) B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. I-gn™ \m-en-\p Hm-e-b-ºmSn-bn-se ho-´n-em-Wp kw-`hw. `¿-Øm-hv Su-Wn-te°p t]m-b k-a-b-Øv tZ-lØv a-sÆ-Æsbm-gn-®p Xo-s°m-fp-Øp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. ]-cn-bm-cw sa-Un-°¬ tIm-f-Pnepw ]n-∂o-Sv F-d-Wm-Ip-f-sØ kz-Im-cy Bip-]-{Xn-bnte°pw sIm-≠p-t]m-bn. Nn-In¬-kbnencns° sNm-Δm-gv-N cm-{Xn-bmWv ac-Ww. `¿-Øm-hv: tPm-k-^v (Sm-∏n-Mv sXm-gn-em-fn). a°ƒ: B¬-hn≥ , A-en‚. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: em≥-kv, tem-bn≥ (C-cp-h-cpw an-en-´-dn).

s{S-bn³ X-«n -a-cn-¨p

\o-te-iz-cw: Hm¿-®-bn-se C sI lkbv-\mdn(58)s\ s{S-bn≥ X-´n- a-cn-®\n-e-bn¬ I-s≠-Øn. aμw-]p-d-Øn-\-Sp-Ø ]-g-b sd-bn¬-th tK-‰n-\-Sp-ØmWv ar-X-tZ-lw I≠-Xv. `m-cy: kp-ss_-Z. a-Iƒ: \-Zod. a-cp-a-I≥: \-Pow. - k-tlm-Z-c-߃: A-–p¬ Icow, A-–p¬ k-emw, a-dn-bp-Ω, dp-Jn-b, B-bn-i.

F³-.F-k.v-F-kv-. P-\-dÂ- sk-{I-«-dntIm-am-fn-sb-¶v- sI.F-kv-.bp-. {]-kn-UâvsXm-Sp-]p-g: a-lm-∑m-cp-sS ap-JØv- I-cn-sIm-≠v- tIm-ewh-c-bv°p-∂ tIm-am-fn-bm-Wv- F≥-.Fkv-.F-kv-. P-\-d¬- sk-{I-´-dnkp-Ip-am-c≥-\m-b-sc-∂v- sI.Fkv-.bp-. kw-ÿm-\ {]-kn-U‚ vhn- F-kv- tPm-bn.- km-ap-Zm-bn-Icw-K-Øv- k-t¥m-jv- ]-fin-‰ns‚ \n-e-hm-c-Øn-te-°v- kp-Ipam-c≥-\m-b¿- A-[∏-Xn-s®-∂pw hn F-kv tPm-bn sXm-Sp-]p-gbn¬ hm¿-Øm-k-tΩ-f-\-Øn¬ ]-d-™p. kp-Ip-am-c≥-\m-b-cpw- C-Sp°n- _n-j-∏v- am-Xyp- B-\n-°p-gn°m-´n-epw- F-kv-.F≥-.Un-.]n.tbm-Kw P-\-d¬ sk-{I-´-dn- sh≈m-∏-≈n- \-tS-i-\pw- \-S-Øp∂ {]-kv-Xm-h-\-I-fpw- C-S-s]-Sep-I-fpw- A-Xn-cp-hn-Sp-I-bm-Wv.a-∂-Øp ]-fl-\m-`≥ F≥.-F-

kv.-F-kn-s‚ kz-Im-cy kz-Ø√. A-t±-lw \-thm-∞m-\ \m-bIcn¬ H-cm-fm-Wv. tZ-io-b{]ÿm-\-Øn-s‚ kw-`m-h-\-bm-b a-∂-Øp ]-fl-\m-`-s\ kp-Ip-amc≥ \m-b¿ kz-Im-cykz-Øm°m≥ {i-an-°p-I-bm-Wv. a-lm\m-b a-∂-Øp ]-fl-\m-`-\pw am\y-\m-b \m-cm-b-W-∏-Wn-°-cpw C-cp-∂ I-tk-c-bn¬ tIm-am-fnsb t]m-se kp-Ip-am-c≥-\m-b¿ C-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv. F≥.-F-kv.-Fkv. B-ÿm-\-Øv ]p-√p- ]-dn°m≥ h-∂ kp-Ip-am-c≥ \m-b¿ C-∂p t]m-∏m-sW-∂v ]-d-s™¶n¬ \m-sf ]-S-t®m≥ B-sW∂v {]-Jym-]n-°pwap-ºv s]-cp-∂bn¬ \n-∂v C-bm-sf ]-Sn-b-S-®p ]n-fiw h-bv-°m≥ F≥.-F-kv.F-kv. t\-Xr-Xzw X-øm-dm-hWsa∂pw tPmbn ]d-™p.


8

thÀ-]mSv

kottayam

27 s^{_phcn 2014 hymgw

cm-a³ \-¼n-b-¯v A-´-cn-¨p ap-l-½-Zv Ip-ªv

ap-l-½-Zv Ip-ªv

A-k-\m-cp-Ip-ªv

B-e-∏p-g: B-e-∏p-g \-K-ck-` tÃ-Un-bw hm¿-Un-¬ X-]m¬-∏-d-ºv ho-´n¬ apl-Ω-Zv Ip-™v (53)-lr-Zbm-Lm-[-sØ Xp-S¿-∂v acn-®p. C-∂-se ssh-Io-´v A-©-c-tbm-sS Pn-√m Bbq¿-th-Z B-ip-]-{Xn-bn-¬ h-®m-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. `m-cy: JZo-Pm _o-hn. a-°ƒ: apwXm-kv, a-lv-_q-_v. C-∂v cm-hn-se H-º-Xn-\v B-e∏p-g In-g-s° Pp-am-a-kv-PnZv J-_¿-ÿm-\n-¬ J-_-S°pw. t]m-]p-e¿ {^-≠v Hm-^v C-¥y k-Po-h {]h¿-Ø-I-\pw F-kv.-Un.]n.sF. h-en-b-a-cw {_m©v ssh-kv {]-kn-U-‚p-w A-k-‰n-s‚ am-t\-Pn-Mv {SÃv saw-_-dp-am-bn-cp-∂p.

B-e-∏p-g: \-K-c-k-` B-en-ti-cn hm¿-Un¬ Nn-d-bn¬ ho-´n¬ F®v._n. ]m-S-Øp ]-tc-X\m-b A-–p-√m-bp-sS aI≥ ap-l-Ω-Zv Ip-™v (78). `m-cy: lm-Pn-d _o-hn. aI≥: A-–p¿-d-low. acp-a-Iƒ: apw-Xm-kv.

Im-bw-Ip-fw: Io-cn-°m-Sv sX-°v sF-Iy-P-Mv-j≥ k-°o¿ a≥-kn¬ A-k\m-cp-Ip-™v (75). J-_d-S-°w C-∂v cm-hn-se 11\v ]p-Ø≥-sX-cp-hv Ppam-a-kv-Pn-Zv J-_¿-ÿm\n¬ \-S-°pw. `m-cy: JZo-Pm _o-hn. a-°ƒ: j-d-^p-±o≥, kenw, Ip-™p-tam≥, A–p¬ I-emw, \u-jm-Zv, d-ko-\, k-°o¿ lpssk≥, d-Pn-tamƒ, kPo¿. a-cp-a-°ƒ: ko-\, ssje-P, jo-P, kp-\n-X, kp\n, km-Zn-Jv, jm-\n, \ujm-Zv.

cm-[m-a-Wn

kp-Ip-am-c³-\m-bÀ

sN-ß-∂q¿: sh-≈p-tcØv ]-tc-X-\m-b hn F \m-K-∏-\m-Nm-cn-bp-sS `mcy cm-[m-a-Wn (77). kwkv-Im-cw \-S-Øn. a-°ƒ: tKm-]m-e-Ir-jv-W≥, cmPm-tKm-]m¬, A-cp-Wm-New, Ip-am-c-kzm-an, hn-P-be-£v-an, _o-\, cm-tP-izcn. a-cp-a-°ƒ-: -cm-[m-a-Wn, A-P-¥, cm-[m-a-Wn, c©p, ]-tc-X-\m-b ssZz-ckzm-an, tkm-a-cm-P≥, kptc-jv.

]-Ø-\w-Xn-´: I-√-d-°-Shv {io-\n-e-b-Øn¬ Pn kp-Ip-am-c≥-\m-b¿ (77) \n-cym-X-\m-bn. `m-cy : `mc-Xn-b-Ω. a-°ƒ : {io-Ip-am¿, {ioIm-¥v (A-kn. F-Iv-kn. F-©n-\o-b¿ kn-]n-Uªyp Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-cw). a-cp-a-Iƒ : an-\p {io-Im¥v. kw-kv-°m-cw \-SØn.

hÂ-k-½ So-¨À

]mÀ-h-Xn A-´À-P-\w- F-S-∏mƒ: h-´w-Ip-fw Icp-hm-´v-a-\ \o-e-I-WvT≥ \-ºq-Xn-cn-bp-sS `m-cy ]m¿-h-Xn A-¥¿-P-\w.

cm-a³ {_-“-aw-K-ew: G-dwIp-f-Øn¬ cm-a≥ (68). kw-kv-Im-cw \-S-Øn. `m-cy: c-a-Wn. a-°ƒ: {]-km-Zv, {]-Zo]v, {]-Pn-X. a-cp-a-°ƒ: \n-j, {]n-b, kp-tc-jv.

hm-Wn-ta¬: hm-Wnta¬ {I-k‚ v ssl-kvIqƒ dn-´. A-[ym-]n-I hf-b-sØ B-em-bn¬ h¬-k-Ω So-®¿ (62). `-¿Øm-hv: Ip-am-c≥.

tPmÀ-Pv tPm-k-^v

cm-a³-Ip-«n

a-ßm-´p-]p-ew: ap-Xp-°m´n¬ C-kv-am-bn¬-Ip-´n (90). a-°ƒ: ^m-Øn-a, B-ky.

ssh-°w: Im-´p-a-\ tPm¿-Pv tPm-k-^v (Ipt™-´≥-˛82). kw-kv-Imcw C-∂v cm-hn-se 10\v sk‚ v tPm-k-^v s^mtdm-\ ]-≈n-bn¬. `m-cy: t_-_n, I-dp-Ip-‰n ss]\m-S-Øv Ip-Spw-_mw-Kw. a-°ƒ: tPm¿-Pv(_m_p), tPm-kn, jn-Ωn, sd-kn tdm-_n≥-k¨. acp-a-°ƒ: sP-kn Ip-fwIp-Øn-bn¬, A-Xn-c-ºpg, eq-bn-kv tPm-k-^v ss]-\m-S-Øv I-dp-Ip-‰n, tUm. tXm-a-kv sI. amXyp a-‰-Øn¬ (bp.Fkv.F.), tdm-_n≥-k¨ B‚-Wn ta-t®-cn¬.

am-½³ hÀ-Ko-kv

am-Xyq-]-Wn-¡À

Hm-a-\

Xn-cp-h-√: h-≈w-Ip-fw aÆm-c-tØm-´n¬ am-Ω-\v h¿-Ko-kv (83). kw-kv-Imcw C-∂v ssh-Io-´v aq-∂n\v I-hn-bq¿ …o-_ am¿tØm-a ]-≈n sk-an-tØcn-bn¬. `m-cy: ]-tc-X-bmb G-en-bm-Ω. a-°ƒ: {]km-Zv, sd-Pn, k-Pn, joem-Ω, ]-tc-X-bm-b F¬kn. a-cp-a-°ƒ; tam-fn-°p´n, _m-_p, Ip-™ptamƒ, km-en, A-\n.

Ip-≠-d: Aw-_n-s]m-bvI h-S-t°-∏p-c-bn¬ Fw am-Xyq-]-Wn-°¿ (_n-Pp˛48) knw-K-∏q-cn¬ \ncym-X-\m-bn. kw-kv-Im-cw \m-sf D-®bv-°v c-≠n-\v Ip-≠-d sk‚ v tXm-a-kv Hm¿-ØtUm-Iv-kv ]-≈n sk-antØ-cn-bn¬. `m-cy: ta-gvkn. a-°ƒ: an-Yp¬, dnb. -

tX-h-e-°-c: ]m-e-bv°¬ ]-\-®-hn-f-bn¬ ho´n¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b sIm-®pth-ep-hn-s‚ `m-cy Hm-a-\ (68). a-°ƒ: c-a-W≥, X-¶a-Wn, k-t¥m-jv, A-\n-X. a-cp-a-°ƒ: cm-[, k-Xy-]me≥, Zo-], A-\n¬.

I-Zn-bp-½

\-^o-k

F.B¿ \-K¿: ]m-e-aTØn-®n-\- I-≈n-b-Øv apl-Ω-Zn-s‚ `m-cy I-Æn-bßm-´v ]p-Ø-e-Øv I-Znbp-Ω (77).

h-Sp-X-e: tN¿-Ø-e \-Zv h-Øp \-K¿ a-S-Øn-X-d \-I¿-Øn¬ cm-a≥-Ip-´n (70). `m-cy: im-¥. a-°ƒ: ssj-Pp, sse-Pp, ssj-a.

imcZ ]mWm-h≈n: Xr-®m-´pIp-fw Xp-cp-Øn `m-Kw s\-bv-ti-cn¬ c-ho{μssI-a-fp-sS `m-cy im-c-Z (54). a°ƒ: cay, tc-J. a-cp-a°ƒ: kp-[o¿ Ipam¿, k-t¥mjv.

C-kv-a-m-bnÂ-Ip-«n

^-tdm-°v t]-´: Ip-f-ßc-∏m-S-Øn-\-Sp-Øv sIm-S°-√v ]-d-ºn¬ B-‰-p-]p-dØv ]-tc-X-\m-b s\-√nho-´n¬ ap-l-Ω-Zn-s‚ `mcy \-^o-k (C-Ωp-´n˛63).

Ip-ªn-ap-l-½-Zv lm-Pn Xn-cq-cß - m-Sn: sIm-Sn™n ]m-e] - m¿-°v a-WnI-≠Ø - n¬ Ip-™n-ap-lΩ-Zv- lm-Pn (75). `m-cy: kp-lvd - m-_n. a-°ƒ: tImb, Im-kva - nw, A-–p-¬ djo-Zv (A-_q-Z_ - n), A–p-∂m-k¿ (dn-bm-Zv), J_o¿, A-∫m-kv, kn-±o-Jv (A-_q-Z_ - n).

H-‰-∏m-ew: ap≥-Im-e kn-\n-am \n¿-am-Xm-hpw F-gpØp-Im-c-\pw \-S-\p-am-b cm-a≥ \-ºn-b-Øv (90) A¥-cn-®p. H-‰-∏m-ew ]-Øw-Ip-f-sØ \-ºn-b-Øvho-´nem-bn-cp-∂p A-¥yw. {io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp-hn-s\ Bkv-]-Z-am-°n 1961¬ \n¿-an-® Im¬-∏m-Sp-Iƒ B-Wv cm-a≥ Ct±lw \n¿-anA-¶-½ hÀ-Ko-kv {]-Xy-£ c-£m ssZ-h-k-` ® kn-\n-a. G-sd -{ikn-Ôp ap³ {]k nU âv sP tPm¬ a-Wn-a-e: X-In-Sn-∏p-d-Øv Ip-e-ti-J-c-aw-K-ew: ≤bm-I¿-jn-® Cu NnXn-cp-h-√: {]-Xy-£ c{]-km-Zn-s‚ (a-Wn-b≥) ]m-S-Øp-]-d-ºn¬ ]{X-Øn-\v \m-j-\¬ `m-cy: kn-‘p(45). \m-c-I- £m ssZ-h-k-` ap≥ {]tc-X-\m-b h¿-Ko-knC‚-t{K-j≥ A-hm¿knU ‚ v sP tPm¨ RmØd amf nt b° ¬a Tw s‚ `m-cy A-∂-Ω h¿Uv e-`n-®n-´p≠v. tb-ipenb m° pg n (96). kwk v IpS pw_ mwK w. aI ≥: AKo-kv (90). Im-cw \m-sf ssh-Io-´v aq- Zm-kn-s\ ]n-∂-Wn KmPn≥ (cma p, t]mf ns SI v kw-kv-Im-cw am¿-®v Hb-Icw-K-Øv F-Øn-®∂n-\v C-c-hn-t]-cq¿ tX\n-Iv hn-Zym¿-Yn) kw-kv∂n-\v cm-hn-se 11˛-\v Xv cm-a≥ \-ºn-b-Øn°m-cw i-\n-bm-gv-® c-≠n- h¿-Im-Sv sk≥-cv am-XyqsN-ºv sk‚ v tXm-a-kv kv am¿-tØm-a ]-≈n s‚ Cu Nn-{X-Øn-eq\v ho-´p-h-f-∏n¬. bm-t°m-_m-b ]-≈nsk-an-tØ-cn-bn¬. sS-bm-sW-∂ {]-tXybn¬. a-°ƒ: tXm-a-kv ]n.B¿.Un.F-kv ÿm-]- I-X-bp-ap-≠v. ]n-∂o-Sv kz-¥-am-bn kn-\n-a \n¿-an-®n\m-cm-bW - n-A½(bp.F-kv.F.), eo-emI t\-Xm-°-fn-sem-cm-fm- s√-¶n-epw \n-c-h-[n kn-\n-a-I-fn¬ sN-dp-Xpw h-ep-XpsIm-bn-em-≠n: tN-aΩ (bp.F-kv.F.), t©-cn Nm-Ø\ - m-SØ - v bp b tP tPm¨ k-`-hn-´v am-b th-j-an-´p. \n-W-a-Wn-™ Im¬-]m-Sp-Iƒ, Imam¿-tØm-a k-`-bn¬ tPm¨ (bp.F-kv.F.), sI \m-cm-bW - n-AΩ ]m-en-I, \n-d-am-e F-∂o kn-\n-a-Iƒ C-Xn¬ Nn-etN¿∂ nc p∂ p. `mc y: ]]u-tem-kv a¿-®‚ v (87). `¿-Øm-hv; ]-tc-XXp-am-{Xw. Im¬-∏m-Sp-Iƒ ap-dn-∏m-Sp-Iƒ F-∂ t](sN-ºv), tPm¿-Pv \m-b Sn hn A-Nyp-X≥-\m- tc-X-bm-b G-en-bm-Ω. a- cn¬ kz-¥w B-fl-I-Y- c-Nn-®n-´p-≠v. A-Sp-Ø Im-e°ƒ: t^m¿U v tP (bp.F-kv.F), sP-kn. b¿. a-°ƒ: _m-eI - r-jvØm-bn Im-Øn-cp-∂ Im-ew, kv-am-c-I-in-e-Iƒ Xp-StPm¨ (Ip-ssh-Øv), a-cp-a-°ƒ: X-¶-Ω KoW≥, bp sI cm-Lh - ≥, tP-°-_v tPm¨, ta-cn ßn G-Xm-\pw ko-cn-b-ep-I-fn-epw A-`n-\-bn-®p. h¿-Ko-kv, tPm-b-Ω, taX-¶w, Ko-X. a-cp-a° - ƒ; Xr-iq¿ I-≠-imw-I-S-hv kz-tZ-in-bm-b \-ºn-btXm-a-kv, im-ap-th¬ cn-°p-™v, {_n-Pn-‰v, {]-`m-hX - n, h-k¥ - . Øv 1968em-Wv H-‰-∏m-e-Øv F-Øn-b-Xv. kv-Iqƒ hntPm¨, F-en-k-_-Øv tPm-bn-°p-´n. tPm¨ (A-_p-Zm-_n). a- Zym-`ym-kw I-≠-imw-I-S-hn-em-bn-cp-∂p. kn-temcp-a-°ƒ: eo-em-Ω, Hm-aWn¬ sa-{Sn-°p-te-j-\pw a-lm-cm-Pm-kv tIm-f-Pn¬ \, G-en-bm-Ω, cm-P≥ C‚¿-ao-Un-b-‰pw ]q¿-Øn-bm-°n. Km-‘n-Pn `-Iv-X]u-tem-kv, ]-tc-X-\m-b - \m-bn-cp-∂ Ct±lw s]m-Xp-cw-K-Øv k-Po-h-am-bn-cptXm-a-kv t]mƒ. ∂p. A-\-ß-\-Sn a-fi-ew tIm¨-{K-kv {]-kn-U‚ v, A-\-ß-\-Sn {Km-a∏©m-b-Øv {]-kn-U‚ v F-∂o j-co-^m ^m-¯n-a ÿm-\-ß-fpw h-ln-®n-´p-≠v. ap-¯p-_o-hn `m-cy: ]-tc-X-bm-b ]-flm-h-Xn-b-Ω. a-°ƒ: _nXn-cq¿: X-߃-kv tdm-Uv μp, _o-\ (H-‰-∏m-ew tªm-°v ]-©m-b-Øv kv-‰m≥h-en-b Pm-d-Øn-߬ UnMv I-Ωn-‰n sN-b¿-t]-gv-k≥), F≥ B¿ c-Rv-Pn-Xv sN-dp-tIm-b-X-ß-fp-sS a- (kn.]n.Fw tem-°¬ I-Ωn-‰n Aw-Kw). a-cp-a-°ƒ: I-fpw a-e-∏p-dw ap≥ Jm- kzm-an-°p-´n, cm-P≥, do-\. kp-io-e sI \m-bÀ I-eym-Wn kn H ]n Fw ssl-t{ZmsIm-√w: I-cn-t°m-Sv sN- N-h-d: ap-Ip-μ-]p-cw apkv C-ºn-®n-t°m-b X-ßdp-h-≈n-bn¬ ho-´n¬ ]g-ßn-\m¬ (sIm-´p-Imfp-sS `m-cy-bp-am-b j-cotc-X-\m-b B¿ sI \m-b- ´p In-g-°-Xn¬) ]-tc-X^m ^m-Øn-a ap-Øp-_ocp-sS `m-cy kp-im-e sI \-m-b Ip-am-c-s‚ `m-cy hn (78). ]-¥-fw: Im-dpw tem-dn-bpw Iq-´n-bn-Sn-®v ]-cn-t°-‰v Nn\m-b¿ (68). I-eym-Wn(88). a-°-ƒ: Ip-™n-_o-hn, In-’-bn-em-bn-cp-∂ F≥-Pn-\o-b¿ a-cn-®p. ln-μp-kva-°ƒ: ]-tc-X-\m-b km- a-°ƒ: im-¥, Xp-f-kosse-e-_n, B-bn-i -_o- Ym≥ em-‰-Iv-kn-se F≥-Pn-\o-b¿ A-Sq¿ sIm-∂-a-¶-c _p sI \m-b¿, ap-Po-_v hn. a-cp-a-°ƒ: ssl-t{Zm- {io-ssi-e-Øn¬ dn-´. {]-^.F≥ ap-c-fo-[-c≥-]n-f-fsI \m-b¿, cm-ap sI \m- [-c≥, B-\-μ≥, c-tak,v A-_q-_-°¿, Pmbp-sS a-I≥ cm-lp¬ (35) b¿, hm-kp sI \m-b¿. a- i≥, k-c-kz-Xn, ]-tcX-\m-b i-in-[-c≥. ^¿, in-lm-_v, Ip-™n- B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. cp-a-Iƒ: c-iv-an ap-Po-_v. Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-cw sa-Una-cp-a-°ƒ: hn-P-b-Ω, t°m-b X-߃. °¬ tIm-f-Pv B-ip-]-{XnA-tim-I-³ am-ÌÀ kp-Ip-am-c≥, X-¶-a-Wn, bn¬ C-∂-se D-®-bv-°mA-_p hm-Wn-ta¬: Ip-dp-han-\n, sse-e, c-Lp. ]-´n-°m-Sv: I-Æym-e Nm- bn-cp-∂p a-c-Ww. I-gn-™ t¥-cn bp.]n kv-Iqƒ Aen-b-sXm-Sn A-_p (70). 21 \v ]p-e¿-s® 1.30 \v [ym-]-I≥ hn-jv-Wp-aw-K- J-Zo-P In-g-t°m-Øv: I-t®-cn`m-cy: B-bn-i. a-°ƒ: D- Fw.kn tdm-Un¬ ssa-\me-sØ ]m-fiy‚-hn-S K-∏-≈n t£-{X-h-©n-°pΩ¿, l-ao-Zv, d-^o-Jv, dA-tim-I≥ am-ÿ (49). ap-°n-se aq-°≥am-°nk-ao-]w-h-®m-bn-cp-∂p Abn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b Ajo-Z. a-cp-a-°ƒ: A-ko- ]-I-Sw. ho-Sn-s‚ ap-I-fn¬`m-cy: jn-_n-P (_yq–p-¿d-lvam≥Ip-´n-bpkv, ko-\-Øv, Xzm-ln-d, \n-∂pw ho-Wp ]-cp-t°-‰ ´ojy≥ I-°-´n¬). ak-_o-d. °ƒ: A-a-b-jn-t‚m, F- sS `m-cy J-Zo-P (88). ]n-Xm-hn-s\ sIm-√-I-S-hv kz-Im-cy-B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ Uzn≥- B≥-{Un≥. B-°n a-S-ßp-tºm-gm-bn-cp-∂p A-]-I-Sw. sIm-√-I-S-hv k-Rv-Po-h-\n B-ip-]-{Xn-bn-se tUm. A-iz-Xn-bm-Wv `m-cy. a-I≥: E-jn. am-Xm-hv: {io-Ip-am-cn. kw-kv-Im-cw ]n-∂o-Sv.

