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thÀ-]mSv

KOCHI

16 H-IvtSm-_¿ 2013 _p[≥

A-]-I-S-¯n ]-cn-t¡-ä hn-ZymÀ-Yn a-cn¨p tPmk^v

ta-cn

^m¯n-a

dmhn-b

G-en-¡p-«n

tacn-tPmk^v

Pm\In

A-Pn-Xv-Ip-amÀ

tIm-X-aw-K-ew: a-e-bn≥Io-gv Iq´me tPm-k^v(79). kw-kv-Im-cw C∂v D-®-I-gn™v 3\v tImX-awK-ew sk‚ v tPm¿Pv I-Øo-{U¬ sk-an-tØcn-bn¬. `m-cy: \m-K∏p-g aq-∂p-am-bv-°¬ Ip-Spw_mw-Kw G-en-°p´n. a°ƒ: tacn, B\n, X¶®≥, Pm≥-kn, ssj\n, jn_p, jn-Pp, tPm_n. a-cp-a°ƒ: ]m∏®≥, t]mƒ, dmWn, B‚Wn, tPmWn, do-\.

I-f-a-t»cn: sIm-®n k¿h-I-emim-e dn-´.Po-h-\°m-cnbpw ]-tc-X\mb ssh-em-t»-cn h¿-Ko-kns‚ `m-cy-bpam-b tacn(78). aI≥: sIm-®n k¿-h-I-em-im-e-bn¬\n∂pw hn-c-an-® G-WÃv. a-cp-aIƒ: tI-c-f aln-fm-kw-Lw Pn√m I-Ω‰n-bw-Kw F-en-k-_Øv.

Xmbn-°m-´pI-c: ]-t´-cn∏p-dw _w-•m-hp-]-d-ºn¬ ]-tc-X\m-b ]-co-Xv `m-cy ^m-Øn-a(75). J-_-dS-°w \-SØn. a°ƒ: dw-e, sF-jm_ohn, s\-Pp-a, \m-k¿, \u-jmZv, \m-Zn¿-j. a-cp-a°ƒ: k-emw, kenw, A-_q-_°¿, J-ZoP, k-an-X, jm-^n-b.

aqhm-‰p-]p-g: k-°o¿ lpssk≥ \-K-dn¬ Hm-e-∏pc-bn¬ ]-tc-X\m-b _°-dn-s‚ `m-cy dm-hnb(65). kw-kv-Im-cw \SØn. a-°ƒ: ]-tcXbmb ssj-e, A-ao¿ k-_n, _o-\, jo-_, jo\. a-cp-a°ƒ: A-\kv, \n-k, k-enw, ap-l-Ω-Zmen(ku-Zn), ]-co-Xv.

B-e-ßmSv: Xn-cp-hm-eq¿ I-f-∏-dº-Øv ho-´n¬ ]tc-X\mb tPm-k-^n-s‚ `m-cy ta-cn(74). kw-kv-Imcw \-SØn. a°ƒ: emen(C‰-en), Um-en, jmen, en-Pn, kPp(sa-t{Sm hm¿-Ø). a-cp-a-°ƒ: ]tc-X\m-b _nPp, s_∂n, tPm_n, _m_p, tPm-bvkn.

hÀ-Ko-kv a-¯m-bn

tIm-X-aw-Kew: C-c-a√q¿ tX-h-cp-Ip-Sn ]-tc-X\m-b Ir-jvW-s‚ `m-cy Pm-\In(82). kw-kv-Im-cw C∂p-cm-hnse 9\v ho-´p-h-f∏n¬. ]tc-X \m-K-t©-cn ]p-‰n-\m-°p-Sn Ip-Spw-_mwK-am-Wv. a°ƒ: hn-emkn\n, h¬-k-e, P-\m¿±\≥, ]-tc-X\m-b {io[c≥. a-cp-a-°ƒ: cm-P≥ sX-t°¬- ap-S-hq¿, Hm-a\, im-¥, ]-tc-X\m-b kp-{_-“-Wy≥ ]m-≠hØv A-¶-amen.

{io-aq-e-\K-cw: ]p-Xn-tbSw X-´m≥]-Sn ]-cn-bm-°c ho-´n¬ A-Pn-Xv-Ipam¿(51). kw-kv-Im-cw C∂p-cm-hn-se 10\v ho-´p-hf-∏n¬. am-Wn-Iy-awK-ew ]-\-bm-en iw-t{Im-Øv Ip-Spw-_mw-K-amWv. `mcy: ]-cn-bm-°-c D-j. a-°ƒ: A-tP-jv(_m-ep, jm¿P), A-Jn-e. a-cp-a-I≥:cma-`-{Z≥.

`-hm-\n-b-½

aq-hm-‰p-]pg: hm-g-°p-fw sX-\w-Im-em-bn¬(]n-W°m-´v)]-tc-X\m-b a-Ømbn-bp-sS `m-cy G-en-°p´n(84). ]tc-X \-ºym-]-d-ºn¬ h-S-t°-°-c Ip-Spw_mwKw. kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v D-®-Ign™v 3\v hm-g-°p-fw sk‚ v tPm¿-Pv s^m-tdm\ ]-≈n sk-an-tØ-cnbn¬. a-°ƒ: ta-cn, A-∂-°p´n, A-K-Ãn≥, A-{_mlw, {^m≥-knkv, ]-bkv, Imtcm-fn≥. a-cp-a°ƒ: tPm-kv(tIm°-≠-Øn¬), Nm-t°m®≥(C-S-Ø-t´¬), tacn(]-≈n-Ømg-Øv), ]-tcXbm-b Pm≥-kn(am-S-t»cn¬), em-en(C-S-∏m-´v), jn-Pn(N-ßm-en-°mhn¬).

]p-cp-tjm-¯-a³ ]n-Å

ap-l-½-Zv \q-lv

_m-ep-t»-cn: a-™-∏mew cm-aw-K-e-Øv tIm-hne-I-Øv tZ-h-In (74).

Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-cw: ]m¬Ip-f-ß-c C-e-™n-∏p-dw e-bn-\n¬ ]-fl-{io-bn¬ Fw B¿ ]p-cp-tjm-Øa≥ ]n-≈ (91). `m-cy: F≥ F≥ ]-flm-hXn-A-Ω (dn-´: So-®¿ F≥.-F-kv.-F-k.v sslkv-Iqƒ, ]m¬-°p-f-ßc). a-°ƒ: D-j (dn-´: sl-Uvan-kv-{S- v, F≥.-F-kv.-Fkv. ssl-kv-Iqƒ, [-\p-h®-]p-cw), tim-` (dn-´: tPm-bn‚ v sk-{I-´-dn, sI.-]n.-F-kv.-kn), A\n¬-Ip-am¿ , Ko-X. a-cp-a-°ƒ: th-em-bp-[≥ \m-b¿ , cm-[m-Ir-jvW≥ , Kn-cn-P , hn hn-P-b-Ipam¿ (ko-Um-Iv).

ap-l-½-Zv-

_o-hm-¯p

D-½m-¨p

sIm-¨-½p-A-½

cm-P³

\m-cm-b-W³

ImÀ-¯ym-b-\n

J-Zo-P

Nm-h-°m-Sv-: sX-t° a-{Z -°v ]-Sn-™m-dv Ip-∂Øv- tXm-∏n¬ ap-l-Ω-Zv(78). J-_-d-S-°w \-SØn. `m-cy: dw-e-Øv. a°ƒ: \-ko-a, \-ko¿, \hm-kv- (C-cp-h-cpw JØ¿). a-cp-a-°ƒ: A-Iv_¿, ^-ko-e.

]p-∂-bq¿-°p-fw: A-≠tØm-Sv A-d-∏ tdm-Un¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b sI-c‚-IØv sam-bv-Xp-Æn a-Iƒ _o-hm-Øp (71). I-_-d-S°w \-S-Øn. k-tlm-Z-c߃: kn-≤o-Jv, J-Zo-P, ^m-Øn-a.

]p-∂-bq¿-°p-fw: A-≠tØm-Sv X-Jv-h b-Xow-Jm\ tdm-Un¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b I¿-Øm-c-bn¬ A-_q-_°-dn-s‚ `m-cy sX-°≥ DΩm-®p (70). I-_-d-S-°w \-S-Øn. a-Iƒ: ^m-Øn-a. a-cp-a-I≥: lw-k.

sIm-Sp-ß√q¿: ]p√q-‰v ]gw-]≈-Øv sh-fp-tØSØv sIm-®-Ωp-A-Ω(93). a°ƒ: B-\-μ-h√n, Iaew. a-cp-a°ƒ: \m-cm-bW≥ \mb¿, Ip-am-c≥ \mb¿.

Kp-cp-hm-bq¿: ]m-ep-hmbv sIm-Sn-b-°m-bn¬ ]tc-X-\m-b i-¶p-Æn BNm-cn-bp-sS a-I≥ cmP≥(48). k-tlm-Z-cn: koX.

sIm-Sp-ß-√q¿: ta-Ø-e \-Sp-ap-dn \m-cm-b-W≥(86). a-°ƒ: F≥ F≥ {]-Zo-]v, A-\n-X. a-cp-a-°ƒ: kp-te-J, _m-_p.

cm-[m-a-Wn

cmP-½-b-½

_m-e-Ir-jv-W³ ssh-ZyÀ

Cµn-c

hm-k-h³

am[-h³]n-Å

I-cp-\m-K-∏≈n: a-cp-Xq¿Ipf-ß-c sX-°v sIm-®v h-fm-en¬ In-g-°-Xn¬ hm-k-h≥(78). `m-cy: Iae-Ω. a°ƒ: ssj-e-P, tim`-\, a-Wn-em¬, lcn-em¬. a-cp-a°ƒ: j¨-a-pJ≥, ap-c-fo[c≥, _n-μp, A-ae.

Ip≠d: s]cp-ºpg ]p\p-°-∂q¿ ap≠bv°¬ Xpf-ko-k-Z-\Øn¬ am[h≥]n≈(80). `mcy: im¥-Ω-bΩ. a°ƒ: cXv\-a-Wn-b-Ω, Xpf-ko[-c≥]n-≈, ktcm-Pn-\nbΩ. acp-a-°ƒ: kp-[m ‰n ]n≈, inh-i-¶-c-]n≈.

Ip≠d: ]-Sn™mtdI√S \Sp-hn-e°c tIm´m-߬ ho´n¬ ]tc-X-\mb X¶-∏≥]n≈-bpsS `mcy cmP-ΩbΩ(89). a°ƒ: cma-N{μ≥]n-≈, tKm]m-e-IrjvW-]n-≈, tim`\. acpa-°ƒ: ca-Wn, {]k-∂Ip-am-cn, ]tc-X-\mb X¶-∏≥-]n-≈.

sh-™m-d-aq-Sv: s\-√-\mSv D-S-b≥-]m-d lu-kn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b tkm-a-s‚ `m-cy cm-[m-a-Wn (74).

sh-™m-d-aq-Sv: `-c-X∂q¿ s\-√n-°p-∂v {ioIr-jv-W {]-km-Z-Øn¬ hn _m-e-Ir-jv-W≥ ssh-Zy¿ (79). `m-cy: Un cm-[. a-°ƒ: tim-`-\-Ip-am-cn, kp-K-X-Ip-am-cn, tPym-Xo{μ≥ (ko-Xm-dmw ^m¿-akn, `-c-X-∂q¿), kn-‘p, _n-μp. a-cp-a-°ƒ: ]-tc-X-\m-b i-in-Ip-am¿, _m-_p, tPym-Xn-e-£v-an, D-Æn-Irjv-W≥, l-cn-Ip-am¿.

sIm-Sp-ß-√q¿: ta-Ø-e ]-d-ºn-Ip-f-ß-c N-°-Ωm´n¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b \m-cmb-W-s‚ `m-cy Im¿-Øymb-\n(52). a-°ƒ: k-Xn, im-¥, ]p-cp-j≥, th-WptKm-]m-e≥, Aw-_p-Pm£≥, ]-tc-X-\m-b cm-[mIr-jv-W≥. a-cp-a-°ƒ: ]tc-X-\m-b N-{μ≥, hn-Pb≥, kp-te-N-\, c-a-Wn, i-_v-\, t_-_n.

s]-cp-ºm-hq¿: Im-™n-c°m-Sv a-Zvd-km tdm-Un¬ aq-°-S ]-co-Xn-s‚ `m-cy JZo-P(sIm-®-ø˛75). ku-Øv h√w {km-ºn°¬(aq-°-S)Ip-Spw-_mwK-amWv. a-°ƒ: Ip-™o≥-Ip´n, A-en-bm¿, Ip-™p-ap-lΩZv, _-jo¿, A-_q-_°¿. a-cp-a°ƒ: B-_n-Z, km_n-d, A-\n-X, sd-Po-\. J-_-dS-°w \-S-Øn.

ao-cm-`mbv tN¿Øe: IWn-®p-Ip-fßc CS-®n-em-´p-ssXøn¬ ]tc-X-\mb `mkpc-∏-Wn-°-cpsS `mcy aocm-`mbv (79). kwkvImcw \S-Øn. a°ƒ: _n kp-\n¬Ip-am¿, -_o-\, A-ºn-fn, -{io-e-X. acp-a°ƒ: _o\ kp\n¬,- kXo-i≥, -cm-Po-hv, -em¬ _m_p.

tZ-h-In

Ip-≠d: ap°S ]h¿lu-kn\v kao]w ]pXp-aw-K-eØvho-´n¬ Pn kp-μ-tc-is‚ `mcy Cμnc(54). a°ƒ: IrjvW-P≥, hnjvWp-{]-kmZv. acp-aIƒ: Zo]vXn.

Pm-\-In-b-½

ImÀ-Xymb-\n ]-\-ßm-Sv: \-μn-Im-´v-]tc-X\m-b ]-c-ta-izcs‚(]c-ap) `m-cy Im¿Xym-b-\n(87). a-°ƒ: ]tc-X\m-b `-c-X≥, e-£van-°p´n, tIma-f, b-timZ, Hma-\. a-cp-a-°ƒ: _mlp-teb≥, ]-tc-X\m-b s]m∂≥, c-ho-{μ-\mYv(F.C.H. Xr-∏q-WnØpd). kw-kv-Im-cw C∂v cm-hn-se 11\v s\-´q¿ im-¥nh-\w iv-a-im-\Øn¬.

Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-cw: Im-´m°-S im-¥n-`-h-\-Øn¬ hn sN-√-∏≥ ]n-≈-bp-sS `m-cy F≥ Pm-\-In-b-Ω (86). a-°ƒ: kp-io-e≥ \mb¿, B-fl-N-{μ≥ \mb¿, c-am-tZ-hn, P-e-Pm-tZhn, `p-h-\-N-{μ≥ \m-b¿, a-tl-{μ≥ \mb¿, cm-tP-{μ≥ \m-b¿, l-co-{μ-Zm-kv, ]-tc-X-\mb Kn-co-{μ-Zm-kv, ]-tc-X\m-b {]o-X-Ip-am¿, kp-\n¬-Ipam¿. a-cp-a-°ƒ: P-e-P, C-μn-c, ]-tc-X-\m-b tKm-]n-\m-Y≥ \m-b¿, cho-{μ≥ \m-b¿, c-am-tZhn, A-Pn-X-Ip-am-cn, {]o-Xm-Ip-am-cn, e-X-Ip-am-cn, {io-I-e, Zo].

h¿-°-e: ssa-Xm-\w iym-a-fm-e-b-Øn¬ ]-tcX-\m-b F≥ Ip-´≥-]n≈-bp-sS `m-cy sI `-hm\n-b-Ω (85). a-°ƒ: _n iym-a-fm-tZ-hn (dn-´. sl-Uv-an-kv-{S-kv), sI cm-tP-{μ-_m-_p (_nkn-\-kv), sI _m-e-N{μ≥ \m-b¿ (_n-kn-\kv), _n em-en (sl-Uv-ankv-{S-kv, a-Æ-¥-e F®v.F-kv). a-cp-a-°ƒ: ]-tc-X-\m-b Fw cm-a-N-{μ≥ \m-b¿, sI F-kv ao-\, ]n ]-flIp-am-cn, sI tam-l-\-N{μ≥ \m-b¿ (Xm-eq-°v k-ssπ-Hm-^n-k¿, s\øm-‰n≥-I-c).

Im™n-c-∏≈n: ta-°-cti-cn¬ h¿-Ko-kv aØmbn (h¿-°n-®m-bn-˛ 79). `m-cy: a-dn-bm-Ω Im-™nc∏-≈n Im-∏n¬ Ip-Spw_mwKw. a°ƒ: tSman (Im-™n-c∏-≈n k¿-hokv k-lI-c-W _m-¶v), hn¬k¨ (sk‚ v sUman-\n-Iv-kv tIm-fPv, Im™n-c∏-≈n), eq-kn (Fkv- _n Sn, Im-™n-c∏≈n), enkn, B≥kn, _o-\. a-cp-a°ƒ: tPm¨-k¨ ]p-Xp-th-en°pgn (Im-™n-c∏-≈n), _m-_p tXm-Wn-°pgn , jm-Pn Ip-∂-°m´v , sPkn, an\n (ap-≠°bw).

iym-a-f tIm-h-fw: sh-≈m¿ a-Wep-hn-f ho-´n¬ ]-tc-X-\mb Ir-jv-W-s‚ `m-cy iym-a-f (60). a-°ƒ: aWn-b≥, X-ºn, _n-μp. acp-a-°ƒ: hn-Zy-{]-`, Zo-], A-\n¬-Ip-am¿.

A-½p-A-½ sN¿-∏p-f-t»-cn: B-\-μ∏-Sn {]-`m-e-bw h-en-b-]d-ºn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b \mcm-b-W≥ sN-´n-bm-cp-sS `m-cy A-Ωp-A-Ω (84). a-°ƒ: D-Æn-Ir-jv-W≥ (ku-Zn), cm-Pv-tam-l≥ , I-em-a-fi-ew kp-io-e, hn-P-b-e-£v-an. a-cp-a-°ƒ: cp-‹n-Wn, Pb-{in, kp-{_lva-Wy≥, kp-μ-c≥.

Im-cp-Wy--¯n\p Im¯p\n¡msX X¦½ bm{Xbmbn F-cp-ta-en: Im-en-se apdn-hn-\p-≈n¬ Iq-´-tØmsS ]p-gp-°-f-cn-®v ]-cn-Ncn-°m-\m-cp-an-√m-sX Ah-i-\n-e-bn-em-b hr-≤sb \m-´p-Im¿ A-\m-Yme-b-Øn-se-Øn-®v c-≠v Zn-h-kw I-gn-™-t∏mƒ a-cn-®p. F-cp-ta-en ]m°m-\pw C-©-°p-gn `m-KØv ]p-t∂m-en ho-´n¬ ]tc-X-\m-b Ip-am-c-s‚ `mcy X-¶-Ω (80) B-Wv a-cn®-Xv. Im-™n-c-∏-≈n X-ºe-°m-Sv \-√ k-a-dm-b≥ B-{i-a-Øn-em-Wv I-gn™ 10 \v Pm-{K-Xm k-anXn-bp-sS t\-Xr-Xz-Øn¬ F-cp-ta-en t]m-en-kn-s‚ k-lm-b-tØm-sS hr-≤sb F-Øn-®-Xv. F∂m¬ Xn-¶-fm-gv-N D-®tbm-sS hr-≤-bp-sS B-

tcm-Ky \n-e h-j-fm-hp-Ibm-bn-cp-∂p. Xp-S¿-∂v _‘p-°-tf-bpw a-I-sfbpw A-[n-Ir-X¿ hn-fn-®ph-cp-Øn. C-h¿ hr-≤-sb s]m≥-Ip-∂-sØ kz-Im-cy B--ip-{Xn-bn-se-Øn-s®¶n-epw Po-h≥ c-£n-°m\m-bn-√. kz-Øpw ho-Spw a-Iƒ-°v \¬-In X-\nsb Xm-a-kn-®p-h-cn-I-bmbn-cp-∂p. C-h-sc c-≠pam-kw ap-ºv hm¿-Uv Aw-

Kw sI F-kv am-b-bp-sS t\-Xr-Xz-Øn¬ B-ip-]{Xn-bn-se-Øn-s®-¶n-epw H-∏w \n-∂v ip-{iq-jn°m≥ B-fn-√m-Ø-Xn-\m¬ Xn-cn-sI hn-´n-se-Øn°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p.--ho-´n--¬ ]- c n- N - c - W - Ø n- \ m- c p- a n√m-sX Im-en-se ap-dnhn¬ ]p-gp-°-f-cn-®v a-eaq-{X- hn-k¿-Py-Øn¬ InS-∂ hr-≤-sb A-h-i-\ne-bn-em-b-t∏m-gm-Wv Pm{K-Xm k-an-Xn C-S-s]-´v A- \ m- Y m- e m- b - Ø n- s eØn-®-Xv. C-∂-se D-®bv°v c-t≠m-sS ar-X-tZlw ho-´p-h-f-∏n¬ kw-kvI- c n- ® p-- . _- ‘ p- ° - f pw hm¿-Uv Aw-K-hpw Pm-{KXv k-an-Xn {]-h¿-Ø-Icpw \m-´p-Im-cpw Dƒ-s∏-´ \n-c-h-[n-t]¿ kw-kv-ImcN-S-ßn-¬ ]-s¶-Sp-Øp.

Im-´m-°-S: ]-´-Ip-fw ]p∂-d-hn-f tam-l-\-hn-emk-Øn¬ sI tam-l\≥ (51). `m-cy: b-tim-Z. a-°ƒ: I-Æ≥, sF-izcy.

tam-l-\³

tKm-hn-μ-]p-cw: am-hq¿ Kzm-fn-tbm¿ d-tbm¨kn¬ \n-∂p hn-c-an-® ]tc-X-\m-b Fw am-[-h≥\m-b-cp-sS `m-cy ta-se A-Ω-t©-cn ]-flm-h-Xnb-Ω (84). a-°ƒ: F ]n P-b-\m-cm-b-W≥ , kp-Nn{X, im-¥n. a-cp-a-°ƒ: jo-P, cm-a-\p-Æn, _m-eIr-jW v- ≥.

]m-e-°m-Sv-: s]-cp-sh-ºvtNm-d-t°m-´n¬- -]-flm-eb-Øn¬- ]-Xvam-h-Xn (80)-.- `¿-Øm-hv-:- ]-tc-X\m-b- ]-Xva-tem-N-\-≥.- a°ƒ-:- P-b-\m-cm-b-W-≥,P-b-cm-Pv,- Kn-cn-P, ]-tc-X\m-b P-b-Ir-jv-W-≥.- acp-a-°ƒ-:- jo-e,- t_-_nsN-º-Iw,- Ko-X,- P-bn-\nZm-kv.]n-W-dm-bn- hn-P-b-≥,sk-{I-t´dn-b-‰v- Aw-KwF- sI- _m-e-≥ Fw.F¬.-F,- Pn-√m- sk-{I-´dn- kn- sI- cm-tP-{μ-≥,Fw- _n- cm-tP-jv- Fw-.]n Xp-S-ßn-b-h¿- ho-´n-seØn- A-t¥ym-]-Nm-c-a¿∏n-®p.-

]u-tem-kv aq-hm-‰p-]p-g: Ip-∂-bv°m¬ Im-t°m-t´m-en-bv°¬ ]u-tem-kv(80). kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v D®bv°v 1\v Ip-∂-bv-°m¬ sk‚ v tPm¿Pv Hm¿-ØtUm-Iv-kv ]-≈n sk-antØ-cn-bn¬. `m-cy: Ip-∂bv-°m¬ A-cn-am-cn¬ IpSpw-_mw-Kw G-en-bm-Ω. a°ƒ: {]o-\, F¬tZmkv. a-cp-a°ƒ: t_m_n, A\p.

I-e-´³-tIm-b A-co-°m-Sv: I-e-¥≥-kv lu-kv C ]n I-e-¥≥tIm-b (85). (I-e-¥≥-kv Iqƒ-_m¿, am-\m-©n-d). `m-cy: C-ºn-®n ^m-Øn-am_n (_o-hn). a-°ƒ: D-kvam≥tIm-b, ap-kv-X-^, A-j-d-^v, jm^n, jm-lp¬ l-ao-Zv, kpl-dm-_n (_n-®p), sse-e, D-ssa-_, ssl-dp-∂n-k, l-ko-\. a-cp-a-°ƒ: A- ≥-tImb, e-Øo-^v, _-jo¿, \ko¿, d-lv-a-Øp-√, k-°o\, km-ln-Z, k-Pn, k-Pv\, ^m-kn-e.

I-cp-Wm-I-c³ _m-e-cm-a-]p-cw: Ip-S√q¿ im-¥m-e-b-Øn¬ Fw I-cp-Wm-I-c≥ (65). `m-cy: im-¥. a-°ƒ: sI F-kv sd-bv-\ (t^m-d-Ãv), sI F-kv ]m-\n. a-cp-a-°ƒ: ]n sP k-cn-X (sl¬-Øv), A-Pn-Xv-Ipam¿ (t]m-en-kv).