]-cn-t¡-äv Nn-InÂ-k-bn-en-cp-¶ F³-Pn-\o-bÀ a-cn-¨p

B-Zn-hm-kn-bp-hm-hp Ip-g-ªp-ho-Wp a-cn¨p d-^o-J-¯v sIm-´n-bw: D-a-b-\-√q¿ hS-°pw-I-c In-g-°v Fw.C.F-kv. kv-Iq-fn-\v k-ao-]w h-S-°-Xn¬ ho´n¬ A-–p¬ d-lo-an-s‚bpw A-j-d-^-bp-sS-bpw a-Iƒ F B¿ d-^o-JØv (16). J-_-d-S-°w C-∂v cm-hnse H-º-Xn-\v D-a-b-\-√q¿ a-kv-Pn-Zv J-_¿-ÿm\n¬. a-ø-\m-Sv l-b¿-sk°≥-U-dn kv-Iq-fn-¬ πkv h¨ tIm-ta-gv-kv hn`m-Kw hn-Zym¿-Yn-bm-bn-cp∂p.

P-\mÀ-±-\³

hn-P-b³

tam-l-\³-]n-Å

Ir-jv-W³

k-Xo-jv ta-t\m³

I-cp-\m-K-∏-≈n: Im-´n¬I-S-hv B-Zn-\m-Sv sX-°v ]m-´-Øn¬ ta-t°-Ø-d P-\m¿-±-\≥(87). `m-cy: ]tc-X-bm-b Pm-\-In. a°ƒ: hn-P-b-Ω, c-Xv-\-Ω, cm-tP-{μ≥, cm-a-N-{μ≥, cm-[m-a-Wn. a-cp-a-°ƒ: ]tc-X-\m-b cm-P≥, kp-μtc-i≥, P-b-{io, c-Xo-`mbn, X-ºn.

I-cp-\m-K-∏-≈n: Im-´n¬I-S-hv B-Zn-\m-Sv sX-°v sIm-√-t»-cn¬-X-d hn-Pb≥(55).

tX-h-e-°-c: A-cn-\-√q¿ ao-\-tج ]p-Ø≥-ho´n¬ tam-l-\≥-]n≈(50). `m-cy: Aw-_n-Im -Ip-am-cn. a-°ƒ: A-\-¥p, A-Jn¬.

sh-¶n-S-ßv: ]m-Sq¿ IWn-®n-bn¬ Ir-jvW≥(75). `m-cy: Aw-_p-P. a-°ƒ: _o-\, kp\n¬, _n-μp, k-t¥mjv. a-cp-a-°ƒ: kXy≥, kp-_n, tK-m-]n\-m-Yv, P-b-¥n.

sh-fp-Øq¿: \-¥n-e-Øv k-Xo-jv ta-t\m≥(52). kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v cm-hnse H-º-Xn-\v ]q-¶p-∂w ]m-d-tΩ-°m-hv im-¥n-L´n¬. `m-cy: hn-P-b-e-£van.

A-_v-ZpÃ-t¡m-b

]-ø∂ - q¿: I-≠¶ - m-fn-bnse sIm-bn-te-cn-®n Ieym-Wn (85).

Xn-cq¿: am¿-°-‰n-se hm-g°p-e I-®-h-S-°m-c-\pw tkm-jy-en-Ãv P-\-Xm Xncq¿ a-fi-ew ap≥- {]-knU‚p-am-b A-∂m-c sIm≠-®≥ ho-´n¬ A-–p-¿dlvam≥ lm-Pn (54). `mcy: J-Zo-P.

tIm-gn-t°mSv: ]-≈n°≠n ss_-Øp¬ B-bni-_n-bn¬ Fw ]n A-_vZp√-t°m-b (74). h-en-bßm-Sn-bn-se Im-en-®m°v sXm-gn-em-fn-bm-bncp∂p. `mcy: B-bni_n. a°ƒ: P-ao-e, Akvv-a, j-co^v, k-eow, A_vv-Zp¬ I-cow, kn-dm-Pp±o≥, iw-kp-±o≥. a-cpa°ƒ: sI D-kv-am≥, apl-Ω-ZvtIm-b, k-do-\, k¿-Pm_n, k-eo-\.

A-i-dv -^v

Ip-ª-¼p- \m-bÀ

l-\o-^ dm-hp-¯À

]q-t°mw: ap-kve - nw eo-Kv t\-Xm-hpw s]-cn-ßf - w {Km-a∏ - © - m-bØ - v ap≥ {]kn-U‚p-am-b ]n ]n Ip™n-aq-k am-Ãd - p-sS-bpw J-Zo-Pb - p-sS-bpw a-I≥ ]p-Ø≥-]p-cb - n¬ A-ivd - ^v (45). `m-cy: _p-jvd - . a°ƒ: an-kv_ - m-lv (hnZym¿-Yn, ]m-Syw K-h. lb¿-sk-°≥-Ud - n kvIqƒ), an≥-lm-Pv (hnZym¿-Yn, ]n.B¿.Fw.F®v,F-kv.F-kv). k-tlm-Zc-߃: kp-sse-am≥, Ako-kv, ap-lΩ - Z- e - n (k_v {S-jd - n, am-\¥ - h - m-Sn), lm-Pd - , B-bn-i, ku-ZØv.

\o-te-iz-cw-: I-cn-¥fw Io-gv-am-e-bn-se a\n-tb-cn Ip-™-ºp \m-b¿ (92). `m-cy: ]-tc-X-bm-b Ipdp-hm-´v Ip-™-Ωm-dΩ. a-°ƒ: cm-a-N{μ≥, Ip-™n-Ir-jvW≥ (sI-.-F-k.-v-C._n, `o-a-\-Sn), ap-c-fn, Im-¿-Xym-b-\n. a-cp-a-°ƒ: Ip-™-ºp \m-b¿, iym-a-f, an-\n. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: ]m¿h-Xnb-Ω, D-Ø-Ω, ]tc-X-cm-b tI-fp \m-b¿, I-Ωm-c≥ \m-b¿, N¥q-™n \m-b¿, Nn-cptX-bn A-Ω.

F-e-∏p-≈n: am-bw-¶p-fw tNm-gn-bw-]m-°v ap-l-ΩZn-s‚ a-I≥ l-\o-^ dmhp-Ø¿ (98). `m-cy: ]-tc-X-bm-b sa-l_q-_. a-°ƒ: C-kv-amCu¬, _-Z-dp-±o≥, keow, _¬-°o-kv, ^mØn-a, B-bn-jm-∏m, dmhn-b, \q¿-P-lm≥, d-“Øv. a-cp-a-°ƒ: lm-Pn-d, \kv-ko-\, ^-ko-e, Icow, ^m-dq-Jv, A-–p¬ k-Øm¿, jm-lp¬ lao-Zv. J-_-d-S-°w C-∂v cm-hn-se 11\v ]m-d Fdm≥-t©-cn ]-≈n J-_¿ÿm-\n¬.

I-eym-Wn

A-Ðp-Àd-lvam³ lm-Pn

sI BÀ \m-cm-b-W³ C³-Ìn-äyq-«v Hm-^v hn-jzÂk-b³-kn ASp-¯- hÀjw apX ]T\w XpS§pw

Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-cw: kw-ÿm-\ k¿-°m-cn-s‚ sI B¿ \m-cm-bW≥ C≥-Ãn-‰yq-´v Hm-^v hnjz¬- k-b≥-kv B‚ v B¿-Svkn¬ A-Sp-Ø A-[y-b-\-h¿jw ¢m-kv Xp-S-ßp-sa-∂v ap-Jy-a{¥n D-Ω≥-Nm-≠n {]-Jym-]n-®p. C≥-kv-‰n-‰yq-´n-s‚ t{]m-kv-s]-Œkv ap-Jy-a-{¥n {]-Im-i-\w sNbv-Xp. kv-{In-]v-‰v-ssd-‰n-Mv B‚ v U-b-d£≥, F-Un-‰n-Mv, kn-\ntam-t´m-{K-^n, Hm-Un-tbm-{K-^n B-\n-ta-j≥ B≥v hn-jz¬ C^-Œv, B-Iv‰n-Mv F-∂n-hbmWv tIm-gv-kv. π-kv-Sp tbm-KyX-bm-°n-bp-≈ tIm-gv-kp-I-fmWv Xp-S-ßp-I. A-Jn-te-¥ym {]th-i-\]-co-£-bp-sS A-Sn-ÿm\-Øn-em-Wv Xnc-s™-Sp∏v.

A-l-½-Zv-Ip-«n

Xn-cq-c-ßm-Sn: sIm-Sn™n I-Sp-hm-fq¿ ]-tcX-\m-b ]-b-°-c sam-bvXo-s‚ `m-cy C-Øm-®p (82). a-°ƒ: Ip-™o-Zp (Pn±), ]-tc-X-\m-b tIm-b. a-cp-a-°ƒ: P-ao-e, J-ZoP.

sIm-Sp-ß-√q¿: ta-Øe F-S-ap-°v F-d-aw-K-eØv ]p-fn-°-]-d-ºn¬ A-l-Ω-Zv-Ip-´n(91). hn-ap-‡ `-S-\m-bn-cp∂p. `m-cy: \-Sp-hn-e-I-Øv sF-i-Ip-´n. ap-l-½-Zv-Ip-«n a-°ƒ: A-–p¬ IXn-cp-\m-hm-b: F-S-°pcow, d-kn-bm ap-l-Ω-Zfw Im-Z-\-ßm-Sn-bn-se en, ^m-Øn-a, sa-lv-dpIp-‰n-∏-d-ºn¬ ap-l-Ω-ZvIp-´n (68). `m-cy: dw-e. a- ∂o-k, h-lo-Z, ]-tc-X°ƒ: lp-kbv≥, ap-kv-X- \m-b I-Zo-Pm-_n, jw^, A-–p- -a-Zv, i-d-^p- kp-±o≥. a-cp-a-°ƒ: Fw Fw ∂o-k, J-Zo-P, Xm-ln-d, D-Ωp-ssd-lm-\-Øv, dw-e- kn-±o-Jv, kp-ss_-Z, Øv, \n-km-ap-±o≥. a-cp-a- sI hn kn-±o-Jv, \-Pp°ƒ: J-Zo-P, kp-sse-J, ap-∂n-k, C-kv-a-bn¬, apw-Xm-kv, jw-kp-±o≥. k-eo-\, ap-l-Ω-Zv-Ip-´n.

t{X-kym-½

cm-tP-{μ³

Im-cn-¨n-b-½

_m-e³

X-e-t»-cn: am-\-¥-hm-Snbn-se t{X-kym-Ω B‚Wn B-cy-∏-≈n¬ (63). `¿-Øm-hv: B‚-Wn Bcy-∏-≈n¬. a-°ƒ: A-\ne (J-Ø¿), A-Po-jv B‚-Wn, tUm. A-`n-emjv B‚-Wn (bq-tdm-f-Pnkv-‰v, C-μn-cm-Km-μn tlmkv-]n-‰¬, X-e-t»-cn), A¿-®-\ (e-≠≥). a-cp-a°ƒ: tSm-an Ip-∏-Øm-\Øv (J-Ø¿), do-\ GewIp-∂-Øv, tUm. am-b A-`n-em-jv (e-≠≥). kwkv-Im-cw C-∂p ssh-Io-´v aq-∂n-\v am-\-¥-hm-Sn Su¨ N¿-®v sk-an-tØcn-bn¬.

s]-cn-tßmw: I-cn-¥-SsØ C-S-Ø-´ cm-tP{μ≥ (55). `m-cy: iy-m-a-f. a-°ƒ: A-cp¨-cm-Pv, A\p-{io. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: c-ho-{μ≥, cm-[m-Ir-jvW≥ (dn-´. s]-cn-tßmw k-_v c-Pn-kv-{Sm¿ Hm-^nkv), c-Xv-\-a-Wn, cm-P-aWn (C-cp-h-cpw U¬ln), A-Uz. cm-tP-jv CS-Ø-´ (sN-ss∂), ]-tcX-bm-b c-a-Wn.

\o-te-iz-cw-: s\-√n-b-Sp°w tKm-]m-e-s‚ In-fnb-fw an-®-`q-an-bn-se Imcn-®n-b-Ω (70). a-°ƒ: Aw-_n-I, _m_p, c-a-Wn, tim-`, c-P\n, \-fn-\n. a-cp-a-°ƒ: \m-cm-b-Wn, tam-l-\≥, cm-P≥, Ir-jv-W≥.

am-ln: Nm-e-°-c, tN-cn°p-∂p-Ω¬ dn-´. kv-]n∂n-Mv an¬ Po-h-\-°mc≥ kn _m-e≥ (78). `mcy: I-a-e. a-°ƒ: c-Xn, ca, c-Po-{μ≥ (_mw-•q¿). a-cp-a-°ƒ: hn-P-b≥, apIp-μ≥, _n-μp.

A-b-½-Zv-Ip-«n Xm-a-c-t»-cn: Hm-S-°p-∂v (I-Æ-∏≥-Ip-≠v ) sN{º-°p-∂-Øv A-b-Ω-ZvIp-´n (77). `m-cy: J-Zo-P. a-°ƒ: D- -bn≥ Ip-´n am-ÿ ( Pn.hn.F-®v.Fkv.F-kv, Xm-a-c-t»-cn ),A-–p-¿d-lv-am≥, bqkp-^v (Zp-_bv) , B-bni, ap-l-Ω-Zv _-jo¿ (JØ¿), C-{_m-low, hlm-_v (sN-ss∂).

C-¯m-¨p

a-dn-bw Iq-Øp-]-d-ºv: I-Æ-∏-dº-Øv h-cn-t°m-fn ho´n¬ ]n Fw a-dn-bw (74). a-°ƒ: bq-kp-^v, C-kvam-Cu¬, B-bn-i

{io-am-\p-®n \mbÀ Ipcp-h-´q¿: Im-cm-´pXmgw sN-dp-°m-hn¬ {io-am-\p-Æn \mb¿ (ss{U-h¿ D-Æn-\m-b¿˛77). `m-cy: {ioa-Xnb-Ω ]m-d-ßm´v. k-tlm-Z-c߃: N-{μ≥ \mb¿, ]tc-X\m-b _m-e≥ \mb¿.

J-eo-ep-Àd-lv-am³ F-S-∏mƒ: I-≠-\-Iw B-\-°-c tdm-Un¬ DØpw-ßm-\-I-Øv J-eoep-¿d-lvam≥ (65). `m-cy: B-an-\. a-°ƒ: jm-Pn (A-_q-Z_n), kn-bm-kv- d-lvam≥ (A-·n-i-a-\-tk-\, s]m∂m-\n), k-Rv-Po-Zv, k-aod.

^nen-¸v Ipa-fn: C-e-hp-¶¬ tbml-m≥ ^n-en-∏v(82). kwkv-Im-cw C∂p ssh-Io-´v \m-en-\v Ipa-fn A-∏kvtXm-en-Iv s]-¥-t°m-kvXv ]-≈n sk-an-tØ-cnbn¬. `mcy: ]-tc-Xbm-b ta-cn. a-°ƒ:]m-ÿ tPm, am-Xyp, kPn, en n, Pm≥kn, ]-tcX\mb tPm-k^v.

I-eym-Wn-b-½ Iq-Øp-]-d-ºv: am-ßm-´nSw Ip-dp-º-°-en-se {io Ir-jv-W-bn¬ ]-tc-X-\mb sN-tΩ-cn Ir-jv-Ws‚ `m-cy ]p-e-∏m-Sn Ieym-Wn-b-Ω (85). a°ƒ: \-fn-\n, N-{μ≥, h¬-k≥, \-μn-\n.

sIm-®n: 19 h¿-jw ap-ºv Im-WmXm-b 13Im-c≥ sIm√-s∏-´-XmsW∂p sX-fn-™p.- {]-Xn A-dÃn¬. N-ß-\m-t»-cn a-[p-aq-ebn¬ hn-iz-\m-Y≥ B-Nm-cn-bpsS a-I≥ a-lm-tZ-h-s‚ Xn-tcm[m-\-am-Wv ss{Iw-{_m-©v At\z-j-W-Øn¬ sIm-e-]m-X-Iam-sW-∂p sX-fn-™-Xv. kw-`-hØn¬ N-ß-\m-t»-cn a-©m-Sn-°c C-f-ap-dn-bn¬ ho-´n¬ l-cn-Ipam-dn(D-Æn-˛41)s\ F-d-Wm-Ipfw ss{Iw-{_m-©v F-®v.F-®v.Uªyp. c-≠v A-d-Ãv sN-bv-Xp. 1995 k-]v-Xw-_¿ F-´n-\m-Wv a-lm-tZ-h-s\ Im-Wm-Xm-b-Xv. hn-iz-\m-Y≥ B-Nm-cn-bp-sS ]cm-Xn-bn¬ N-ß-\m-t»-cn t]meo-kv tIsk-SpØp. C-Xn-\n-sS

a-lm-tZ-h≥ I-kv-‰-Un-bn-eps≠-∂pw ]-Ww \¬-I-W-sa∂pw `o-j-Wn-s∏-Sp-Øn- hn-izm\m-Y≥ B-Nm-cn-°p I-Øp-Iƒ e-`n-®p. XpS¿-∂v hn-iz\m-Y-s‚ Bh- i y- { ]- I mcw 1996 P-\ph-cn c-≠n-\v A-∂-sØ ap- J y- a - { ¥n l-cn-Ip-am-¿ tI-kt\z-jWw ss{Iw-{_m-©n-\p hn-´p. ]ptcm-K-Xn-bp-≠m-hm-Xn-cp-∂-Xns\ Xp-S¿-∂v C-h¿ A-t\z-jWw A-h-km-\n-∏n-®p-sIm-≠v 2001 s^-{_p-h-cn 17\v N-ß-\mt»-cn Pp-Uo-jy¬ H-∂mw ¢m-kv

a-Pn-kv-t{S-‰v tIm-S-Xn-bn¬ dnt]m¿-´v \¬-In. C-Xn-s\-Xn-tc hn-iz-\m-Y≥ ssl-t°m-S-Xn-sb k-ao-]n-°p-I-bpw ssl-t°m-SXn- D-Ø-c-hv {]-Im-c-w F-d-WmIp-fw ss{Iw-{_m-©v F-®v.F®v.U-ªyp. c-≠v F-kv.]n sI Pn ssk-aWns‚ t\-Xr-Xz-Øn¬ tI-kv A-t\z-j-Ww G-s‰-Sp-°pI-bm-bn-cp∂p. a-lm-tZ-h≥ [-cn-®n-cp-∂ 10 {Kmw Xq-°-ap-≈ kz¿-W-am-essI-°-em-°p-∂-Xn-\m-bm-Wv a[p-aq-e PMvj-\n¬ ssk-°nƒ I-S \-S-Øn-bncp-∂ l-cn-Ip-am¿ sIm-e\-S-Øn-b-sX-∂v ss{Iw {_m-©v ]-d-™p. a-lm-tZ-h-s‚ am-Xm-]n-Xm-°ƒ C-t∏mƒ Po-hn®n-cn-∏n-√.

im-´n-a-μn-c-¯n-se A-t´-hm-kn Zp-cq-l- km-l-N-cy-¯n a-cn-¨p

B-e-∏p-g: \-K-c-k-`-bp-sS im-¥n-a-μn-c-Øn-se At¥-hm-kn Zp-cq-l-km-l-N-cy-Øn¬ a-cn-®p. B-en-t»cn im-¥n-a-μn-c-Øn¬ aq-∂p-h¿-j-am-bn I-gn-bp-∂ aÆ-t©-cn kz-tZin B-en-_m-h-bm-Wv (90) a-cn-®-Xv. C∂se cm-hn-se B-dp-a-Wn-tbm-sS-bm-Wv kw-`-hw. i-–w-tI-´v Hm-Sn-sb-Øn-bt∏mƒ B-en-_m-h h-cm¥-bn¬ ho-Wp-In-S-°p-∂Xv I-s≠∂pw F-gp-t∂¬∏n-®-t∏mƒ A-\-°-an-√mbn-cp-∂p-sh-∂p-am-Wv Poh-\-°m¿ ]-d-™-Xv. F-∂m¬, s\-‰n-bp-sS h-e-Xp-h-i-Øm-bn ap-dn-th‰-Xv kw-i-b-Øn-\n-S-bm°n-. B-g-Øn-ep-≈ ap-dn-hn¬ \n-∂p c-‡w hm¿-∂n-cpc-ta-i³ ∂p. ]-cn-k-c-Øp-≈ tUm-Iv-S¿ F-Øn-bm-Wv a-c-Ww am-´q¬: t\m¿-Øv P-ko- ÿn-co-I-cn-®-Xv. \m-´p-Im-cp-sS ]-cm-Xn-sb Xp-S¿-∂v ¥ kv-t‰m-∏n-\p k-ao-]ku-Øv kn.sF. jm-Pn-tam≥ tPm-k-^n-s‚ t\-XrsØ ]-tc-X-\m-b ]-fl- Xz-Øn¬ t]menkv F-Øn ]cn-tim-[-\ \SØn. \m-`-s‚-bpw No-‰n¬ Pm- t^m-d≥-kn-Iv hn-`m-K-w sX-fn-hp-Iƒ ti-J-cn-®p. ar-X\-In-bp-sS-bpw a-I≥ kn tZ-lw B-e-∏p-g sa-Un-°¬ tIm-f-Pv B-ip-]-{Xnc-ta-i≥ (48). `m-cy: kp- bn¬ t]m-kv-‰v-tam¿-´-Øn-\-b-®p. \n-X. a-°ƒ: {ip-Xn, kqB-kv-Xv-a tcm-Kn-bm-bn-cp-∂p B-en-_m-h. I-tk-ccy, kq-c-Pv. k-tlm-Z-cbn¬ \n-∂v F-gp-t∂¬-°p-∂-Xn-\n-sS Ip-g-™p-ho߃: c-hn (Ip-ssh-Øv), W-t∏mƒ X-e I-´-nen-s‚ t_mƒ-´n¬ X-´n ]-cn-t°-‰pa-Wn-tam-l≥ (Hm-t´m sh-∂v kw-i-bn-°p-∂-Xm-bm-Wv Po-h-\-°m¿ t]m-enss{U-h¿). kn-t\m-Sv ]-d-™-Xv. ho-gv-N-bn¬ izm-k-X-S- w D≠mb-Xm-Wv a-c-W-Im-c-W-sa-∂m-Wv t]m-kv-‰v-tam¿-´-ØntZ-h-Zm-k-³ se {]m-Y-an-I kq-N-\-sb-∂v t]menkv ]-d-™p. BF-c-™n-∏m-ew; I-Æ-®w- ¥-cn-Imh-b-h-߃ hn-i-Z]-cn-tim-[-\-°v A-b-®nho-´n¬ sI hn tZ-h-Zm´p≠v. ar-X-tZ-lw t]m-kv-‰v-tam¿-´-Øn-\p-ti-jw h-´k≥ (81). \-S-°m-hn-se ∏-≈n kv-‰-Un k¿-°n-fn-\v ap-ºn¬ s]m-Xp-Z¿-i-\Im-en-°-‰v td-Un-tbm k¿-ho-kv ÿm-]-\w \-S- Øn-\v h-®p. Xp-S¿-∂v a-Æ-t©-cn-bn-se k-tlm-Z-cnØp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. `m-cy: bp-sS ho-´n¬ F-Øn-®-ti-jw ]-Sn-™msd Pp-am-a-kvPn-Zv J-_¿-ÿm-\n¬ J-_-d-S-°n. F-S-Øn¬ cm-P-e-£v-an.

13 Im-c-sâ Xn-tcm-[m-\w 19 hÀ-j-¯n-\p-ti-jw tem-I -`-£y-kw-L-S-\-bp-am-bn [m-c-W sIm-e-]m-X-I-sa-¶p sX-fn-ªp; {]-Xn A-d-Ìn Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-cw: kw-ÿm-\sØ s]m-Xp-hn-X-c-Wkw-hn[m-\w \-ho-I-cn-°p-∂-Xn-s‚ `m-K-am-bn \-S-∏m-°p-∂ k-ºq¿W I-w-]yq-´¿h¬-°-c-W ]-≤Xn-bp-sS \-S-Øn-∏n-\p-≈ kmt¶-Xn-I-k-lm-bw e-`y-am-°p∂-Xn-\v `-£y-s]m-Xp-hn-X-c-W h-Ip-∏pw tem-I-`-£y-kw-L-S\-bp-am-bn [m-c-Wm-]-{Xw H-∏ph-®p. ssX-°m-Sv K-h. K-Ãv lukn¬ a-{¥n A-\q-]v tP-°-_ns‚ km-∂n-[y-Øn¬ \-S-∂ N-Sßn¬ `-£y-˛-s]m-Xp-hn-X-c-W h-Ip-∏v sk-{I-´-dn kp-a≥_n-√bpw thƒ-Uv ^p-Uv t{]m-{Kmw I¨-{Sn sl-Uv ssa-°¬ P≥k-\p-am-Wv [m-c-Wm-]-{XØn¬ H-∏p-h-®-Xv. P-Ãn-kv hm-[zm I-Ωo-j≥ dnt]m¿-´n-s‚ A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ kp-{]nw-tIm-S-Xn hn-[n-°v A-\p-

Ipa-fn: s]-cn-bm¿ I-Sp-hm k-t¶-X-Øn-\p-≈n¬ BZnhm-kn bp-hm-hv Ipg-™p ho-Wp a-cn®p. ap-cn-°m-´pIp-Sn kz-tZ-in kp-[o-jv(26)B-Wv a-cn-®Xv. C∂se D-®-tbm-sS-bm-Wv kw-`hw. s]-cn-bm¿ I-Sp-hm k-t¶X-Øn-\p-≈n-se ap√-°p-Sn-bn¬ Im-´p-Xo X-Sbp∂Xn-\m-bn ^b¿-sse≥ \n¿-am-W-Øn¬ G-¿s∏-´n-cp-∂ sXm-gn-em-fn-bm-Wv kp-[o-jv. C∂-se D-®-tbm-sS im-cocn-I A-kz-kv-X-X-Iƒ D-≠m-b-Xn-s\ Xp-S¿-∂p Ipg-™p ho-gp-I-bm-bncp∂-p-. G-Xm\pw k-a-b-Øn-\p-≈n¬ C-bmƒ a-cn-®-p. ar-X-tZ-lw Ip-a-fn-bn-se kz-Im-cy B-ip-]-{Xn-bn-se tam¿-®-dn-bn¬. Ipa-fn a-m-°p-Sn kz-tZ-inbm-b Ip™p-tam-fm-Wv `mcy. C-h¿°v aq-∂p-am-kw {]m-bap-≈ H-cp Ip-´-nbp-≠v.

kr-X-am-bn tI-c-f-Øn¬ \-S-∏m°p-∂ k-ºq¿-W I-w-]yq-´¿h¬-°-c-W ]-≤-Xn-bn¬ kmt¶-Xn-I D-]-tZ-iw \¬-Ip-I F∂-Xm-Wv U-ªyp.F-^v.]n \¬Ip-∂ tk-h-\w. k-ºq¿-W I-w-]yq-´¿-h¬-°c-W ]-≤-Xn-bp-sS L-S-I-ß-fmb Kp-W-t`m-‡m-°-sf I-s≠ج, k-ssπ sN-bn≥ am-t\Pv-sa‚ v, \ym-b-hn-e tI-{μ-ßfp-sS (td-j≥ I-S-Iƒ) B-[p\o-I-c-W-hpw em-`-I-c-am-°-epw Kp-W-t`m-‡r ]-cm-Xn]-cn-lm-ckw-hn-[m-\w F-∂n-h-bnepw tdj≥ I-S-I-fp-sS B-[p-\o-I-cW-hpw em-`-I-c-am-°-epw F-∂ L-S-I-Øn¬ km-t¶-Xn-I D-]tZ-iw, {]-hr-Øn-]-cn-N-bw, hn-ZKv-[-sc \¬-I¬ Xp-S-ßn-b klm-b-ßfpw U-ªyp.F-^v.]n \¬-Ipw.

F³-.F-k.v-F-kv-. P-\-dÂ- sk-{I-«-dntIm-am-fn-sb-¶v- sI.F-kv-.bp-. {]-kn-UâvsXm-Sp-]p-g: a-lm-∑m-cp-sS ap-JØv- I-cn-sIm-≠v- tIm-ewh-c-bv°p-∂ tIm-am-fn-bm-Wv- F≥-.Fkv-.F-kv-. P-\-d¬- sk-{I-´-dnkp-Ip-am-c≥-\m-b-sc-∂v- sI.Fkv-.bp-. kw-ÿm-\ {]-kn-U‚ vhn- F-kv- tPm-bn.- km-ap-Zm-bn-Icw-K-Øv- k-t¥m-jv- ]-fin-‰ns‚ \n-e-hm-c-Øn-te-°v- kp-Ipam-c≥-\m-b¿- A-[∏-Xn-s®-∂pw hn F-kv tPm-bn sXm-Sp-]p-gbn¬ hm¿-Øm-k-tΩ-f-\-Øn¬ ]-d-™p. kp-Ip-am-c≥-\m-b-cpw- C-Sp°n- _n-j-∏v- am-Xyp- B-\n-°p-gn°m-´n-epw- F-kv-.F≥-.Un-.]n.tbm-Kw P-\-d¬ sk-{I-´-dn- sh≈m-∏-≈n- \-tS-i-\pw- \-S-Øp∂ {]-kv-Xm-h-\-I-fpw- C-S-s]-Sep-I-fpw- A-Xn-cp-hn-Sp-I-bm-Wv.a-∂-Øp ]-fl-\m-`≥ F≥.-F-

kv.-F-kn-s‚ kz-Im-cy kz-Ø√. A-t±-lw \-thm-∞m-\ \m-bIcn¬ H-cm-fm-Wv. tZ-io-b{]ÿm-\-Øn-s‚ kw-`m-h-\-bm-b a-∂-Øp ]-fl-\m-`-s\ kp-Ip-amc≥ \m-b¿ kz-Im-cykz-Øm°m≥ {i-an-°p-I-bm-Wv. a-lm\m-b a-∂-Øp ]-fl-\m-`-\pw am\y-\m-b \m-cm-b-W-∏-Wn-°-cpw C-cp-∂ I-tk-c-bn¬ tIm-am-fnsb t]m-se kp-Ip-am-c≥-\m-b¿ C-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv. F≥.-F-kv.-Fkv. B-ÿm-\-Øv ]p-√p- ]-dn°m≥ h-∂ kp-Ip-am-c≥ \m-b¿ C-∂p t]m-∏m-sW-∂v ]-d-s™¶n¬ \m-sf ]-S-t®m≥ B-sW∂v {]-Jym-]n-°pwap-ºv s]-cp-∂bn¬ \n-∂v C-bm-sf ]-Sn-b-S-®p ]n-fiw h-bv-°m≥ F≥.-F-kv.F-kv. t\-Xr-Xzw X-øm-dm-hWsa∂pw tPmbn ]d-™p.


8

thÀ-]mSv

kozhikode

27 s^{_p-h-cn 2014 hymgw

cm-a³ \-¼n-b-¯v A-´-cn-¨p B-en-¡p-«n lm-Pn

ho-cm³-Ip-«n

in-h-cm-a³ \m-bÀ

A-l-½-Zv-Ip-«n lm-Pn

jm-Pn

th-em-bp-[³ \m-bÀ-

sam-bv-Xo³

Ip-cy³-

Ip-μ-aw-K-ew: tIm-gnt°m-Sv sk≥-{S¬ am¿-°‰v ^n-jv G-P‚ v Im-c¥q¿ Ip-dp-ºm-´n¬ B-en°p-´n lm-Pn (72). `m-cy: ]-tc-X-bm-b l-Δm D-Ω. a-°ƒ: ap-l-Ω-Zv A-iv-d^v (^n-jv G-P-‚ v, tImgn-t°m-Sv sk≥-{S¬ am¿°-‰v), A-–p¬ e-Xzo-^v (s_-Ãv hp-Uv C≥-U-kv{So-kv, Im-c-¥q¿), ^m-Xzna, J-Zo-P, kp-sse-J. a-cpa-°ƒ: A-–p¿-d-lvam≥, I-_o¿ (C-cp-h-cpw F-eØq¿), a-c-°m¿ (Xn-cp-hºm-Sn), j-ao-P, sj-°oe. Im-¥-]p-cw F ]n A-_q_-°¿ ap-kv-eym¿, F-kv.Un.-]n.sF tIm-gn-t°m-Sv Pn-√m P-\-d¬ sk-{I-´-dn ap-kv-X-^ sIm-tΩ-cn hk-Xn k-μ¿-in-®p.

F-S-h-Æ: B-cy≥-sXm-SnI sN-ß-t»-cn-bn-se a-chym-]m-cn sX-t°-sXm-SnI ho-cm≥-Ip-´n (76). `mcy: ]n a-dn-bp-Ω. a-°ƒ: A-–p¬ -I-cow (F-S-hÆ ]-©m-b-Øv {]-hm-kneo-Kv sk-{I-´-dn), A–p¬ A-ko-kv, Ip-™nap-l-Ω-Zv, A-–p¬ l-aoZv, Sn Sn kp-sse-am≥ (tXP-kv te-J-I≥, F-S-hÆ), J-Zo-P, B-bn-im_n, kp-_o-\,]-tc-X-\mb A-–p¬ ap-\o¿. a-cp-a°ƒ: j-do-\, A-kv-am_n, km-ln-d, d-ko-\.Pkvv-\, Ip-´n-a-Ω-Zv (]-e-N-c°v hym-]m-cn, ]-∂n-∏m-d), A-–p¬ K-^q¿ (Pn-±), A-øq-_v H-Xm-bn. ktlm-Z-c-߃: A-e-hn-°p´n, sam-bv-Xo≥-Ip-´n, ^mØn-a, B-bn-i, \-^o-k, ]-tc-X-cm-b ap-l-Ω-Zv, aΩp-Æn.

sN-dq-∏: sI B¿ in-hcm-a≥ \m-b¿ (88). `m-cy: sI B¿ `m-¿-K-hn (dn-´. B-tcm-Ky-h-Ip-∏v). a°ƒ: tUm. an-\n cm-[mIr-jv-W≥ (K-h. B-ip]-{Xn, tIm-´-∏-d-ºv), _o\ (em-_v sS-Iv-\o-jy≥, sa-Un. tIm-f-Pv, tIm-gnt°m-Sv). a-cp-a-°ƒ: cm[m-Ir-jv-W≥ (F≥-Pn\o-tb-gv-kv C-¥y, sIm®n), kp-tc-jv (kn.F®v.kn. Hm-am-\q¿).

Xn-cq¿: I-Sp-h-≠n-h-f∏n¬ A-l-Ω-Zv-Ip-´n lmPn (80). `m-cy: B-an-\-°p´n- l-÷p-Ω. a-°ƒ: a-PoZv, sam-bv-Xo-≥-Ip-´n, C{_m-low, d-km-Jv, km-ZØv, k-eow, sa-l-_q-_v, dm-^n, k-^n-b, Iu-eØv, kp-ss_-Z. a-cp-a°ƒ: _o-cm≥-sam-bvXo≥, _o-cm≥-Ip-´n, _jo¿, ^m-Øn-a, lm-P-d, ssJ-dp-∂o-k, \-kn, k^o-d, sk-an, kp-an, \mkn.

I-cn-ßm-Sv: I-Xn-tcm-en¬ ]-tc-X\ - m-b A-t¥m-Wnbp-sS a-I≥ jm-Pn (38). `m-cy: _o-\ (a-´\ - m-\n°¬ Ip-Spw-_mw-Kw). aI≥: A≥-tjm. am-Xm-hv: A-∂. k-tlm-Zc - ß - ƒ: tPm-kv, tZ-hk - y, Ip-´n-bΩ, eo-e, a-dn-b° - p-´n. kwkvI - m-cw C-∂v 3.30\v I-cnßm-Sv sk‚ v sk-_m-kv‰y≥-kv ]-≈n-bn¬.