]-Xvam-h-Xn-

]-ßm-h-Xn-b-½

hn-f-∏n¬-im-e: hn-f∏n¬-im-e hn-f-hq¿-t°mWw ap-°pw-X-e ho-´n¬ ap-l-Ω-Zv \q-lv (62). `mcy: ^m-Øn-am-_o-hn. a°ƒ: \-h-m-kp-±o≥, \nkm-ap-±o-B≥, \-Pn-ap-∂nk. a-cp-a-°ƒ: jm-ln-Z, jm-ln-Zv, l-ko-\.

cm-Po-hv In-fn-am-\q¿: ap-f-bv-°-eØp-Im-hv ]p-Xp-aw-K-ew Ip-cn-bn-en≥ ap-I-fn¬ ]n cm-Po-hv (53). F-d-Wm-Ipfw tI-{μo-b `-fim¿ DtZym-K-ÿ-\m-Wv. ]-tc-Xcm-b Ip-cn-bn-en≥ ap-I-fn¬ F≥ hn ]p-cp-tjm-Øa-≥ D-Æn-Øm-s‚-bpw Cμn-cm tZ-hn-bp-sS-bpw a-I\m-Wv. `m-cy: ]n Kn-cn-PIp-am-cn. a-Iƒ: sF-izcy.

X-¦-½ Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-cw:k¿thm-Z-bw se-bv-\n¬ tate-ho-´n¬ X-¶-Ω (65).

D-½À dn-∏¨: ]-tc-X\ - m-b \-SØ≥-I≠ - n C-{_m-loans‚ a-I≥ \-SØ - ≥-I≠ - n D-Ω¿ (29). am-Xm-hv: J-Zo-P. k-tlmZ-cß - ƒ: sj-do-\, ap-_»n¿.

k-Xy-km-K-c³ h¿-°-e: A-b-¥n ]-¥phn-f sX-‰n-hn-f ho-´n¬ ]p-cp-tjm-Ø-a-s‚ a-I≥ k-Xy-km-K-c≥ (54). `-mcy: sI ko-\. a-°ƒ: ku-ay, hn-jv-Wp-km-K¿. a-cp-a-I≥: F-kv sj_n≥.

kp-[À-a³ I-√-º-ew: am-hn≥-aq-Sv {]-kn-U‚ v P-Mv-j≥ PntPm `-h-\n¬ ]-tc-X-\mb hm-a-tZ-h-s‚ a-I≥ kp-[¿-a≥ (55).

kp-Ip-am-c³ I-S-bv°¬: ]p-√p-]-W Ip-gn-bn¬ ho-´n¬ kp-Ipam-c≥(76).

a-dn-bw-_n

C-cn-ßq¿: C-cn-ßq-cn-se Io-gv-∏-≈n a-W-ßm-S≥ Xn-cp-aw-K-e-Øv P-\-In-bΩ (87). Ip-‰ym-´q-cn-se tX-e-°m´v ]-tc-X-\m-b hn kn Ip´n-Ir-jv-W≥ \-ºym-cpsS `m-cy-bm-Wv.

Ip-‰ym-Sn: G-‰n-tem-´pΩ¬ _m-_p(48)hn-s\ acp-Xm-¶c - in-ht- £-{X- ap‰-sØ B¬-ac - Ø - n¬ Xq-ßn-ac - n-® \n-eb - n¬ Is≠-Øn. `m-cy: kp-io-e. a-°ƒ: A-\q-]v, A-RvP - \ - .

tIm-gn-t°m-Sv: ]-tc-X\ - mb kn F A-–p-√t- °mb-bp-sS `m-cy ]-em-°n¬ am-fn-tb-°¬ a-dn-bw-_n (90). a-°ƒ: A-–p-¿d-lvam≥, aq-kt- °m-b, D-ka v- m≥tIm-b, C-ºn-®m-an-\_ - n, Ip-™n-_n. a-cp-a° - ƒ: J-ad - p-∂o-k, ^m-Øn-aØ - v kp-ld - , Imfn-tb-cI - Øv Ip-™p, ]-tc-Xc - m-b kn F≥ A-lΩ - Z- tv- Imb, ]n hn A-–p-¬ d-kmJv.

hÀ-Kokv

G-e-½

_m-e-Ir-jv-W³

hn-P-b³

tIm-X-aw-Kew: tIm-gn-∏n≈n sIm-S-ap-≠ s]m-∂me-°p-Sn-bn¬ h¿-Kokv(Ip-™-∏≥˛77). kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v D®bv°v 1\v am-c-awK-ew Im-tZ-iv am¿ Ko-h¿-Ko-kv k-l-Z ]-≈n sk-an-tØcn-bn¬. `m-cy: tIm-gn-∏n≈n H-d-h-e-°p-Sn Ip-Spw_mw-Kw Gen. a°ƒ: tacn, Ip™-Ω, tUmfn, tPmbn, _n-Pp, _nμp. a-cp-a-°ƒ: F-{_mlw, kp-c, hn¬-k¨, Nn-∂Ω, a-Rv-Pp, _nPp.

\m-b-tØm-Sv: ]-S-bm´n¬ tZh-kn `m-cy G-eΩ(53). kw-kv-Im-cw \SØn. th-ßq¿ ta-\m-t®cn Ip-Spw-_mw-K-amWv. a°ƒ: tPm-k^v, tPmjn.

cma-¶cn: th-g-{] h-ft©-cn¬ hn sI _m-eIr-jv-W≥ (A-ø∏≥˛62). kw-kv-Im-cw \SØn. `mcy: tacn. a°ƒ: tam-l≥-Zmkv, \n¿a-e, hnae.

th-Wp-tKm-]m-e³

sam-b-vXp

tN¿Øe: tN¿Øe \K-c-k` 17˛mw hm¿Uv hm¬®n-d-bn¬ tUm.- Sn F≥ hnP-b≥ (75). kwkvImcw \S-Øn. `mcy: kc-k. a°ƒ: hn[p (-F-Pyq-t°-j≥ Un∏m¿´vsa‚ v Fd-WmIp-fw),- hn`p hnP-b≥. acp-a-Iƒ: kqcy.

am-[-h³ am-ln: ]p-t∂m¬ C-øØpw-Im-Sv Im-´n¬ am-[h≥ (65). ]-≈q¿ ]m-cmau-≠v Sn-º¿ I-º\ - n-bnse tPm-en-°m-c\ - m-bn-cp∂p. `m-cy: I-ae - . a-°ƒ: Zn-hy, [-\y. a-cp-a° - ƒ: cm-tP-jv, iymw. k-tlm-Zc - ß - ƒ: cm-P≥, \-fn-\n, c-aW - n, jo-\n, {]-Zo-]≥, ]-tc-X\m-b D-Øa - ≥.

P-\-In-b-½

_m-_p

]-ø-∂q¿: sh-≈q¿ P-hl¿ hm-b-\-im-e-bv-°p k-ao-]w Fw ]n th-WptKm-]m¬ (51). an-I-® Im-bn-I kw-Lm-S-I-\mbn-cp-∂p. sN-dp-h-Øq-cnse a-Wn-b-d d-Iv-kn≥ F‚¿-ss{]-k-kv D-S-abm-Wv. ]-tc-X-cm-b ssX-h-f-∏n¬ Ir-jv-Ws‚-bpw ta-se]p-c-bn¬ \m-cm-b-Wn-bp-sS-bpw aI-\m-Wv. `m-cy: D-j. aIƒ: h¿-j.

]-\-a-cw: hm-tSm-®m¬ IZ-fn-°m-´n¬ (sI.Sn) sambv-Xp (64). ]-\-a-cw kn.Fw tIm-f-Pv sF.Sn.knbp-sS {]n≥kn-∏-em-bn-cp-∂p. Zo¿-LIm-ew _mw-•q-cn-se kzIm-cy I-º-\n-bn-epw tkh-\-a-\p-jvTn-®n-´p-≠v. `mcy: kp-ss_-Z. a-°ƒ: ssk-\p¬ B_n-Zv, s^-_o-\. a-cp-a-°ƒ: \n-jm-Zv, k-Pv\

k-t´m-jv

im-kv-Xmw-tIm-´: ]-Sn™m-sdI√-S \-Sp-hne°-c ]p-Xp-ho-´n¬ ]-tcX\m-b hm-kp-tZ-h≥-]n≈-bp-sS `m-cy e-£v-an°p-´n-b-Ω (77).

C-cn-´n: hn-f-a-\-bn-se Xp≠-°m-´n¬ k-t¥m-jv (34). `m-cy: Pn-jv-\. a°ƒ: B-Xn-c. k-tlm-Zc-߃: k-tP-jv, k-‘y.

e-£v-an-¡p-«n-b½

iym-a-fm-`mbn Xn-cph√: s]-cn-ß-c C-fa¨-a-\-bn¬ `m-cy F sI iym-a-fm-`m-bn (83). a°ƒ: e-fn-Xm-`mbn, im¥m-`m-bn,e-Xm-`mbn, P-b{io-h¿a. a-cp-a°ƒ: P-b-io-e-h¿a, cm-P-cm-P-h¿-a, Pn-X≥, \-μ-Ip-am¿ h¿a.

l-ao-Zv _m-¯ sIm-bn-em-≠n: A¬-k_-bn¬ l-ao-Zv _m-Ø (76). `m-cy: Ip¬-kp. a°ƒ: jm-\-hm-kv _mØ, jm-Zv _m-Ø, k¬h _m-Ø, km-Pn-_ _mØ. a-cp-a-°ƒ: lm-jnw _¿-K-bv-h, km-en-lv _mØ, \n-Z.

\m«n-te-¡p a-S§n-b a-e-bm-fn hn-am-\-¯n a-cn¨p

hr-² ho-«n-\p-Ån sIm-Ã-s¸-« \n-e-bnÂ

I-cn-∏q¿: s]-cp-∂m-ƒ B-tLmj-n°m\m-bn \m-´n-te-°p a-Sßn-b a-e-bm-fn- hn-am-\-Øn¬- acn-®p. Xn-cq¿ Iq-´m-bn _-Z¿ ]≈n-°p k-ao-]-sØ ssl-{Zp-hns‚-]p-c-°¬ ssk-Xv ap-l-Ω-Zns‚ ap-l-Ω-Zv k-øn-Zv (44) B-Wp a-cn-®-Xv. C-∂-se ]p-e¿-s® 4.50\v F-b¿-C-¥y F-Iv-kv-{] n-s‚ 354 hn-am-\-Øn-em-Wv køn-Zv I-cn-∏q-cn-se-Øn-b-Xv. hn-am\-Øn¬ \n-∂n-d-ßm-Xm-b-tXmsS -Po-h-\-°m-sc-Øn t\m°nbt∏m-gm-Wv a-cn-®-\n-e-bn¬ I≠Xv. Xp-S¿-∂v tUm-Œ¿ F-Øn a-c-Ww ÿn-co-I-cn-°p-I-bm-bncp-∂p. ar-X-tZ-lw C-t±-l-sØ kzo-I-cn-°m≥ hn-am-\-Øm-h-fØn-seØnb _-‘p-°ƒ-°p

tIm-´-°¬: X-\n-®p-Xm-a-kn-°p-∂ hr-≤s - b ho-´n-\p-≈n¬ sIm-√s - ∏-´ \n-eb - n¬ I-s≠-Øn. F-Sc - n-t°m-Sv Np-S-e-∏m-d I-√p-sh-´n sIm-´w-]-dºn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b I-d-∏w-Ip-´n-bpsS `m-cy ko-XΩ - (83)bm-Wp sIm-√s∏-´X - v. sXm-´S- p-Øp Xm-ak - n-°p-∂ a-I-\pw `m-cy-bpw sNm-Δm-gv-N cm-hnse G-tgm-sS- ho-´n-se-Øn-bt- ∏m-gmWp I-tk-c-bn¬ sI-´n-bn-´ \n-ebn¬ ar-Xt- Z-lw I-≠X - v. I-gp-Øn¬ D-Sp-ap-≠v Np-‰n ap-dp°n-bn-cp-∂p. hr-≤-bp-sS Im-Xn-se kz¿-Ww ]q-in-b tXm-S \-„s - ∏-´X - n\m¬ tam-„m-°-fm-Wn-Xn-\p ]n-∂nse-∂m-Wv t]m-en-kn-s‚ {]m-Ya - n-I \n-K-a-\w. ]n≥-h-i-sØ P-\-en-s‚ a-c A-gn-Iƒ ap-dn-®m-Wv Lm-XI - ≥

ssI-am-dn. 23 h¿-j-am-bn jm¿P-bn-se A¬-P-ko-d In-®¨ Iº-\n-bn-se Po-h-\-°m-c-\m-bncp-∂p k-øn-Zv. am-Xm-hv: _o-]mØp-tamƒ. `m-cy: k¬-a. a-°-fn√. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: k-°o¿, _jo¿, Iu-e-Øv.

A-IØ - p-Ib - d - n-bs - X-∂p t]m-en-kv kw-i-bn-°p-∂p. A-e-am-c-bn-se hkv-Xp-°ƒ hm-cn-h-en-®n-Sp-I-bpw apdn-bn¬ ap-f-Ip-s]m-Sn hn-X-dp-I-bpw sN-bvX - n-´p-≠v.

X-S-hm-´p-ho-´n-\p-Sp-Øp X-s∂bm-Wv ko-XΩ - b - p-sS a-I\ - pw Ip-Spw_w I-gn-™n-cp-∂-Xv. C-h¿-°p-≈ `-£W - w F-Øn-®p-sIm-Sp-°p-Ib - mbn-cp-∂p ]-Xn-hv. sIm-√-s∏-´-Xn-\p X-te Zn-h-khpw X-s‚ a-I≥ sj-_n≥ `-£W - w F-Øn-®n-cp-s∂-∂pw A-Ω hm-Xn¬ A-IØ - p-\n-∂p ]q-´n D-dß - m≥-t]mhp-I-bm-Wp-≠m-b-sX-∂pw a-I≥ _m-e≥ ]-d-™p. t\-c-sØ F-gpt∂¬-°p-am-bn-cp-∂ A-Ω-sb ImWm-Øn-\m¬ ho-´n-seØn t\m-°nb-t∏m-gm-Wp sIm-√s - ∏-´ \n-eb - n¬ I-≠-Xv. D-S≥ tIm-´-°¬ t]m-enkn¬ A-dn-bn-°p-Ib - m-bn-cp-∂p. am-k-߃-°p ap-ºpw C-tX hoSn-s‚ P-\¬ X-I¿-Øv tam-jW - {- i-

aw \-S-∂-Xm-bn kv-t‰-j-\n¬ ]-cmXn \¬-In-bn-cp-∂p. Xn-cq¿ Un-ssh.F-kv.]n sI Fw ssk-Xm-en, h-fm-t©-cn kn.sF Fw kn-±o-Jv, Xn-cq¿ kn.sF B¿ dm^n, tIm-´-°¬ F-kv.sF sI ]n s_-∂n, I¬-∏I - t- ©-cn F-kv.sF F≥ _n ssj-Pp kw-`-h-ÿ-esØ-Øn. tUm-Kv kvI - zm-Upw hn-ce - S-bm-f hn-ZK - v[ - c - pw ]-cn-tim-[\ - \-SØn. Xm-\q¿ kn.sF Fw ]n kt¥m-jn-\m-Wv A-t\z-j-WNp-a-Xe. ar-X-tZ-lw tIm-gn-t°m-Sv sa-Un°¬ tIm-f-Pn¬ t]m-kv-‰v-tam¿-´w \-SØ - n. ko-X-Ω-bp-sS a-Iƒ: k-tcm-Pn\n. a-cp-a° - ƒ: cm-P≥, {io-P.

Nm-h-°mSv: I-S-∏p-dw shfn-s®-Æ-∏-Sn-bn¬ Im¿ ssk-°n-fn¬ C-Sn-®p ]-cnt°-‰p Nn-In¬-k-bn-em-bncp-∂ hn-Zym¿-Yn a-cn®p. sh-fn-s®-Æ∏-Sn t]mWØv sk-bv-Xv ap-l-Ω-Zn-s‚ a-Iƒ km-Pn-X-bp-sS aI≥ Pp-ssd-Pv(12) B-Wp a-cn-®Xv. hm-Sm-\∏-≈n aZm¿ Cw-•n-jv ao-Un-bw kv-Iqƒ A©mw ¢m-kv hnZym¿-Yn-bmWv. I-gn-™ Znh-kw ho-Sn-\p k-ao-]Øp≠m-b A-]-I-S-Øn¬ ]-cn-t°-‰p Xr-iq¿ lm¿-´v B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ Nn-In¬-k-bn-em-cp∂p. cm-{Xn 11\mbn-cp-∂p a-cWw. ]m-e-°m-Sv s\∑m-d kz-tZ-in ap-kvX-^-bp-sS a-I-\mWv.

Po-¸v a-dn-ªv ho-«-½ a-cn-¨p l-cn-∏m-Sv: _-‘p-ho-Sp-Iƒ k-μ¿-in-® ti-jw a-Sßp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂ kw-Lw k-©-cn-® Po-∏v a-dn-™v ho-´-Ω a-cn-®p. sIm-√w A-©¬ ]-S-a¨ tIm-am-´p ho-´n¬ k-Xo-jv _m-_p-hn-s‚ `m-cy hn-P-b-{io(37)B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. tZ-io-b-]m-X-bn¬ am-[-h P-Mv-j-\v k-ao-]w C-∂se ]p-e¿-s®-bm-Wv kw-`-hw. B-e-∏p-g-bn-se _‘p-ho-´n¬ \n-∂pw a-S-ßp-tºmƒ F-Xn-sc h-∂ hml-\-Øn-\v ssk-Uv sIm-Sp-°p-∂-Xn-\n-sS \n-b-{¥Ww sX-‰n a-dn-™ Po-∏n¬ \n-∂pw hn-P-b-{io sX-dn®v ho-gp-I-bpw Po-∏n-s‚ N-{I-߃ i-co-c-Øn-eq-sS I-b-dn-bn-d-ßp-I-bp-am-bn-cp-∂p. D-S≥ X-s∂ B-ip-]{Xn-bn¬ {]-th-in-∏n-s®-¶n-epw Po-h≥-c-£n-°m-\mbn-√. H-∏-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂ `¿-Øm-hv k-Xo-jv _m-_p, ss{U-h¿ D-Z-b≥ F-∂n-h¿-°v ]-cn-t°-‰p. l-cn-∏m-Sv t]m-en-kv ta¬-\-S-]-Sn-Iƒ kzo-I-cn-®p.--

I-S-¶Â-Ip-t¯-äv a-cn-¨p Im-bw-Ip-fw: I-S-∂¬-Ip-tØ-‰v Kp-cp-X-cm-b-h-ÿbn¬ Nn-In-¬-k-bn¬ I-gn-™n-cp-∂ a¬-ky-hym-]-cn a-cn-®p. \q-d-\m-Sv ap-Xp-Im-´p-I-c-°p-gn-bn¬ sX-t°Xn¬ kn-±o-Jv dm-hp-Ø-dm(52)Wv a-cn-®-Xv. ho-Sn-\v k-ao-]-sØ I-S-∂¬ Iq-´n¬ \n-∂p I-gn™ Zn-h-k-am-Wv C-bmƒ-°v Ip-tØ-‰-Xv. Im-bw-Ipfw k¿-°m¿ B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ {]-th-in-∏n-®n-cp-∂ Ct±-lw C-∂-se ]p-e¿-®-tbm-sS-bm-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. J-_d-S-°w \q-d-\m-Sv Pp-ama-kv-Pn-Zn¬ \-S-∂p. `mcy: \q¿P-lm≥. a-°ƒ:jnPn, sj-an.

A-Úm-X ar-X-tZ-lw I-s−-¯n Xncph√: sd-bn¬-th {Sm-°n¬ A-⁄m-X ar-X-tZlw I-s≠-Øn.C∂-se cm-hnse B-tdm-sS ]p-jv-]Kn-cn sd-bn¬-th tK-‰n-\p k-ao-]-am-Wv ]p-cp-j-s‚ PUw I-s≠-Øn-bXv. Xn-cp-h√ t]m-en-kv ta¬-\-S-]Sn-Iƒ kzo-I-cn®p. ar-X-tZ-lw Xm-eq-°m-ip-]{Xn tam¿-®-dn-bn¬.

]n-©p-_m-e³ ]m-¼p-I-Sn-tb-äv a-cn-¨p Nn-‰q¿: ]m-ºp-I-Sn-tb-‰v c≠-c h-b- p-Im-c≥ a-cn®p. I-∂n-am-cn ]-\n-b-Snb≥-N-≈ k-t¥m-jn-s‚ a-I-≥ i-c-Xv B-Wv a-cn-®Xv. ho-´p-h-f-∏n¬ I-fn-®psIm-≠n-cn-s° ]m-ºp-I-Sntb-‰- _m-e-s\ tIm-b-ºØq-cn-se kz-Im-cy B-ip]-{Xn-bn¬ F-Øn-s®-¶nepw c-£n-°m-\m-bn-√. am-Xm-hv: cm-[n-I.

l-Öv XoÀ-°m-S-I³ a-¡-bn \n-cym-X-\m-bn Xm-\q¿: kw-ÿm-\ l÷v I-Ωn-‰n ap-tJ-\ I-gn™ am-k-w l-÷n-\p t]mb Xo¿-∞m-S-I≥ a-°bn¬ a-cn-®p. \n-d-a-cp-Xq¿ ]-Ø-ºm-Sv A-c-¶-Øn¬ Ip-™-l-Ω-Zv ap-kv -eym¿ (72) B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. `m-cy: Ip-™o-cn-b. a°ƒ: A-–p-k-emw -k-Jm^n, A-–p¬ P-eo¬ ap-kv-eym¿, A-–p¬- K-^q¿, A-–p¬- d-jo-Zv k-Jm-^n, ap-l-Ω-Zv d-^o-Jv \n-kman, i-co-^, l-∂-Øv, l-^v-k-Øv. a-cp-a-°ƒ: A-–p -emw A-lv-k-\n sN-√q¿, A-–p- -emw A-lv-k\n, A-–p-¬ d-low Im-an¬ k-Jm-^n, B-bn-i, \ko-a, ssJ-dp-∂o-k, D-Ωp¬-ssJ¿, ssa-aq-\.

ImÂ-\-S-bm-{X-¡m-c³ Im-dn-Sn-¨p- a-cn-¨p F-S-h-Æ: tIm-gn-h-≠n-°v F-kv-tIm¿-´v t]m-b Im-dnSn-®v Im¬-\-S-bm-{X-°mc≥ a-cn-®p. Ip-≠p-tXm-Sv Ip-cn-ipw-]-Sn-bn-se sh-≈®m-en ap-l-Ω-Zv (sN-dn-˛75) B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. C-∂-se cm-hn-se-bm-bn-cp-∂p A-]I-Sw. \n-e-ºq¿ `m-K-Øp\n-∂p tIm-gn- I-b-‰n-h-cp∂ hm-l-\-Øn-\v F-kv-tIm¿-´v t]m-hp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂ Im-dm-Wv C-Sn-®-Xv. s]-c-n-¥¬-a-Æ kz-Im-cy B-ip-]{Xn-bn-se-Øn-s®-¶n-epw c-£n-°m-\m-bn-√. am-Xm-hv: J-Zo-P. `m-cy-am¿: B-bn-ip-Ω, ]-tc-Xbm-b Xm-ln-b. a-°ƒ: ssl-{Zp, P-ao-e, A-–p¬ aPo-Zv (ku-Zn), ^-Po-jv, _p-jv-d. a-cp-a-°ƒ: k-°o-\, ap-kv-X-^, \-ko-d, kw-km¿ _o-Kw, G-\n. k-tlm-Zc≥: A-e-hn. F-S-h-Æ t{K-Uv F-kv.sF sI kn kp-tc-{μ≥ C≥-Iz-kv-‰v \-S-Øn-b ar-X-tZ-lw s]-cn-¥¬-a-Æ Xmeq-°v B-ip-]-{Xn-bn-se t]m-kv-‰v-tam-¿-´-Øn-\p tijw Ip-≠p-tXm-Sv Pp-am-a-kv-Pn-Zv J-_¿-ÿm-\n¬ a-dhp-sN-bv-Xp.

hn-jw A-I-¯p-sN-¶v a-cn-¨p F-S-h-Æ: hn-jw A-I-Øp-sN-∂v ho-´-Ω a-cn-®p. HXm-bn ]-Sn-™m-sd Nm-Ø-√q¿ Hm-S-≠-∏m-d- ]-´o-cn Znt\-i-s‚ `m-cy tIm-´-bn¬ im-¥(32)bm-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. I-gn-™ Zn-h-kw D-®-bv-°v c-t≠m-sS-bm-Wv im-¥sb ho-´n¬ hn-jw A-I-Øp-sN-∂v A-h-i-\n-e-bn¬ I-≠-Xv. a-t©-cn P-\. B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ F-Øn-s®¶n-epw c-£n-°m-\m-bn-√. `¿-Xr-]o-U-\-w-aq-ew Bfl-l-Xy sN-bv-X-Xm-sW-∂v kq-N-\-bp-≈-Xm-bn t]m-en-kv ]-d-™p. sh-‰n-e-∏m-d-bn-se ]-tc-X-\m-b tIm-´-bn¬ tI-e≥-˛-am-X Z-º-Xn-I-fp-sS a-I-fm-Wv. a°ƒ: B-Xn-c, B-Zn-Xy, A-iz≥, A-`n-tj-Iv. k-tlmZ-c-߃: cm-Pp, cm-a-Ir-jv-W≥, i-¶-c≥, X-¶. F-S-h-Æ F-kv.sF hn P-b-{]-Im-iv C≥-Iz-Ãv \S-Øn-b ar-X-tZ-lw a-t©-cn P-\-d¬ B-ip-]-{Xnbn¬ t]m-kv-‰v-tam¿-´w sN-bv-Xp.

Sm-¦À-tem-dn Hm-t«m-bn-en-Sn-¨v kv-{Xo a-cn-¨pC-cn-ºn-fn-bw: h-en-b-Ip-∂v A-ßm-Sn-°p k-ao-]w Sm¶¿-tem-dn Hm-t´m-dn-£-bn-en-Sn-®v kv-{Xo a-cn-®p. B-Xh- -\m-Sv-]m-td-°-fw Im-b¬-aT-Øn¬ Ir-jv-W≥ Fgp-Ø-®-s‚ `m-cy Pm-\-In (61) B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. a-c-Who-Sv k-μ¿-in-®v B-X-h-\m-t´-°v a-S-ßn-b-h¿ k-©cn-® Hm-t´m-bn¬ ]m-N-I-hm-X-I-hp-am-bn t]m-hp-Ibm-bn-cp-∂ tem-dn C-Sn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. Pm-\-Inbp-sS a-°ƒ: P-b-Ir-jv-W≥, A-Pn-X, kp-\n-X. a-cpa-°ƒ: {]n-b, c-ta-jv-_m-_p, P-b≥.


6

thÀ-]mSv

kottayam

16 H-IvtSm-_¿ 2013 _p[≥

Po-¸v a-dn-ªv ho-«-½ a-cn-¨p

_m-e-Ir-jv-W³

hn-P-b³

^m¯n-a

dmhn-b

G-en-¡p-«n

tacn-tPmk^v

Pm\In

A-Pn-Xv-Ip-amÀ

cma-¶cn: th-g-{] h-ft©-cn¬ hn sI _m-eIr-jv-W≥ (A-ø∏≥˛62). kw-kv-Im-cw \SØn. `mcy: tacn. a°ƒ: tam-l≥-Zmkv, \n¿a-e, hnae.

tN¿Øe: tN¿Øe \K-c-k` 17˛mw hm¿Uv hm¬®n-d-bn¬ tUm.- Sn F≥ hnP-b≥ (75). kwkvImcw \S-Øn. `mcy: kc-k. a°ƒ: hn[p (-F-Pyq-t°-j≥ Un∏m¿´vsa‚ v Fd-WmIp-fw),- hn`p hnP-b≥. acp-a-Iƒ: kqcy.

Xmbn-°m-´pI-c: ]-t´-cn∏p-dw _w-•m-hp-]-d-ºn¬ ]-tc-X\m-b ]-co-Xv `m-cy ^m-Øn-a(75). J-_-dS-°w \-SØn. a°ƒ: dw-e, sF-jm_ohn, s\-Pp-a, \m-k¿, \u-jmZv, \m-Zn¿-j. a-cp-a°ƒ: k-emw, kenw, A-_q-_°¿, J-ZoP, k-an-X, jm-^n-b.

aqhm-‰p-]p-g: k-°o¿ lpssk≥ \-K-dn¬ Hm-e-∏pc-bn¬ ]-tc-X\m-b _°-dn-s‚ `m-cy dm-hnb(65). kw-kv-Im-cw \SØn. a-°ƒ: ]-tcXbmb ssj-e, A-ao¿ k-_n, _o-\, jo-_, jo\. a-cp-a°ƒ: A-\kv, \n-k, k-enw, ap-l-Ω-Zmen(ku-Zn), ]-co-Xv.

B-e-ßmSv: Xn-cp-hm-eq¿ I-f-∏-dº-Øv ho-´n¬ ]tc-X\mb tPm-k-^n-s‚ `m-cy ta-cn(74). kw-kv-Imcw \-SØn. a°ƒ: emen(C‰-en), Um-en, jmen, en-Pn, kPp(sa-t{Sm hm¿-Ø). a-cp-a-°ƒ: ]tc-X\m-b _nPp, s_∂n, tPm_n, _m_p, tPm-bvkn.

tIm-X-aw-Kew: C-c-a√q¿ tX-h-cp-Ip-Sn ]-tc-X\m-b Ir-jvW-s‚ `m-cy Pm-\In(82). kw-kv-Im-cw C∂p-cm-hnse 9\v ho-´p-h-f∏n¬. ]tc-X \m-K-t©-cn ]p-‰n-\m-°p-Sn Ip-Spw-_mwK-am-Wv. a°ƒ: hn-emkn\n, h¬-k-e, P-\m¿±\≥, ]-tc-X\m-b {io[c≥. a-cp-a-°ƒ: cm-P≥ sX-t°¬- ap-S-hq¿, Hm-a\, im-¥, ]-tc-X\m-b kp-{_-“-Wy≥ ]m-≠hØv A-¶-amen.

{io-aq-e-\K-cw: ]p-Xn-tbSw X-´m≥]-Sn ]-cn-bm-°c ho-´n¬ A-Pn-Xv-Ipam¿(51). kw-kv-Im-cw C∂p-cm-hn-se 10\v ho-´p-hf-∏n¬. am-Wn-Iy-awK-ew ]-\-bm-en iw-t{Im-Øv Ip-Spw-_mw-K-amWv. `mcy: ]-cn-bm-°-c D-j. a-°ƒ: A-tP-jv(_m-ep, jm¿P), A-Jn-e. a-cp-a-I≥:cma-`-{Z≥.

`-hm-\n-b-½

hÀ-Ko-kv a-¯m-bn

aq-hm-‰p-]pg: hm-g-°p-fw sX-\w-Im-em-bn¬(]n-W°m-´v)]-tc-X\m-b a-Ømbn-bp-sS `m-cy G-en-°p´n(84). ]tc-X \-ºym-]-d-ºn¬ h-S-t°-°-c Ip-Spw_mwKw. kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v D-®-Ign™v 3\v hm-g-°p-fw sk‚ v tPm¿-Pv s^m-tdm\ ]-≈n sk-an-tØ-cnbn¬. a-°ƒ: ta-cn, A-∂-°p´n, A-K-Ãn≥, A-{_mlw, {^m≥-knkv, ]-bkv, Imtcm-fn≥. a-cp-a°ƒ: tPm-kv(tIm°-≠-Øn¬), Nm-t°m®≥(C-S-Ø-t´¬), tacn(]-≈n-Ømg-Øv), ]-tcXbm-b Pm≥-kn(am-S-t»cn¬), em-en(C-S-∏m-´v), jn-Pn(N-ßm-en-°mhn¬).

]p-cp-tjm-¯-a³ ]n-Å Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-cw: ]m¬Ip-f-ß-c C-e-™n-∏p-dw e-bn-\n¬ ]-fl-{io-bn¬ Fw B¿ ]p-cp-tjm-Øa≥ ]n-≈ (91). `m-cy: F≥ F≥ ]-flm-hXn-A-Ω (dn-´: So-®¿ F≥.-F-kv.-F-k.v sslkv-Iqƒ, ]m¬-°p-f-ßc). a-°ƒ: D-j (dn-´: sl-Uvan-kv-{S- v, F≥.-F-kv.-Fkv. ssl-kv-Iqƒ, [-\p-h®-]p-cw), tim-` (dn-´: tPm-bn‚ v sk-{I-´-dn, sI.-]n.-F-kv.-kn), A\n¬-Ip-am¿ , Ko-X. a-cp-a-°ƒ: F≥ th-embp-[≥ \m-b¿ , Fw cm[m-Ir-jvW≥ (dn-´. Pn√m Hm-^n-k¿, ]-´n-I h¿Khn-I-k-\ h-Ip-∏v), Fkv Kn-cn-P , hn hn-P-b-Ipam¿ (ko-Um-Iv).

ao-cm-`mbv tN¿Øe: IWn-®p-Ip-fßc CS-®n-em-´p-ssXøn¬ ]tc-X-\mb `mkpc-∏-Wn-°-cpsS `mcy aocm-`mbv (79). kwkvImcw \S-Øn. a°ƒ: _n kp-\n¬Ip-am¿, -_o-\, A-ºn-fn, -{io-e-X. acp-a°ƒ: _o\ kp\n¬,- kXo-i≥, -cm-Po-hv, -em¬ _m_p.

iym-a-fm-`mbn Xn-cph√: s]-cn-ß-c C-fa¨-a-\-bn¬ `m-cy F sI iym-a-fm-`m-bn (83). a°ƒ: e-fn-Xm-`mbn, im¥m-`m-bn,e-Xm-`mbn, P-b{io-h¿a. a-cp-a°ƒ: P-b-io-e-h¿a, cm-P-cm-P-h¿-a, Pn-X≥, \-μ-Ip-am¿ h¿a.

h¿-°-e: ssa-Xm-\w iym-a-fm-e-b-Øn¬ ]-tcX-\m-b F≥ Ip-´≥-]n≈-bp-sS `m-cy sI `-hm\n-b-Ω (85). a-°ƒ: _n iym-a-fm-tZ-hn (dn-´. sl-Uv-an-kv-{S-kv), sI cm-tP-{μ-_m-_p (_nkn-\-kv), sI _m-e-N{μ≥ \m-b¿ (_n-kn-\kv), _n em-en (sl-Uv-ankv-{S-kv, a-Æ-¥-e F®v.F-kv). a-cp-a-°ƒ: ]-tc-X-\m-b Fw cm-a-N-{μ≥ \m-b¿, sI F-kv ao-\, ]n ]-flIp-am-cn, sI tam-l-\-N{μ≥ \m-b¿ (Xm-eq-°v k-ssπ-Hm-^n-k¿, s\øm-‰n≥-I-c).

Im™n-c-∏≈n: ta-°-cti-cn¬ h¿-Ko-kv aØmbn (h¿-°n-®m-bn-˛ 79). `m-cy: a-dn-bm-Ω Im-™nc∏-≈n Im-∏n¬ Ip-Spw_mwKw. a°ƒ: tSman (Im-™n-c∏-≈n k¿-hokv k-lI-c-W _m-¶v), hn¬k¨ (sk‚ v sUman-\n-Iv-kv tIm-fPv, Im™n-c∏-≈n), eq-kn (Fkv- _n Sn, Im-™n-c∏≈n), enkn, B≥kn, _o-\. a-cp-a°ƒ: tPm¨-k¨ ]p-Xp-th-en°pgn (Im-™n-c∏-≈n), _m-_p tXm-Wn-°pgn , jm-Pn Ip-∂-°m´v , sPkn, an\n (ap-≠°bw).

tam-l-\³ Im-´m-°-S: ]-´-Ip-fw ]p∂-d-hn-f tam-l-\-hn-emk-Øn¬ sI tam-l\≥ (51). `m-cy: b-tim-Z. a-°ƒ: I-Æ≥, sF-izcy.

ap-l-½-Zv \q-lv hn-f-∏n¬-im-e: hn-f∏n¬-im-e hn-f-hq¿-t°mWw ap-°pw-X-e ho-´n¬ ap-l-Ω-Zv \q-lv (62). `mcy: ^m-Øn-am-_o-hn. a°ƒ: \-h-m-kp-±o≥, \nkm-ap-±o-B≥, \-Pn-ap-∂nk. a-cp-a-°ƒ: jm-ln-Z, jm-ln-Zv, l-ko-\.

I-cp-Wm-I-c³ _m-e-cm-a-]p-cw: Ip-S√q¿ im-¥m-e-b-Øn¬ Fw I-cp-Wm-I-c≥ (65). `m-cy: im-¥. a-°ƒ: sI F-kv sd-bv-\ (t^m-d-Ãv), sI F-kv ]m-\n. a-cp-a-°ƒ: ]n sP k-cn-X (sl¬-Øv), A-Pn-Xv-Ipam¿ (t]m-en-kv).

cm-Po-hv In-fn-am-\q¿: ap-f-bv-°-eØp-Im-hv ]p-Xp-aw-K-ew Ip-cn-bn-en≥ ap-I-fn¬ ]n cm-Po-hv (53). F-d-Wm-Ipfw tI-{μo-b `-fim¿ DtZym-K-ÿ-\m-Wv. ]-tc-Xcm-b Ip-cn-bn-en≥ ap-I-fn¬ F≥ hn ]p-cp-tjm-Øa-≥ D-Æn-Øm-s‚-bpw Cμn-cm tZ-hn-bp-sS-bpw a-I\m-Wv. `m-cy: ]n Kn-cn-PIp-am-cn. a-Iƒ: sF-iz-cy.

k-Xy-km-K-c³ h¿-°-e: A-b-¥n ]-¥phn-f sX-‰n-hn-f ho-´n¬ ]p-cp-tjm-Ø-a-s‚ a-I≥ k-Xy-km-K-c≥ (54). `-mcy: sI ko-\. a-°ƒ: ku-ay, hn-jv-Wp-km-K¿. a-cp-a-I≥: F-kv sj_n≥.

kp-[À-a³ I-√-º-ew: am-hn≥-aq-Sv {]-kn-U‚ v P-Mv-j≥ PntPm `-h-\n¬ ]-tc-X-\mb hm-a-tZ-h-s‚ a-I≥ kp-[¿-a≥ (55).

X-¦-½

kp-Ip-am-c³

Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-cw:k¿thm-Z-bw se-bv-\n¬ tate-ho-´n¬ X-¶-Ω (65).

I-S-bv°¬: ]p-√p-]-W Ip-gn-bn¬ ho-´n¬ kp-Ipam-c≥(76).

ap-l-½-Zv-

_o-hm-¯p

D-½m-¨p

sIm-¨-½p-A-½

cm-P³

\m-cm-b-W³

ImÀ-¯ym-b-\n

J-Zo-P

Nm-h-°m-Sv-: sX-t° a-{Z -°v ]-Sn-™m-dv Ip-∂Øv- tXm-∏n¬ ap-l-Ω-Zv(78). J-_-d-S-°w \-SØn. `m-cy: dw-e-Øv. a°ƒ: \-ko-a, \-ko¿, \hm-kv- (C-cp-h-cpw JØ¿). a-cp-a-°ƒ: A-Iv_¿, ^-ko-e.

]p-∂-bq¿-°p-fw: A-≠tØm-Sv A-d-∏ tdm-Un¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b sI-c‚-IØv sam-bv-Xp-Æn a-Iƒ _o-hm-Øp (71). I-_-d-S°w \-S-Øn. k-tlm-Z-c߃: kn-≤o-Jv, J-Zo-P, ^m-Øn-a.

]p-∂-bq¿-°p-fw: A-≠tØm-Sv X-Jv-h b-Xow-Jm\ tdm-Un¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b I¿-Øm-c-bn¬ A-_q-_°-dn-s‚ `m-cy sX-°≥ DΩm-®p (70). I-_-d-S-°w \-S-Øn. a-Iƒ: ^m-Øn-a. a-cp-a-I≥: lw-k.

sIm-Sp-ß√q¿: ]p√q-‰v ]gw-]≈-Øv sh-fp-tØSØv sIm-®-Ωp-A-Ω(93). a°ƒ: B-\-μ-h√n, Iaew. a-cp-a°ƒ: \m-cm-bW≥ \mb¿, Ip-am-c≥ \mb¿.

Kp-cp-hm-bq¿: ]m-ep-hm-bv sIm-Sn-b-°m-bn¬ ]-tcX-\m-b i-¶p-Æn B-Nmcn-bp-sS a-I≥ cmP≥(48). k-tlm-Z-cn: koX.

sIm-Sp-ß-√q¿: ta-Ø-e \-Sp-ap-dn \m-cm-b-W≥(86). a-°ƒ: F≥ F≥ {]-Zo-]v, A-\n-X. a-cp-a-°ƒ: kp-te-J, _m_p.

cm-[m-a-Wn

cmP-½-b-½

_m-e-Ir-jv-W³ ssh-ZyÀ

Cµn-c

hm-k-h³

am[-h³]n-Å

I-cp-\m-K-∏≈n: a-cp-Xq¿Ipf-ß-c sX-°v sIm-®v h-fm-en¬ In-g-°-Xn¬ hm-k-h≥(78). `m-cy: Iae-Ω. a°ƒ: ssj-e-P, tim`-\, a-Wn-em¬, lcn-em¬. a-cp-a°ƒ: j¨-a-pJ≥, ap-c-fo[c≥, _n-μp, A-ae.

Ip≠d: s]cp-ºpg ]p\p-°-∂q¿ ap≠bv°¬ Xpf-ko-k-Z-\Øn¬ am[h≥]n≈(80). `mcy: im¥-Ω-bΩ. a°ƒ: cXv\-a-Wn-b-Ω, Xpf-ko[-c≥]n-≈, ktcm-Pn-\nbΩ. acp-a-°ƒ: kp-[m ‰n ]n≈, inh-i-¶-c-]n≈.

Ip≠d: ]-Sn™mtdI√S \Sp-hn-e°c tIm´m-߬ ho´n¬ ]tc-X-\mb X¶-∏≥]n≈-bpsS `mcy cmP-ΩbΩ(89). a°ƒ: cma-N{μ≥]n-≈, tKm]m-e-IrjvW-]n-≈, tim`\. acpa-°ƒ: ca-Wn, {]k-∂Ip-am-cn, ]tc-X-\mb X¶-∏≥-]n-≈.

sh-™m-d-aq-Sv: s\-√-\mSv D-S-b≥-]m-d lu-kn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b tkm-a-s‚ `m-cy cm-[m-a-Wn (74).

sh-™m-d-aq-Sv: `-c-X∂q¿ s\-√n-°p-∂v {ioIr-jv-W {]-km-Z-Øn¬ hn _m-e-Ir-jv-W≥ ssh-Zy¿ (79). `m-cy: Un cm-[. a-°ƒ: tim-`-\-Ip-am-cn, kp-K-X-Ip-am-cn, tPym-Xo{μ≥ (ko-Xm-dmw ^m¿-akn, `-c-X-∂q¿), kn-‘p, _n-μp. a-cp-a-°ƒ: ]-tc-X-\m-b i-in-Ip-am¿, _m-_p, tPym-Xn-e-£v-an, D-Æn-Irjv-W≥, l-cn-Ip-am¿.

sIm-Sp-ß-√q¿: ta-Ø-e ]-d-ºn-Ip-f-ß-c N-°-Ωm´n¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b \m-cm-bW-s‚ `m-cy Im¿-Øym-b\n(52). a-°ƒ: k-Xn, im¥, ]p-cp-j≥, th-WptKm-]m-e≥, Aw-_p-Pm£≥, ]-tc-X-\m-b cm-[mIr-jv-W≥. a-cp-a-°ƒ: ]tc-X-\m-b N-{μ≥, hn-Pb≥, kp-te-N-\, c-a-Wn, i-_v-\, t_-_n.

s]-cp-ºm-hq¿: Im-™n-c°m-Sv a-Zvd-km tdm-Un¬ aq-°-S ]-co-Xn-s‚ `m-cy JZo-P(sIm-®-ø˛75). ku-Øv h√w {km-ºn°¬(aq-°-S)Ip-Spw-_mwK-amWv. a-°ƒ: Ip-™o≥-Ip´n, A-en-bm¿, Ip-™p-ap-lΩZv, _-jo¿, A-_q-_°¿. a-cp-a°ƒ: B-_n-Z, km_n-d, A-\n-X, sd-Po-\. J-_-dS-°w \-S-Øn.

Ip-≠d: ap°S ]h¿lu-kn\v kao]w ]pXp-aw-K-eØvho-´n¬ Pn kp-μ-tc-is‚ `mcy Cμnc(54). a°ƒ: IrjvW-P≥, hnjvWp-{]-kmZv. acp-aIƒ: Zo]vXn.

Pm-\-In-b-½

ImÀ-Xymb-\n ]-\-ßm-Sv: \-μn-Im-´v-]-tcX\m-b ]-c-ta-izcs‚(]c-ap) `m-cy Im¿Xym-b-\n(87). a-°ƒ: ]tc-X\m-b `-c-X≥, e-£van-°p´n, tIma-f, b-timZ, Hma-\. a-cp-a-°ƒ: _mlp-teb≥, ]-tc-X\m-b s]m∂≥, c-ho-{μ-\mYv(F.C.H. Xr-∏q-WnØpd). kw-kv-Im-cw C∂v cm-hn-se 11\v s\-´q¿ im-¥nh-\w iv-a-im-\Øn¬.

Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-cw: Im-´m°-S im-¥n-`-h-\-Øn¬ hn sN-√-∏≥ ]n-≈-bp-sS `m-cy F≥ Pm-\-In-b-Ω (86). a-°ƒ: kp-io-e≥ \mb¿, B-fl-N-{μ≥ \mb¿, c-am-tZ-hn, P-e-Pm-tZhn, `p-h-\-N-{μ≥ \m-b¿, a-tl-{μ≥ \mb¿, cm-tP-{μ≥ \m-b¿, l-co-{μ-Zm-kv, ]-tc-X-\mb Kn-co-{μ-Zm-kv, ]-tc-X\m-b {]o-X-Ip-am¿, kp-\n¬-Ipam¿. a-cp-a-°ƒ: P-e-P, C-μn-c, ]-tc-X-\m-b tKm-]n-\m-Y≥ \m-b¿, cho-{μ≥ \m-b¿, c-am-tZhn, A-Pn-X-Ip-am-cn, {]o-Xm-Ip-am-cn, e-X-Ip-am-cn, {io-I-e, Zo].

iym-a-f tIm-h-fw: sh-≈m¿ a-Wep-hn-f ho-´n¬ ]-tc-X-\mb Ir-jv-W-s‚ `m-cy iyma-f (60). a-°ƒ: a-Wnb≥, X-ºn, _n-μp. a-cp-a°ƒ: hn-Zy-{]-`, Zo-], A\n¬-Ip-am¿.

A-½p-A-½ sN¿-∏p-f-t»-cn: B-\-μ∏-Sn {]-`m-e-bw h-en-b-]d-ºn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b \mcm-b-W≥ sN-´n-bm-cp-sS `m-cy A-Ωp-A-Ω (84). a-°ƒ: D-Æn-Ir-jv-W≥ (ku-Zn), cm-Pv-tam-l≥ , I-em-a-fi-ew kp-io-e, hn-P-b-e-£v-an. a-cp-a-°ƒ: cp-‹n-Wn, Pb-{in, kp-{_lva-Wy≥, kp-μ-c≥.

Im-cp-Wy--¯n\p Im¯p\n¡msX X¦½ bm{Xbmbn F-cp-ta-en: Im-en-se apdn-hn-\p-≈n¬ Iq-´-tØmsS ]p-gp-°-f-cn-®v ]-cn-Ncn-°m-\m-cp-an-√m-sX Ah-i-\n-e-bn-em-b hr-≤sb \m-´p-Im¿ A-\m-Yme-b-Øn-se-Øn-®v c-≠v Zn-h-kw I-gn-™-t∏mƒ a-cn-®p. F-cp-ta-en ]m°m-\pw C-©-°p-gn `m-KØv ]p-t∂m-en ho-´n¬ ]tc-X-\m-b Ip-am-c-s‚ `mcy X-¶-Ω (80) B-Wv a-cn®-Xv. Im-™n-c-∏-≈n X-ºe-°m-Sv \-√ k-a-dm-b≥ B-{i-a-Øn-em-Wv I-gn™ 10 \v Pm-{K-Xm k-anXn-bp-sS t\-Xr-Xz-Øn¬ F-cp-ta-en t]m-en-kn-s‚ k-lm-b-tØm-sS hr-≤sb F-Øn-®-Xv. F∂m¬ Xn-¶-fm-gv-N D-®tbm-sS hr-≤-bp-sS B-

tcm-Ky \n-e h-j-fm-hp-Ibm-bn-cp-∂p. Xp-S¿-∂v _‘p-°-tf-bpw a-I-sfbpw A-[n-Ir-X¿ hn-fn-®ph-cp-Øn. C-h¿ hr-≤-sb s]m≥-Ip-∂-sØ kz-Im-cy B--ip-{Xn-bn-se-Øn-s®¶n-epw Po-h≥ c-£n-°m\m-bn-√. kz-Øpw ho-Spw a-Iƒ-°v \¬-In X-\n-sb Xm-a-kn-®p-h-cn-I-bm-bncp-∂p. C-h-sc c-≠p-amkw ap-ºv hm¿-Uv Aw-Kw

sI F-kv am-b-bp-sS t\Xr-Xz-Øn¬ B-ip-]-{Xnbn-se-Øn-s®-¶n-epw H∏w \n-∂v ip-{iq-jn°m≥ B-fn-√m-Ø-Xn-\m¬ Xn-cn-sI hn-´n-se-Øn°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p.--ho-´n--¬ ]- c n- N - c - W - Ø n- \ m- c p- a n√m-sX Im-en-se ap-dnhn¬ ]p-gp-°-f-cn-®v a-e-aq{X- hn-k¿-Py-Øn¬ In-S∂ hr-≤-sb A-h-i-\n-ebn-em-b-t∏m-gm-Wv Pm-{KXm k-an-Xn C-S-s]-´v A\m-Ym-em-b-Øn-se-Øn®-Xv. C-∂-se D-®-bv°v c-t≠m-sS ar-X-tZ-lw ho´p-h-f-∏n¬ kw-kv-I-cn-®p--._-‘p-°-fpw hm¿-Uv Aw-K-hpw Pm-{K-Xv k-anXn {]-h¿-Ø-I-cpw \m-´pIm-cpw Dƒ-s∏-´ \n-c-h-[nt]¿ kw-kv-Im-cN-S-ßn¬ ]-s¶-Sp-Øp.