\n-e-ºq¿: dn-´. -{]-[m-\m[ym-]-I≥ ho-´n-°p-Øv I-Æ≥-Ip-gn-bn¬ th-embp-[≥ \m-b¿(N-{μ≥ \m-b¿-˛79). `m-cy: im-¥mtZ-hn. a-°ƒ: cm-Po-hv, cPn-X (A-[ym-]n-I. Pn.F¬.]n.F-kv, a-e-∏pdw), D-jm-tZ-hn. a-cp-a°ƒ: cm-[m-a-Wn (A[ym-]n-I, Pn. -F¬.-Pn.F-kv. -ho-´n-°p-Øv), \mcm-b-W≥ (dn-´. -Ir-jn h-Ip-∏v), N-{μ≥ (hn-ap‡`-S≥).

]-tøm-fn: a-Wn-bq-cn-se ap-kv-enw- eo-Kv ÿm-]It\-Xm-hpw a-Wn-bq¿ Ppam-a-kv-Pn-Zv I-Ω-‰n ap≥ {]kn-U‚p-am-b I-S-h-Øv sam-bv-Xo≥ (87). l-bmØp¬ C-kv-emw kw-Lw A-d-_n-Iv tIm-f-Pv I-Ω-n‰n ap≥ {]-kn-U‚pw l-bmØp¬ C-kvemw a-Zv-d-km ap≥ J-Pm-©n-bp-amWv. `mcy: ]m-Øp-Ω. a-°ƒ: ]°¿, l-ao-Zv, _-jo¿, kemw (A-[ym-]-I≥, s]-cnß-Øq¿ l-b¿-sk-°≥U-dn kv-Iqƒ), a-dn-bw, kpss_-Z, ku-Z. a-cp-a-°ƒ: k-^n-b, k-^-vcn-b, ^ukn-b, k-^o-\, sam-bvXo≥, sam-bv-Xp, ]-tc-X\m-b t]m-°¿.

F-S-°-c: B-Z-y-Im-e IpSn-tb-‰ I¿-j-I≥ ]m¿-enbn-se F-c-aw-K-e-Øv Ipc-y≥ (95). `m-cy: ]-tc-Xbm-b {_-Po-Ø. a-°ƒ : h¿-°n, ta-cn, A-∂-°p-´n, {^m≥-kn, tam-fn, k-Æn Ip-c-y≥ (A-[-ym-]-I≥ Fw.H.F¬.]n kv-Iqƒ ap-≠). a-cp-a-°ƒ: tdm-kΩ, tPm-bn Ip-Sn-en-¶¬, tPm¨ h-en-b-\n-c-t∏¬, Ip-™p-tamƒ, cm-Pp s]\n-tb¬, tPm-kn. -kw-kv°m-cw C-∂v Hº-Xn-\v ]mte-am-Sv sk‚ v tXm-a-kv ]-≈n sk-an-tØ-cn-bn¬.

Ip-ªn-cm-a³ \m-bÀ ]-ø-∂q¿: sN-dp-hn-t®-cnbn-se C-S-h≥ ]p-Xnbho-´n¬ Ip-™-n-cm-a≥ \m-b¿ (83). `m-cy: ]p-fp-°q¬ Im¿Xym-b-\n-b-Ω. a-°ƒ: \fn-\n, {]-k-∂.

cm-tP-{μ³ s]-cn-tßmw: I-cn-¥-SsØ C-S-Ø-´ cm-tP{μ≥ (55). `m-cy: iy-m-a-f. a-°ƒ: A-cp¨-cm-Pv, A\p-{io.

ap-l-½-Zv ]q-t°m-´pw-]m-Sw: D-∏p-h≈n B-d-tßm-S≥ ap-lΩ-Zv (87). `m-cy: B-bn-i. a-°ƒ: A-l-Ω-Zv, tIm-b, sskXv, k-°o¿, B-en-°p-´n, in-lm-_v. k-tlm-Z-c߃: I-Zo-P, \p-kvdn-b, B-an-\. J-_-d-S-°w C∂p cm-hn-se 10\v ]qt°m-´pw-]m-Sw h-en-b]≈n J-_¿-ÿm-\n¬.

a-dn-bw Iq-Øp-]-d-ºv: I-Æ-∏-dº-Øv h-cn-t°m-fn ho´n¬ ]n Fw a-dn-bw (74).

I-a-e Ip-‰ym-Sn: N-ß-cw-Ip-fsØ ]-≈n-bm-d-]-d-ºØv I-a-e (60). `¿-Øm-hv: N-¥pssh-Zy¿ \n-c-hn¬∏p-g. a-°ƒ: k-p-tc-jv_m_p (A-[ym-]-I≥, F.Fw.bp.]n.F-kv. Ip-‰nX-td-Ω¬, a-e-∏p-dw), kptc-{μ≥ ({^-≠v-kv Hm-t´m Km-tc-Pv, I-Sn-b-ßm-Sv). acp-a-Iƒ: {io-P. k-tlm-Zc-߃: `m-kv-I-c≥, thWp, k-tcm-Pn-\n, `m-c-Xn, ]-tc-X-cm-b _m-e≥ ssh-Zy¿, in-h-Zm-k≥. k-©-b-\w hym-gm-gv-N.

ap-l-½-Zv sIm-Sp-h≈ - n: ]m-e° - p-‰n s\-t≈m-dΩ - ¬ ap-lΩ - Z- v (68). `m-cy: J-Zo-P. a-°ƒ: A-–p¬- a-Po- Z- v, lm-cn-kv (C-cp-hc - pw Ip-ssh-Øv), djo-Zv, d-^o-Jv, A-–p¬-kemw. a-cp-a° - ƒ: kp-ld - , k-Pv\ - , k-eo-\, lp-kv\ - , d-^o-Z.

A-Ðp-Ã h-fb - ∂ - q¿: h-St- °y-SØ - v A-–p-√ (74). `m-cy: Ip™m-an. a-°ƒ: A-–p¬A-ko-kv, A-–p¬- kemw, kp-ss_-Z, \-ko-a, dko-\. a-cp-a° - ƒ: kq-∏n (]m-te-cn), sI F-kv d-joZv, \m-k¿ (h-fb - ∂ - q¿), keo-\,- jm-Zn-b.

a-dn-b sIm-Sp-h-≈n: Np-≠-∏pdw tI-tfm-Øv ]p-dm-bn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b tN-°p-´n lm-Pn-bp-sS `m-cy a-dn-b (68). a-°ƒ: a-Po-Zv, Icow, jw-kp, jm-^n, dp_n-b, kp-l-d, km-d.

A-¸p-\m-bÀ Hm-a-t»-cn: sN-ºpI-S-hv No-Sn-°p-gn-bn¬ A∏p\m-b¿ (75). `m-cy: ao\m-£n. a-°ƒ: c-ho{μ≥, i-io-{μ≥, kp-tc{μ≥. a-cp-a-°ƒ: cm-[, A-Pn-X, ssj-\n.

No-cp

Hm-a-t»-cn: C-cp-º-Iw Xp-º-®m¬ am-Sm-bn¬ ]tc-X-\m-b tI-fp-hn-s‚ cm-P³ \m-bÀ \-cn-°p-\n: s\-Sn-b-\m-Sv `m-cy No-cp (85). a-°ƒ: ]-\n-®n-߬ tKm-hn-μ≥ Ip-´≥, _m-e≥, hn-iz\m-b-cp-sS a-I≥ Ip-∂m-c- \m-Y≥, k-tcm-Pn-\n, NmØp-°p-´n, tim-`-\, DØv cm-P≥ \m-b¿ (56). Æn-Ir-jv-W≥, ]p-cp`m-cy: kp-K-X (sIm-bnem-≠n). a-°ƒ: cm-[n-I, tjm-Ø-a≥. a-cp-a-°ƒ: e-£v-an, am-[-hn, eo-e, c-iv-an, c-Rv-Pn-Xv. am-Xmhv: b-tim-Zm-Ω. k-tlm-Z- ]-tc-X-\m-b ]-c-ta-izc≥, km-hn-{Xn, _m-e-Ircn: jo-e (F.F-kv.hn.jv-W≥, D-j, _n-μp. bp.]n.-F-kv. h-S-I-c).

H-‰-∏m-ew: ap≥-Im-e kn-\n-am \n¿-am-Xm-hpw F-gpØp-Im-c-\pw \-S-\p-am-b cm-a≥ \-ºn-b-Øv (90) A¥-cn-®p. H-‰-∏m-ew ]-Øw-Ip-f-sØ \-ºn-b-Øvho-´nem-bn-cp-∂p A-¥yw. {io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp-hn-s\ Bkv-]-Z-am-°n 1961¬ \n¿-an-® Im¬-∏m-Sp-Iƒ B-Wv cm-a≥ Ct±lw \n¿-an® kn-\n-a. G-sd -{i≤bm-I¿-jn-® Cu Nn{X-Øn-\v \m-j-\¬ C‚-t{K-j≥ A-hm¿Uv e-`n-®n-´p≠v. tb-ipZm-kn-s\ ]n-∂-Wn Kmb-Icw-K-Øv F-Øn-®Xv cm-a≥ \-ºn-b-Øns‚ Cu Nn-{X-Øn-eqsS-bm-sW-∂ {]-tXyI-X-bp-ap-≠v. ]n-∂o-Sv kz-¥-am-bn kn-\n-a \n¿-an-®ns√-¶n-epw \n-c-h-[n kn-\n-a-I-fn¬ sN-dp-Xpw h-ep-Xpam-b th-j-an-´p. \n-W-a-Wn-™ Im¬-]m-Sp-Iƒ, Im]m-en-I, \n-d-am-e F-∂o kn-\n-a-Iƒ C-Xn¬ Nn-e-Xpam-{Xw. Im¬-∏m-Sp-Iƒ ap-dn-∏m-Sp-Iƒ F-∂ t]-cn¬ kz-¥w B-fl-I-Y- c-Nn-®n-´p-≠v. A-Sp-Ø Im-e-Ømbn Im-Øn-cp-∂ Im-ew, kv-am-c-I-in-e-Iƒ Xp-S-ßn G-Xm-\pw ko-cn-b-ep-I-fn-epw A-`n-\-bn-®p. Xr-iq¿ I-≠-imw-I-S-hv kz-tZ-in-bm-b \-ºn-bØv 1968em-Wv H-‰-∏m-e-Øv F-Øn-b-Xv. kv-Iqƒ hnZym-`ym-kw I-≠-imw-I-S-hn-em-bn-cp-∂p. kn-temWn¬ sa-{Sn-°p-te-j-\pw a-lm-cm-Pm-kv tIm-f-Pn¬ C‚¿-ao-Un-b-‰pw ]q¿-Øn-bm-°n. Km-‘n-Pn `-Iv-X-\mbn-cp-∂ Ct±lw s]m-Xp-cw-K-Øv k-Po-h-am-bn-cp∂p. A-\-ß-\-Sn a-fi-ew tIm¨-{K-kv {]-kn-U‚ v, A-\-ß-\-Sn {Km-a∏©m-b-Øv {]-kn-U‚ v F-∂o ÿm-\-ß-fpw h-ln-®n-´p-≠v. `m-cy: ]-tc-X-bm-b ]-flm-h-Xn-b-Ω. a-°ƒ: _nμp, _o-\ (H-‰-∏m-ew tªm-°v ]-©m-b-Øv kv-‰m≥UnMv I-Ωn-‰n sN-b¿-t]-gv-k≥), F≥ B¿ c-Rv-Pn-Xv (kn.]n.Fw tem-°¬ I-Ωn-‰n Aw-Kw). a-cp-a-°ƒ: kzm-an-°p-´n, cm-P≥, do-\.

acw apdn-¡-p¶-Xn-\nsS sIm¼v tZl¯p X«n acn¨p B-¨p-«n

t]m-¡À

A-Ðp-Êa-Zv -

hm-kp-tZ-h³ \m-bÀ

N-´p

D-®n-bm-bn-ip-½

tam-bn³

a-t©-cn: ap-≈-ºm-d Kymkv tKm-Uu-Wn-\p k-ao]w ]-tc-\m-b Iq-fn-tbmS≥ Nm-Øw-]n-em-°¬ ap-l-Ω-Zn-s‚ a-Iƒ B®p-´n (80). a-Iƒ: kpsse-J. a-cp-a-I≥: sskX-e-hn (_p-ssd-Z). ktlm-Z-c-߃: ssl-Z¿, B-en, ]m-Øp-°p-´n, \^o-k, ]m-Øp-Ω, ]-tc-X\m-b sam-bv-Xo≥.

\m-Zm-]p-cw: C-ø-t¶m-Sv ]p-Ø≥-]p-c-bn¬ t]m°¿ (71). `m-cy: ]-tc-X\m-b A-[n-Im-cn kq-∏nbp-sS a-Iƒ a-dn-bw. aIƒ: dm-_n-b. k-tlm-Z-c߃: A-{¥p, sam-bv-Xp, Ip-™n-∏m-Øp, am-an, adn-bw, B-bn-Yp, l-eo-a, I-Zo-i, km-d. Zp-_-bv sI.Fw.kn.kn. t\-Xm-hv h-en-b-ßm-Sn l-ao-Zv ktlm-Z-co]p-{X-\m-Wv.

]-c-∏-\-ßm-Sn: sIm-S-∏mfn-bn-se ]-tc-X-\m-b G¥o≥-Ip-´n sam-√-bp-sS aI≥ I¬-∏-d-ºn¬ A–p- -a-Zv (64). B-Zy-Ime hym-]m-cn-bm-bn-cp-∂p. `m-cy-am¿: B-an-\, ]mØp-Ωp. a-°ƒ: l-k≥, lpssk≥, J-a-dp-±o≥, _jo¿, ap-l-Ω-Zv A-iv-d-^v (F-√m-h-cpw Pn-±), A–p¬ l-ao-Zv, J-b-dp-∂ok, ap¿-jn-Z. a-cp-a-°ƒ: _o-^m-Øn-a, P-ao-e, ^m-Øn-a _o-hn, kpssl-d, ^u-kn-b, D-Ωpk¬-a, l-\o-^.

am-hq¿: {Km-knw C≥-Ukv-{So-kn¬ \n-∂p hn-c-an® kn-hn¬ F≥-Pn-\ob¿ am-hq¿ ssI-Øq-´n-ap°v ªq-au-≠n¬ Fw Pn hm-kp-tZ-h≥ \m-b¿ (93). `m-cy: e-£v-an-°p´nb-Ω. a-°ƒ: In-tjm¿ _m-_p (ko-\n-b¿ amt\-P¿, F.kn.kn.kna‚ v bp.]n), Xp-f-ko`mbn ({]-[m-\-m[ym-]n-I, Kh. ssl-kv-Iqƒ, F-gp°pw-h-b¬, C-Sp-°n), kp-\n¬-Ip-am¿ (h°o¬, tIm-gn-t°m-Sv). acp-a-°ƒ: cm-tP-{μ≥ \mb¿ (dn-´. {Km-knw), h¬k-e (a-\-Øm-\-Øv), an\n (Hm-a-t»-cn {Km-a-]©m-b-Øv). kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v ssh-Ip-t∂-cw \men-\v ho-´p-h-f-∏n¬.

sh-kv‰ - v tIm-Uq¿: I-co∏d-ºv A-Øn-°m-S≥ N-¥p (89). `m-cy: ]-tc-Xb - m-b am-Wn. a - ° - ƒ: Xp-{]≥, A-∏p, th-em-bp-[≥, N{μ≥, kp-μc - ≥, c-Lp-\mY≥, Pm-\I - n, im-¥. a-cpa-°ƒ: ao-\m-£n, k-tcmPn-\n, \n¿-ae - , `-hm-\n, im-¥, jo-_, hm-kp. ktlm-Zc - ß - ƒ: D-Wn-®p≠≥, Ip-am-c≥.

Im-fn-Im-hv: A-©-®-hnSn-bn-se ]-tc-X-\m-b tNe-aT-Øn¬ A-e-hn-bp-sS `m-cy ]m-e-Øn-߬ DÆn-bm-bn-ip-Ω (102). a°ƒ: ^m-Øn-a, ]-tc-Xcm-b -ap-l-Ω-Zv, A-e-hn. acp-a-°ƒ: D-Æn-°-Ωp, ^m-Øn-a, \-^o-k. J-_d-S-°w C-∂p cm-hn-se Hº-Xn-\v ]-≈n-t»-cn Pp-ama-kv-Pn-Zv J-_¿-ÿm\n¬

A-co-t°m-Sv: C-cn-th-‰n tXm-´n-e-ßm-Sn am-fn-tb°¬ tam-bn≥ (70). `m-cy: ^m-Øn-a. a-°ƒ: B-an-\, A-e-hn, ap-l-Ω-Zv, J-Zo-P, I-_o¿, k-°o¿, k-^v-do\. a-cp-a-°ƒ: l-^v-k-Øv, d-ln-bm-\-Øv, ^u-kn-b, k-^n-b, bq-k-^v, A-e-hn, \u-^¬. J-_-d-S-°w C∂p cm-hn-se F-´n-\v C-cnth-‰n h-en-b Pp-am-A-Øv ]-≈n J-_¿-ÿm-\n¬.

Ip-ª-¼p- \m-bÀ

ao-\m-£n sIm-bn-em-≠n: Xm-sg°-≠n A-∏p-°p-´n-bp-sS `m-cy ao-\m-£n (78). a°ƒ: l-cn-Zm-k≥, c-ho{μ≥ (dn-´. B-tcm-Ky-hIp-∏v), ao-c, kp-tc-jv (sSIv-\n-°¬ ssl-kv-Iqƒ, ]-tøm-fn), {]-Im-iv. a-cp-a°ƒ: Ip-am-c≥, tim-`, ]p-jv-], tPym-Xn, do-j.

\o-te-iz-cw-: I-cn-¥-fw Io-gv-am-e-bn-se a-\n-tbcn Ip-™-ºp \m-b¿ (92). `m-cy: ]-tc-X-bm-b Ip-dp-hm-´v Ip-™-Ωm-dΩ. a-°ƒ: cm-a-N-{μ≥, Ip-™n-Ir-jv-W≥ (sI-.F-k.-v-C.-_n, `o-a-\-Sn), ap-c-fn, Im-¿-Xym-b-\n. acp-a-°ƒ: Ip-™-ºp \mb¿, iym-a-f, an-\n. ktlm-Z-c-߃: ]m¿-hXnb-Ω, D-Ø-Ω, ]-tc-Xcm-b tI-fp \m-b-¿, IΩm-c≥ \m-b¿, N-¥q™n \m-b¿, Nn-cp-tX-bn A-Ω.

ap-l-½-ZI v p-ªv

l-\o-^ dm-hp-¯À

\o-te-iz-cw-: s\-√n-b-Sp°w tKm-]m-e-s‚ In-fn-bfw an-®-`q-an-bn-se Im-cn®n-b-Ω (70). a-°ƒ: Aw_n-I, _m-_p, c-a-Wn, tim-`, c-P-\n, \-fn-\n. acp-a-°ƒ: \m-cm-b-Wn, tam-l-\≥, cm-P≥, Ir-jvW≥.

]q-t°mw: ap-ke -v nw eo-Kv t\-Xm-hpw s]-cn-ßf - w {Km-a∏ - © - m-bØ - v ap≥ {]kn-U‚p-am-b ]n ]n Ip™n-aq-k am-Ãd - p-sS-bpw J-Zo-Pb - p-sS-bpw a-I≥ ]pØ≥-]p-cb - n¬ A-id -v ^ - v (45). `m-cy: _p-jd -v . a°ƒ: an-k_ -v m-lv (hnZym¿-Yn, ]m-Syw K-h. lb¿-sk-°≥-Ud - n kvIqƒ), an≥-lm-Pv (hnZym¿-Yn, ]n.B¿.Fw.F®v,F-k.v F-k)v . k-tlm-Zc-߃: kp-sse-am≥, Ako-k,v ap-lΩ - Z- e - n (k-_v {S-jd - n, am-\¥ - h - m-Sn), lmP-d, B-bn-i, ku-ZØ - .v

F-e-∏p-≈n: am-bw-¶p-fw tNm-gn-bw-]m-°v ap-l-ΩZn-s‚ a-I≥ l-\o-^ dmhp-Ø¿ (98). `m-cy: ]-tcX-bm-b sa-l-_q-_. a°ƒ: C-kv-a-mCu¬, _Z-dp-±o≥, k-eow, _¬°o-kv, ^m-Øn-a, B-bnjm-∏m, dm-hn-b, \q¿-Plm≥, d-“-Øv. a-cp-a°ƒ: lm-Pn-d, \-kv-ko\, ^-ko-e, I-cow, ^mdq-Jv, A-–p¬ k-Øm¿, jm-lp¬ l-ao-Zv. J-_-dS-°w C-∂v cm-hn-se 11\v ]m-d F-dm≥-t©-cn ]≈n J-_-¿ÿm-\n¬.