]-Xvam-h-Xn-

tKm-hn-μ] - p-cw: am-hq¿ Kzm-fn-tbm¿ d-tbm¨kn¬ \n-∂p hn-ca - n-® ]tc-X\ - m-b Fw am-[h - ≥\m-bc - p-sS `m-cy ta-se A-Ωt- ©-cn ]-flm-hX - nb-Ω (84). a-°ƒ: F ]n P-b\ - m-cm-bW - ≥ , kp-Nn{X, im-¥n. a-cp-a° - ƒ: jo-P, cm-a\ - p-Æn, _m-eIr-jW v- ≥.

]m-e-°m-Sv-: s]-cp-sh-ºvtNm-d-t°m-´n¬- -]-flm-eb-Øn¬- ]-Xvam-h-Xn -(80).- `¿-Øm-hv-:- ]-tc-X-\m-b]-Xva-tem-N-\-≥.- a-°ƒ-:P-b-\m-cm-b-W-≥,- P-b-cmPv,- Kn-cn-P, ]-tc-X-\m-b P-b-Ir-jv-W-≥.- a-cp-a°ƒ-:- jo-e,- t_-_n- sNº-Iw,- Ko-X,- P-bn-\n-Zmkv.]n-W-dm-bn- hn-P-b-≥,sk-{I-t´dn-b-‰v- Aw-KwF- sI- _m-e-≥ Fw.F¬.-F,- Pn-√m- sk-{I-´dn- kn- sI- cm-tP-{μ-≥,Fw- _n- cm-tP-jv- Fw-.]n Xp-S-ßn-b-h¿- ho-´n-seØn- A-t¥ym-]-Nm-c-a¿∏n-®p.-

]u-tem-kv aq-hm-‰p-]p-g: Ip-∂-bv°m¬ Im-t°m-t´m-en-bv°¬ ]u-tem-kv(80). kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v D®bv°v 1\v Ip-∂-bv-°m¬ sk‚ v tPm¿Pv Hm¿-ØtUm-Iv-kv ]-≈n sk-antØ-cn-bn¬. `m-cy: Ip-∂bv-°m¬ A-cn-am-cn¬ IpSpw-_mw-Kw G-en-bm-Ω. a°ƒ: {]o-\, F¬tZmkv. a-cp-a°ƒ: t_m_n, A\p.

]-ßm-h-Xn-b-½

I-e-´³-tIm-b A-co-°m-Sv: I-e¥ - ≥-kv lu-kv C ]n I-e¥ - ≥tIm-b (85). (I-e¥ - ≥-kv Iqƒ-_m¿, am-\m-©n-d). `m-cy: C-ºn-®n ^m-Øn-am_n (_o-hn). a-°ƒ: D-kvam≥tIm-b, ap-kvX - ^ - , A-jd - ^ - v, jm^n, jm-lp¬ l-ao-Zv, kpl-dm-_n (_n-®p), sse-e, D-ssa-_, ssl-dp-∂n-k, l-ko-\. a-cp-a° - ƒ: A- ≥-tImb, e-Øo-^v, _-jo¿, \ko¿, d-lva - Ø - p-√, k-°o\, km-ln-Z, k-Pn, k-Pv\, ^m-kn-e.

D-½À dn-∏¨: ]-tc-X\ - m-b \-SØ≥-I≠ - n C-{_m-loans‚ a-I≥ \-SØ - ≥-I≠ - n D-Ω¿ (29). am-Xm-hv: J-Zo-P. k-tlmZ-cß - ƒ: sj-do-\, ap-_»n¿.

a-dn-bw-_n

C-cn-ßq¿: C-cn-ßq-cn-se Io-gv∏ - ≈ - n a-Wß - m-S≥ Xn-cp-aw-Ke - Ø - v P-\I - n-bΩ (87). Ip-‰ym-´q-cn-se tX-e° - m´v ]-tc-X\ - m-b hn kn Ip´n-Ir-jvW - ≥ \-ºym-cpsS `m-cy-bm-Wv.

Ip-‰ym-Sn: G-‰n-tem-´pΩ¬ _m-_p(48)hn-s\ acp-Xm-¶c - in-ht- £-{X- ap‰-sØ B¬-ac - Ø - n¬ Xq-ßn-ac - n-® \n-eb - n¬ Is≠-Øn. `m-cy: kp-io-e. a-°ƒ: A-\q-]v, A-RvP - \ - .

tIm-gn-t°m-Sv: ]-tc-X\ - mb kn F A-–p-√t- °mb-bp-sS `m-cy ]-em-°n¬ am-fn-tb-°¬ a-dn-bw-_n (90). a-°ƒ: A-–p-¿d-lvam≥, aq-kt- °m-b, D-ka v- m≥tIm-b, C-ºn-®m-an-\_ - n, Ip-™n-_n. a-cp-a° - ƒ: J-ad - p-∂o-k, ^m-Øn-aØ - v kp-ld - , Imfn-tb-cI - Øv Ip-™p, ]-tc-Xc - m-b kn F≥ A-lΩ - Z- tv- Imb, ]n hn A-–p-¬ d-kmJv.

hÀ-Kokv

G-e-½

tPmk^v

ta-cn

tIm-X-aw-Kew: tIm-gn-∏n≈n sIm-S-ap-≠ s]m-∂me-°p-Sn-bn¬ h¿-Kokv(Ip-™-∏≥˛77). kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v D®bv°v 1\v am-c-awK-ew Im-tZ-iv am¿ Ko-h¿-Ko-kv k-l-Z ]-≈n sk-an-tØcn-bn¬. `m-cy: tIm-gn-∏n≈n H-d-h-e-°p-Sn Ip-Spw_mw-Kw Gen. a°ƒ: tacn, Ip™-Ω, tUmfn, tPmbn, _n-Pp, _nμp. a-cp-a-°ƒ: F-{_mlw, kp-c, hn¬-k¨, Nn-∂Ω, a-Rv-Pp, _nPp.

\m-b-tØm-Sv: ]-S-bm-´n¬ tZh-kn `m-cy G-eΩ(53). kw-kv-Im-cw \SØn. th-ßq¿ ta-\m-t®cn Ip-Spw-_mw-K-amWv. a°ƒ: tPm-k^v, tPmjn.

tIm-X-aw-K-ew: a-e-bn≥Io-gv Iq´me tPm-k^v(79). kw-kv-Im-cw C∂v D-®-I-gn™v 3\v tImX-awK-ew sk‚ v tPm¿Pv I-Øo-{U¬ sk-an-tØcn-bn¬. `m-cy: \m-K∏p-g aq-∂p-am-bv-°¬ Ip-Spw_mw-Kw G-en-°p´n. a°ƒ: tacn, B\n, X¶®≥, Pm≥-kn, ssj\n, jn_p, jn-Pp, tPm_n. a-cp-a°ƒ: ]m∏®≥, t]mƒ, dmWn, B‚Wn, tPmWn, do-\.

I-f-a-t»cn: sIm-®n k¿h-I-emim-e dn-´.Po-h-\°m-cnbpw ]-tc-X\mb ssh-em-t»-cn h¿-Ko-kns‚ `m-cy-bpam-b tacn(78). aI≥: sIm-®n k¿-h-I-em-im-e-bn¬\n∂pw hn-c-an-® G-W-Ãv. a-cp-aIƒ: tI-c-f a-ln-fmkw-Lw Pn√m I-Ω-‰n-bwKw F-en-k-_Øv.

am-[-h³ am-ln: ]p-t∂m¬ C-øØpw-Im-Sv Im-´n¬ am-[h≥ (65). ]-≈q¿ ]m-cmau-≠v Sn-º¿ I-º\ - n-bnse tPm-en-°m-c\ - m-bn-cp∂p. `m-cy: I-ae - . a-°ƒ: Zn-hy, [-\y. a-cp-a° - ƒ: cm-tP-jv, iymw. k-tlm-Zc - ß - ƒ: cm-P≥, \-fn-\n, c-aW - n, jo-\n, {]-Zo-]≥, ]-tc-X\m-b D-Øa - ≥.

P-\-In-b-½

th-Wp-tKm-]m-e³ ]-ø-∂q¿: sh-≈q¿ P-hl¿ hm-b-\-im-e-bv-°p k-ao-]w Fw ]n th-WptKm-]m¬ (51). an-I-® Im-bn-I kw-Lm-S-I-\mbn-cp-∂p. sN-dp-h-Øq-cnse a-Wn-b-d d-Iv-kn≥ F‚¿-ss{]-k-kv D-S-abm-Wv. ]-tc-X-cm-b ssX-h-f-∏n¬ Ir-jv-Ws‚-bpw ta-se]p-c-bn¬ \m-cm-b-Wn-bp-sS-bpw aI-\m-Wv. `m-cy: D-j. aIƒ: h¿-j.

k-t´m-jv C-cn-´n: hn-f-a-\-bn-se Xp≠-°m-´n¬ k-t¥m-jv (34). `m-cy: Pn-jv-\. a°ƒ: B-Xn-c. k-tlm-Z-c߃: k-tP-jv, k-‘y.

_m-_p

sam-b-vXp

sIm-bn-em-≠n: A¬-k_-bn¬ l-ao-Zv _m-Ø (76). `m-cy: Ip¬-kp. a°ƒ: jm-\-hm-kv _mØ, jm-Zv _m-Ø, k¬h _m-Ø, km-Pn-_ _mØ. a-cp-a-°ƒ: lm-jnw _¿-K-bv-h, km-en-lv _mØ, \n-Z.

]-\a - c - w: hm-tSm-®m¬ IZ-fn-°m-´n¬ (sI.Sn) sambvX - p (64). ]-\a - c - w kn.Fw tIm-fP - v sF.Sn.knbp-sS {]n≥kn-∏e - m-bn-cp-∂p. Zo¿-LIm-ew _mw-•q-cn-se kzIm-cy I-º\ - n-bn-epw tkh-\a - \ - p-jvTn-®n-´p-≠v. `mcy: kp-ss_-Z. a-°ƒ: ssk-\p¬ B-_n-Zv, s^_o-\. a-cp-a° - ƒ: \n-jmZv, k-Pv\ -

tZ-h-In

D-¡-¿

l-ao-Zv _m-¯

_m-ep-t»-cn: a-™-∏mew cm-aw-K-e-Øv tIm-hne-I-Øv tZ-h-In (74).

sIm-Sp-h-≈n: F-tf-‰n¬ h-t´m-fn sN-dn-b-߬ D°-ø (85).

\m«n-te-¡p a-S§n-b a-e-bm-fn hn-am-\-¯n a-cn¨p

hr-² ho-«n-\p-Ån sIm-Ã-s¸-« \n-e-bnÂ

I-cn-∏q¿: s]-cp-∂m-ƒ B-tLmj-n°m\m-bn \m-´n-te-°p a-Sßn-b a-e-bm-fn- hn-am-\-Øn¬- acn-®p. Xn-cq¿ Iq-´m-bn _-Z¿ ]≈n-°p k-ao-]-sØ ssl-{Zp-hns‚-]p-c-°¬ ssk-Xv ap-l-Ω-Zns‚ ap-l-Ω-Zv k-øn-Zv (44) B-Wp a-cn-®-Xv. C-∂-se ]p-e¿-s® 4.50\v F-b¿-C-¥y F-Iv-kv-{] n-s‚ 354 hn-am-\-Øn-em-Wv køn-Zv I-cn-∏q-cn-se-Øn-b-Xv. hn-am\-Øn¬ \n-∂n-d-ßm-Xm-b-tXmsS -Po-h-\-°m-sc-Øn t\m°nbt∏m-gm-Wv a-cn-®-\n-e-bn¬ I≠Xv. Xp-S¿-∂v tUm-Œ¿ F-Øn a-c-Ww ÿn-co-I-cn-°p-I-bm-bncp-∂p. ar-X-tZ-lw C-t±-l-sØ kzo-I-cn-°m≥ hn-am-\-Øm-h-fØn-seØnb _-‘p-°ƒ-°p

tIm-´° - ¬: X-\n-®p-Xm-ak - n-°p-∂ hr-≤s - b ho-´n-\p-≈n¬ sIm-√s - ∏-´ \n-eb - n¬ I-s≠-Øn. F-Sc - n-t°m-Sv Np-S-e-∏m-d I-√p-sh-´n sIm-´w-]-dºn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b I-d-∏w-Ip-´n-bpsS `m-cy ko-XΩ - (83)bm-Wp sIm-√s∏-´X - v. sXm-´S- p-Øp Xm-ak - n-°p-∂ a-I\ - pw `m-cy-bpw sNm-Δm-gvN - cm-hnse G-tgm-sS- ho-´n-se-Øn-bt- ∏m-gmWp I-tk-c-bn¬ sI-´n-bn-´ \n-ebn¬ ar-Xt- Z-lw I-≠X - v. I-gp-Øn¬ D-Sp-ap-≠v Np-‰n ap-dp°n-bn-cp-∂p. hr-≤-bp-sS Im-Xn-se kz¿-Ww ]q-in-b tXm-S \-„-s∏-´Xn-\m¬ tam-„m-°-fm-Wn-Xn-\p ]n∂n-se-∂m-Wv t]m-en-kn-s‚ {]m-Yan-I \n-Ka - \ - w. ]n≥-hi - s - Ø P-\e - ns‚ a-c A-gn-Iƒ ap-dn-®m-Wv Lm-X-

ssI-am-dn. 23 h¿-j-am-bn jm¿P-bn-se A¬-P-ko-d In-®¨ Iº-\n-bn-se Po-h-\-°m-c-\m-bncp-∂p k-øn-Zv. am-Xm-hv: _o-]mØp-tamƒ. `m-cy: k¬-a. a-°-fn√. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: k-°o¿, _jo¿, Iu-e-Øv.

I≥ A-IØ - p-Ib - d - n-bs - X-∂p t]men-kv kw-i-bn-°p-∂p. A-e-am-c-bnse h-kv-Xp-°ƒ hm-cn-h-en-®n-Sp-Ibpw ap-dn-bn¬ ap-fI - p-s]m-Sn hn-Xd - pI-bpw sN-bvX - n-´p-≠v.

X-S-hm-´p-ho-´n-\p-Sp-Øp X-s∂bm-Wv ko-XΩ - b - p-sS a-I\ - pw Ip-Spw_w I-gn-™n-cp-∂-Xv. C-h¿-°p-≈ `-£W - w F-Øn-®p-sIm-Sp-°p-Ib - mbn-cp-∂p ]-Xn-hv. sIm-√-s∏-´-Xn-\p X-te Zn-h-khpw X-s‚ a-I≥ sj-_n≥ `-£W - w F-Øn-®n-cp-s∂-∂pw A-Ω hm-Xn¬ A-IØ - p-\n-∂p ]q-´n D-dß - m≥-t]mhp-I-bm-Wp-≠m-b-sX-∂pw a-I≥ _m-e≥ ]-d-™p. t\-c-sØ F-gpt∂¬-°p-am-bn-cp-∂ A-Ω-sb ImWm-Øn-\m¬ ho-´n-seØn t\m-°nb-t∏m-gm-Wp sIm-√s - ∏-´ \n-eb - n¬ I-≠-Xv. D-S≥ tIm-´-°¬ t]m-enkn¬ A-dn-bn-°p-Ib - m-bn-cp-∂p. am-kß - ƒ-°p ap-ºpw C-tX hoSn-s‚ P-\¬ X-I¿-Øv tam-jW - {- i-

aw \-S-∂-Xm-bn kv-t‰-j-\n¬ ]-cmXn \¬-In-bn-cp-∂p. Xn-cq¿ Un-ssh.F-kv.]n sI Fw ssk-Xm-en, h-fm-t©-cn kn.sF Fw kn-±o-Jv, Xn-cq¿ kn.sF B¿ dm-^n, tIm-´° - ¬ Fkv.sF sI ]n s_-∂n, I¬-∏-It©-cn F-kv.sF F≥ _n ssj-Pp kw-`-h-ÿ-e-sØ-Øn. tUm-Kv kvIzm-Upw hn-ce - S- b - m-f hn-ZK - v[ - c - pw ]cn-tim-[\ - \-SØ - n. Xm-\q¿ kn.sF Fw ]n k-t¥m-jn-\m-Wv A-t\z-jWNp-aX - e - . ar-Xt- Z-lw tIm-gn-t°m-Sv sa-Un°¬ tIm-f-Pn¬ t]m-kv-‰v-tam¿-´w \-SØ - n. ko-X-Ω-bp-sS a-Iƒ: k-tcm-Pn\n. a-cp-a° - ƒ: cm-P≥, {io-P.

l-cn-∏m-Sv: _-‘p-ho-Sp-Iƒ k-μ¿-in-® ti-jw a-Sßp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂ kw-Lw k-©-cn-® Po-∏v a-dn-™v ho-´-Ω a-cn-®p. sIm-√w A-©¬ ]-S-a¨ tIm-am-´p ho-´n¬ k-Xo-jv _m-_p-hn-s‚ `m-cy hn-P-b-{io(37)B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. tZ-io-b-]m-X-bn¬ am-[-h P-Mv-j-\v k-ao-]w C-∂se ]p-e¿-s®-bm-Wv kw-`-hw. B-e-∏p-g-bn-se _‘p-ho-´n¬ \n-∂pw a-S-ßp-tºmƒ F-Xn-sc h-∂ hml-\-Øn-\v ssk-Uv sIm-Sp-°p-∂-Xn-\n-sS \n-b-{¥Ww sX-‰n a-dn-™ Po-∏n¬ \n-∂pw hn-P-b-{io sX-dn®v ho-gp-I-bpw Po-∏n-s‚ N-{I-߃ i-co-c-Øn-eq-sS Ib-dn-bn-d-ßp-I-bp-am-bn-cp-∂p. D-S≥ X-s∂ B-ip-]{Xn-bn¬ {]-th-in-∏n-s®-¶n-epw Po-h≥-c-£n-°m-\mbn-√. H-∏-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂ `¿-Øm-hv k-Xo-jv _m-_p, ss{U-h¿ D-Z-b≥ F-∂n-h¿-°v ]-cn-t°-‰p. l-cn-∏m-Sv t]m-en-kv ta¬-\-S-]-Sn-Iƒ kzo-I-cn-®p.--

I-S-¶Â-Ip-t¯-äv a-cn-¨p Im-bw-Ip-fw: I-S-∂¬-Ip-tØ-‰v Kp-cp-X-cm-b-h-ÿbn¬ Nn-In-¬-k-bn¬ I-gn-™n-cp-∂ a¬-ky-hym-]-cn a-cn-®p. \q-d-\m-Sv ap-Xp-Im-´p-I-c-°p-gn-bn¬ sX-t°Xn¬ kn-±o-Jv dm-hp-Ø-dm(52)Wv a-cn-®-Xv. ho-Sn-\v k-ao-]-sØ I-S-∂¬ Iq-´n¬ \n-∂p I-gn™ Zn-h-k-am-Wv C-bmƒ-°v Ip-tØ-‰-Xv. Im-bw-Ipfw k¿-°m¿ B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ {]-th-in-∏n-®n-cp-∂ Ct±-lw C-∂-se ]p-e¿-®-tbm-sS-bm-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. J-_d-S-°w \q-d-\m-Sv Pp-ama-kv-Pn-Zn¬ \-S-∂p. `mcy: \q¿P-lm≥. a-°ƒ:jnPn, sj-an.

A-Úm-X ar-X-tZ-lw I-s−-¯n Xncph√: sd-bn¬-th {Sm-°n¬ A-⁄m-X ar-X-tZlw I-s≠-Øn.C∂-se cm-hnse B-tdm-sS ]p-jv-]Kn-cn sd-bn¬-th tK-‰n-\p k-ao-]-am-Wv ]p-cp-j-s‚ PUw I-s≠-Øn-bXv. Xn-cp-h√ t]m-en-kv ta¬-\-S-]Sn-Iƒ kzo-I-cn®p. ar-X-tZ-lw Xm-eq-°m-ip-]{Xn tam¿-®-dn-bn¬.

A-]-I-S-¯n ]-cn-t¡-ä hn-ZymÀ-Yn a-cn¨p Nm-h-°mSv: I-S-∏p-dw shfn-s®-Æ-∏-Sn-bn¬ Im¿ ssk-°n-fn¬ C-Sn-®p ]-cnt°-‰p Nn-In¬-k-bn-em-bncp-∂ hn-Zym¿-Yn a-cn®p. sh-fn-s®-Æ∏-Sn t]mWØv sk-bv-Xv ap-l-Ω-Zn-s‚ a-Iƒ km-Pn-X-bp-sS aI≥ Pp-ssd-Pv(12) B-Wp a-cn-®Xv. hm-Sm-\∏-≈n aZm¿ Cw-•n-jv ao-Un-bw kv-Iqƒ A©mw ¢m-kv hnZym¿-Yn-bmWv. I-gn-™ Znh-kw ho-Sn-\p k-ao-]Øp≠m-b A-]-I-S-Øn¬ ]-cn-t°-‰p Xr-iq¿ lm¿-´v B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ Nn-In¬-k-bn-em-cp∂p. cm-{Xn 11\mbn-cp-∂p a-cWw. ]m-e-°m-Sv s\∑m-d kz-tZ-in ap-kvX-^-bp-sS a-I-\mWv.

]n-©p-_m-e³ ]m-¼p-I-Sn-tb-äv a-cn-¨p Nn-‰q¿: ]m-ºp-I-Sn-tb-‰v c≠-c h-b- p-Im-c≥ a-cn®p. I-∂n-am-cn ]-\n-b-Snb≥-N-≈ k-t¥m-jn-s‚ a-I-≥ i-c-Xv B-Wv a-cn-®Xv. ho-´p-h-f-∏n¬ I-fn-®psIm-≠n-cn-s° ]m-ºp-I-Sntb-‰- _m-e-s\ tIm-b-ºØq-cn-se kz-Im-cy B-ip]-{Xn-bn¬ F-Øn-s®-¶nepw c-£n-°m-\m-bn-√. am-Xm-hv: cm-[n-I.

l-Öv XoÀ-°m-S-I³ a-¡-bn \n-cym-X-\m-bn Xm-\q¿: kw-ÿm-\ l÷v I-Ωn-‰n ap-tJ-\ I-gn™ am-k-w l-÷n-\p t]mb Xo¿-∞m-S-I≥ a-°bn¬ a-cn-®p. \n-d-a-cp-Xq¿ ]-Ø-ºm-Sv A-c-¶-Øn¬ Ip-™-l-Ω-Zv ap-kv -eym¿ (72) B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. `m-cy: Ip-™o-cn-b. a°ƒ: A-–p-k-emw -k-Jm^n, A-–p¬ P-eo¬ ap-kv-eym¿, A-–p¬- K-^q¿, A–p¬- d-jo-Zv k-Jm-^n, ap-l-Ω-Zv d-^o-Jv \n-km-an, ico-^, l-∂-Øv, l-^v-k-Øv. a-cp-a-°ƒ: A-–p- emw A-lv-k-\n sN-√q¿, A-–p- -emw A-lv-k-\n, A-–p-¬ d-low Im-an¬ k-Jm-^n, B-bn-i, \-ko-a, ssJ-dp-∂o-k, D-Ωp¬-ssJ¿, ssa-aq-\.

ImÂ-\-S-bm-{X-¡m-c³ Im-dn-Sn-¨p- a-cn-¨p F-S-h-Æ: tIm-gn-h-≠n-°v F-kv-tIm¿-´v t]m-b Im-dnSn-®v Im¬-\-S-bm-{X-°mc≥ a-cn-®p. Ip-≠p-tXm-Sv Ip-cn-ipw-]-Sn-bn-se sh-≈®m-en ap-l-Ω-Zv (sN-dn-˛75) B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. C-∂-se cm-hn-se-bm-bn-cp-∂p A-]I-Sw. \n-e-ºq¿ `m-K-Øp\n-∂p tIm-gn- I-b-‰n-h-cp∂ hm-l-\-Øn-\v F-kv-tIm¿-´v t]m-hp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂ Im-dm-Wv C-Sn-®-Xv. s]-c-n-¥¬-a-Æ kz-Im-cy B-ip-]{Xn-bn-se-Øn-s®-¶n-epw c-£n-°m-\m-bn-√. am-Xm-hv: J-Zo-P. `m-cy-am¿: B-bn-ip-Ω, ]-tc-X-bmb Xm-ln-b. a-°ƒ: ssl-{Zp, P-ao-e, A-–p¬ a-Po-Zv (ku-Zn), ^-Po-jv, _p-jv-d. a-cp-a-°ƒ: k-°o-\, apkv-X-^, \-ko-d, kw-km¿ _o-Kw, G-\n. k-tlm-Zc≥: A-e-hn. F-S-h-Æ t{K-Uv F-kv.sF sI kn kp-tc-{μ≥ C≥-Iz-kv-‰v \-S-Øn-b ar-X-tZ-lw s]-cn-¥¬-a-Æ Xmeq-°v B-ip-]-{Xn-bn-se t]m-kv-‰v-tam-¿-´-Øn-\p tijw Ip-≠p-tXm-Sv Pp-am-a-kv-Pn-Zv J-_¿-ÿm-\n¬ a-dhp-sN-bv-Xp.

hn-jw A-I-¯p-sN-¶v a-cn-¨p F-S-h-Æ: hn-jw A-I-Øp-sN-∂v ho-´-Ω a-cn-®p. HXm-bn ]-Sn-™m-sd Nm-Ø-√q¿ Hm-S-≠-∏m-d- ]-´o-cn Znt\-i-s‚ `m-cy tIm-´-bn¬ im-¥(32)bm-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. I-gn-™ Zn-h-kw D-®-bv-°v c-t≠m-sS-bm-Wv im-¥sb ho-´n¬ hn-jw A-I-Øp-sN-∂v A-h-i-\n-e-bn¬ I-≠-Xv. a-t©-cn P-\. B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ F-Øn-s®-¶nepw c-£n-°m-\m-bn-√. `¿-Xr-]o-U-\-w-aq-ew B-fl-lXy sN-bv-X-Xm-sW-∂v kq-N-\-bp-≈-Xm-bn t]m-en-kv ]-d-™p. sh-‰n-e-∏m-d-bn-se ]-tc-X-\m-b tIm-´-bn¬ tI-e≥-˛-am-X Z-º-Xn-I-fp-sS a-I-fm-Wv. a-°ƒ: B-Xnc, B-Zn-Xy, A-iz≥, A-`n-tj-Iv. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: cmPp, cm-a-Ir-jv-W≥, i-¶-c≥, X-¶. F-S-h-Æ F-kv.sF hn P-b-{]-Im-iv C≥-Iz-Ãv \S-Øn-b ar-X-tZ-lw a-t©-cn P-\-d¬ B-ip-]-{Xnbn¬ t]m-kv-‰v-tam¿-´w sN-bv-Xp.

Sm-¦À-tem-dn Hm-t«m-bn-en-Sn-¨v kv-{Xo a-cn-¨pC-cn-ºn-fn-bw: h-en-b-Ip-∂v A-ßm-Sn-°p k-ao-]w Sm¶¿-tem-dn Hm-t´m-dn-£-bn-en-Sn-®v kv-{Xo a-cn-®p. B-Xh- -\m-Sv-]m-td-°-fw Im-b¬-aT-Øn¬ Ir-jv-W≥ Fgp-Ø-®-s‚ `m-cy Pm-\-In (61) B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. a-c-Who-Sv k-μ¿-in-®v B-X-h-\m-t´-°v a-S-ßn-b-h¿ k-©cn-® Hm-t´m-bn¬ ]m-N-I-hm-X-I-hp-am-bn t]m-hp-Ibm-bn-cp-∂ tem-dn C-Sn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. Pm-\-In-bpsS a-°ƒ: P-b-Ir-jv-W≥, A-Pn-X, kp-\n-X. a-cp-a°ƒ: {]n-b, c-ta-jv-_m-_p, P-b≥.


6

thÀ-]mSv

kozhikode

16 HIvtSm-_¿ 2013 _p[≥

]n-©p-_m-e³ ]m-¼p-I-Sn-tb-äv a-cn-¨p ssk-Xm-en-¡p-«n-

A-Ðp-Àd-lvam³

N-{µ-a-Xn-

ap-l-½-Zv -

G-en-¡p-«n -

A-l-½-Zv-Ip-«n- -

Xn-cq¿: sI.-F-kv-.-B¿.Sn.-kn dn-´. kv-t‰-j≥ amÃ-dpw aw-K-ew a-Zo-\m kvt‰m¿ D-S-a-bp-am-b ]p-dØq¿ Ip-dp-º-Sn-bn-se ta-°m-´v I-f-Øn¬ ssk-Xm-en-°p-´n F-∂ Ip-™p-´n (69). ]n-Xm-hv: ]-tc-X-\m-b Ip-™p-aqk. `m-cy: J-Zo-P. -a-°ƒ: d-kn-b, sse-e, ap-\o¿ Ip-dp-º-Sn, \-ko¿ (bp.F.-C. F-Iv-kv-tN-©v A_qZ-_n), bm-kn¿ ( A¬ dn-bm-an {Kq-]v-, Zp-_bv), Pm-_n¿.- a-cp-a-°ƒ: ssk-Xv ap-l-Ω-Zv- (Zp-_bv), ap-l-Ω-Zv- P-eo¬,Bcn-^, P-eo-\, P-^o-Z, Aao-d. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: Fw. lp-ssk≥ (dn-´. F.-C.-H), I-cow, ap-l-Ω-Zen, Ip-™n-tamƒ, Ip™n-Ωp.-

]-c-∏-\-ßm-Sn: {Km-a-∏©m-b-Øv ap≥ ÿn-c-kan-Xn sN-b¿-am-≥ X-emt©-cn sN-dn-b A-–p-¿dlvam≥ (Sn kn Ip-™mh-˛72). `m-cy: J-Zo-P. a°ƒ: l-_o-_p-d-lvam≥ (Z-Ωmw), ap-Po-_p-d-lvam≥, ap-\o¿ (a-te-ky), B-bn-i-Øp- d-kn-bm-_n, jm-^n-\. a-cp-a-°ƒ: kp¬-^n-°¿ A-en, A–p¬- K-^q¿, A-kvam_n, dm-_n-b, l-ko-\.-

a-t©-cn: hm-bv-]m-d-∏-Sn ln¬-t^m¿-´n¬ ]-tc-X\m-b am-[-h-s‚ `m-cy N-{μ-a-Xn (73). B-tcmKyh-Ip-∏n¬ te-Un sl¬-Øv kq-∏¿sshk-dm-bn-cp-∂p. a-°ƒ: k-l-P, an-\n, kp-\n-X. a-cp-a-°ƒ: i-¶-c≥ (Fkv.sF, kv-s]-jy¬ {_m-©v, a-e-∏p-dw), tUm. tPm-jn (sI.Fw.F-®v tlm-kv]n-‰¬, a-t©-cn), i-¶c≥ (A-[ym-]-I≥, amwK-e-t»-cn hn.F-®v.F-kv ]-´m-ºn), kw-kv-°m-cw C-∂v cm-hn-se 11 \v ho´p-h-f-∏n¬.

F-Sh - Æ - ∏ - m-d: ]-Wn-°c - ∏p-dm-b sam-Sh - t- ©-cn ap-lΩ-Zv (66). `m-cy: J-Zo-P. a°ƒ: A-–p¬ A-ko-k v(ku-Zn), A-∫m-kv, A–p¬- P-eo¬ (jm¿-P), k^n-b, ssa-aq-\, _p-jvd - , apw-Xm-kv, j-l¿-_m≥. acp-a° - ƒ: sam-bvX - o≥-Ip-´n, ssk-\p¬ B-_n-Zv, jwkp-±o≥, ]-tc-X\ - m-b aq-k, k-^n-b, ssk-^p-∂o-k, Pw-jn-b. k-tlm-Zc - ß - ƒ: aq-k, I-e¥ - ≥, B-en, ]mØp-´n, C-Æn-b.

F-S-°-c: \-cn-hm-e-ap-≠ In-g-t°-¬ Ip-c-y-s‚ `mcy G-en-°p-´n (80). a°ƒ: hn¬-k¨, tPm¨-k¨, B-eo-kv, s_-∂n. a-cp-a-°ƒ: ]m∏-®≥, kq-kn, sU-bvkn, jn-_n.

sh-fn-b-t¶m-Sv: _o-hn-∏Sn In-g-t° h-´-∏-d-ºn¬ A-l-Ω-Zv-Ip-´n (85). `mcy: J-Zo-P. a-°ƒ: sambv-Xp-Æn, D-Ω¿, A-en, ssk-\-_, B-bn-i. acp-a-°ƒ: sam-bv-Xo≥, A-iv-d-^v, P-ao-e, B-cn^, j-°o-e.

G-en-¡p-«n am-Xyp

C-¼n-¨n-s¸-®v

tI-f-¸³ ta-∏-bq¿: ap-bn-t∏-Øv Ip-\n-Ω¬ tI-f-∏≥ (92). `m-cy: Pm-\p. a°ƒ: cm-P≥, eo-e, Im¿Xym-b-\n. a-cp-a-°ƒ: {io-[-c≥, cmL-h≥, k-Xn.

Hm-a-\-A-½ ta-∏-bq¿: A-cn-°p-fw IÆ-º-sØ ]-tc-X-\m-b F-S-t®-cn tKm-]m-e-°p-dp∏n-s‚ `m-cy Hm-a-\-A-Ω (85). a-°ƒ: Ip-™n-tIf-∏≥ \m-b¿, _m-e-Irjv-W≥, Ip-™n-°-Æ≥, e-£v-an. a-cp-a-°ƒ: _me≥-\m-b¿ (Im-hn¬), im-¥, t{]-a, eo-e.

A-Ðp I-cow sIm-Sp-h-≈n: hm-hm-Sv Ccp-tam-Øv ]p¬-Ip-gn-bn¬ A-–p¬- I-cow (55). `mcy: \-^o-k. a-°ƒ: k^o¿, k-eo-\. a-cp-a-°ƒ; I-cow, P-kv-\.

Pm-\p sIm-bn-em-≠n: ]p-fn-bt©-cn I-∑-\ ao-ج Pm-\p (73). `¿-Øm-hv: ]tc-X-\m-b ]q-gn-bn¬ Ir-jv-W≥. a-°ƒ: aWn, P-\m¿-±-\≥, kp\n¬-Ip-am¿, k-t¥m-jv Ip-am¿. a-cp-a-°ƒ: Ko-X (]p-fn-b-t©-cn), _n-Pn\ (s]-cp-h-´q¿), _n-μp (]-¥-em-b-\n), _n-Pn (Ip-μw-Ip-fw).

A-ÐpÂ- I-cow h-≠q¿: sXm-≠n-bn¬ tIm-´s - Xm-Sn-I A-–p¬ Icow (Ip-™m-∏˛79).- kn.]n.-Fw h-≠q¿ Su¨ {_m©v I-Ωn-‰n- Aw-Ka - m-bn-cp∂p. `m-cy: k-°o-\. a-°ƒ: A-–p¬- k-aZ- v, sj-an, tdmkvv\ - . a-cp-a° - ƒ: Ip-™men, A-en.

sXm-´n¬-∏m-ew: hn-jssh-Zy≥ s]m-bn-temwNm¬ πm-°m-´v a-Øm-bn A-®-s‚ `m-cy G-en-°p-´n am-Xyp (87). a-°ƒ: Ip-cphn-f, P≥-kn, eu-en, tSman, k-Pn. a-cp-a-°ƒ: ta-cn°p-´n I-≠-Øn¬, em-k¿ A-d-bv-°¬ (F-d-WmIp-fw), eo-a D-Æn-∏-≈n (h-b-\m-Sv), _o-\ Nm-®nt°m-´-bn¬ (Iq-cm-®p≠v), ]-tc-X-\m-b tPm-bn h-b-en¬ (]p¬-∏-≈n).

l-k³-tIm-b

D-½À

sIm-bn-em-≠n: sN-tßm-´pIm-hv am-Sm-°c - ]p-Ø≥-]pc-bn¬ l-k≥-tIm-b (76). `m-cy: B-bn-j. a-°ƒ: I-®n_n, A-kv-a, ap-kv-X-^, kemw. a-cp-a-°ƒ: a-Ω-Zv, Ako-kv, \-ko-a, ^m-Øn-a.

dn-∏¨: ]-tc-X\ - m-b \-SØ≥-I≠ - n C-{_m-loans‚ a-I≥ \-SØ - ≥-I≠ - n D-Ω¿ (29). am-Xm-hv: J-ZoP. k-tlm-Zc - ß - ƒ: sjdo-\, ap-_» - n¿.

sIm-Sp-h-≈n: ]p¬-∏-dºn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b I-√psh-´p Ip-gn-°¬ ]m-®s‚ `m-cy C-ºn-®n-s∏-Æv (93). a-°ƒ: th-em-bp-[≥, iin-[-c≥, Pm-\p, \m-cm-bWn, ]-tc-X-cm-b cm-a≥Ip-´n, Zm-tam-Z-c≥ , im¥. a-cp-a-°ƒ: ]-fln-\n, ssj-e-P, X-¶, X-¶, Ipam-c≥, ]-tc-X-cm-b A∏q-´n, `m-kv-I-c≥.

C-¼n-¨m-bn-i A-tØm-fn: sIm-ß∂q¿ In-g-t°-°-c Xmsgho-´n¬ t]m-fn-°-≠n ap-l-Ω-Zn-s‚ `m-cy Cºn-®m-bn-i (63). a-°ƒ: A-kv-I¿ (Ipssh-Øv), A-kv-a. a-cp-aI≥: jm-Pn.

sIm-½-¨n lm-jnw I-Æq¿: B-Zy-Im-e cmPym-¥-c ^p-Sv-t_m-ƒ-Xmcw ]m-d-°-≠n dw-e tImt´-Pn-¬ sIm-Ω-®n lmjnw (63). a-lm-cm-{„ kt¥m-jv t{Sm^n So-aw-Kw, 1971, 1972 h¿-j-ß-fn¬ Pq-\n-b¿ C-¥y≥ So-awKw, I-Æq¿ a-p-\n-kn-∏¬ kv-Iqƒ Sow Iym-]v-‰≥, 1966˛68 h¿-j-ß-fn¬ Pnw-Jm-\ So-aw-Kw F-∂o \n-e-I-fn¬ {]-h¿-Øn-®n´p-≠v. `m-cy: tIm-gn-t°mSv ]p-Xn-b-d am-fn-tb-°¬ B-bn-i. a-°ƒ: X-kv\nw, Xu-ko-^v (J-Ø¿). a-cp-a-°ƒ: Pnw-dn-kv kmZn-Jv., k-tlm-Z-c-߃: A-–p¬ k-Øm¿, \q-dp±o≥, \q-dp¬ A-ao≥ (ku-Zn), J-øpw, d-lvam≥, C-Jv-_m¬, dw-e.

ssk-Xv ap-l-½-ZvtIm-bX-§Äh-≠q¿: \-Sp-h-Øv X߃-∏-Sn-bn¬ ]-tc-X\m-b a-‰-Øv ssk-X-ehn tIm-b-X-ß-fp-sS aI≥ ssk-Xv ap-l-ΩZvtIm-b- X-߃ (58). `mcy: ]-tc-X-bm-b \-^ok. a-°ƒ: \m-Pn, \-knb, \-Pv-h, \-Pv-e, ]-tcX-\m-b jm-ln-Zv. a-cp-aI≥: j-ln≥. k-tlm-Zc-߃: a-√o-hn, Ip-™nsj-co-^, C-ºn-®n- _ohn, ]q-t°m-b, Ip-™n_o-hn, ]m-Øp-Ω-_o-hn, ap-l-Ω-Zv-tIm-b, ssk_-_o-hn, ]-tc-X-\m-b Ip-™n-t°m-b.

N-{µ³

sIm-bn-em-≠n: tN-at©-cn Xp-Δ-t°m-Sv sNdq-f-°-≠n sIm-f-°-≠n N-{μ≥ (69). `m-cy: ]k-t´m-jv C-cn-´n: hn-f-a-\-bn-se Xp- Xvan-\n. a-°ƒ: jm-Pp (Kƒ-^v), ≠-°m-´n¬ k-t¥m-jv jo-P, jo-_. a-cp-a(34). `m-cy: Pn-jv-\. a-°ƒ: B- °ƒ: tc-jv-a (a-S-∏-≈n), Xn-c. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: k- k-Xy≥ (h-S-I-c), cm-aN-{μ≥ (F-e-Øq¿). tP-jv, k-‘y.

Nn-‰q¿: ]m-ºp-I-Sn-tb-‰v c≠-c h-b- p-Im-c≥ a-cn®p. I-∂n-am-cn ]-\n-b-Snb≥-N-≈ k-t¥m-jn-s‚ a-I-≥ i-c-Xv B-Wv a-cn-®Xv. ho-´p-h-f-∏n¬ I-fn-®psIm-≠n-cn-s° ]m-ºp-I-Sntb-‰- _m-e-s\ tIm-b-ºØq-cn-se kz-Im-cy B-ip]-{Xn-bn¬ F-Øn-s®-¶nepw c-£n-°m-\m-bn-√. am-Xm-hv: cm-[n-I.

ssa-kq-cn hm-l-\m-]-I-S-w; ae-bmfn a-cn-¨p-

h-≈n-°p-∂v: ssa-kq-cn¬ hm-l-\m-]-I-S-Øn¬ h≈n-°p-∂v kz-tZ-in a-cn®p. h-≈n-°p-∂v sd-bn¬th tÃ-j-\v k-ao-]w tImß≥ _-km-dn-se ]-´-°m´n¬ th-em-bp-[-s‚ a-I≥ hn-]n≥-Zm-kv (27) B-Wv acn-®-Xv. Iq-sS bm-{X-sN-bvX kp-lr-Øp-°-fm-b h≈n-°p-∂v A-cn-b-√q¿ kz-tZ-in kw-Pn-Øv (24), __n-Øv (25), sN-Ωm-Sv kz-tZ-in l-co-jv (25) F-∂nh¿-°v ]-cn-t°-‰p. `m-{Zm-hm-Xn-bn¬ t]m-bn Xn-cn-®p-h-cp-∂-Xn-\n-sS I¿-Wm-S-I In-t°-cn t]m-en-kv kv-t‰-j-\v k-ao-]w C-h¿ k-©-cn-® Im¿ a-c-Øn-en-S-n-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. Xn-¶-fm-gv-N cm-{Xn-tbm-sS- F-Xn-tc h-∂ tem-dn-°v ssk-Uv sIm-Sp-°p-∂-Xn-\n-sS-bm-bn-cp-∂p A-]-ISw. ]-cn-t°-‰-h-sc I¿-Wm-S-I sI- B¿ t]-´-bn-se k¿-°m¿ B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ {]-th-in-∏n-®p. hn-]n-s‚ `m-cy: Pn-jv-W. am-Xm-hv: ku-Zm-an-\n. a-Iƒ: C-Xƒ. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: jn-Pp, kv-an-X.

l-Öv XoÀ-°m-S-I³ a-¡-bn \n-cym-X-\m-bn

A-¯m-bn \m-cm-b-W s]m-Xp-hmÄ ]-ø-∂q¿: F≥.kn.]n, C-S-Xp]-£ {]-ÿm-\ß-fp-sS t\-Xm-hpw km-aq-ln-I-˛-kmw-kv-Imcn-I-˛-B-[ym-fln-I {]h¿-Ø-I-\pw Km-‘n-b\p-am-b A-Øm-bn \mcm-b-W s]m-Xp-hmƒ (76). ]-ø-∂q¿ \-K-c-k-`m ap≥ Ãm-‚ n-Mv I-Ωn-‰n sN-b¿-am≥, ]-ø-∂q¿ k¿-ho-kv k-l-I-c-W _m-¶v k-an-Xn- Aw-Kw, tI-c-f a-Zy-\n-tcm-[-\ k-an-Xn- ssh-kv {]-knU‚ v, tI-c-f k¿-thm-Zb a-fi-ew ]-ø-∂q¿ G-cn-bm ssh-kv {]-knU‚ v, A-∂q¿ k-Rv-Pb≥ kv-am-c-I {K-Ÿm-ebw {]-h¿-Ø-I k-anXn-bw-Kw F-∂o ÿm\-߃ hln-®n-cp-∂p. ]-tc-X-cm-b ]n bp cm-as∏m-Xp-hm-fns‚-bpw ]m¿-h-XnA-Ω-bp-sSbpw a-I-\m-Wv. `m-cy: h-Æm-´n¬ ]p-Xnbho-´n¬ b-tim-Z. a°ƒ: i-in-Ip-am¿, kt¥m-jvIp-am¿, Ko-X, ssj-\n. a-cp-a-°ƒ: cta-i≥, {io-Ip-am¿, {]k-∂, k-Pn-\n. k-tlmZ-c-߃: N-{μ s]m-Xphmƒ, ]-tc-X-cm-b Irjv-Ws]m-Xp-hmƒ, tKmhn-μs]m-Xp-hmƒ, Nn-cnbIp-™n A-Ω, ]m¿-hXn A-Ω.

a-t\m-l-c³ ]-ø-∂q¿: Ip-∂-cp-hnse ]-tc-X-\m-b \m-cmb-W-s‚ a-I≥ ]m-®-awK-e-Øv ]-Sn-™m-sd ho-´n¬ a-t\m-l-c≥ (45). `m-cy: k-Xn. a-°ƒ: {ip-Xn, an-Yp≥. k-tlmZ-c-߃: {]-`m-I-c≥, {io-[-c≥, e-X.

th-Wp-tKm-]m-e³ ]-ø-∂q¿: sh-≈q¿ Ph-l¿ hm-b-\-im-e-bv°p k-ao-]w Fw ]n th-Wp-tKm-]m¬ (51). an-I-® Im-bn-I kwLm-S-I-\m-bn-cp-∂p. sN-dp-h-Øq-cn-se a-Wnb-d d-Iv-kn≥ F‚¿ss{]-k-kv D-S-a-bm-Wv. ]-tc-X-cm-b ssX-h-f∏n¬ Ir-jv-W-s‚-bpw ta-se]p-c-bn¬ \m-cmb-Wn-bp-sS-bpw a-I-\mWv. `m-cy: D-j. a-Iƒ: h¿-j.

Ip-ª-½-Zv

ssk-\-_- -

ap-l-½-Zv

tPm-kv-

A-½p-A-½

J-Zo-P l-Öp-½

h-S-I-c: ta-ap-≠ N-√nh-b¬ lp-a-bq¨ Ip∂-Øv Ip-™-Ω-Zv (85). `m-cy: l-eo-a. a-°ƒ: I-cow, Ip-™-–p-√, k-°o-\, C-kv-amCu¬, _p-jv-d. a-cp-a°ƒ: A-ko-kv, Ip™-Ω-Zv, kp-l-d, k^n-b, \-Pv-a.

a-e∏ - p-dw: D-ΩØ - q¿ X-db - n¬ ap-lΩ - Z- n-s‚ (dn-´. c-Pn-Ãm¿ Hm-^n-k,v a-e∏ - p-dw) `m-cy ]p-g°-sØm-Sn ssk-\_ - (65)-. a°ƒ: ^m-Øn-a, k-^n-b, k°o-\, B-bn-im-_n, P-ao-e, dkn-\, A-_Z-v p¬ l-Jow, j^o-Jv d-“m≥, j-d^ - p-±o≥. acp-a° - ƒ: kn-±n-J,v A-–p-√° - p´n, d - ^ - o-Jp-Zo≥, ap-kX -v ^ - , apl-ΩZ- v D-Ω¿, ^u-kn-b, P-ko\.- J-_d - S- ° - w C-∂p 10\v.