B-e∏ - p-g: B-e∏ - p-g \-Kc-k` - m tÃ-Un-bw hm¿Un¬ X-]m¬-∏d - º - v ho´n¬ ap-lΩ - Z- vI - p-™v (53) lr-Zb - m-Lm-Xs - Ø Xp-S¿∂v a-cn-®p. C-∂s - e sshIo-´v A-t©m-sS h-≠m\w Pn-√m B-bp¿-th-Z Bip-]{- Xn-bn-em-Wv a-cWw. `m-cy: J-Zo-Pm- _o-hn. a°ƒ: apw-Xm-kv, a-lv_ - q_v. J-_d - S-°w C-∂v cmhn-se 10\v B-e∏ - p-g In-gs° Pp-am-ak - vP - n-Zv J-_¿t{X-kym-½ ÿm-\n¬. X-et- »-cn: am-\¥ - h - m-Sn-bn- t]m-]p-e¿ {^-≠v {]-h¿se t{X-kym-Ω B‚-Wn Ø-I\ - pw F-kv.Un.]n.- c - w {_m-©v B-cy-∏≈ - n¬ (63). `¿-Øm- sF. h-en-ba hv: B‚-Wn B-cy-∏≈ - n¬. ssh-kv {]-kn-U‚p-am-bna-°ƒ: A-\n-e (J-Ø¿), cp-∂p. A-Po-jv B‚-Wn, tUm. I-eym-Wn A-`n-em-jv B‚-Wn (bq- q¿: I-≠¶ - m-fn-bntdm-fP - n-kv‰ - v, C-μn-cm-Km-μn ]-ø∂ tlm-kv] - n-‰¬, X-et- »-cn), se sIm-bn-te-cn-®n I-eymWn (85). `¿-Øm-h:v ]-tc-XA¿-®\ - (e-≠≥). a-cp-a\m-b an-∂m-S≥ tKm-]m°ƒ: tSm-an Ip-∏Ø - m-\e≥. a-°ƒ: A-Ωn-Wn, bØv (J-Ø¿), do-\ Gtim-Z, \m-Wn, tZ-hn, e-£-v ewIp-∂Ø - v, tUm. am-b - ƒ: \m-cm-bA-`n-em-jv (e-≠≥). kw- a-W≥. a-cp-a° W≥ (dn-´. sd-bn¬-th, kvI - m-cw C-∂p ssh-Io-´v tIm-gn-t°m-S)v , am-[h - ≥ (dnaq-∂n-\v am-\¥ - h - m-Sn - ≥), tISu¨ N¿-®v sk-an-tØ-cn- ´. {]-[m-\m-[ym-]I fp, Ir-jW -v ≥, t{]-ae - X - . bn¬.

kp-Ip-am-c³ ]-Wn-¡À

ImÀ-Xym-b-\n

cm-Po-h³

_m-e³ \m-bÀ

th-em-bp-[³- \m-bÀ-

A-½p-®n

h-fm-t©-cn: ssh-°Øq¿ Nm-Ømw-Ip-fw If-cn-°¬ tPym-’y≥ kp-Ip-am-c≥ ]-Wn-°¿. `m-cy: eo-e. a-°ƒ: kp`n-em-jv ]-Wn-°¿, kp_o-jv ]-Wn-°¿, kwKo-X. a-cp-a-°ƒ: {]-Zojv ]-Wn-°¿, Pn-Pn-X. kw-kv-Im-cw cm-hn-se Hº-Xn-\v.

Xn-cq¿: ]p-Xp-∏-≈n ]-tcX-\m-b ]p-g-bv-°¬ tKm]m-e-s‚ `m-cy Im¿-Xymb-\n (84). a-°ƒ: _m-eIr-jv-W≥, kp-{_-lvaWy≥, hn-iz-\m-Y≥, tkm-a-kp-μ-c≥, \o-\, Dj. a-cp-a-°ƒ: th-em-bp[≥, ]-tc-X-\m-b tam-l\≥, kp-tem-N-\, b-timZ, D-j, ]p-jv-].

h-≈-n-°p-∂v: h-≈n-°p∂v t\m¿-Øv B-\-bm-dßm-Sn-°p k-ao-]w AUz. Nm-Iym-S≥ cm-Poh≥(61). dn-´.Im-en-°-‰v k¿-h-Iem-im-e U-]yq-´n c-Pn-kv{Sm-dm-bn-cp-∂p. `m-cy:\o\. a-°ƒ: \n-c-Rv-P-\, ip-No-{μ≥. a-cp-a-I≥: kn-_n≥.

\-cn-°p-\n: ]m-e-ßm-Sv ap-≠-∏n-em-°n¬ ]n sI _m-e≥ \m-b¿ (70˛F≥.B¿.kn. \-Sp-hÆq¿). `m-cy: im-c-Z. a-°ƒ: imen-\n, j-_o-\. a-cp-a°ƒ: i-_-co-i≥ (sImSp-h-≈n), k-Pn-¬-Ip-am¿ (A-º-e-∏m-Sv). k-©-b\w Rm-b-dm-gv-N.

]-c-∏-\-ßm-Sn: A-cn-b√q¿ Fw.hn l-b¿ sk°≥-U-dn kv-Iq-fn-\p kao-]w aw-K-e-t»-cn th-embp-[≥- \m-b¿ (D-Æn-amÿ ˛86). `m-cy: eo-em-hXn. a-°ƒ: cm-[m-a-Wn, Pb-{]-Im-iv, an-\n. a-cp-a°ƒ: i-in-[-c≥, cm-Poh≥, tUm. {io-P-b-e-fnX (Ip-ssh-Øv).

C-cp-ºp-gn: ]m-Wm-bn shßm-eq¿ A-Øn-°¬ A-da - pJ-s‚ `m-cy A-Ωp-Æn (78). a-°ƒ: kp-{_-lvaWy≥, DÆn-Ir-jvW - ≥, sd-\n, k-Xojv, Im¿-Xym-b\ - n, kp-Pm-X, kp-`{- Z, hn-Pb - , t_-_n. a-cpa-°ƒ: Zo-], c-P\ - n, A-in-X, kp-Pn-j, th-em-bp-[≥, \mcm-bW - ≥ - , A-∏p, a-Wn, _me-Ir-jvW - ≥.

\m-cm-b-W³ ]-ø-∂q¿: B-Zy-Im-e IΩyq-Wn-Ãv ]m¿-´n {]-h¿Ø-I≥ G-cyw B-e°m-s´ tIm-´-°o¬ \mcm-b-W≥ (65). `m-cy: ]p-Xn-b ho-´n¬ Ieym-Wn. a-°ƒ: kp-`, kp-a. a-cp-a-°ƒ: kt¥m-jv, D-Æn. k-tlm-Zc-߃: A-Nyp-X≥, ]Xva-\m-`≥, _m-e≥, btim-Z, I-eym-Wn.

Im-cn-¨n-b-½

A-id-v ^ - v

im-´n-a-μn-c-¯n-se A-t´-hm-kn Zp-cq-l- km-l-N-cy-¯n a-cn-¨p

B-e-∏p-g: \-K-c-k-`-bp-sS im-¥n-a-μn-c-Øn-se At¥-hm-kn Zp-cq-l-km-l-N-cy-Øn¬ a-cn-®p. B-en-t»cn im-¥n-a-μn-c-Øn¬ aq-∂p-h¿-j-am-bn I-gn-bp-∂ aÆ-t©-cn kz-tZin B-en-_m-h-bm-Wv (90) a-cn-®-Xv. C∂se cm-hn-se B-dp-a-Wn-tbm-sS-bm-Wv kw-`-hw. i-–w-tI-´v Hm-Sn-sb-Øn-bt∏mƒ B-en-_m-h h-cm¥-bn¬ ho-Wp-In-S-°p-∂Xv I-s≠∂pw F-gp-t∂¬∏n-®-t∏mƒ A-\-°-an-√mbn-cp-∂p-sh-∂p-am-Wv Poh-\-°m¿ ]-d-™-Xv. F-∂m¬, s\-‰n-bp-sS h-e-Xp-h-i-Øm-bn ap-dn-th‰-Xv kw-i-b-Øn-\n-S-bm°n-. B-g-Øn-ep-≈ ap-dn-hn¬ \n-∂p c-‡w hm¿-∂n-cp∂p. ]-cn-k-c-Øp-≈ tUm-Iv-S¿ F-Øn-bm-Wv a-c-Ww ÿn-co-I-cn-®-Xv. \m-´p-Im-cp-sS ]-cm-Xn-sb Xp-S¿-∂v ku-Øv kn.sF. jm-Pn-tam≥ tPm-k-^n-s‚ t\-XrXz-Øn¬ t]menkv F-Øn ]cn-tim-[-\ \SØn. t^m-d≥-kn-Iv hn-`m-K-w sX-fn-hp-Iƒ ti-J-cn-®p. ar-XtZ-lw B-e-∏p-g sa-Un-°¬ tIm-f-Pv B-ip-]-{Xnbn¬ t]m-kv-‰v-tam¿-´-Øn-\-b-®p. B-kv-Xv-a tcm-Kn-bm-bn-cp-∂p B-en-_m-h. I-tk-cbn¬ \n-∂v F-gp-t∂¬-°p-∂-Xn-\n-sS Ip-g-™p-hoW-t∏mƒ X-e I-´-nen-s‚ t_mƒ-´n¬ X-´n ]-cn-t°-‰psh-∂v kw-i-bn-°p-∂-Xm-bm-Wv Po-h-\-°m¿ t]m-enkn-t\m-Sv ]-d-™-Xv. ho-gv-N-bn¬ izm-k-X-S- w D≠mb-Xm-Wv a-c-W-Im-c-W-sa-∂m-Wv t]m-kv-‰v-tam¿-´-Ønse {]m-Y-an-I kq-N-\-sb-∂v t]menkv ]-d-™p. B¥-cn-Imh-b-h-߃ hn-i-Z]-cn-tim-[-\-°v A-b-®n´p≠v. ar-X-tZ-lw t]m-kv-‰v-tam¿-´-Øn-\p-ti-jw h-´∏-≈n kv-‰-Un k¿-°n-fn-\v ap-ºn¬ s]m-Xp-Z¿-i-\Øn-\v h-®p. Xp-S¿-∂v a-Æ-t©-cn-bn-se k-tlm-Z-cnbp-sS ho-´n¬ F-Øn-®-ti-jw ]-Sn-™msd Pp-am-a-kvPn-Zv J-_¿-ÿm-\n¬ J-_-d-S-°n.

sI BÀ \m-cm-b-W³ C³-Ìn-äyq-«v Hm-^v hn-jzÂk-b³-kn ASp-¯- hÀjw apX ]T\w XpS§pw

Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-cw: kw-ÿm-\ k¿-°m-cn-s‚ sI B¿ \m-cm-bW≥ C≥-Ãn-‰yq-´v Hm-^v hnjz¬- k-b≥-kv B‚ v B¿-Svkn¬ A-Sp-Ø A-[y-b-\-h¿jw ¢m-kv Xp-S-ßp-sa-∂v ap-Jy-a{¥n D-Ω≥-Nm-≠n {]-Jym-]n-®p. C≥-kv-‰n-‰yq-´n-s‚ t{]m-kv-s]-Œkv ap-Jy-a-{¥n {]-Im-i-\w sNbv-Xp. kv-{In-]v-‰v-ssd-‰n-Mv B‚ v U-b-d£≥, F-Un-‰n-Mv, kn-\ntam-t´m-{K-^n, Hm-Un-tbm-{K-^n B-\n-ta-j≥ B≥v hn-jz¬ C^-Œv, B-Iv‰n-Mv F-∂n-hbmWv tIm-gv-kv. π-kv-Sp tbm-KyX-bm-°n-bp-≈ tIm-gv-kp-I-fmWv Xp-S-ßp-I. A-Jn-te-¥ym {]th-i-\]-co-£-bp-sS A-Sn-ÿm\-Øn-em-Wv Xnc-s™-Sp∏v.

a-t©-cn: apdn-°p-∂-Xn\nsS ac-s°mºv tZlØp X´n sXm-gn-em-fn a-cn®p. ]m-≠n-°m-Sv sN-{ºt»-cn ]p-Δ-Ø≥-Ip-∂v Aº-e-∏-d-º≥ A-–p¬ Icow (51) B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. C∂-se ssh-Io-´v sN-{ºt»-cn- B¿-∏n-\n-°p-∂n-emWv kw-`-hw. `m-cy: kpsse-J. a-°ƒ: P-ssa-e, l-^v-k, A-–p¬ a-Po-Zv, A-–p¬ -_m-kzn-Xv. J-_-d-S-°w C-∂v 11.30\v Im-fºm-d \-dp-°v Pp-am-a-kv-Pn-Zv J-_¿-ÿm-\n¬.

ssk-¡n-fn _-Ên-Sn-¨v Hcp acWw

tIm-gn-t°m-Sv: ssk-°n-fn¬ Nm-b- hn-¬-°p-∂-Xn\n-sS ]n-∂n¬h∂ _- n-Sn-®p a-cn-®p. sh-Ãv-ln¬ I-Sp-ßm-©n-d t£-{X-Øn-\p k-ao-]-w C-∂-se ssh-Ip-t∂-cw aq-∂n-\m-bn-cp-∂p A-]-I-Sw. sIm-Sph-≈n h-b¬ Fw F≥ Nm-ap \m-bn-°-cp-sS a-I≥ kp-tc-jv (48) B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. am-Xm-hv: Xm-b-Ω. `mcy: t_-_n. a-°ƒ: B-\-μv, B-i. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: hn-P-b≥, Ip-am-cn.

Kp-Uv-kv Hm-t«m--bn-Sn-¨v Kr-l-\m-Y³ a-cn-¨p

]-ø-∂q¿: ss_-°v \n¿Øn sam-ss_¬-t^mWn¬ kw-km-cn-°-sh KpUv-kv Hm-t´m-dn-£-bn-Sn-®v Kr-l-\m-Y≥ a-cn-®p. Ip™n-aw-K-ew Ip-Xn-cp-Ω-ense sIm-f-ß-c-Øv h-f∏n¬ cm-a-N-{μ≥ (53) BWv a-cn-®-Xv. C-∂-se cm-hnse 8.30Hm-sS- G-gn-tem-Sv-˛Im-cm-Sv tdm-Un-em-Wv A]-ISw. tdmU-cn-In¬ ss_°v \n¿Øn t^mWn¬ kwkm-cn-°sh ]n-∂n¬-\n-s∂-Øn-b Hmt´mdn-£bn-Sn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. D-S≥ ]-cn-bm-cw sa-Un-°¬ tIm-f-Pv B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ F-Øn-s®-¶n-epw c-£n°m-\m-bn-√. B-im-cn-∏-Wn-°m-c-\m-Wv. ]n-Xm-hv: ]-tc-X-\m-b am-[-h≥. `m-cy: eo-e. am-Xm-hv: ]m-dp. a-°ƒ: jn-t\mPv, jn-Pn-Øv.

-tem-dn-bn-Sn¨v ss_¡v bm{Xn-I³ a-cn-¨p

Nn-‰q¿: tem-dn-bn-Sn-®v ss_-°v bm-{Xn-I-\m-b bp-hmhv a-cn-®p. ]p-Xp-\-K-cw Sn._n kv-{So-‰n¬ ap-l-Ω-Zv sambv-Xo-s‚ a-I-≥ \n-Pm-ap-±o≥ (28) B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. ss_-°n¬ H-∏-ap-≠m-b ]p-Xp-\-K-cw kz-tZ-in \q¿ap-l-Ω-Zns\ (38) \n- m-c- ]-cn-°p-I-tfm-sS B-ip-]{Xn-bn¬ {]-th-in-∏n-®p. _p-[-\m-gv-N ]I¬ 11.45Hm-sS- Nn-‰q¿ F-kv._n.sF _m-¶n-\p k-ao-]-ambncp∂p A-]-I-Sw. ]p-Xp-\K-cw `m-K-Øp-\n-∂p Nn-‰q-cn-te-°v ss_-°n¬ h-cp∂-Xn-\n-sS F-Xn-tch-∂ tem-dn-bn-Sn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp∂p. Kp-cp-X-c ]-cn-t°-‰ \n-Pm-ap-±o-s\ \m-´p-Im¿ Nn‰q¿ Xm-eq-°m-ip-]-{Xn-bn-epw ]n-∂o-Sv Pn-√m B-ip-]{Xn-bn-epsa-Øn-s®-¶n-epw c£n-°m-\m-bn√. Nn-‰q¿ t]m-en-kv C-≥-Iz-Ãv \-S-Øn. amXmhv: sF-jm-a-dn-b. `m-cy: j¿-an-f.

ss_-¡pw ]n-¡-¸v hm-\pan-Sn-¨v bp-hm-hv a-cn-¨p kp-tem-N-\

e-£-av n

h-Ån -

_o-cm³

\m-cm-b-W³ \-¼o-i³

cm-P³ \m-bÀ

Ip-μ-aw-K-ew: sN-Øp-IS-hv ]-Sn-™m-sdIp-∂Øv cm-a-s‚ `m-cy kptem-N-\ (67˛-Nm-Ø-aw-Kew ar-K-kw-c-£-W-h-Ip∏v Po-h-\-°m-cn). a-I≥: cm-tP-jv. k-©-b-\w Rm-b-dm-gv-N.

F-S∏ - mƒ: Xp-øw sF.sP]-Sn ]-tc-XX - \ - m-b Im-cØp-Ip-fß - c - ]-fl\ - m-`s‚ `m-cy e-£va - n (67). aI≥: Zn-eo-]v (ku-Zn). a-cpa-Iƒ: j-P. ar-Xt- Z-lw Xriq¿ sa-Un-°¬ tIm-fP - n\p ssI-am-dn.

\-∂-{º: Ip-≠q¿ P-bdmw-]-Sn- ]p-fn-°-∏-dºn¬ h-≈n (85). a-°ƒ: Nn-∂-°p-´≥, am[-hn, ao-\m-£n, C-μn-c. a-cp-a-°ƒ: ku-an-\n, Irjv-W≥.

I¬∏-I-t©-cn: I-Spßm-Øp-Ip-≠v h-f-h-∂q¿ sN-d-h-∂q-c-n-se \o¿°m-´n¬ _o-cm≥ (64). `m-cy: ssk-\-_. a-°ƒ: ssl-Z¿ A-en, A-–p-¿dlvam≥, l-^v-k-Øv. ktlm-Z-cn: C-øm-Øp-Ωp.

a-¶-S: I-S-∂ t]m-kv-t‰m^n-kn-se ap≥ t]m-kv-‰vam≥ I-f-sXm-Sn-bn¬ \mcm-b-W≥ \-ºo-i≥ (60). k-tlm-Z-c≥: D-ÆnIr-jv-W≥. kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂p h-b-\m-´n¬.

sIm-bn-em-≠n: ta-eq¿ Xm-\n-∏n-em-hn¬ \-cn-°p\n sI cm-P≥ \m-b¿ (56). `m-cy: kp-K-X. a°ƒ: cm-[n-I, c-iv-an, cRv-Pn-Øv. a-cp-a-°ƒ: ap-cfo-[-c≥ (tlm-´¬ am-t\P¿), {]-Xo-jv (B¿-an).