Im-h\ - q¿: X-hc - m-]d - º - v ]p-¥e - ap-lΩ - Z- v (85). a°ƒ: _o-cm-≥I - p-´n (Zp-_bv), A-–p- e - mw, aq-k°p-´n, in-lm-_v (ku-Zn), A-kva - m-_n, a-dn-bp-Ω. a-cpa-°ƒ: ap-lΩ - Z- e - n, A–p¬ e-Øo-^v, ssa-aq-\, l-^vk - Ø - v, dw-eØ - v, X-kv\n. J-_d - S- ° - w C-∂p Bdn-\v X-hc - m-]d - º - v Pp-am-akvP - n-Zv J-_¿-ÿm-\n¬.

am-\-¥-hm-Sn-: Xp-d-°¬tPm-kv- (66)-.- kw-kv-Im-cwC-∂v D-®-bv-°v- I-Ω-\- en‰n¬- ^v-f-h¿- B¿-kn- N¿®v- sk-an-tØ-cn-bn¬.- `m-cy:- Nn-∂-Ω- (dn-´. A-[ym-]nI,- ^m.- Pn-.sI.-Fw- sslkv-Iqƒ,- I-Wn-bm-cw-).- a°ƒ-:- A-cp-¨ -(A-[ym-]-I≥ F-kv-.sI-.Fw.-sP, I¬∏-‰-),- In-c-¨.- a-cp-a-°ƒ-:A-tem-jy- A-tem-jy-kv.-

sN¿-∏p-f-t»-cn: B-\-μ∏-Sn {]-`m-e-bw h-en-b-]d-ºn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b \mcm-b-W≥ sN-´n-bm-cp-sS `m-cy A-Ωp-A-Ω (84). a°ƒ: D-Æn-Ir-jv-W≥ (ku-Zn), cm-Pv-tam-l≥ (A-Ωp ss{U- ¢o-\n-Mv, sN¿-∏p-f-t»-cn), I-em-afi-ew kp-io-e, hn-P-be-£v-an.

s]m-∑f - : ap-´n-∏m-ew ]n®≥ I-fØ - n-߬-sXm-Sn J-Zo-P l-÷p-Ω (70). `¿Øm-hv: Sn sI Ip-™m-en lm-Pn. a-°ƒ: cm-bn≥-Ip-´n F-∂ \m-Wn, _n-øp-Ω, \^o-k, d-kn-b. a-cp-a° - ƒ: a-ΩZ- vl - m-Pn, a-c° - m¿, P-Av^¿, ^u-kn-b. a-øn-Øv \a-kvI - m-cw C-∂p cm-hn-se 10\v s]m-∑f - ap-´n-∏m-ew akvP - n-Zv J-_¿-ÿm-\n¬.

th-ep

\m-cm-b-W³- \m-bÀ-

\-_o-k-

Ip-ªn-am-fp A-½

A-d-ap-J³

B-bn-i

sh-´w: ]-cn-bm-]p-cw X-´m-cº-Øv th-ep (81). `m-cy: ]tc-Xb - m-b Im¿-Xym-b\ - n. a°ƒ: t{]-a≥, tam-l\ - ≥, {io-\n-hm-k≥, a-Wn-IWvT≥ (Kƒ-^v), I-√ym-Wn, h-k¥ - . a-cp-a° - ƒ: hn-Pb - , h-k¥ - , jo-P, kn-‘p, Ip™n-tam≥, tkm-a≥.

F-S-∏mƒ: ]q-°-c-Ø-d ]-Sn-™m-‰pw-ap-dn sh-≈m´v \m-cm-b-W≥- \m-b¿ (76). `m-cy hn-im-em-£n-b-Ω. a-°ƒ: {]-k-∂-Ip-am-cn, ssj-e-P, {]o-X, l-cn-{]km-Zv. a-cp-a-I≥: taml≥-Zm-kv.

I-cp-hm-c-°p-≠v: tI-c-f F-tÃ-‰v a-™ƒ-]m-d-bn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b am-ºm-bn skbv-Xn-s‚ `m-cy \-^o-k (74). a-°ƒ: I-Zo-kp-Ω, Ip-™p-sam-bv-Xp, ap-kv-X^, kp-sse-J, a-c-°m¿, Dkv-am≥, A-_q-_-°¿, Bbn-jm-_n, ap-l-Ω-Zv.-

s]-cn-¥¬-a-Æ: ]m-Xmbv-°-c I-Æ≥-sXm-Sn Ip™n-am-fp A-Ω (74). a°ƒ: hn-P-bw, D-Æn-Irjv-W≥ (X-an-gv-\m-Sv t]men-kv), ]m¿-Δ-Xn, ]p-jv], I-Æ≥ (an-en-‰-dn), Aw-_p-Pw. kw-kv-Im-cw ]n-∂o-Sv.

Xm-\q¿: \-ºo-i≥ tdmUv tX-h¿-I-f-Øn¬ Ad-ap-J≥ (68). `m-cy: t{]a. a-°ƒ: ]p-cp-tjm-Øa≥, kp-{_-lva-Wy≥, cm-Pp, ss_-Pp, A-`n-emjv. a-cp-a-°ƒ: im-en-\n, kn-‘p, kp-_n-X.

]p-√m-c: sI-m-√-∏-d-º≥ A-en-_m-∏p-hn-s‚ `mcy B-bn-i (55). a-°ƒ: A-–p¬ P-eo¬, Pm^¿, d-kn-b, \-Zo-d, Ju-e-Øv. a-cp-a-°ƒ: sam-bv-Xo≥-Ip-´n, A_p, \m-k¿, k-°o-\, dp-_o-\.

in-h-i-¦-c³ \m-bÀ

Ip-ª-¼p- \m-bÀ

tIf-¸³

sN¿-∏p-f-t»-cn: dn-´-. sd-bn¬-th D-tZym-Kÿ-≥ sh-≈n-t\-gn ]´n-t»-cn in-h-i-¶-c≥ \m-b¿ (80). `m-cy: am-[hn-°p´n A-Ω (dn-´-. {][m-\m-[ym-]n-I, K-h. F¬.]n.F-kv sh-≈nt\-gn). a-°ƒ: Ir-jvW-Ip-am¿ (dn-´-. F-b¿t^m-gv-kv), in-h-Ipam¿, tKm-]-Ip-am¿ (]n.Pn.F≥ _mw-•q¿), A-P-b-Ip-am¿ (]n.Fw.Pn ssl-kvIqƒ, ]m-e-°m-Sv), APn-X, Ip-am-cn (A-[ym]n-I, Nn-‰q¿ kw-kv-IrX ]mT-im-e). a-cp-a°ƒ: ssi-e-P, A-\nX, {io-e, {]-ao-f (F≥.F-kv.F-kv tImf-Pv, H-‰-∏m-ew), kp-tcjv cm-Pv (kn.]n.sF ]m-e-°m-Sv Pn-√m sk{I-´-dn). kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v cm-hn-se 10\-v sh≈n-t\-gn ho-´p-h-f∏n¬.

Im-™-ßm-Sv: Zp¿-Km lb¿-sk-°≥-U-dn kv-Iqƒ am-t\-Pn-Mv I-Ωn-‰n sshkv {]-kn-U‚pw tIm-tSmw˛-t_-fq¿ ]-©m-b-Øv ap≥ {]-kn-U‚p-am-b sI ]n Ip-™-ºp- \m-b¿ (93). I¿-j-I-{]-ap-J-\m-bn-cp-∂ Ip-™-ºp-\m-b¿ \n-c-h[n t£-{X-ß-fp-sS-bpw hb-\m-´p-Ip-e-h≥ sX-øwsI-´v a-tlm¬-k-hØns‚-bpw sN-b¿-am-\mbn {]-h¿-Øn-®n-cp-∂p. tIm-tSmw t_-fq¿ `-K-hXn t£-{Xw c-£m-[n-Imcn-bm-Wv. `m-cy: ]-tc-X-bmb I-º-√q¿ tIm-´-bn¬ km-hn-{Xn A-Ω.- a-°ƒ: kq-cy-\m-cm-b-W≥, cm-PtKm-]m-e≥, [-\-Rv-P-b≥ \-ºym¿, sI cm-a-N-{μ≥ \-ºym¿, ]o-Xmw-_-c≥ \ºym¿, {io-e-X cm-Pv-Ipam¿, {]-Im-i≥. a-cp-a°ƒ: tIm-tSm-Øv kn‘p, Ir-jv-W-Ip-am-cn, c-a, C-S-bn-eyw kn-‘p, cm-PvIp-am¿ .

]p-g-°m-´n-cn: I-Sp-ß-]pcw kv-Iqƒ ]-Sn- ]-≈n-bmen¬-sXm-Sn tIf-∏≥ (85). `m-cy: \m-cm-b-Wn. a°ƒ: th-em-bp-[≥, D-Æn°r-jv-W≥,h-k-¥, hn-Pb, eo-e. kw-kv-Im-cw C∂p cm-hn-se 10\v.

\m«n-te-¡p a-S§n-b a-e-bm-fn hn-am-\-¯n a-cn¨p I-cn-∏q¿: s]-cp-∂m-ƒ B-tLmj-n°m\m-bn \m-´n-te-°p a-Sßn-b a-e-bm-fn- hn-am-\-Øn¬- acn-®p. Xn-cq¿ Iq-´m-bn _-Z¿ ]≈n-°p k-ao-]-sØ ssl-{Zp-hns‚-]p-c-°¬ ssk-Xv ap-l-Ω-Zns‚ ap-l-Ω-Zv k-øn-Zv (44) B-Wp a-cn-®-Xv. C-∂-se ]p-e¿-s® 4.50\v F-b¿-C-¥y F-Iv-kv-{] n-s‚ 354 hn-am-\-Øn-em-Wv køn-Zv I-cn-∏q-cn-se-Øn-b-Xv. hn-am\-Øn¬ \n-∂n-d-ßm-Xm-b-tXmsS -Po-h-\-°m-sc-Øn t\m°nbt∏m-gm-Wv a-cn-®-\n-e-bn¬ I≠Xv. Xp-S¿-∂v tUm-Œ¿ F-Øn a-c-Ww ÿn-co-I-cn-°p-I-bm-bncp-∂p. ar-X-tZ-lw C-t±-l-sØ kzo-I-cn-°m≥ hn-am-\-Øm-h-fØn-seØnb _-‘p-°ƒ-°p

ssI-am-dn. 23 h¿-j-am-bn jm¿P-bn-se A¬-P-ko-d In-®¨ Iº-\n-bn-se Po-h-\-°m-c-\m-bncp-∂p k-øn-Zv. am-Xm-hv: _o-]mØp-tamƒ. `m-cy: k¬-a. a-°-fn√. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: k-°o¿, _jo¿, Iu-e-Øv.

Ir-jv-W³

am-ln: sh-Ãv ]-≈q-cn-se Ir-jv-W-Kn-cn lu-kn¬ kn Ir-jv-W≥ (83). X-fn-∏d-ºv _o Io-]n-Mv F-IvÃ≥-j≥ sk‚-dn-se ap≥ kq-∏¿-ssh-k-dpw F-´mw hm¿-Uv tIm¨-{K-kv `m-chm-ln-bp-am-Wv. `m-cy: ]-tcX-bm-b \m-Wn. a-°ƒ: tim-`-\, K-tW-jv, ]p-jv-], ]-Xav m-h-Xnkp-j-W, c-Rv-Pn-\n, A]m-e° - m-Sv:- s]-cp-sh-ºv- \n¬Ip-am¿. tNm-dt- °m-´n¬- ] - fl - m-eb - - a-cp-a-°ƒ: `m-kv-I-c≥, cØn¬- ]-Xvam-hX - n (- 80)-.kv-\, h¬-k≥, k-Xo-i≥, `¿-Øm-hv:- - ]-tc-X\ - m-b- ]- k-Po-h≥, ko-a. Xvat- em-N\ - ≥ - .- a-°ƒ-:- Pb-\m-cm-bW - ≥ - ,- P-bc - m-Pv,- \m-cm-b-W³ \m-bÀ Kn-cn-P, ]-tc-X\ - m-b P-b- t_m-hn-°m-\w: Im-™Ir-jvW - ≥ - .- a-cp-a° - ƒ-:- jo- ßm-Sv F-kv.-_n.-Sn D-tZyme,- t_-_n- sN-ºI - w,- Ko- K-ÿ-\pw Im-\-Øq¿ k¿tΔm-Z-b hm-b-\-im-em {]X,- P-bn-\n-Zm-kv.kn-U‚p-am-bn-cp-∂ Im-\kn-.]n- .Fw- kw-ÿm-\sk-{I-´d - n- ]n-Wd - m-bn- hn-P- Øq¿ tN-Sn-°m¬ \m-cmb-≥,- sk-{I-t´dn-b‰ - v- Aw- b-W≥ \m-b¿ (56). `m-cy: k-Xo-tZ-hn (A-[ym-]n-I, Kw- F- sI- _m-e≥ - Fw.F¬.-F,- Pn-√m- sk-{I-´d - n- Im-\-Øq¿ K-h. bp.-]n kvIqƒ). a-Iƒ: kz-]v-\. kkn- sI- cm-tP-{μ-≥,- Fw_n- cm-tP-jv- Fw-.]n Xp-S- tlm-Z-c-߃: am-[-h≥ ßn-bh - ¿- ho-´n-se-Øn- A- \m-b¿, Ip-™n-cm-a≥ \mb¿, Ir-jv-W≥ \m-b¿, t¥ym-]N - m-ca - ¿-∏n-®p._m-e-Ir-jv-W≥, e-£v-an.

sam-bv-Xo³-Ip-«n lm-Pn

sam-b-vXp

]m-ºp-cp-Øn: ]m-ºp-cpØn-bn-se ]u-c-{]-ap-J\pw ap-kv-enw eo-Kn-s‚ ]g-b-Im-e t\-Xm-hp-am-b Fw sam-bv-Xo≥-Ip-´n lmPn (75). ]m-ºp-cp-Øn a-l√v ap-X-h-√n, im-Jm ap-kvenw eo-Kv {]-kn-U‚ v, ]mºp-cp-Øn am-∏n-f F.bp.]n. kv-Iqƒ am-t\P¿ F-∂o \n-e-I-fn¬ {]h¿-Øn-®n-´p-≠v. `m-cy: ]tc-X-bm-b hn Sn l-Δm DΩ. a-°ƒ: A-–p-√, J-ZoP, k-emw (jm¿-P), Bbn-i, ap-l-Ω-ZvIp-™n, Pao-e, lm-cn-kv, ap-kv-X-^ (C-cp-h-cpw jm¿-P). a-cp-a°ƒ: Fw l-^v-k-Øv, Fw B-Zw lm-Pn, i-co-^ \m-dm-Øv, ap-\o¿ s]m-bvØpw-I-S-hv, d-Po-\ tN-tecn, l-k≥ I-ºn¬, Fw ]n km-Pn-Z.

]-\-a-cw: hm-tSm-®m¬ IZ-fn-°m-´n¬ (sI.Sn) sambv-Xp (64). ]-\-a-cw kn.Fw tIm-f-Pv sF.Sn.knbp-sS {]n≥kn-∏-em-bn-cp-∂p. Zo¿-LIm-ew _mw-•q-cn-se kzIm-cy I-º-\n-bn-epw tkh-\-a-\p-jvTn-®n-´p-≠v. `mcy: kp-ss_-Z. a-°ƒ: ssk-\p¬ B-_n-Zv, s^_o-\. a-cp-a-°ƒ: \n-jmZv, k-Pv-\.

B-an-\ X-fn-∏-d-ºv: ]-©m-b-Øv In-W-dn-\p k-ao-]w Ip-∂Øv A-{¥p B-an-\ (80). `¿-Øm-hv: ]-tc-X-\m-b C{_m-low.

tZ-h-In ^-tdm-°v: a-Æq¿ h-S-°pºm-Sv sd-bn¬ ]-tc-X-\mb I-ºm-e km-an-°p-´n-bpsS `m-cy tZ-h-In (81). a°ƒ: im-¥-Ip-am-cn, {io[-c≥, c-Xv-\-Ip-am-cn. a-cpa-°ƒ: A-≠n-t»-cn Irjv-W≥, tim-`-\, s\-√nt°m-S≥ N-{μ≥ ]p-√n-]-dºv.

s]m-¶p-Ip-«n-b-½ Nn-‰q¿: X-Ø-aw-K-ew tNºm-S-Øv ho-´n¬ ]-tc-X\m-b tI-i-h-s‚ `m-cy s]m-∂p-Ip-´n-b-Ω (91).

hn F³ ap-c-fo-[-c³ I-c-Wn: Un.kn.kn FIv-kn-Iyq´o-hv Aw-Kw Ic-Wn h-S-t°-\-S-bn¬ hn F≥ ap-c-fo-[-c≥ (43) \n-cym-X-\m-bn. I-Wn-bm-º-‰ {Km-a-∏©m-b-Øv ssh-kv {]kn-U‚ v, k¿-Δo-kv kl-I-c-W- _m-¶v U-b-dIv-S¿, I-c-Wn P-\-Xm hm-b-\m-im-e {]-knU‚ v, bq-Øv tIm¨-{Kkv Pn-√m- sk-{I-´-dn, afi-ew bq-Øv tIm¨{K-kv {]-kn-U‚ v F-∂o \n-e-I-fn¬ {]-h¿-Øn®n-´p-≠v. ]nXmhv: ]-tcX-\m-b \m-cm-b-W≥-Ip´n. amXmhv: Im¿-Xym-b\n. `m-cy: jo-\. a-°ƒ: hn-jv-Wp-cm-Pv, Ir-jv-Wth-Wn. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: a-t\m-Pv, hn-t\m-Zv, kptc-jv (J-Ø¿). kw-kvIm-cw C-∂p cm-hn-se Hº-Xn-\ ho-´p-h-f-∏n¬. ap-Jy-a-{¥n D-Ω≥-Nm≠n, sI.]n.kn.kn {]kn-U‚ v c-ta-iv sN-∂nØ-e, Fw sF jm-\hm-kv Fw.]n., h-\n-XmI-Ωo-j≥ A-[y-£ sI kn tdm-k-°p-´n A-\ptim-N-\-a-dn-bn-®p. a-{¥n ]n sI P-b-e-£v-an, sF kn _m-e-Ir-jv-W≥ Fw.F¬.F., Un.kn.kn {]-kn-U‚ v sI F¬ ]u-tem-kv hk-Xn-bn-se-Øn A-t¥y]-Nm-ca¿-∏n-®p.

I≥ A-I-Øp-I-b-dn-b-sX-∂p t]men-kv kw-i-bn-°p-∂p. A-e-am-c-bnse h-kv-Xp-°ƒ hm-cn-h-en-®n-Sp-Ibpw ap-dn-bn¬ ap-f-Ip-s]m-Sn hn-X-dpI-bpw sN-bv-Xn-´p-≠v.

X-S-hm-´p-ho-´n-\p-Sp-Øp X-s∂bm-Wv ko-X-Ω-bp-sS a-I-\pw Ip-Spw_w I-gn-™n-cp-∂-Xv. C-h¿-°p-≈ `-£-Ww F-Øn-®p-sIm-Sp-°p-I-bmbn-cp-∂p ]-Xn-hv. sIm-√-s∏-´-Xn-\p X-te Zn-h-khpw X-s‚ a-I≥ sj-_n≥ `-£Ww F-Øn-®n-cp-s∂-∂pw A-Ω hmXn¬ A-I-Øp-\n-∂p ]q-´n D-dßm≥-t]m-hp-I-bm-Wp-≠m-b-sX∂pw a-I≥ _m-e≥ ]-d-™p. t\-csØ F-gp-t∂¬-°p-am-bn-cp-∂ AΩ-sb Im-Wm-Øn-\m¬ ho-´nseØn t\m-°n-b-t∏m-gm-Wp sIm√-s∏-´ \n-e-bn¬ I-≠-Xv. D-S≥ tIm-´-°¬ t]m-en-kn¬ A-dn-bn°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. am-k-߃-°p ap-ºpw C-tX ho-

ImÂ-\-S-bm-{X-¡m-c³ Im-dn-Sn-¨p- a-cn-¨p

F-S-h-Æ: tIm-gn-h-≠n-°v F-kv-tIm¿-´v t]m-b Im-dnSn-®v Im¬-\-S-bm-{X-°mc≥ a-cn-®p. Ip-≠p-tXm-Sv Ip-cn-ipw-]-Sn-bn-se sh-≈®m-en ap-l-Ω-Zv (sN-dn-˛75) B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. C-∂-se cm-hn-se-bm-bn-cp-∂p A-]I-Sw. \n-e-ºq¿ `m-K-Øp\n-∂p tIm-gn- I-b-‰n-h-cp∂ hm-l-\-Øn-\v F-kv-tIm¿-´v t]m-hp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂ Im-dm-Wv C-Sn-®-Xv. s]-c-n-¥¬-a-Æ kz-Im-cy B-ip-]{Xn-bn-se-Øn-s®-¶n-epw c-£n-°m-\m-bn-√. am-Xm-hv: J-Zo-P. `m-cy-am¿: B-bn-ip-Ω, ]-tc-Xbm-b Xm-ln-b. a-°ƒ: ssl-{Zp, P-ao-e, A-–p¬ aPo-Zv (ku-Zn), ^-Po-jv, _p-jv-d. a-cp-a-°ƒ: k-°o-\, ap-kv-X-^, \-ko-d, kw-km¿ _o-Kw, G-\n. k-tlm-Zc≥: A-e-hn. F-S-h-Æ t{K-Uv F-kv.sF sI kn kp-tc-{μ≥ C≥-Iz-kv-‰v \-S-Øn-b ar-X-tZ-lw s]-cn-¥¬-a-Æ Xmeq-°v B-ip-]-{Xn-bn-se t]m-kv-‰v-tam-¿-´-Øn-\p tijw Ip-≠p-tXm-Sv Pp-am-a-kv-Pn-Zv J-_¿-ÿm-\n¬ a-dhp-sN-bv-Xp.

hn-jw A-I-¯p-sN-¶v a-cn-¨p

am-ln: ]p-t∂m¬ C-øØpw-Im-Sv Im-´n¬ am-[h≥ (65). ]-≈q¿ ]m-cmau-≠v Sn-º¿ I-º\ - n-bnse tPm-en-°m-c\ - m-bn-cp∂p. `m-cy: I-ae - . a-°ƒ: Zn-hy, [-\y. a-cp-a° - ƒ: cmtP-jv, iymw. k-tlm-Zc - ߃: cm-P≥, \-fn-\n, c-aWn, jo-\n, {]-Zo-]≥, ]tc-X\ - m-b D-Øa - ≥.

F-S-h-Æ: hn-jw A-I-Øp-sN-∂v ho-´-Ω a-cn-®p. HXm-bn ]-Sn-™m-sd Nm-Ø-√q¿ Hm-S-≠-∏m-d- ]-´o-cn Znt\-i-s‚ `m-cy tIm-´-bn¬ im-¥(32)bm-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. I-gn-™ Zn-h-kw D-®-bv-°v c-t≠m-sS-bm-Wv im-¥sb ho-´n¬ hn-jw A-I-Øp-sN-∂v A-h-i-\n-e-bn¬ I-≠-Xv. a-t©-cn P-\. B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ F-Øn-s®¶n-epw c-£n-°m-\m-bn-√. `¿-Xr-]o-U-\-w-aq-ew Bfl-l-Xy sN-bv-X-Xm-sW-∂v kq-N-\-bp-≈-Xm-bn t]m-en-kv ]-d-™p. sh-‰n-e-∏m-d-bn-se ]-tc-X-\m-b tIm-´-bn¬ tI-e≥-˛-am-X Z-º-Xn-I-fp-sS a-I-fm-Wv. a°ƒ: B-Xn-c, B-Zn-Xy, A-iz≥, A-`n-tj-Iv. k-tlmZ-c-߃: cm-Pp, cm-a-Ir-jv-W≥, i-¶-c≥, X-¶. F-S-h-Æ F-kv.sF hn P-b-{]-Im-iv C≥-Iz-Ãv \S-Øn-b ar-X-tZ-lw a-t©-cn P-\-d¬ B-ip-]-{Xnbn¬ t]m-kv-‰v-tam¿-´w sN-bv-Xp.

l-eo-a

Xq-§n-a-cn-¨ \n-e-bnÂ

am-[-h³

sIm-bn-em-≠n: sNtßm-´p-Im-hv I-h-em-Sv ]m-d-°-Øm-g _n-kv-an-√ a≥-kn-en¬ l-eo-a (70). `¿-Øm-hv; ]-tc-X-\m-b sam-bv-Xo≥ Ip-™n. a°ƒ; B-an-\, D-ssa-_, kp-sse-J. a-cp-a-I≥: B-kn-^v (_mw-•q¿).

kp-l-dv _-¥n-tbm-Sv: aw-K¬-]mSn Nq-°n-cn A-Sp-°w lu-kn-se A-ºm¿ apl-ΩZ- n-s‚ `m-cy kp-lvd (38). a-°ƒ: ssk-\_ - , A-^vk - ¬, A-\k - v.

hr-² ho-«n-\p-Ån sIm-Ã-s¸-« \n-e-bn tIm-´-°¬: X-\n-®p-Xm-a-kn-°p-∂ hr-≤-sb ho-´n-\p-≈n¬ sIm-√-s∏-´ \n-e-bn¬ I-s≠-Øn. F-S-cn-t°m-Sv Np-S-e-∏m-d I-√p-sh-´n sIm-´w-]-dºn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b I-d-∏w-Ip-´n-bpsS `m-cy ko-X-Ω(83)bm-Wp sIm-√s∏-´-Xv. sXm-´-Sp-Øp Xm-a-kn-°p-∂ a-I-\pw `m-cy-bpw sNm-Δm-gv-N cm-hnse G-tgm-sS- ho-´n-se-Øn-b-t∏m-gmWp I-tk-c-bn¬ sI-´n-bn-´ \n-ebn¬ ar-X-tZ-lw I-≠-Xv. I-gp-Øn¬ D-Sp-ap-≠v Np-‰n ap-dp°n-bn-cp-∂p. hr-≤-bp-sS Im-Xn-se kz¿-Ww ]q-in-b tXm-S \-„-s∏-´Xn-\m¬ tam-„m-°-fm-Wn-Xn-\p ]n∂n-se-∂m-Wv t]m-en-kn-s‚ {]m-Yan-I \n-K-a-\w. ]n≥-h-i-sØ P-\-ens‚ a-c A-gn-Iƒ ap-dn-®m-Wv Lm-X-

Xm-\q¿: kw-ÿm-\ l÷v I-Ωn-‰n ap-tJ-\ I-gn™ am-k-w l-÷n-\p t]mb Xo¿-∞m-S-I≥ a-°bn¬ a-cn-®p. \n-d-a-cp-Xq¿ ]-Ø-ºm-Sv A-c-¶-Øn¬ Ip-™-l-Ω-Zv ap-kv -eym¿ (72) B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. `m-cy: Ip-™o-cn-b. a°ƒ: A-–p-k-emw -k-Jm^n, A-–p¬ P-eo¬ ap-kv-eym¿, A-–p¬- K-^q¿, A-–p¬- d-jo-Zv k-Jm-^n, ap-l-Ω-Zv d-^o-Jv \n-kman, i-co-^, l-∂-Øv, l-^v-k-Øv. a-cp-a-°ƒ: A-–p -emw A-lv-k-\n sN-√q¿, A-–p- -emw A-lv-k\n, A-–p-¬ d-low Im-an¬ k-Jm-^n, B-bn-i, \ko-a, ssJ-dp-∂o-k, D-Ωp¬-ssJ¿, ssa-aq-\.