13Im-c-sâ Xn-tcm-[m-\w 19 hÀ-j-¯n-\p-ti-jw tem-I -`-£y-kw-L-S-\-bp-am-bn [m-c-W sIm-e-]m-X-I-sa-¶p sX-fn-ªp; {]-Xn A-d-Ìn sIm-®n: 19 h¿-jw ap-ºv Im-WmXm-b 13Im-c≥ sIm√-s∏-´-XmsW∂p sX-fn-™p.- {]-Xn A-dÃn¬. N-ß-\m-t»-cn a-[p-aq-ebn¬ hn-iz-\m-Y≥ B-Nm-cn-bpsS a-I≥ a-lm-tZ-h-s‚ Xn-tcm[m-\-am-Wv ss{Iw-{_m-©v At\z-j-W-Øn¬ sIm-e-]m-X-Iam-sW-∂p sX-fn-™-Xv. kw-`-hØn¬ N-ß-\m-t»-cn a-©m-Sn-°c C-f-ap-dn-bn¬ ho-´n¬ l-cn-Ipam-dn(D-Æn-˛41)s\ F-d-Wm-Ipfw ss{Iw-{_m-©v F-®v.F-®v.Uªyp. c-≠v A-d-Ãv sN-bv-Xp. 1995 k-]v-Xw-_¿ F-´n-\m-Wv a-lm-tZ-h-s\ Im-Wm-Xm-b-Xv. hn-iz-\m-Y≥ B-Nm-cn-bp-sS ]cm-Xn-bn¬ N-ß-\m-t»-cn t]meo-kv tIsk-SpØp. C-Xn-\n-sS

a-lm-tZ-h≥ I-kv-‰-Un-bn-eps≠-∂pw ]-Ww \¬-I-W-sa∂pw `o-j-Wn-s∏-Sp-Øn- hn-izm\m-Y≥ B-Nm-cn-°p I-Øp-Iƒ e-`n-®p. XpS¿-∂v hn-iz\m-Y-s‚ Bh- i y- { ]- I mcw 1996 P-\ph-cn c-≠n-\v A-∂-sØ ap- J y- a - { ¥n l-cn-Ip-am-¿ tI-kt\z-jWw ss{Iw-{_m-©n-\p hn-´p. ]ptcm-K-Xn-bp-≠m-hm-Xn-cp-∂-Xns\ Xp-S¿-∂v C-h¿ A-t\z-jWw A-h-km-\n-∏n-®p-sIm-≠v 2001 s^-{_p-h-cn 17\v N-ß-\mt»-cn Pp-Uo-jy¬ H-∂mw ¢m-kv

a-Pn-kv-t{S-‰v tIm-S-Xn-bn¬ dnt]m¿-´v \¬-In. C-Xn-s\-Xn-tc hn-iz-\m-Y≥ ssl-t°m-S-Xn-sb k-ao-]n-°p-I-bpw ssl-t°m-SXn- D-Ø-c-hv {]-Im-c-w F-d-WmIp-fw ss{Iw-{_m-©v F-®v.F®v.U-ªyp. c-≠v F-kv.]n sI Pn ssk-aWns‚ t\-Xr-Xz-Øn¬ tI-kv A-t\z-j-Ww G-s‰-Sp-°pI-bm-bn-cp∂p. a-lm-tZ-h≥ [-cn-®n-cp-∂ 10 {Kmw Xq-°-ap-≈ kz¿-W-am-essI-°-em-°p-∂-Xn-\m-bm-Wv a[p-aq-e PMvj-\n¬ ssk-°nƒ I-S \-S-Øn-bncp-∂ l-cn-Ip-am¿ sIm-e\-S-Øn-b-sX-∂v ss{Iw {_m-©v ]-d-™p. a-lm-tZ-h-s‚ am-Xm-]n-Xm-°ƒ C-t∏mƒ Po-hn®n-cn-∏n-√.

Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-cw: kw-ÿm-\sØ s]m-Xp-hn-X-c-Wkw-hn[m-\w \-ho-I-cn-°p-∂-Xn-s‚ `m-K-am-bn \-S-∏m-°p-∂ k-ºq¿W I-w-]yq-´¿h¬-°-c-W ]-≤Xn-bp-sS \-S-Øn-∏n-\p-≈ kmt¶-Xn-I-k-lm-bw e-`y-am-°p∂-Xn-\v `-£y-s]m-Xp-hn-X-c-W h-Ip-∏pw tem-I-`-£y-kw-L-S\-bp-am-bn [m-c-Wm-]-{Xw H-∏ph-®p. ssX-°m-Sv K-h. K-Ãv lukn¬ a-{¥n A-\q-]v tP-°-_ns‚ km-∂n-[y-Øn¬ \-S-∂ N-Sßn¬ `-£y-˛-s]m-Xp-hn-X-c-W h-Ip-∏v sk-{I-´-dn kp-a≥_n-√bpw thƒ-Uv ^p-Uv t{]m-{Kmw I¨-{Sn sl-Uv ssa-°¬ P≥k-\p-am-Wv [m-c-Wm-]-{XØn¬ H-∏p-h-®-Xv. P-Ãn-kv hm-[zm I-Ωo-j≥ dnt]m¿-´n-s‚ A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ kp-{]nw-tIm-S-Xn hn-[n-°v A-\p-

kr-X-am-bn tI-c-f-Øn¬ \-S-∏m°p-∂ k-ºq¿-W I-w-]yq-´¿h¬-°-c-W ]-≤-Xn-bn¬ kmt¶-Xn-I D-]-tZ-iw \¬-Ip-I F∂-Xm-Wv U-ªyp.F-^v.]n \¬Ip-∂ tk-h-\w. k-ºq¿-W I-w-]yq-´¿-h¬-°c-W ]-≤-Xn-bp-sS L-S-I-ß-fmb Kp-W-t`m-‡m-°-sf I-s≠ج, k-ssπ sN-bn≥ am-t\Pv-sa‚ v, \ym-b-hn-e tI-{μ-ßfp-sS (td-j≥ I-S-Iƒ) B-[p\o-I-c-W-hpw em-`-I-c-am-°-epw Kp-W-t`m-‡r ]-cm-Xn]-cn-lm-ckw-hn-[m-\w F-∂n-h-bnepw tdj≥ I-S-I-fp-sS B-[p-\o-I-cW-hpw em-`-I-c-am-°-epw F-∂ L-S-I-Øn¬ km-t¶-Xn-I D-]tZ-iw, {]-hr-Øn-]-cn-N-bw, hn-ZKv-[-sc \¬-I¬ Xp-S-ßn-b klm-b-ßfpw U-ªyp.F-^v.]n \¬-Ipw.

I¬-∏-‰: ss_-°pw ]n-°-∏v hm-\pw Iq-´n-bn-Sn-®v bphm-hv a-cn-®p. e-°n-Sn kz-tZ-in I-\-I-bp-sS a-I≥ Bc-Zv \n-hm-kn¬ hn-\o-Xv (21) B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. C-∂-se cm-{Xn H-º-Xpa-Wn-tbmsS I¬-∏-‰bn¬ \n-∂p e-°n-Sn-bn-te-°v t]m-hp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂ hn-\o-Xv k-©-cn-® ss_-°n¬ F-Xn-tc-h-∂ ]n-°∏v hm-≥ C-Sn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. hn-\o-Xn-s\ I¬-∏‰-bn-se kz-Im-cy B-ip-]-{Xn-bn-se-Øn-s®-¶n-epw c-£n-°m-\m-bn-√.

F³-.F-k.v-F-kv-. P-\-dÂ- sk-{I-«-dntIm-am-fn-sb-¶v- sI.F-kv-.bp-. {]-kn-UâvsXm-Sp-]p-g: a-lm-∑m-cp-sS ap-JØv- I-cn-sIm-≠v- tIm-ewh-c-bv°p-∂ tIm-am-fn-bm-Wv- F≥-.Fkv-.F-kv-. P-\-d¬- sk-{I-´-dnkp-Ip-am-c≥-\m-b-sc-∂v- sI.Fkv-.bp-. kw-ÿm-\ {]-kn-U‚ vhn- F-kv- tPm-bn.- km-ap-Zm-bn-Icw-K-Øv- k-t¥m-jv- ]-fin-‰ns‚ \n-e-hm-c-Øn-te-°v- kp-Ipam-c≥-\m-b¿- A-[∏-Xn-s®-∂pw hn F-kv tPm-bn sXm-Sp-]p-gbn¬ hm¿-Øm-k-tΩ-f-\-Øn¬ ]-d-™p. kp-Ip-am-c≥-\m-b-cpw- C-Sp°n- _n-j-∏v- am-Xyp- B-\n-°p-gn°m-´n-epw- F-kv-.F≥-.Un-.]n.tbm-Kw P-\-d¬ sk-{I-´-dn- sh≈m-∏-≈n- \-tS-i-\pw- \-S-Øp∂ {]-kv-Xm-h-\-I-fpw- C-S-s]-Sep-I-fpw- A-Xn-cp-hn-Sp-I-bm-Wv.a-∂-Øp ]-fl-\m-`≥ F≥.-F-

kv.-F-kn-s‚ kz-Im-cy kz-Ø√. A-t±-lw \-thm-∞m-\ \m-bIcn¬ H-cm-fm-Wv. tZ-io-b{]ÿm-\-Øn-s‚ kw-`m-h-\-bm-b a-∂-Øp ]-fl-\m-`-s\ kp-Ip-amc≥ \m-b¿ kz-Im-cykz-Øm°m≥ {i-an-°p-I-bm-Wv. a-lm\m-b a-∂-Øp ]-fl-\m-`-\pw am\y-\m-b \m-cm-b-W-∏-Wn-°-cpw C-cp-∂ I-tk-c-bn¬ tIm-am-fnsb t]m-se kp-Ip-am-c≥-\m-b¿ C-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv. F≥.-F-kv.-Fkv. B-ÿm-\-Øv ]p-√p- ]-dn°m≥ h-∂ kp-Ip-am-c≥ \m-b¿ C-∂p t]m-∏m-sW-∂v ]-d-s™¶n¬ \m-sf ]-S-t®m≥ B-sW∂v {]-Jym-]n-°pwap-ºv s]-cp-∂bn¬ \n-∂v C-bm-sf ]-Sn-b-S-®p ]n-fiw h-bv-°m≥ F≥.-F-kv.F-kv. t\-Xr-Xzw X-øm-dm-hWsa∂pw tPmbn ]d-™p.


8

thÀ-]mSv

THIRUVANANTHAPURAM

27 s^{_phcn 2014 hymgw

cm-a³ \-¼n-b-¯v A-´-cn-¨p ap-l-½-Zv Ip-ªv B-e-∏p-g: B-e-∏p-g \-K-ck-` tÃ-Un-bw hm¿-Un-¬ X-]m¬-∏-d-ºv ho-´n¬ apl-Ω-Zv Ip-™v (53)-lr-Zbm-Lm-[-sØ Xp-S¿-∂v acn-®p. C-∂-se ssh-Io-´v A-©-c-tbm-sS Pn-√m Bbq¿-th-Z B-ip-]-{Xn-bn-¬ h-®m-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. `m-cy: JZo-Pm _o-hn. a-°ƒ: apwXm-kv, a-lv-_q-_v. C-∂v cm-hn-se H-º-Xn-\v B-e∏p-g In-g-s° Pp-am-a-kv-PnZv J-_¿-ÿm-\n-¬ J-_-S°pw. t]m-]p-e¿ {^-≠v Hm-^v C-¥y k-Po-h {]h¿-Ø-I-\pw F-kv.-Un.]n.sF. h-en-b-a-cw {_m©v ssh-kv {]-kn-U-‚p-w A-k-‰n-s‚ am-t\-Pn-Mv {SÃv saw-_-dp-am-bn-cp-∂p.

d-^o-J-¯v sIm-´n-bw: D-a-b-\-√q¿ hS-°pw-I-c In-g-°v Fw.C.F-kv. kv-Iq-fn-\v k-ao-]w h-S-°-Xn¬ ho´n¬ A-–p¬ d-lo-an-s‚bpw A-j-d-^-bp-sS-bpw a-Iƒ F B¿ d-^o-JØv (16). J-_-d-S-°w C-∂v cm-hnse H-º-Xn-\v D-a-b-\-√q¿ a-kv-Pn-Zv J-_¿-ÿm\n¬. a-ø-\m-Sv l-b¿-sk°≥-U-dn kv-Iq-fn-¬ πkv h¨ tIm-ta-gv-kv hn`m-Kw hn-Zym¿-Yn-bm-bn-cp∂p.

I-eym-Wn ]-ø∂ - q¿: I-≠¶ - m-fn-bnse sIm-bn-te-cn-®n Ieym-Wn (85).

_m-e-Ir-jv-W³ \m-bÀ

cm-lpÂ

`m-Ko-c-Yn-b-½

k-tcm-P-\n

X-¦-¸³-]n-Å

hn-P-b³

X-¦-¸³

t]m-Ø≥-tIm-Sv: A-bncq-∏m-d tc-h-Xn-bn¬ Irjn-h-Ip-∏v dn-´. D-tZym-Kÿ≥ _m-e-Ir-jv-W≥ \m-b¿ (73). `m-cy: e-fnXm-`m-bn. a-°ƒ: _n-μp, _m-_p-cmPv (I-√q¿-t°m-Ww £oc-kw-Lw), ]-tc-X-\m-b _n-Pp. a-cp-a-°ƒ: _m_p-cm-Pv (sI.Fkv.C._n t]m-Ø≥-tImSv).

s\-Sp-a-ßm-Sv: B-\m-Sv ]p-t√-t°m-Ww ]p-Xph≥ ]p-Ø≥ ho-´n¬ `mKo-c-Yn-b-Ω (94). `¿-Ømhv: ]-tc-X-\m-b tI-i-h]n-≈. a-°ƒ: tkm-a-ti-J-c≥ \m-b¿, t_-_n-b-Ω, iym-a-f A-Ω, X-¶-a-Wn, ]-tc-X-\m-b kp-μ-tci≥ \m-b¿, A-c-hn-μm£-≥ \m-b¿, Ko-X, kp[. a-cp-a-°ƒ: Hm-a-\, ]tc-X-\m-b cw-K-\m-Y≥, ]-tc-X-\m-b tKm-]m-eIr-jv-W≥ \m-b¿, th-e∏≥ \m-b¿, eo-e, {iotZ-hn, a-Z≥-tKm-]m¬, k-Xo-jv-Ip-am¿.

s\-Sp-a-ßm-Sv: B-\m-Sv s\-´-d-t°m-Ww F-≈phn-f ho-´n¬ ]-tc-X-\mb cm-a≥-Ip-´n-bp-sS `mcy k-tcm-P-\n (76). a-°ƒ: kp-tc-{μ≥, N{μn-I, hn-P-b-Ip-am-cn, h¬-k-e, k-Xo-i≥, eXn-I, Aw-_n-I, ssje-P, A-\n¬-Ip-am¿ (kn.]n.sF(Fw) D-fnbq¿ {_m-©v sk-{I-´dn), A-Pn-X. a-cp-a-°ƒ: \-¿-Ω-Z, hnP-b-cm-L-h≥, X-¶∏≥, cm-P≥, I-e, P-bIp-am¿, cm-Pm-¶≥, kp_n, _n-μp, A-kn-Ipam¿.

t]m-Ø-≥-tIm-Sv: ]-¥-et°m-Sv tZ-ho-\-K¿ s\-Sphn-f s]m-bv-I ho-´n¬ X¶-∏≥-]n-≈ (86). a-°ƒ: e-fn-X-Ω. C-μn-c, cm-tP{μ≥ \m-b¿, i-in-[-c≥ \m-b¿ (ko-\n-b¿ knhn¬ t]m-en-kv Hm-^nk¿ aw-K-em-]p-cw). a-cp-a°ƒ: ]-tc-X-\m-b tkm-ati-J-c≥ \m-b¿, cm-[mIr-jv-W≥ \m-b¿, joPm \m-b¿, _n-μp.

h¿-°-e: ]p-Ø≥-N-¥ A-°-c-°p-∂n¬ ho-´n¬ hn-P-b≥ (78). `m-cy: ]-tc-X-bm-b hkp-a-Xn. a-°ƒ: Zo-], Zo-]p, Zo-\p. a-cp-a-°ƒ: Zn-eo-]v, hnkn-X, Zr-iy.

\o-te-iz-cw-: I-cn-¥-fw Io-gv-am-e-bn-se a-\n-tbcn Ip-™-ºp \m-b¿ (92). `m-cy: ]-tc-X-bm-b Ip-dphm-´v Ip-™-Ωm-d-Ω.

Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-cw: ASq¿ {io ssi-ew ho´n¬ cm-lp¬ (35˛-amt\-P¿, F-®v-F¬-F¬ sse-^v-sI-b¿ en-an-‰Uv). `m-cy: tUm. A-iz-Xn (]o-Un-bm-{Sn-jy≥, kRv-Po-h-\n tlm-kv-]n‰¬, sIm-√-°-S-hv). a-I≥: E-jn B¿ \mb¿. A-—≥: ap-c-fo-[c≥ ]n-≈ (dn-´. s{]m^. F≥-F-kv-F-kv tIm-f-Pv). A-Ω: {io-Ip-am-cn A-Ω (dn-´. {]n≥-kn-∏mƒ, F≥.F-kv-.F-kv lb¿ sk-°-≠-dn kvIqƒ).

sh-≈-d-S: C-¥y≥ \m-j\¬ tIm-¨-{K-kv (sF) B-cy≥-tIm-Sv a-fi-ew {]-kn-U‚m-bn Zo¿-L-Imew tk-h-\w A-\p-„n-® X-¶-∏≥ (80). -kw-kv-Im-c N-S-ßn¬ tI-{μ-a-{¥n iin-X-cq¿, F Sn tPm¿-Pv Fw-.F¬.F, U-]yq-´n kv-]o-°¿ F≥ i-‡≥, X-ºm-\q¿ c-hn, Pn-√m ]©m-b-Øv {]-kn-U‚ v A≥-k-Pn-Xm d-k¬, sI.]n.kn.kn sk-{I-´-dn B¿ h¬-k-e≥, tkm-fa≥ A-e-Iv-kv, hn-P-b-N{μ≥, Z-kv-X-Io¿ ]-s¶-SpØp. ssh-Io-´v \m-en-\v H-‰-tiJ-c-aw-K-ew P-Mv-j-\n¬ Iq-Sn-b A-\p-tim-N-\ tbm-Kw F Sn tPm¿-Pv Fw.F¬.F D-Zv-Lm-S-\w sN-bv-Xp. a-fi-ew {]-knU‚ v th-e-∏≥ \m-b¿ A-[y-£-X h-ln-® tbmK-Øn¬ hn-hn-[ cm-{„ob kmw-kv-Im-cn-I km-aqln-I t\-Xm-°ƒ kwkm-cn-®p. `m-cy: k-n-knen. a-°ƒ: kp-io-e, t{Xky, ]p-jv-]w, kv-‰o-^≥, tPm-bn, P-kv-‰n≥.

P-\mÀ-±-\³

hn-P-b³

am-Xyq-]-Wn-¡À

Hm-a-\

kp-io-e sI \m-bÀ

I-eym-Wn

I-cp-\m-K-∏-≈n: Im-´n¬I-S-hv B-Zn-\m-Sv sX-°v ]m-´-Øn¬ ta-t°-Ø-d P-\m¿-±-\≥(87). `m-cy: ]tc-X-bm-b Pm-\-In. a°ƒ: hn-P-b-Ω, c-Xv-\-Ω, cm-tP-{μ≥, cm-a-N-{μ≥, cm-[m-a-Wn. a-cp-a-°ƒ: ]tc-X-\m-b cm-P≥, kp-μtc-i≥, P-b-{io, c-Xo-`mbn, X-ºn.

I-cp-\m-K-∏-≈n: Im-´n¬I-S-hv B-Zn-\m-Sv sX-°v sIm-√-t»-cn¬-X-d hn-Pb≥(55).

tX-h-e-°-c: ]m-e-bv°¬ ]-\-®-hn-f-bn¬ ho´n¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b sIm-®pth-ep-hn-s‚ `m-cy Hm-a-\ (68). a-°ƒ: c-a-W≥, X-¶a-Wn, k-t¥m-jv, A-\n-X. a-cp-a-°ƒ: cm-[, k-Xy-]me≥, Zo-], A-\n¬.

sIm-√w: I-cn-t°m-Sv sNdp-h-≈n-bn¬ ho-´n¬ ]tc-X-\m-b B¿ sI \m-bcp-sS `m-cy kp-im-e sI \m-b¿ (68). a-°ƒ: ]-tc-X-\m-b km_p sI \m-b¿, ap-Po-_v sI \m-b¿, cm-ap sI \mb¿, hm-kp sI \m-b¿. acp-a-Iƒ: c-iv-an ap-Po-_v.

N-h-d: ap-Ip-μ-]p-cw apg-ßn-\m¬ (sIm-´p-Im´p In-g-°-Xn¬) ]-tc-X\-m-b Ip-am-c-s‚ `m-cy I-eym-Wn(88). a-°ƒ: im-¥, Xp-f-ko[-c≥, B-\-μ≥, c-tai≥, k-c-kz-Xn, ]-tcX-\m-b i-in-[-c≥. a-cp-a-°ƒ: hn-P-b-Ω, kp-Ip-am-c≥, X-¶-a-Wn, an-\n, sse-e, c-Lp.

Ip-ª-¼p- \m-bÀ

A-Ðp-Àd-lvam³ lm-Pn Xn-cq¿: am¿-°-‰n-se hm-g°p-e I-®-h-S-°m-c-\pw tkm-jy-en-Ãv P-\-Xm Xncq¿ a-fi-ew ap≥- {]-knU‚p-am-b A-∂m-c sIm≠-®≥ ho-´n¬ A-–p-¿dlvam≥ lm-Pn (54). `mcy: J-Zo-P.