Sn-s‚ P-\¬ X-I¿-Øv tam-j-W-{iaw \-S-∂-Xm-bn kv-t‰-j-\n¬ ]-cmXn \¬-In-bn-cp-∂p. Xn-cq¿ Un-ssh.F-kv.]n sI Fw ssk-Xm-en, h-fm-t©-cn kn.sF Fw kn-±o-Jv, Xn-cq¿ kn.sF B¿ dm-^n, tIm-´-°¬ Fkv.sF sI ]n s_-∂n, I¬-∏-It©-cn F-kv.sF F≥ _n ssj-Pp kw-`-h-ÿ-e-sØ-Øn. tUm-Kv kvIzm-Upw hn-c-e-S-bm-f hn-Z-Kv-[-cpw ]cn-tim-[-\ \-S-Øn. Xm-\q¿ kn.sF Fw ]n k-t¥m-jn-\m-Wv A-t\z-jWNp-a-X-e. ar-X-tZ-lw tIm-gnt°m-Sv sa-Un-°¬ tIm-f-Pn¬ t]mkv-‰v-tam¿-´w \-S-Øn. ko-X-Ω-bp-sS a-Iƒ: k-tcm-Pn-\n. a-cp-a-°ƒ: cmP≥, {io-P.

tX-™n-∏-ew: bp-hm-hn-s\ ho-´n¬ Xq-ßn-a-cn-® \ne-bn¬ I-s≠-Øn. tN-te-{º sN-°p-am-Sp-Ip-∂n¬ Xm-fn-∏-d-ºv t{]-a-cm-P-s‚ a-I≥ {]-Po-jv (21) B-Wv a-cn-®Xv. ss{U-h-dm-b ]n-Xm-hv ho-´n¬ F-Øn-bt∏mgmWv kw`-h-a-dn-™Xv. am-Xm-hv c-Pn-X- (\-gv-kv). H-cp k-tlm-Z-cp-≠v. ar-X-tZ-lw tIm-gn-t°m-Sv sa-Un°¬ tIm-f-Pv B-ip-]-{Xn-bn-se tam¿-®-dn-bn¬.

Po-¸v a-dn-ªv ho-«-½ a-cn-¨p

l-cn-∏m-Sv: _-‘p-ho-Sv k-μ¿-in-®v a-S-ßp-I-bm-bn-cp∂ kw-Lw k-©-cn-® Po-∏v a-dn-™v ho-´-Ω a-cn-®p. sIm-√w A-©¬ ]-S-a¨ tIm-am-´p ho-´n¬ k-Xo-jv _m-_p-hn-s‚ `m-cy hn-P-b-{io(37) -B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. tZ-io-b-]m-X-bn¬ am-[-h P-Mv-j-\v k-ao-]w C-∂-se ]p-e¿-s®-bm-Wv A]-ISw. B-e-∏p-g-bn-se _-‘p-ho-´n¬ \n-∂p a-S-ßptºmƒ F-Xn-tc h-∂ hm-l-\-Øn-\v ssk-Uv sIm-Sp°p-∂-Xn-\n-sS Po∏v \n-b-{¥-Wwhn´v a-dn-bpI-bm-bncp-∂p. sX-dn-®pho-W hnP-b{iobpsS tZlØv Po∏v Ib-dn-bn-d-ßn. D-S≥ B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ {]-th-in-∏ns®-¶n-epw c-£n-°m-\m-bn-√. H-∏-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂ `¿Øm-hv k-Xo-jv _m-_p, ss{U-h¿ D-Z-b≥ F-∂n-h¿°v ]-cn-t°-‰p. l-cn-∏m-Sv t]m-en-kv ta¬-\-S-]-Sn-Iƒ kzo-I-cn-®p.--

I-S-¶Â-¡p-t¯-äv a-cn-¨p

Im-bw-Ip-fw: I-S-∂¬-°p-tØ-‰v Kp-cp-X-cm--h-ÿbn¬ Nn-In-¬-k-bn¬ I-gn-™n-cp-∂ a¬-ky-hym-]-cn a-cn-®p. \q-d-\m-Sv ap-Xp-Im-´p-I-c-°p-gn-bn¬ sX-t°Xn¬ kn-±o-Jv dm-hp-Ø-dm(52)Wv a-cn-®-Xv. ho-Sn-\v kao-]-sØ I-S-∂¬ Iq-´n¬ \n-∂m-Wv C-bmƒ-°v IptØ-‰-Xv. `mcy: \q¿-P-lm≥. a-°ƒ:jnPn, sj-an.

A-]-I-S-¯n hn-ZymÀ-Yn a-cn¨p

Nm-h-°mSv: I-S-∏p-dw sh-fn-s®-Æ-∏-Sn-bn¬ Im¿ ssk-°n-fn¬ C-Sn-®p ]-cn-t°-‰p Nn-In¬-k-bn-em-bncp-∂ hn-Zym¿-Yn a-cn®p. sh-fn-s®-Æ∏-Sn t]mW-Øv sk-bv-Xv ap-l-Ω-Zn-s‚ a-Iƒ km-Pn-X-bp-sS a-I≥ Ppssd-Pv(12) B-Wp a-cn-®Xv. hm-Sm-\∏-≈n a-Zm¿ Cw-•njv ao-Un-bw kv-Iqƒ A©mw ¢m-kv hn-Zym¿-YnbmWv. I-gn-™Znh-kw ho-Sn-\p k-ao-]-Øp≠m-b A-]-I-S-Øn¬ ]-cn-t°-‰p Xr-iq¿ lm¿-´v B-ip-]{Xn-bn¬ Nn-In¬-k-bn-em-bncp∂p. ]m-e-°m-Sv s\∑m-d kz-tZ-in ap-kv-X-^-bp-sS a-I-\mWv.


6

thÀ-]mSv

kannur

16 HIvtSm-_¿ 2013 _p[≥

]n-©p-_m-e³ ]m-¼p-I-Sn-tb-äv a-cn-¨p A-¯m-bn \m-cm-b-W s]m-Xp-hmÄ ]-ø-∂q¿: F≥.kn.]n, C-S-Xp]-£ {]-ÿm-\ß-fp-sS t\-Xm-hpw kmaq-ln-I-˛-kmw-kv-Im-cn-I˛-B-[ym-fln-I {]-h¿Ø-I-\pw Km-‘n-b-\pam-b A-Øm-bn \m-cm-bW s]m-Xp-hmƒ (76). ]-ø-∂q¿ \-K-c-k-`m ap≥ Ãm-‚ n-Mv I-Ωn-‰n sN-b¿-am≥, ]-ø-∂q¿ k¿-ho-kv k-l-I-c-W _m-¶v k-an-Xn- Aw-Kw, tI-c-f a-Zy-\n-tcm-[-\ k-an-Xn- ssh-kv {]-knU‚ v, tI-c-f k¿-thm-Zb a-fi-ew ]-ø-∂q¿ G-cn-bm ssh-kv {]-knU‚ v, A-∂q¿ k-Rv-Pb≥ kv-am-c-I {K-Ÿm-ebw {]-h¿-Ø-I k-an-Xnbw-Kw F-∂o ÿm-\߃ hln-®n-cp-∂p. ]-tc-X-cm-b ]n bp cm-as∏m-Xp-hm-fns‚-bpw ]m¿-h-XnA-Ω-bp-sS-bpw a-I-\m-Wv. `m-cy: h-Æm´n¬ ]p-Xn-bho-´n¬ btim-Z. a-°ƒ: i-in-Ipam¿, k-t¥m-jvIp-am¿, Ko-X, ssj-\n. a-cp-a°ƒ: c-ta-i≥, {io-Ipam¿, {]-k-∂, k-Pn-\n. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: N-{μ s]m-Xp-hmƒ, ]-tc-X-cmb Ir-jv-Ws]m-Xp-hmƒ, tKm-hn-μs]m-Xp-hmƒ, Nn-cn-bIp-™n A-Ω, ]m¿-h-Xn A-Ω.

Ir-jv-W³

sam-bv-Xo³-Ip-«n lm-Pn

am-ln: sh-Ãv ]-≈q-cn-se Ir-jv-W-Kn-cn lu-kn¬ kn Ir-jv-W≥ (83). X-fn∏-d-ºv _o Io-]n-Mv F-IvÃ≥-j≥ sk‚-dn-se ap≥ kq-∏¿-ssh-k-dpw F´mw hm¿-Uv tIm¨-{K-kv `m-c-hm-ln-bp-am-Wv. `m-cy: ]-tc-X-bm-b \m-Wn. a°ƒ: tim-`-\, K-tW-jv, ]p-jv-], kp-j-W, c-Rv-Pn\n, A-\n¬Ip-am¿. a-cp-a°ƒ: `m-kv-I-c≥, c-kv-\, h¬-k≥, k-Xo-i≥, kPo-h≥, ko-a.

]m-ºp-cp-Øn: ]m-ºp-cpØn-bn-se ]u-c-{]-ap-J\pw ap-kv-enw eo-Kn-s‚ ]-g-b-Im-e t\-Xm-hp-amb Fw sam-bv-Xo≥-Ip-´n lm-Pn (75). ]m-ºp-cpØn a-l-√v ap-X-h-√n, imJm ap-kv-enw eo-Kv {]-knU‚ v, ]m-ºp-cp-Øn am∏n-f F.bp.]n. kv-Iqƒ am-t\-P¿ F-∂o \n-e-Ifn¬ {]-h¿-Øn-®n-´p-≠v. `m-cy: ]-tc-X-bm-b hn Sn l-Δm D-Ω. a-°ƒ: A–p-√, J-Zo-P, k-emw (jm¿-P), B-bn-i, ap-lΩ-ZvIp-™n, P-ao-e, lmcn-kv, ap-kv-X-^ (C-cp-hcpw jm¿-P). a-cp-a-°ƒ: Fw l-^v-k-Øv, Fw B-Zw lm-Pn, i-co-^ \mdm-Øv, ap-\o¿ s]m-bvØpw-I-S-hv, d-Po-\ tNte-cn, l-k≥ I-ºn¬, Fw ]n km-Pn-Z.

sIm-½-¨n lm-jnw I-Æq¿: B-Zy-Im-e cmPym-¥-c ^p-Sv-t_m-ƒ-Xmcw ]m-d-°-≠n dw-e tImt´-Pn-¬ sIm-Ω-®n lmjnw (63). a-lm-cm-{„ kt¥m-jv t{Sm^n So-aw-Kw, 1971, 1972 h¿-j-ß-fn¬ Pq-\n-b¿ C-¥y≥ So-awKw, I-Æq¿ a-p-\n-kn-∏¬ kv-Iqƒ Sow Iym-]v-‰≥, 1966˛68 h¿-j-ß-fn¬ Pnw-Jm-\ So-aw-Kw F-∂o \n-e-I-fn¬ {]-h¿-Øn-®n´p-≠v. `m-cy: tIm-gn-t°mSv ]p-Xn-b-d am-fn-tb-°¬ B-bn-i. a-°ƒ: X-kv\nw, Xu-ko-^v (J-Ø¿). a-cp-a-°ƒ: Pnw-dn-kv kmZn-Jv., k-tlm-Z-c-߃: A-–p¬ k-Øm¿, \q-dp±o≥, \q-dp¬ A-ao≥ (ku-Zn), J-øpw, d-lvam≥, C-Jv-_m¬, dw-e.

sam-b-vXp

tPm-kv-

Ip-ª-¼p- \m-bÀ

]-\-a-cw: hm-tSm-®m¬ IZ-fn-°m-´n¬ (sI.Sn) sambv-Xp (64). ]-\-a-cw kn.Fw tIm-f-Pv sF.Sn.knbp-sS {]n≥kn-∏-em-bn-cp-∂p. Zo¿-LIm-ew _mw-•q-cn-se kzIm-cy I-º-\n-bn-epw tkh-\-a-\p-jvTn-®n-´p-≠v. `mcy: kp-ss_-Z. a-°ƒ: ssk-\p¬ B-_n-Zv, s^_o-\. a-cp-a-°ƒ: \n-jmZv, k-Pv-\.

am-\-¥-hm-Sn-: Xp-d-°¬tPm-kv- (66)-.- kw-kv-Imcw- C-∂v D-®-bv-°v- I-Ω\- en-‰n¬- ^v-f-h¿- B¿kn- N¿-®v- sk-an-tØ-cnbn¬.- `m-cy-:- Nn-∂-Ω- (dn´. A-[ym-]n-I,- ^m.- Pn.sI.-Fw- ssl-kv-Iqƒ,I-Wn-bm-cw-).- a-°ƒ-:- Acp-¨ -(A-[ym-]-I-≥ Fkv-.sI-.Fw.-sP, I¬-∏-‰),- In-c-¨ -({^m-≥-kn-kvB-ep-°m-kv-).- a-cp-a°ƒ-:- A-tem-jy- Atem-jy-kv.]p-√m-fq¿: ]-©m-bØnse dn-´. bp.Un. ¢m¿-°pw tI-c-f ]-©mb-Øv Fw-tπm-bo-kv Hm¿-K-ss\-tk-j≥ ap≥ Xm-eq-°v J-Pm-©nbpamb Xm-sg ]-b-‰m-Øv hm-kp (71). ]q-√m-fq-cnse tIm¨-{K-kv t\-Xmhm-bn-cp-∂p. `m-cy: kp-aXn. a-°ƒ: kn-‘p, kpta-jv, kp-Po-jv, a-cp-aI≥: ]n Ir-jv-W≥ (Ccp-h-≈q¿).

Im-™-ßm-Sv: Zp¿-Km lb¿-sk-°≥-U-dn kvIqƒ am-t\-Pn-Mv I-Ωn-‰n ssh-kv {]-kn-U‚pw tIm-tSmw-˛-t_-fq¿ ]©m-b-Øv ap≥ {]-knU‚p-am-b sI ]n Ip™-ºp- \m-b¿ (93). I¿j-I-{]-ap-J-\m-bn-cp-∂ Ip-™-ºp-\m-b¿ \n-c-h[n t£-{X-ß-fp-sS-bpw h-b-\m-´p-Ip-e-h≥ sXøw-sI-´v a-tlm¬-k-hØns‚-bpw sN-b¿-am\m-bn {]-h¿-Øn-®n-cp∂p. tIm-tSmw t_-fq¿ `K-h-Xn t£-{Xw c-£m[n-Im-cn-bm-Wv. `m-cy: ]tc-X-bm-b I-º-√q¿ tIm-´-bn¬ km-hn-{Xn AΩ.- a-°ƒ: kq-cy-\m-cmb-W≥, cm-P-tKm-]me≥, [-\-Rv-P-b≥ \ºym¿, sI cm-a-N-{μ≥ \-ºym¿, ]o-Xmw-_-c≥ \-ºym¿, {io-e-X cm-PvIp-am¿, {]-Im-i≥. a-cp-a°ƒ: tIm-tSm-Øv kn‘p, Ir-jv-W-Ip-am-cn, ca, C-S-bn-eyw kn-‘p, cmPv-Ip-am¿ (A-_q-Z-_n).

in-h-i-¦-c³ \m-bÀ

C-¼n-¨nsam-b-vXn

sIm-Sp-h-≈n: F-tf-‰n¬ h-t´m-fn sN-dn-b-߬ ]tc-X-\m-b kn kn A-bΩ-ZvIp-´n-bp-sS `m-cy D-°ø (85).

D-t≈y-cn: Im-™n-°mhv ]p-Xn-tbm-´n¬ C-ºn®nsam-bv-Xn (89). `m-cy: Ip-™m-an. a-°ƒ: A-lΩ-Zv (dn-´. A-[ym-]-I≥), A-–p¬ I-_o¿ (A[ym-]-I≥, tIm-°-√q¿ ssl-kv-Iqƒ), A-–p¬ a-Po-Zv (A-_q-Z-_n), AB-en –p¬ A-ko-kv (ss{IwsIm-tΩ-cn: s]m-dm-bn¬ {_m-©v, tIm-gn-t°m-Sv), B-en (83). `m-cy: ]m-Øp- ]-tc-X-\m-b A- ≥ssΩ. a-°ƒ: _n-®-ΩtIm-b, j-°o-e, ku-ZmZvtIm-b, D-kv-am≥, A-ko- _o-hn (sN-dp-h-Æq¿ shkv, d-jo-Zv, B-bn-i-_n, kv-‰v F¬.]n. kv-Iqƒ), _n-®m-an-\, k-°o-\, d-kn- km-_n-d, ssk-\. bm-_n, A-ko-\.

]-Xvam-h-Xn-

A-½p-A-½

D-½À

th-Wp-tKm-]m-e³

k-t´m-jv

sN¿-∏p-f-t»-cn: B-\-μ∏-Sn {]-`m-e-bw h-en-b-]d-ºn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b \mcm-b-W≥ sN-´n-bm-cp-sS `m-cy A-Ωp-A-Ω (84). a°ƒ: D-Æn-Ir-jv-W≥ (ku-Zn), cm-Pv-tam-l≥ (A-Ωp ss{U- ¢o-\n-Mv, sN¿-∏p-f-t»-cn), I-em-afi-ew kp-io-e, hn-P-be-£v-an. a-cp-a-°ƒ: cp-‹n-Wn, Pb-{in, kp-{_lva-Wy≥, kp-μ-c≥.

dn-∏¨: ]-tc-X\ - m-b \-SØ≥-I≠ - n C-{_m-loans‚ a-I≥ \-SØ - ≥-I≠ - n D-Ω¿ (29). am-Xm-hv: J-ZoP. k-tlm-Zc - ß - ƒ: sjdo-\, ap-_» - n¿.

]-ø-∂q¿: sh-≈q¿ P-hl¿ hm-b-\-im-e-bv-°p k-ao-]w Fw ]n th-WptKm-]m¬ (51). an-I-® Im-bn-I kw-Lm-S-I-\mbn-cp-∂p. sN-dp-h-Øq-cnse a-Wn-b-d d-Iv-kn≥ F‚¿-ss{]-k-kv D-S-abm-Wv. ]-tc-X-cm-b ssX-h-f-∏n¬ Ir-jv-Ws‚-bpw ta-se]p-c-bn¬ \m-cm-b-Wn-bp-sS-bpw aI-\m-Wv. `m-cy: D-j. aIƒ: h¿-j.

C-cn-´n: hn-f-a-\-bn-se Xp-≠-°m-´n¬ k-t¥mjv (34). `m-cy: Pn-jv-\. a-°ƒ: B-Xn-c. k-tlm-Z-c߃: k-tP-jv, k-‘y.

A-tØm-fn; Ip-\n-bn¬ I-S-hn-se h-°p-I-≠n _m-_p (45). tNm-ºm¬ ^-n-jn-Mv lm¿-_¿ Np-a´p-sXm-gn-em-fn-bpw kn.sF.Sn.bp. Aw-K-hpam-bn-cp-∂p. `m-cy: `-hm\n. a-°ƒ; A-£-b (]Ømw ¢m-kv hn-Zym¿-Yn\n), A-Rv-P-en (A-©mw¢m-kv hn-Zym¿-Yn-\n).

]m-e-°m-Sv-: s]-cp-sh-ºvtNm-d-t°m-´n¬- -]-flm-eb-Øn¬- ]-Xvam-h-Xn (80)-.- `¿-Øm-hv-:- ]-tc-X\m-b- ]-Xva-tem-N-\-≥.a-°ƒ-:- P-b-\m-cm-b-W≥,- P-b-cm-Pv,- Kn-cn-P, ]tc-X-\m-b P-b-Ir-jv-W≥.- a-cp-a-°ƒ-:- jo-e,t_-_n- sN-º-Iw,- Ko-X,P-bn-\n-Zm-kv.kn-.]n- .Fw- kw-ÿm-\sk-{I-´-dn- ]n-W-dm-bnhn-P-b-≥,- sk-{I-t´dn-b‰v- Aw-Kw- F- sI- _m-e≥ Fw-.F¬.-F,- Pn-√msk-{I-´-dn- kn- sI- cmtP-{μ-≥,- Fw- _n- cm-tPjv- Fw-.]n Xp-S-ßn-b-h¿ho-´n-se-Øn- A-t¥ym-]Nm-c-a¿-∏n-®p.-

ap-l-½-Zv

P-\-In-b-½

a-t\m-l-c³ ]-ø-∂q¿: Ip-∂-cp-hnse ]-tc-X-\m-b \m-cmb-W-s‚ a-I≥ ]m-®-awK-e-Øv ]-Sn-™m-sd ho´n¬ a-t\m-l-c≥ (45). `m-cy: k-Xn. a-°ƒ: {ipXn, an-Yp≥. k-tlm-Z-c߃: {]-`m-I-c≥, {io-[c≥, e-X.

_m-_p

th-ß-c: A-®-\-º-ew ]™n ap-l-Ω-Zv (75). `mcy: Ip-™m-Øp-´n. a°ƒ: a-Ωp-´n, B-bn-i°p-´n, ^m-Øn-a, k-°o\. a-cp-a-°ƒ: Ip-™n-apl-Ω-Zv, sam-bv-Xo≥-Ip-´n, A-–p- -emw tN-dq¿, A–p- -emw.-

kp-l-dv

\m-cm-b-W³ \m-bÀ t_m-hn-°m-\w: Im-™ßm-Sv F-kv.-_n.-Sn D-tZymK-ÿ-\pw Im-\-Øq¿ k¿tΔm-Z-b hm-b-\-im-em {]kn-U‚p-am-bn-cp-∂ Im-\Øq¿ tN-Sn-°m¬ \m-cmb-W≥ \m-b¿ (56). `m-cy: k-Xo-tZ-hn (A-[ym-]n-I, Im-\-Øq¿ K-h. bp.-]n kvIqƒ). a-Iƒ: kz-]v-\. ktlm-Z-c-߃: am-[-h≥ \m-b¿, Ip-™n-cm-a≥ \mb¿, Ir-jv-W≥ \m-b¿, _m-e-Ir-jv-W≥, e-£v-an.

C-cn-ßq¿: C-cn-ßq-cn-se Io-gv-∏-≈n a-W-ßm-S≥ Xn-cp-aw-K-e-Øv P-\-In-bΩ (87). Ip-‰ym-´q-cn-se tX-e-°m´v ]-tc-X-\m-b hn kn Ip´n-Ir-jv-W≥ \-ºym-cpsS `m-cy-bm-Wv.

Ip-ªm-Xn

_-¥n-tbm-Sv: aw-K¬-]m-Sn Nq-°n-cn A-Sp-°w lukn-se A-ºm¿ ap-lΩ - Z- ns‚ `m-cy kp-lvd - (38). a°ƒ: ssk-\_ - , A-^vk¬, A-\k - v.