Ip-≠-d: Aw-_n-s]m-bvI h-S-t°-∏p-c-bn¬ Fw am-Xyq-]-Wn-°¿ (_n-Pp˛48) knw-K-∏q-cn¬ \ncym-X-\m-bn. A-_v-ZpÃ-t¡m-b tIm-gn-t°mSv: ]-≈n°- kw-kv-Im-cw \m-sf D-®≠n ss_-Øp¬ B-bn- bv-°v c-≠n-\v Ip-≠-d i-_n-bn¬ Fw ]n A-_v- sk‚ v tXm-a-kv Hm¿-ØZp√-t°m-b (74). h-en-b- tUm-Iv-kv ]-≈n sk-antØ-cn-bn¬. `m-cy: ta-gvßm-Sn-bn-se Im-en-®mkn. a-°ƒ: an-Yp¬, dn°v sXm-gn-em-fn-bm-bnb. cp∂p. `mcy: B-bni_n. a°ƒ: P-ao-e, A- \-^o-k kvv-a, j-co^v, k-eow, A- ^-tdm-°v t]-´: Ip-f-ß_vv-Zp¬ I-cow, kn-dm-Ppc-∏m-S-Øn-\-Sp-Øv sIm-S±o≥, iw-kp-±o≥. a-cp°-√v ]-d-ºn¬ B-‰-p-]p-da°ƒ: sI D-kv-am≥, ap- Øv ]-tc-X-\m-b s\-√nl-Ω-ZvtIm-b, k-do-\, ho-´n¬ ap-l-Ω-Zn-s‚ `mk¿-Pm_n, k-eo-\. cy \-^o-k (C-Ωp-´n˛63).

Ip-ªn-ap-l-½-Zv lm-Pn Xn-cq-cß - m-Sn: sIm-Sn™n ]m-e] - m¿-°v a-WnI-≠Ø - n¬ Ip-™n-ap-lΩ-Zv- lm-Pn (75). `m-cy: kp-lvd - m-_n. a-°ƒ: tImb, Im-kva - nw, A-–p-¬ djo-Zv (A-_q-Z_ - n), A–p-∂m-k¿ (dn-bm-Zv), J_o¿, A-∫m-kv, kn-±o-Jv (A-_q-Z_ - n).

Im-cn-¨n-b-½ \o-te-iz-cw-: s\-√n-b-Sp°w tKm-]m-e-s‚ In-fnb-fw an-®-`q-an-bn-se Imcn-®n-b-Ω (70). a-°ƒ: Aw-_n-I, _m_p, c-a-Wn, tim-`.

A-tim-I-³ am-ÌÀ hm-Wn-ta¬: Ip-dp-ht¥-cn bp.]n kv-Iqƒ A[ym-]-I≥ hn-jv-Wp-aw-Ke-sØ ]m-fiy‚-hn-S A-tim-I≥ am-ÿ (49). `m-cy: jn-_n-P (_yq´ojy≥ I-°-´n¬). a°ƒ: A-a-b-jn-t‚m, FUzn≥- B≥-{Un≥.

kn-Ôp a-Wn-a-e: X-In-Sn-∏p-d-Øv {]-km-Zn-s‚ (a-Wn-b≥) `m-cy: kn-‘p(45). \m-c-IØ-d am-fn-tb-°¬-aTw Ip-Spw-_mw-Kw. a-I≥: A-Pn≥ (cm-ap, t]m-fn-sS-Iv-\n-Iv hn-Zym¿Yn) kw-kv-°m-cw i-\nbm-gv-® c-≠n-\v ho-´p-h-f∏n¬.

J-Zo-P In-g-t°m-Øv: I-t®-cnap-°n-se aq-°≥am-°nbn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b A–p-¿d-lvam≥Ip-´n-bpsS `m-cy J-Zo-P (88).

{]-Xy-£ c-£m ssZ-h-k-` ap³ {]-kn-Uâv sP tPm¬ Xn-cp-h-√: {]-Xy-£ c£m ssZ-h-k-` ap≥ {]kn-U‚ v sP tPm¨ Rmen-bm-°p-g-n (96). kw-kvIm-cw \m-sf ssh-Io-´v aq∂n-\v C-c-hn-t]-cq¿ tXh¿-Im-Sv sk≥-cv am-Xyqkv am¿-tØm-a ]-≈n sk-an-tØ-cn-bn¬. ]n.B¿.Un.F-kv ÿm-]I t\-Xm-°-fn-sem-cm-fmb tP tPm¨ k-`-hn-´v am¿-tØm-a k-`-bn¬ tN¿-∂n-cp-∂p. `m-cy: ]tc-X-bm-b G-en-bm-Ω. a°ƒ: t^m¿-Uv tP tPm¨ (Ip-ssh-Øv), tP-°-_v tPm¨, ta-cn tXm-a-kv, im-ap-th¬ tPm¨, F-en-k-_-Øv tPm¨ (A-_p-Zm-_n).

H-‰-∏m-ew: ap≥-Im-e kn-\n-am \n¿-am-Xm-hpw F-gp-ØpIm-c-\pw \-S-\p-am-b cm-a≥ \-ºn-b-Øv (90) A-¥-cn®p. H-‰-∏m-ew ]-Øw-Ip-f-sØ \-ºn-b-Øvho-´n-em-bncp-∂p A-¥yw. {io-\m-cm-b-W-Kp-cp-hn-s\ B-kv-]-Z-am°n 1961¬ \n¿-an-® Im¬-∏m-Sp-Iƒ B-Wv cm-a≥ Ct±lw \n¿-an-® kn-\na. G-sd -{i-≤bm-I¿jn-® Cu Nn-{X-Øn-\v \m-j-\¬ C‚-t{K-j≥ A-hm¿-Uv e-`n-®n-´p≠v. tb-ip-Zm-kn-s\ ]n-∂Wn Km-b-Icw-K-Øv FØn-®-Xv cm-a≥ \-ºn-bØn-s‚ Cu Nn-{X-Øneq-sS-bm-sW-∂ {]tXy-I-X-bp-ap-≠v. ]n∂o-Sv kz-¥-am-bn kn-\na \n¿-an-®n-s√-¶n-epw \n-c-h-[n kn-\n-a-I-fn¬ sN-dp-Xpw h-ep-Xp-am-b th-jan-´p. \n-W-a-Wn-™ Im¬-]m-Sp-Iƒ, Im-]m-en-I, \n-dam-e F-∂o kn-\n-a-Iƒ C-Xn¬ Nn-e-Xp-am-{Xw. Im¬∏m-Sp-Iƒ ap-dn-∏m-Sp-Iƒ F-∂ t]-cn¬ kz-¥w B-flI-Y- c-Nn-®n-´p-≠v. A-Sp-Ø Im-e-Øm-bn Im-Øn-cp-∂ Im-ew, kv-am-c-I-in-e-Iƒ Xp-S-ßn G-Xm-\pw ko-cn-bep-I-fn-epw A-`n-\-bn-®p. Xr-iq¿ I-≠-imw-I-S-hv kz-tZ-in-bm-b \-ºn-bØv 1968em-Wv H-‰-∏m-e-Øv F-Øn-b-Xv. kv-Iqƒ hnZym-`ym-kw I-≠-imw-I-S-hn-em-bn-cp-∂p. kn-temWn¬ sa-{Sn-°p-te-j-\pw a-lm-cm-Pm-kv tIm-f-Pn¬ C‚¿-ao-Un-b-‰pw ]q¿-Øn-bm-°n. Km-‘n-Pn `-Iv-X\m-bn-cp-∂ Ct±lw s]m-Xp-cw-K-Øv k-Po-h-am-bn-cp∂p. A-\-ß-\-Sn a-fi-ew tIm¨-{K-kv {]-kn-U‚ v, A-\-ß-\-Sn {Km-a∏©m-b-Øv {]-kn-U‚ v F-∂o ÿm-\-ß-fpw h-ln-®n-´p-≠v. `m-cy: ]-tc-X-bm-b ]-flm-h-Xn-b-Ω. a-°ƒ: _nμp, _o-\ (H-‰-∏m-ew tªm-°v ]-©m-b-Øv kv-‰m≥UnMv I-Ωn-‰n sN-b¿-t]-gv-k≥), F≥ B¿ c-Rv-Pn-Xv (kn.]n.Fw tem-°¬ I-Ωn-‰n Aw-Kw). a-cp-a-°ƒ: kzm-an-°p-´n, cm-P≥, do-\.

Ip-g-ªp-ho-Wv a-cn-¨p

sh-™m-d-aq-Sv: in-h-t£-{X-Øn¬ `m-K-h-X ]m-cm-bWw \-S-Øn-bn-cp-∂ hr-≤≥ Ip-g-™p-ho-Wv a-cn-®p. s\-√-\m-Sv ]-¥-πm-hn-t°m-Ww sh-≈m-Wn-°-c a-lmtZ-h t£-{X-Øn¬ 40 h¿-j-am-bn `m-K-h-X ]m-cm-b-Ww \-S-Øn-h∂ sh-≈p-a-Æ-Sn h-´bw kp-tc-jw `-h-\n¬ in-hm-\-μ≥ (75) B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. t£-{X-Ønse A-∂-Zm-\-Øn¬ ]s¶-Sp-Ø-ti-jw ho-´nte-°v a-S-ß-th Ip-g™p-ho-Wp. B-ip-]{Xn-bn-se-Øn-s®-¶-Knepw C-∂-se D-®-tbm-sS-bm-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. `m-cy: k-c-kzXn. a-°ƒ: k-Pn-\n, kp-tc-jv, P-b-N-{μ≥. a-cp-a-°ƒ: cm-tP-{μ≥, Pn-X, Zn-hy.

I-S-_m-[y-X aq-ew Kp-fn-I I-gn-¨v _m-¦v Po-h-\-¡m-c³ a-cn-¨p

Im-´m-°-S: hn-f-∏n¬-im-e sIm-√w-tIm-Ww A-a¿-®n ho-´n¬ cm-[m-Ir-jv-W≥ \m-b¿ (54) B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. C-°-gn-™ Xn-¶-fm-gv-N 40 Hm-fw Kp-fn-I-Iƒ I-gn-®-Xns\ Xp-S¿-∂v sa-Un-°¬ tIm-f-Pv B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ NnIn¬-k-bn-en-cn-s° C-∂-se \m-tem-sS-bm-Wv a-cn-®Xv. ]q-h-®¬ F-kv._n.Sn-bn-se Po-h-\-°m-c-\m-Wv. arX-tZ-lw sa-Un-°¬ tIm-f-Pv tam¿-®-dn-bn¬ hn-f-∏n¬im-e t]m-en-kv tI-sk-Sp-Øp. `m-cy: im-¥-Ip-am-cn. a°ƒ: A-P-bv Ir-jv-W≥, A-cp¨ Ir-jv-W≥.

iym-a-f

am-½³ hÀ-Ko-kv

h¿-°-e: In-Sm-h-Øp-hnf πm-hn-f ho-´n¬ iym-af (62). `¿-Øm-hv: am-[-h≥. a°ƒ: iym-a, hn-Zy. a-cp-aI≥: kp-[o-jv.

Xn-cp-h-√: h-≈w-Ip-fw aÆm-c-tØm-´n¬ am-Ω-\v h¿-Ko-kv (83). kw-kv-Imcw C-∂v ssh-Io-´v aq-∂n\v I-hn-bq¿ …o-_ am¿tØm-a ]-≈n sk-an-tØcn-bn¬. `m-cy: ]-tc-X-bmb G-en-bm-Ω. a-°ƒ: {]km-Zv, sd-Pn, k-Pn, joem-Ω, ]-tc-X-bm-b F¬kn. a-cp-a-°ƒ; tam-fn-°p´n, _m-_p, Ip-™ptamƒ, km-en, A-\n.

c-ta-i³ am-´q¬: t\m¿-Øv P-ko¥ kv-t‰m-∏n-\p k-ao-]sØ ]-tc-X-\m-b ]-fl\m-`-s‚-bpw No-‰n¬ Pm\-In-bp-sS-bpw a-I≥ kn c-ta-i≥ (48). `m-cy: kp\n-X. a-°ƒ: {ip-Xn, kq-cy, kq-c-Pv. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: c-hn (Ip-ssh-Øv), a-Wntam-l≥ (Hm-t´m ss{Uh¿).

I-Zn-bp-½ F.B¿ \-K¿: ]m-e-aTØn-®n-\- I-≈n-b-Øv apl-Ω-Zn-s‚ `m-cy I-Æn-bßm-´v ]p-Ø-e-Øv I-Znbp-Ω (77).

A-¸p t]-bm-Sv: hn-´n-bw i-ch¨ `-h-\n¬ A-∏p (86). `m-cy: kp-Ip-am-cn. a°ƒ: km-hn-{Xn, k-Zm-\μ≥, k-Zm-in-h≥, k\¬, k-Xy≥, k-Xo-jv, ]-tc-X-\m-b ssi-e≥. acp-a-°ƒ: I-cp-Wm-I-c≥, Ko-X, a-Rv-Pp, k-Pn-X, im-en-\n, c-ay.

_m-e³ am-ln: Nm-e-°-c, tN-cn°p-∂p-Ω¬ dn-´. kv-]n∂n-Mv an¬ Po-h-\-°mc≥ kn _m-e≥ (78). `mcy: I-a-e. a-°ƒ: c-Xn, ca, c-Po-{μ≥ (_mw-•q¿). a-cp-a-°ƒ: hn-P-b≥, apIp-μ≥, _n-μp.

tam-l-\³-]n-Å

Ir-jv-W³

k-Xo-jv ta-t\m³

tX-h-e-°-c: A-cn-\-√q¿ ao-\-tج ]p-Ø≥-ho´n¬ tam-l-\≥-]n≈(50). `m-cy: Aw-_n-Im -Ip-am-cn. a-°ƒ: A-\-¥p, A-Jn¬.

sh-¶n-S-ßv: ]m-Sq¿ IWn-®n-bn¬ Ir-jvW≥(75). `m-cy: Aw-_p-P. a-°ƒ: _o-\, kp\n¬, _n-μp, k-t¥mjv. a-cp-a-°ƒ: kXy≥, kp-_n, tK-m-]n\-m-Yv, P-b-¥n.

sh-fp-Øq¿: \-¥n-e-Øv k-Xo-jv ta-t\m≥(52). kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v cm-hnse H-º-Xn-\v ]q-¶p-∂w ]m-d-tΩ-°m-hv im-¥n-L´n¬. `m-cy: hn-P-b-e-£van.

A-b-½-Zv-Ip-«n Xm-a-c-t»-cn: Hm-S-°p-∂v (I-Æ-∏≥-Ip-≠v ) sN{º-°p-∂-Øv A-b-Ω-ZvIp-´n (77). `m-cy: J-Zo-P. a-°ƒ: D- -bn≥ Ip-´n am-ÿ ( Pn.hn.F-®v.Fkv.F-kv, Xm-a-c-t»-cn ),A-–p-¿d-lv-am≥, bqkp-^v (Zp-_bv) , B-bni, ap-l-Ω-Zv _-jo¿ (JØ¿), C-{_m-low, hlm-_v (sN-ss∂).

C-¯m-¨p Xn-cq-c-ßm-Sn: sIm-Sn™n I-Sp-hm-fq¿ ]-tcX-\m-b ]-b-°-c sam-bvXo-s‚ `m-cy C-Øm-®p (82). a-°ƒ: Ip-™o-Zp (Pn±), ]-tc-X-\m-b tIm-b. a-cp-a-°ƒ: P-ao-e, J-ZoP.

A-l-½-Zv-Ip-«n

sIm-Sp-ß-√q¿: ta-Øe F-S-ap-°v F-d-aw-K-eØv ]p-fn-°-]-d-ºn¬ A-l-Ω-Zv-Ip-´n(91). hn-ap-‡ `-S-\m-bn-cp∂p. `m-cy: \-Sp-hn-e-I-Øv sF-i-Ip-´n. ap-l-½-Zv-Ip-«n a-°ƒ: A-–p¬ IXn-cp-\m-hm-b: F-S-°pcow, d-kn-bm ap-l-Ω-Zfw Im-Z-\-ßm-Sn-bn-se en, ^m-Øn-a, sa-lv-dpIp-‰n-∏-d-ºn¬ ap-l-Ω-ZvIp-´n (68). `m-cy: dw-e. a- ∂o-k, h-lo-Z, ]-tc-X°ƒ: lp-kbv≥, ap-kv-X- \m-b I-Zo-Pm-_n, jw^, A-–p- -a-Zv, i-d-^p- kp-±o≥. a-cp-a-°ƒ: Fw Fw ∂o-k, J-Zo-P, Xm-ln-d, D-Ωp-ssd-lm-\-Øv, dw-e- kn-±o-Jv, kp-ss_-Z, Øv, \n-km-ap-±o≥. a-cp-a- sI hn kn-±o-Jv, \-Pp°ƒ: J-Zo-P, kp-sse-J, ap-∂n-k, C-kv-a-bn¬, apw-Xm-kv, jw-kp-±o≥. k-eo-\, ap-l-Ω-Zv-Ip-´n.

Ip-ªp-Ir-jv-W-]n-Å I-√-d: ap-√-°-c Ir-jvW hn-em-k-Øn¬ Ip™p-Ir-jv-W-]n-≈ (80). `m-cy: Ir-jv-W-Ω. a°ƒ: kp-\n¬-Ip-am¿, _n-Pp. a-cp-a-°ƒ: A-izXn, {]n-b.

^nen-¸v Ipa-fn: C-e-hp-¶¬ tbml-m≥ ^n-en-∏v(82). kwkv-Im-cw C∂p ssh-Io-´v \m-en-\v Ipa-fn A-∏kvtXm-en-Iv s]-¥-t°m-kvXv ]-≈n sk-an-tØ-cnbn¬. `mcy: ]-tc-Xbm-b ta-cn. a-°ƒ:]m-ÿ tPm, amXyp, kPn, en n, Pm≥kn, ]-tc-X\mb tPm-k^v.

A-]-I-S-¯n ss_-¡v bm-{Xn-I³ a-cn-¨p cm-[m-a-Wn

kp-Ip-am-c³-\m-bÀ

sN-ß-∂q¿: sh-≈p-tcØv ]-tc-X-\m-b hn F \m-K-∏-\m-Nm-cn-bp-sS `mcy cm-[m-a-Wn (77). kwkv-Im-cw \-S-Øn. a-°ƒ: tKm-]m-e-Ir-jv-W≥, cmPm-tKm-]m¬, A-cp-Wm-New, Ip-am-c-kzm-an, hn-P-be-£v-an, _o-\, cm-tP-izcn. a-cp-a-°ƒ-: -cm-[m-a-Wn, A-P-¥, cm-[m-a-Wn, c©p, ]-tc-X-\m-b ssZz-ckzm-an, tkm-a-cm-P≥, kptc-jv.

]-Ø-\w-Xn-´: I-√-d-°-Shv {io-\n-e-b-Øn¬ Pn kp-Ip-am-c≥-\m-b¿ (77) \n-cym-X-\m-bn. `m-cy : `mc-Xn-b-Ω. a-°ƒ : {io-Ip-am¿, {ioIm-¥v (A-kn. F-Iv-kn. F-©n-\o-b¿ kn-]n-Uªyp Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-cw). a-cp-a-Iƒ : an-\p {io-Im¥v. kw-kv-°m-cw \-SØn.

]mÀ-h-Xn A-´À-P-\w- F-S-∏mƒ: h-´w-Ip-fw Icp-hm-´v-a-\ \o-e-I-WvT≥ \-ºq-Xn-cn-bp-sS `m-cy ]m¿-h-Xn A-¥¿-P-\w.

hÂ-k-½ So-¨À hm-Wn-ta¬: hm-Wnta¬ {I-k‚ v ssl-kvIqƒ dn-´. A-[ym-]n-I hf-b-sØ B-em-bn¬ h¬-k-Ω So-®¿ (62). `-¿Øm-hv: Ip-am-c≥.

sI BÀ \m-cm-b-W³ C³-Ìn-äyq-«v Hm-^v hn-jzÂk-b³-kn ASp-¯- hÀjw apX ]T\w XpS§pw

Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-cw: kw-ÿm-\ k¿-°m-cn-s‚ sI B¿ \m-cm-bW≥ C≥-Ãn-‰yq-´v Hm-^v hnjz¬- k-b≥-kv B‚ v B¿-Svkn¬ A-Sp-Ø A-[y-b-\-h¿jw ¢m-kv Xp-S-ßp-sa-∂v ap-Jy-a{¥n D-Ω≥-Nm-≠n {]-Jym-]n-®p. C≥-kv-‰n-‰yq-´n-s‚ t{]m-kv-s]-Œkv ap-Jy-a-{¥n {]-Im-i-\w sNbv-Xp. kv-{In-]v-‰v-ssd-‰n-Mv B‚ v U-b-d£≥, F-Un-‰n-Mv, kn-\ntam-t´m-{K-^n, Hm-Un-tbm-{K-^n B-\n-ta-j≥ B≥v hn-jz¬ C^-Œv, B-Iv‰n-Mv F-∂n-hbmWv tIm-gv-kv. π-kv-Sp tbm-KyX-bm-°n-bp-≈ tIm-gv-kp-I-fmWv Xp-S-ßp-I. A-Jn-te-¥ym {]th-i-\]-co-£-bp-sS A-Sn-ÿm\-Øn-em-Wv Xnc-s™-Sp∏v.

P-em-ep-±o³

ap-l-½-Zv Ip-ªv

A-k-\m-cp-Ip-ªv

Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-cw: Xn-cph-\-¥-]p-cw {]-m-h-®-ºew sh-≈w-sI-´p-hn-f Ipf-Øn-¶-c ho-´n¬ P-em-ep±o≥ (65). `m-cy: sF-jØv _o-hn. a-°ƒ: k-_o\, Xm-ln-d, sj-co-^v (]tc-X≥). a-cp-a-°ƒ: ap-lΩ-Zv- A-kv-ew, sk-ø-Zv. I_-d-S-°w sh-≈-bm-Wn Pp-am-a-kv-Pn-Zn¬ \-S-∂p.

B-e-∏p-g: \-K-c-k-` B-en-ti-cn hm¿-Un¬ Nn-d-bn¬ ho-´n¬ F®v._n. ]m-S-Øp ]-tc-X\m-b A-–p-√m-bp-sS aI≥ ap-l-Ω-Zv Ip-™v (78). `m-cy: lm-Pn-d _o-hn. aI≥: A-–p¿-d-low. acp-a-Iƒ: apw-Xm-kv.

A-i-dv -^v

cm-a³

Im-bw-Ip-fw: Io-cn-°m-Sv sX-°v sF-Iy-P-Mv-j≥ k-°o¿ a≥-kn¬ A-k\m-cp-Ip-™v (75). J-_d-S-°w C-∂v cm-hn-se 11\v ]p-Ø≥-sX-cp-hv Ppam-a-kv-Pn-Zv J-_¿-ÿm\n¬ \-S-°pw. `m-cy: JZo-Pm _o-hn. a-°ƒ: j-d-^p-±o≥, kenw, Ip-™p-tam≥, A–p¬ I-emw, \u-jm-Zv, d-ko-\, k-°o¿ lpssk≥, d-Pn-tamƒ, kPo¿. a-cp-a-°ƒ: ko-\, ssje-P, jo-P, kp-\n-X, kp\n, km-Zn-Jv, jm-\n, \ujm-Zv.

]q-t°mw: s]-cn-ßf - w {Km-a∏ - © - m-bØ - v ap≥ {]kn-U‚p-am-b ]n ]n Ip™n-aq-k am-Ãd - p-sS-bpw J-Zo-Pb - p-sS-bpw a-I≥ ]p-Ø≥-]p-cb - n¬ A-ivd - ^v (45). `m-cy: _p-jvd - .

{_-“-aw-K-ew: G-dwIp-f-Øn¬ cm-a≥ (68). kw-kv-Im-cw \-S-Øn. `m-cy: c-a-Wn. a-°ƒ: {]-km-Zv, {]-Zo]v, {]-Pn-X. a-cp-a-°ƒ: \n-j, {]n-b, kp-tc-jv.

cm-a³-Ip-«n h-Sp-X-e: tN¿-Ø-e \-Zv h-Øp \-K¿ a-S-Øn-X-d \-I¿-Øn¬ cm-a≥-Ip-´n (70). `m-cy: im-¥. a-°ƒ: ssj-Pp, sse-Pp, ssj-a.

imcZ ]mWm-h≈n: Xr-®m-´pIp-fw Xp-cp-Øn `m-Kw s\-bv-ti-cn¬ c-ho{μssI-a-fp-sS `m-cy im-c-Z (54). a°ƒ: cay, tc-J. a-cp-a°ƒ: kp-[o¿ Ipam¿, k-t¥mjv.

C-kv-a-m-bnÂ-Ip-«n a-ßm-´p-]p-ew: ap-Xp-°m´n¬ C-kv-am-bn¬-Ip-´n (90). a-°ƒ: ^m-Øn-a, B-ky.

tPmÀ-Pv tPm-k-^v ssh-°w: Im-´p-a-\ tPm¿-Pv tPm-k-^v (Ipt™-´≥-˛82). kw-kv-Imcw C-∂v cm-hn-se 10\v sk‚ v tPm-k-^v s^mtdm-\ ]-≈n-bn¬. `m-cy: t_-_n, I-dp-Ip-‰n ss]\m-S-Øv Ip-Spw-_mw-Kw. a-°ƒ: tPm¿-Pv(_m_p), tPm-kn, jn-Ωn, sd-kn tdm-_n≥-k¨. acp-a-°ƒ: sP-kn Ip-fwIp-Øn-bn¬, A-Xn-c-ºpg, eq-bn-kv tPm-k-^v ss]-\m-S-Øv I-dp-Ip-‰n, tUm. tXm-a-kv sI. amXyp a-‰-Øn¬ (bp.Fkv.F.), tdm-_n≥-k¨ B‚-Wn ta-t®-cn¬.

N-h-d: sSw-t]m {Sm-he¿ ss_-°n-en-Sn-®v bp-hm-hv X¬-£-Ww a-cn-®p tX-h-e-°-c tIm-bn-hn-f ]p-Ø≥ k-t¶-Xw Ip-Xn-c-]-¥n ho-´n¬ ]-tc-X-cm-b Hm-a-\-°p-´≥-]n-≈-bpsS-bpw Ko-X-bp-tS-bpw a-I≥ {io-Ip-am-dm(25)Wv a-cn-®-Xv. tZ-io-b-]m-X-bn¬ \o-≠-I-c ]p-Ø≥-kt¶-Xw P-Mv-j-\n¬ C∂-se D-®-bv-°v 2.50 \m-Wv A-]-I-Sw. t]m-en-kv F-Øm≥ ssh-In-b-Xn¬ {]Xn-tj-[n-®v \m-´p-Im¿ hm-l-\-߃ X-S-™n´p. 45 an-\n-‰v ssh-Inbm-Wv t]m-en-kv FØn-b-Xv.

13 Im-c-sâ Xn-tcm-[m-\w 19 hÀ-j-¯n-\p-ti-jw tem-I -`-£y-kw-L-S-\-bp-am-bn [m-c-W sIm-e-]m-X-I-sa-¶p sX-fn-ªp; {]-Xn A-d-Ìn sIm-®n: 19 h¿-jw ap-ºv Im-WmXm-b 13Im-c≥ sIm√-s∏-´-XmsW∂p sX-fn-™p.- {]-Xn A-dÃn¬. N-ß-\m-t»-cn a-[p-aq-ebn¬ hn-iz-\m-Y≥ B-Nm-cn-bpsS a-I≥ a-lm-tZ-h-s‚ Xn-tcm[m-\-am-Wv ss{Iw-{_m-©v At\z-j-W-Øn¬ sIm-e-]m-X-Iam-sW-∂p sX-fn-™-Xv. kw-`-hØn¬ N-ß-\m-t»-cn a-©m-Sn-°c C-f-ap-dn-bn¬ ho-´n¬ l-cn-Ipam-dn(D-Æn-˛41)s\ F-d-Wm-Ipfw ss{Iw-{_m-©v F-®v.F-®v.Uªyp. c-≠v A-d-Ãv sN-bv-Xp. 1995 k-]v-Xw-_¿ F-´n-\m-Wv a-lm-tZ-h-s\ Im-Wm-Xm-b-Xv. hn-iz-\m-Y≥ B-Nm-cn-bp-sS ]cm-Xn-bn¬ N-ß-\m-t»-cn t]meo-kv tIsk-SpØp. C-Xn-\n-sS

a-lm-tZ-h≥ I-kv-‰-Un-bn-eps≠-∂pw ]-Ww \¬-I-W-sa∂pw `o-j-Wn-s∏-Sp-Øn- hn-izm\m-Y≥ B-Nm-cn-°p I-Øp-Iƒ e-`n-®p. XpS¿-∂v hn-iz\m-Y-s‚ Bh- i y- { ]- I mcw 1996 P-\ph-cn c-≠n-\v A-∂-sØ ap- J y- a - { ¥n l-cn-Ip-am-¿ tI-kt\z-jWw ss{Iw-{_m-©n-\p hn-´p. ]ptcm-K-Xn-bp-≠m-hm-Xn-cp-∂-Xns\ Xp-S¿-∂v C-h¿ A-t\z-jWw A-h-km-\n-∏n-®p-sIm-≠v 2001 s^-{_p-h-cn 17\v N-ß-\mt»-cn Pp-Uo-jy¬ H-∂mw ¢m-kv

a-Pn-kv-t{S-‰v tIm-S-Xn-bn¬ dnt]m¿-´v \¬-In. C-Xn-s\-Xn-tc hn-iz-\m-Y≥ ssl-t°m-S-Xn-sb k-ao-]n-°p-I-bpw ssl-t°m-SXn- D-Ø-c-hv {]-Im-c-w F-d-WmIp-fw ss{Iw-{_m-©v F-®v.F®v.U-ªyp. c-≠v F-kv.]n sI Pn ssk-aWns‚ t\-Xr-Xz-Øn¬ tI-kv A-t\z-j-Ww G-s‰-Sp-°pI-bm-bn-cp∂p. a-lm-tZ-h≥ [-cn-®n-cp-∂ 10 {Kmw Xq-°-ap-≈ kz¿-W-am-essI-°-em-°p-∂-Xn-\m-bm-Wv a[p-aq-e PMvj-\n¬ ssk-°nƒ I-S \-S-Øn-bncp-∂ l-cn-Ip-am¿ sIm-e\-S-Øn-b-sX-∂v ss{Iw {_m-©v ]-d-™p. a-lm-tZ-h-s‚ am-Xm-]n-Xm-°ƒ C-t∏mƒ Po-hn®n-cn-∏n-√.

Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-cw: kw-ÿm-\sØ s]m-Xp-hn-X-c-Wkw-hn[m-\w \-ho-I-cn-°p-∂-Xn-s‚ `m-K-am-bn \-S-∏m-°p-∂ k-ºq¿W I-w-]yq-´¿h¬-°-c-W ]-≤Xn-bp-sS \-S-Øn-∏n-\p-≈ kmt¶-Xn-I-k-lm-bw e-`y-am-°p∂-Xn-\v `-£y-s]m-Xp-hn-X-c-W h-Ip-∏pw tem-I-`-£y-kw-L-S\-bp-am-bn [m-c-Wm-]-{Xw H-∏ph-®p. ssX-°m-Sv K-h. K-Ãv lukn¬ a-{¥n A-\q-]v tP-°-_ns‚ km-∂n-[y-Øn¬ \-S-∂ N-Sßn¬ `-£y-˛-s]m-Xp-hn-X-c-W h-Ip-∏v sk-{I-´-dn kp-a≥_n-√bpw thƒ-Uv ^p-Uv t{]m-{Kmw I¨-{Sn sl-Uv ssa-°¬ P≥k-\p-am-Wv [m-c-Wm-]-{XØn¬ H-∏p-h-®-Xv. P-Ãn-kv hm-[zm I-Ωo-j≥ dnt]m¿-´n-s‚ A-Sn-ÿm-\-Øn¬ kp-{]nw-tIm-S-Xn hn-[n-°v A-\p-

kr-X-am-bn tI-c-f-Øn¬ \-S-∏m°p-∂ k-ºq¿-W I-w-]yq-´¿h¬-°-c-W ]-≤-Xn-bn¬ kmt¶-Xn-I D-]-tZ-iw \¬-Ip-I F∂-Xm-Wv U-ªyp.F-^v.]n \¬Ip-∂ tk-h-\w. k-ºq¿-W I-w-]yq-´¿-h¬-°c-W ]-≤-Xn-bp-sS L-S-I-ß-fmb Kp-W-t`m-‡m-°-sf I-s≠ج, k-ssπ sN-bn≥ am-t\Pv-sa‚ v, \ym-b-hn-e tI-{μ-ßfp-sS (td-j≥ I-S-Iƒ) B-[p\o-I-c-W-hpw em-`-I-c-am-°-epw Kp-W-t`m-‡r ]-cm-Xn]-cn-lm-ckw-hn-[m-\w F-∂n-h-bnepw tdj≥ I-S-I-fp-sS B-[p-\o-I-cW-hpw em-`-I-c-am-°-epw F-∂ L-S-I-Øn¬ km-t¶-Xn-I D-]tZ-iw, {]-hr-Øn-]-cn-N-bw, hn-ZKv-[-sc \¬-I¬ Xp-S-ßn-b klm-b-ßfpw U-ªyp.F-^v.]n \¬-Ipw.

a-[y-h-b-kv-¡-s\ Xq-§n a-cn-¨-\n-e-bn I-s−-¯n

hn-Xp-c: a-[y-h-b-kv-I-s\ ho-´n-\p-≈n¬ Xq-ßn a-cn-® \n-e-bn¬ Im-W-s∏-´p. hn-Xp-c Nn-‰m¿ ]-\-\n-∂ a¨]p-d-Øv ho-´n¬ ]-∏p-°p-´n-bp-sS a-I≥ A-tim-I≥ (58) B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. `m-cy-bpw a-°-fpw D-t]-£n-®p t]m-b-Xn-\m¬ C-bmƒ h-en-b-Ω-tbm-sSm-∏-am-bn-cp∂p Xm-a-kw. h-e-bn-Ω ]p-d-Øp-t]m-b k-a-b-Øm-bncp-∂p h-o-´n-\p-≈n¬ C-bmƒ sI-´n-Øq-ßn a-cn-®-Xv. hn-jm-Z-am-Imw B-fl-l-Xy-bv-°v Im-c-W-sa-∂v hn-Xpc t]m-en-kv A-dn-bn-®p.

im-´n-a-μn-c-¯n-se A-t´-hm-kn Zp-cq-l- km-l-N-cy-¯n a-cn-¨p

B-e-∏p-g: \-K-c-k-`-bp-sS im-¥n-a-μn-c-Øn-se At¥-hm-kn Zp-cq-l-km-l-N-cy-Øn¬ a-cn-®p. B-en-t»cn im-¥n-a-μn-c-Øn¬ aq-∂p-h¿-j-am-bn I-gn-bp-∂ aÆ-t©-cn kz-tZin B-en-_m-h-bm-Wv (90) a-cn-®-Xv. C∂se cm-hn-se B-dp-a-Wn-tbm-sS-bm-Wv kw-`-hw. i-–w-tI-´v Hm-Sn-sb-Øn-bt∏mƒ B-en-_m-h h-cm¥-bn¬ ho-Wp-In-S-°p-∂Xv I-s≠∂pw F-gp-t∂¬∏n-®-t∏mƒ A-\-°-an-√mbn-cp-∂p-sh-∂p-am-Wv Poh-\-°m¿ ]-d-™-Xv. F-∂m¬, s\-‰n-bp-sS h-e-Xp-h-i-Øm-bn ap-dn-th‰-Xv kw-i-b-Øn-\n-S-bm°n-. B-g-Øn-ep-≈ ap-dn-hn¬ \n-∂p c-‡w hm¿-∂n-cp∂p. ]-cn-k-c-Øp-≈ tUm-Iv-S¿ F-Øn-bm-Wv a-c-Ww ÿn-co-I-cn-®-Xv. \m-´p-Im-cp-sS ]-cm-Xn-sb Xp-S¿-∂v ku-Øv kn.sF. jm-Pn-tam≥ tPm-k-^n-s‚ t\-XrXz-Øn¬ t]menkv F-Øn ]cn-tim-[-\ \SØn. t^m-d≥-kn-Iv hn-`m-K-w sX-fn-hp-Iƒ ti-J-cn-®p. ar-XtZ-lw B-e-∏p-g sa-Un-°¬ tIm-f-Pv B-ip-]-{Xnbn¬ t]m-kv-‰v-tam¿-´-Øn-\-b-®p. B-kv-Xv-a tcm-Kn-bm-bn-cp-∂p B-en-_m-h. I-tk-cbn¬ \n-∂v F-gp-t∂¬-°p-∂-Xn-\n-sS Ip-g-™p-hoW-t∏mƒ X-e I-´-nen-s‚ t_mƒ-´n¬ X-´n ]-cn-t°-‰psh-∂v kw-i-bn-°p-∂-Xm-bm-Wv Po-h-\-°m¿ t]m-enkn-t\m-Sv ]-d-™-Xv. ho-gv-N-bn¬ izm-k-X-S- w D≠mb-Xm-Wv a-c-W-Im-c-W-sa-∂m-Wv t]m-kv-‰v-tam¿-´-Ønse {]m-Y-an-I kq-N-\-sb-∂v t]menkv ]-d-™p. B¥-cn-Imh-b-h-߃ hn-i-Z]-cn-tim-[-\-°v A-b-®n´p≠v. ar-X-tZ-lw t]m-kv-‰v-tam¿-´-Øn-\p-ti-jw h-´∏-≈n kv-‰-Un k¿-°n-fn-\v ap-ºn¬ s]m-Xp-Z¿-i-\Øn-\v h-®p. Xp-S¿-∂v a-Æ-t©-cn-bn-se k-tlm-Z-cnbp-sS ho-´n¬ F-Øn-®-ti-jw ]-Sn-™msd Pp-am-a-kvPn-Zv J-_¿-ÿm-\n¬ J-_-d-S-°n.

F³-.F-k.v-F-kv-. P-\-dÂ- sk-{I-«-dntIm-am-fn-sb-¶v- sI.F-kv-.bp-. {]-kn-UâvsXm-Sp-]p-g: a-lm-∑m-cp-sS ap-JØv- I-cn-sIm-≠v- tIm-ewh-c-bv°p-∂ tIm-am-fn-bm-Wv- F≥-.Fkv-.F-kv-. P-\-d¬- sk-{I-´-dnkp-Ip-am-c≥-\m-b-sc-∂v- sI.Fkv-.bp-. kw-ÿm-\ {]-kn-U‚ vhn- F-kv- tPm-bn.- km-ap-Zm-bn-Icw-K-Øv- k-t¥m-jv- ]-fin-‰ns‚ \n-e-hm-c-Øn-te-°v- kp-Ipam-c≥-\m-b¿- A-[∏-Xn-s®-∂pw hn F-kv tPm-bn sXm-Sp-]p-gbn¬ hm¿-Øm-k-tΩ-f-\-Øn¬ ]-d-™p. kp-Ip-am-c≥-\m-b-cpw- C-Sp°n- _n-j-∏v- am-Xyp- B-\n-°p-gn°m-´n-epw- F-kv-.F≥-.Un-.]n.tbm-Kw P-\-d¬ sk-{I-´-dn- sh≈m-∏-≈n- \-tS-i-\pw- \-S-Øp∂ {]-kv-Xm-h-\-I-fpw- C-S-s]-Sep-I-fpw- A-Xn-cp-hn-Sp-I-bm-Wv.a-∂-Øp ]-fl-\m-`≥ F≥.-F-

kv.-F-kn-s‚ kz-Im-cy kz-Ø√. A-t±-lw \-thm-∞m-\ \m-bIcn¬ H-cm-fm-Wv. tZ-io-b{]ÿm-\-Øn-s‚ kw-`m-h-\-bm-b a-∂-Øp ]-fl-\m-`-s\ kp-Ip-amc≥ \m-b¿ kz-Im-cykz-Øm°m≥ {i-an-°p-I-bm-Wv. a-lm\m-b a-∂-Øp ]-fl-\m-`-\pw am\y-\m-b \m-cm-b-W-∏-Wn-°-cpw C-cp-∂ I-tk-c-bn¬ tIm-am-fnsb t]m-se kp-Ip-am-c≥-\m-b¿ C-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv. F≥.-F-kv.-Fkv. B-ÿm-\-Øv ]p-√p- ]-dn°m≥ h-∂ kp-Ip-am-c≥ \m-b¿ C-∂p t]m-∏m-sW-∂v ]-d-s™¶n¬ \m-sf ]-S-t®m≥ B-sW∂v {]-Jym-]n-°pwap-ºv s]-cp-∂bn¬ \n-∂v C-bm-sf ]-Sn-b-S-®p ]n-fiw h-bv-°m≥ F≥.-F-kv.F-kv. t\-Xr-Xzw X-øm-dm-hWsa∂pw tPmbn ]d-™p.


Thejas Epaper obit Edition 2014/02/27