X-fn-∏-d-ºv: a-gq¿ _-e-`{Z kzm-an t£-{X-Øn-\p k-ao-]w A-°n-∏-d-º-Øv Ip-™m-Xn (80). `¿-Ømhv: hn -hn -I-Æ≥. a-°ƒ: F -]n -\m-cm-b-W≥ (dn-´. ^mw h¿-°¿, Ip-cp-ap-f-Iv K-th-j-W tI-{μw˛ ]-∂nIr-j-W v ³ \-¼q-Xn-cn Ip-μa - w-Ke - w: Nm-Øa - w-K- bq¿), cm-a-N-{μ≥, _m-eew s\-®q-fn tIm-cº - d - A - - Ir-jv-W≥, h¬-k-e, P\m¿-±-\≥ (-t]m-en-kv), Pd C-√Ø - v Ir-jvW - ≥- \b-e-£v-an, a-cp-a-°ƒ: I-aºq-Xc - n (89). sIm-bn-em≠n s]m-bn¬-Im-hv t£- em-£n (^mw h¿-°¿), {Xw ap≥ ta¬-im-¥n-bm- eo-e, ]-fl-\m-`≥, hn-PWv. `m-cy-am¿; ]-tc-Xc - m-b b≥, im-¥, Pn-j. tZ-hI - n A-¥¿-P\ - w. ]m¿h-Xn A-¥¿-P\ - w. a-°ƒ: \m-cm-b-W³ \m-bÀ Kw-K A-¥¿-P\ - w, hn-{I- Ip-‰n-t°m¬: πm-hp-≈a≥ \-ºq-Xc - n (im-¥n), °-b-bn-se I-fn-tßmw cm-[ (F-kv.H.F-kv. P\m-cm-b-W≥ \m-b¿ (88). Ωp), D-Æn-Ir-jvW - ≥ \`m-cy: ]-tc-X-bm-b \m-cmºq-Xn-cn (Hm-dn-b‚¬ _m- b-Wn-b-Ω. a-°ƒ: tKmMv Hm-^v sIm-ta-gvk - v, hn-μ≥, kp-a-Xn, Hm-a-\, tIm-gn-t°m-Sv), \m-cm-bam-[-h≥, tKm-]m-e-Ir-jvW≥ \-ºq-Xn-cn (ta¬-im- W≥, cm-a-N-{μ≥, tI-i¥n), s]m-bn¬-Im-hv t£- h≥. a-cp-a-°ƒ: \m-cm-b{Xw (sIm-bn-em-≠n), ap-c- W≥, N-{μ-ti-J-c≥, kpfo-[c - ≥ \-ºq-Xn-cn, ]-Xva- tc-jv, e-£v-an, im-¥, \m-`≥ \-ºq-Xn-cn, {io-P. {io-P, an-\n, A-\n-X, c-ay.-

D-¡-¿

]-ßm-h-Xn-b-½ tKm-hn-μ-]p-cw: am-hq¿ Kzm-fn-tbm¿ d-tbm¨kn¬ \n-∂p hn-c-an-® ]tc-X-\m-b Fw am-[-h≥\m-b-cp-sS `m-cy ta-se A-Ω-t©-cn ]-flm-h-Xnb-Ω (X-¶-a-Wn˛84). a°ƒ: F ]n P-b-\m-cm-bW≥ (Sm-Iv-kv {]m-Œo-jW¿), kp-Nn-{X, im-¥n. a-cp-a-°ƒ: jo-P, cm-a-\pÆn (e-£-Zzo-]v am¿-°‰n-Mv s^-Ut- d-j≥ - ), _m-eI - r-jW v- ≥ (_n-kn\-kv).

Ip-‰ym-Sn: G-‰n-tem-´p-Ω¬ _m-_p(48)hn-s\ a-cp-Xm¶-c in-ht- £-{X- ap-‰s - Ø B¬-ac - Ø - n¬ X - q-ßn-ac - n® \n-eb - n¬ I-s≠-Øn. `m-cy: kp-io-e. a-°ƒ: A\q-]v, A-RvP - \ - .

a-dn-bw-_n tIm-gn-t°m-Sv: ]-tc-X\ - mb kn F A-–p-√t- °m-bbp-sS `m-cy ]-em-°n¬ amfn-tb-°¬ a-dn-bw-_n (90). a-°ƒ: A-–p-¿dlvam≥, aq-kt- °m-b, D-kvam≥-tIm-b, C-ºn-®m-an-\_n, Ip-™n-_n. a-cp-a°ƒ: J-ad - p-∂o-k, ^mØn-aØ - v kp-ld - , Im-fntb-cI - Øv Ip-™p, ]-tcX-cm-b kn F≥ A-lΩ - Z- vtIm-b, ]n hn A-–p-¬ dkm-Jv.

I-e-´³-tIm-b A-co-°m-Sv: I-e-¥≥-kv lu-kv C ]n I-e-¥≥tIm-b (85). (I-e-¥≥-kv Iqƒ-_m¿, am-\m-©n-d). `m-cy: C-ºn-®n ^m-Øn-am_n (_o-hn). a-°ƒ: Dkvam≥tIm-b, ap-kv-X-^, A-j-d-^v, jm-^n, jmlp¬ l-ao-Zv, kp-l-dm_n (_n-®p), sse-e, Dssa-_, ssl-dp-∂n-k, l-ko-\. a-cp-a-°ƒ: A ≥-tIm-b, e-Øo-^v, _jo¿, \-ko¿, d-lv-a-Øp√, k-°o-\, km-ln-Z, kPn, k-Pv-\, ^m-kn-e.

sN¿-∏p-f-t»-cn: dn-´-. sdbn¬-th D-tZym-K-ÿ-≥ sh-≈n-t\-gn ]-´n-t»-cn in-h-i-¶-c≥ \m-b¿ (80). `m-cy: am-[-hn-°p´n A-Ω (dn-´-. {]-[m-\m-[ym]n-I, K-h. F¬.]n.F\o-e-I-WTv ³ \-¼q-Xn-cn kv sh-≈n-t\-gn). aam-hq¿: I-Æn-∏d-ºv °ƒ: Ir-jv-W-Ip-am¿ Pn.F¬.]n. kvI - qƒ- ap≥ (dn-´-. F-b¿-t^m-gv-kv), {]-[m-\m-[ym-]I - \ - pw Iin-h-Ip-am¿, tKm-]-IpÆn-∏d - º - v in-ht- £-{Xw am¿ (]n.Pn.F≥ _mwDu-cm-f\ - p-am-bn-cp-∂ t]•q¿), A-P-b-Ip-am¿ cq¿ C-√Ø - v \o-eI - WvT≥ \-ºq-Xn-cn (85). `m- (]n.Fw.Pn ssl-kvcy: ]-tc-Xb - m-b D-am-tZ-gn Iqƒ, ]m-e-°m-Sv), A-PnX, Ip-am-cn (A-[ym-]n-I, A-¥¿-P\ - w. a-°ƒ: hmNn-‰q¿ kw-kv-Ir-X ]mTkp-tZ-h≥ \-ºq-Xn-cn. Zmtam-Zc - ≥ \-ºq-Xn-cn, \o-e- im-e). a-cp-a-°ƒ: ssiI-WvT≥ \-ºq-Xn-cn (Ae-P, A-\n-X, {io-e, {][ym-]I - ≥, a-e∏ - p-dw), ao-f (F≥.F-kv.F-kv ]m¿-hX - n A-¥¿-P\ - w, tZ- tIm-f-Pv, H-‰-∏m-ew), kph-In A-¥¿-P\ - w, D-am-tZ- tc-jv cm-Pv (kn.]n.sF hn A-¥¿-P\ - w. a-cp-a]m-e-°m-Sv Pn-√m sk-{I°ƒ: ]p-fn-bt- »-cn hm-kp- ´-dn). kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v tZ-h≥ \-ºq-Xn-cn, am-fn-I tKm-hn-μ≥ \-ºq-Xn-cn, ]- cm-hn-se 10\-v sh-≈n-t\gn ho-´p-h-f-∏n¬. ∂yw h-≈n ap-cf - o-[c - ≥, B-bn-ip-½p {io-tZ-hn A-¥¿-P\ - w (A-[ym-]n-I. F.F¬.]n Xn-cq¿: ]p-√q¿ C-d-b-ØvkvI - qƒ I-Æn-∏d - º - v), {io- ]-d-ºn¬ B-bn-ip-Ωp P A-¥¿-P\ - w, tIm-af - w (55). a-°ƒ: k-eow, DΩpl-_o-_. A-¥¿-P\ - w.

I-c-Wn: Un.kn.kn FIv-kn-Iyq´o-hv Aw-Kw Ic-Wn h-S-t°-\-S-bn¬ hn F≥ ap-c-fo-[-c≥ (43) \n-cym-X-\m-bn. I-Wn-bm-º-‰ {Km-a-∏©m-b-Øv ssh-kv {]kn-U‚ v, k¿-Δo-kv kl-I-c-W- _m-¶v U-b-dIv-S¿, I-c-Wn P-\-Xm hm-b-\m-im-e {]-knU‚ v, bq-Øv tIm¨-{Kkv Pn-√m- sk-{I-´-dn, afi-ew bq-Øv tIm¨{K-kv {]-kn-U‚ v F-∂o \n-e-I-fn¬ {]-h¿-Øn®n-´p-≠v. ]nXmhv: ]-tcX-\m-b \m-cm-b-W≥-Ip´n. amXmhv: Im¿-Xym-b\n. `m-cy: jo-\. a-°ƒ: hn-jv-Wp-cm-Pv, Ir-jv-Wth-Wn. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: a-t\m-Pv, hn-t\m-Zv, kptc-jv (J-Ø¿). kw-kvIm-cw C-∂p cm-hn-se Hº-Xn-\ ho-´p-h-f-∏n¬. ap-Jy-a-{¥n D-Ω≥-Nm≠n, sI.]n.kn.kn {]kn-U‚ v c-ta-iv sN-∂nØ-e, Fw sF jm-\hm-kv Fw.]n., h-\n-XmI-Ωo-j≥ A-[y-£ sI kn tdm-k-°p-´n A-\ptim-N-\-a-dn-bn-®p. a-{¥n ]n sI P-b-e-£v-an, sF kn _m-e-Ir-jv-W≥ Fw.F¬.F., Un.kn.kn {]-kn-U‚ v sI F¬ ]u-tem-kv hk-Xn-bn-se-Øn A-t¥y]-Nm-ca¿-∏n-®p.

am-[-h³ am-ln: ]p-t∂m¬ C-øØpw-Im-Sv Im-´n¬ am-[h≥ (65). ]-≈q¿ ]m-cmau-≠v Sn-º¿ I-º\ - n-bnse tPm-en-°m-c\ - m-bn-cp∂p. `m-cy: I-ae - . a-°ƒ: Zn-hy, [-\y. a-cp-a° - ƒ: cmtP-jv, iymw. k-tlm-Zc - ߃: cm-P≥, \-fn-\n, c-aWn, jo-\n, {]-Zo-]≥, ]tc-X\ - m-b D-Øa - ≥.

l-ao-Zv _m-¯ sIm-bn-em-≠n: A¬-k_-bn¬ l-ao-Zv _m-Ø (76). `m-cy: Ip¬-kp. a°ƒ: jm-\-hm-kv _mØ, jm-Zv _m-Ø, k¬h _m-Ø, km-Pn-_ _mØ. a-cp-a-°ƒ: lm-jnw _¿-K-bv-h, km-en-lv _mØ, \n-Z.

tZ-h-In _m-ep-t»-cn: a-™-∏mew cm-aw-K-e-Øv tIm-hne-I-Øv ]-tc-X-\m-b tI-fp-°p-´n-bp-sS `m-cy tZ-h-In (74). a-°ƒ: Pb-e-£v-an, i-¶-c-≥, D-j. a-cp-a-°ƒ: tKm-]m-e≥, ]p-jv-], cm-P≥ am-dm-Sv.

s]m-¶p-Ip-«n-b-½

tdm-k

B-an-\

\-^o-k

B-an-\-¡p-«n -

A-l-½-Zv

Nn-‰q¿: X-Ø-aw-K-ew tN-ºm-S-Øv ho-´n¬ ]tc-X-\m-b tI-i-h-s‚ `m-cy s]m-∂p-Ip-´n-bΩ (91). a-°ƒ: h¬-k-e, hnem-kn-\n, k-Xy-`m-a, A-Uz. sI cm-a-Ir-jvW≥.

C-cn-´n: N-Xn-cq¿ hm-Xp-]d - ºn¬ tdm-k (72). `m-cy: {^m≥-kn-kv. a-°ƒ: X-¶®≥, tPm-k^ - v, kn-ÿ Pm≥kn, sP-kn, km-_p, do-\, kn‘p. a-cp-a° - ƒ: en-kΩ - , sUbvk - n, tPm-k^ - v, Xp-jm-c, _n-\p, cm-Pp. kw-kI v- m-cw C∂v H-ºX - n-\v am-tßm-Sv sk‚ tv- a-co-kv ]-≈nbn¬.

X-fn-∏-d-ºv: ]-©m-bØv In-W-dn-\p k-ao]w Ip-∂-Øv A-{¥p B-an-\ (80). `¿-Øm-hv: ]-tc-X-\mb C-{_m-low. a°ƒ: ^m-Øn-a, J-ZoP, a-cp-a-I≥: C-{_mlow.

Xm-\q¿: Im-´n-b-ßm-Snbn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b hm-gßm-´n¬ Ip-™n-sam-bvXo≥-Ip-´n-bp-sS `m-cy \^o-k (62). kz-X-{¥yka-c tk-\m-\n A-ssk\m¿-Ip-´n-bp-sS k-tlm-Zc]p-{Xn-bm-Wv. a-°ƒ: k°o¿, k-eow, dw-e, kwkm-Zv, k-^-cn-b, K-^q¿.

Xn-cq-cß - m-Sn: I-cn-∏d - º - v AØ-°I - Ø - v ap-lΩ - Z- n-s‚ `mcy h-S° - ≥]-dº - Ø - v B-an\-°p-´n (60). a-°ƒ: J-Zo-P, A-jvd - ^ - v, d-km-Jv, d-^o-Jv, kn-±o-Jv, km-Zn-Jv, P-ko-\, B-jn-Jv. a-cp-a° - ƒ: A-–p¿d-lva - m≥, ssd-lm-\Ø - v, dwe-Øv, km-Pn-Z, ^u-kn-a, ko-\Ø - v, ^m-cn-k, a≥-kq¿.

th-ß-c: C-cn-ß-√q¿ ]mem-Wn-bn-se I-f-Øn߬ A-l-Ω-Zv (75). `mcy: _n-ø-°p-´n. a-°ƒ: A-ko-kv, ]m-Øp-Ωp, AIv-_¿, ssa-aq-\, Pp-ssae. a-cp-a-°ƒ: ku-Z-Øv, kp-lvdm-_n, sam-bv-Xo≥Ip-´n, A-–p-¿d-lvam≥, _-jo¿.

a-dn-b

I-Zo-i

{]-Im-i³

am-fp-¡p-«n

l-k³ lm-Pn

a-Po-Zv

sIm-Sp-h-≈n: B-cm{ºw]p-≈n-t°m-Øv Ip-Snem-´v ]-tc-X-\m-b Im-Xn-cnbp-sS `m-cy a-dn-b (93). a°ƒ: ]-°¿, Ip-™m-ap, A-Ω-Zv, ]m-Øp-Ω, B-an\, J-Zo-P. a-cp-a-°ƒ: aqk, A-Ω-Zv, ap-l-Ω-Zv, a-dnb, \-_o-k, l-eo-a.

Ip-μ-aw-K-ew: Im-c-¥q¿ ]-c-∏-Ω¬ I-Zo-i (85). ]tc-X-\m-b C-ºn-®m-en-bpsS `m-cy-bm-Wv. a-°ƒ: ^m-Øn-a, A-_v-Zp-¿dlvam≥, sam-bv-Xo≥ (Ipssh-Øv), D- -bn≥ ap-lΩ-Zv. a-cp-a-°ƒ: B-en tIm-tWm-´v, ssk-\, k^n-b, B-an-\, ku-Z.

_m-ep-t»-cn: h-t´mfn_-km-dn-se ]-Wn°-cp-I-≠n {]-Im-i≥ (57). `m-cy: ]Xvan-\n. a°ƒ: {]-Po-\, {]-_nP. a-cp-a-°ƒ: taml≥-Zm-kv(sI.Fkv.F-^v.C. Xm-\q¿), jm-Pn H-Sp-]m-d.

B-\-°mw-s]m-bn¬: ]-tc-X-\m-b ta-teXn¬ th-em-bp-[-s‚ `m-cy am-fp-°p-´n (80). a°ƒ: th-em-bp-[≥, Im¿-Xym-b-\n, I-a-em£n, k-Xy-`m-a, cm-P≥, em-en, ]-tc-X-\m-b _m-e≥.

h-S-I-c: sN-dp-t»-cn tdmUv kn.sI lu-kn¬ lk≥ lm-Pn (72). `m-cy: B-bn-i. a-°ƒ: ap-l-Ω-Zv _-jo¿, A-kv-ew, ap-lΩ-Zv ssJ-kv, ^m-Øn-a, kp-ss_-Z. a-cp-a-°ƒ: apl-Ω-Zv, Ip-™-Ω-Zv, k-aod, ^-co-Z, km-ln-d.

_m-ep-t»-cn: hm-I-bm-Sv am-hp-t≈m¿-I-≠n a-Ωphn-s‚ a-I≥ a-Po-Zv (39). `m-cy-am¿: kp-l-d (h-≈ntbm-Øv). ]-tc-X-bm-b \ko-d. a-°ƒ: A≥-kn-e, A-kv-an-e, Pp-ssd-Pv. amXm-hv: A-eo-a. k-tlm-Z-c߃: kp-sse-J, kpss_¿.

\m«n-te-¡p a-S§n-b a-e-bm-fn hn-am-\-¯n a-cn¨p I-cn-∏q¿: s]-cp-∂m-ƒ B-tLmj-n°m\m-bn \m-´n-te-°p a-Sßn-b a-e-bm-fn- hn-am-\-Øn¬- acn-®p. Xn-cq¿ Iq-´m-bn _-Z¿ ]≈n-°p k-ao-]-sØ ssl-{Zp-hns‚-]p-c-°¬ ssk-Xv ap-l-Ω-Zns‚ ap-l-Ω-Zv k-øn-Zv (44) B-Wp a-cn-®-Xv. C-∂-se ]p-e¿-s® 4.50\v F-b¿-C-¥y F-Iv-kv-{] n-s‚ 354 hn-am-\-Øn-em-Wv køn-Zv I-cn-∏q-cn-se-Øn-b-Xv. hn-am\-Øn¬ \n-∂n-d-ßm-Xm-b-tXmsS -Po-h-\-°m-sc-Øn t\m°nbt∏m-gm-Wv a-cn-®-\n-e-bn¬ I≠Xv. Xp-S¿-∂v tUm-Œ¿ F-Øn a-c-Ww ÿn-co-I-cn-°p-I-bm-bncp-∂p. ar-X-tZ-lw C-t±-l-sØ kzo-I-cn-°m≥ hn-am-\-Øm-h-fØn-seØnb _-‘p-°ƒ-°p

_m-_p

hm-kp

hn F³ ap-c-fo-[-c³

ssI-am-dn. 23 h¿-j-am-bn jm¿P-bn-se A¬-P-ko-d In-®¨ Iº-\n-bn-se Po-h-\-°m-c-\m-bncp-∂p k-øn-Zv. am-Xm-hv: _o-]mØp-tamƒ. `m-cy: k¬-a. a-°-fn√. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: k-°o¿, _jo¿, Iu-e-Øv.

hr-² ho-«n-\p-Ån sIm-Ã-s¸-« \n-e-bn tIm-´-°¬: X-\n-®p-Xm-a-kn-°p-∂ hr-≤-sb ho-´n-\p-≈n¬ sIm-√-s∏-´ \n-e-bn¬ I-s≠-Øn. F-S-cn-t°m-Sv Np-S-e-∏m-d I-√p-sh-´n sIm-´w-]-dºn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b I-d-∏w-Ip-´n-bpsS `m-cy ko-X-Ω(83)bm-Wp sIm-√s∏-´-Xv. sXm-´-Sp-Øp Xm-a-kn-°p-∂ a-I-\pw `m-cy-bpw sNm-Δm-gv-N cm-hnse G-tgm-sS- ho-´n-se-Øn-b-t∏m-gmWp I-tk-c-bn¬ sI-´n-bn-´ \n-ebn¬ ar-X-tZ-lw I-≠-Xv. I-gp-Øn¬ D-Sp-ap-≠v Np-‰n ap-dp°n-bn-cp-∂p. hr-≤-bp-sS Im-Xn-se kz¿-Ww ]q-in-b tXm-S \-„-s∏-´Xn-\m¬ tam-„m-°-fm-Wn-Xn-\p ]n∂n-se-∂m-Wv t]m-en-kn-s‚ {]m-Yan-I \n-K-a-\w. ]n≥-h-i-sØ P-\-ens‚ a-c A-gn-Iƒ ap-dn-®m-Wv Lm-X-

I≥ A-I-Øp-I-b-dn-b-sX-∂p t]men-kv kw-i-bn-°p-∂p. A-e-am-c-bnse h-kv-Xp-°ƒ hm-cn-h-en-®n-Sp-Ibpw ap-dn-bn¬ ap-f-Ip-s]m-Sn hn-X-dpI-bpw sN-bv-Xn-´p-≠v.

X-S-hm-´p-ho-´n-\p-Sp-Øp X-s∂bm-Wv ko-X-Ω-bp-sS a-I-\pw Ip-Spw_w I-gn-™n-cp-∂-Xv. C-h¿-°p-≈ `-£-Ww F-Øn-®p-sIm-Sp-°p-I-bmbn-cp-∂p ]-Xn-hv. sIm-√-s∏-´-Xn-\p X-te Zn-h-khpw X-s‚ a-I≥ sj-_n≥ `-£Ww F-Øn-®n-cp-s∂-∂pw A-Ω hmXn¬ A-I-Øp-\n-∂p ]q-´n D-dßm≥-t]m-hp-I-bm-Wp-≠m-b-sX∂pw a-I≥ _m-e≥ ]-d-™p. t\-csØ F-gp-t∂¬-°p-am-bn-cp-∂ AΩ-sb Im-Wm-Øn-\m¬ ho-´nseØn t\m-°n-b-t∏m-gm-Wp sIm√-s∏-´ \n-e-bn¬ I-≠-Xv. D-S≥ tIm-´-°¬ t]m-en-kn¬ A-dn-bn°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. am-k-߃-°p ap-ºpw C-tX ho-

Sn-s‚ P-\¬ X-I¿-Øv tam-j-W-{iaw \-S-∂-Xm-bn kv-t‰-j-\n¬ ]-cmXn \¬-In-bn-cp-∂p. Xn-cq¿ Un-ssh.F-kv.]n sI Fw ssk-Xm-en, h-fm-t©-cn kn.sF Fw kn-±o-Jv, Xn-cq¿ kn.sF B¿ dm-^n, tIm-´-°¬ Fkv.sF sI ]n s_-∂n, I¬-∏-It©-cn F-kv.sF F≥ _n ssj-Pp kw-`-h-ÿ-e-sØ-Øn. tUm-Kv kvIzm-Upw hn-c-e-S-bm-f hn-Z-Kv-[-cpw ]cn-tim-[-\ \-S-Øn. Xm-\q¿ kn.sF Fw ]n k-t¥m-jn-\m-Wv A-t\z-jWNp-a-X-e. ar-X-tZ-lw tIm-gnt°m-Sv sa-Un-°¬ tIm-f-Pn¬ t]mkv-‰v-tam¿-´w \-S-Øn. ko-X-Ω-bp-sS a-Iƒ: k-tcm-Pn-\n. a-cp-a-°ƒ: cmP≥, {io-P.

Nn-‰q¿: ]m-ºp-I-Sn-tb-‰v c≠-c h-b- p-Im-c≥ a-cn®p. I-∂n-am-cn ]-\n-b-Snb≥-N-≈ k-t¥m-jn-s‚ a-I-≥ i-c-Xv B-Wv a-cn-®Xv. ho-´p-h-f-∏n¬ I-fn-®psIm-≠n-cn-s° ]m-ºp-I-Sntb-‰- _m-e-s\ tIm-b-ºØq-cn-se kz-Im-cy B-ip]-{Xn-bn¬ F-Øn-s®-¶nepw c-£n-°m-\m-bn-√. am-Xm-hv: cm-[n-I.

l-Öv XoÀ-°m-S-I³ a-¡-bn \n-cym-X-\m-bn

Xm-\q¿: kw-ÿm-\ l÷v I-Ωn-‰n ap-tJ-\ I-gn™ am-k-w l-÷n-\p t]mb Xo¿-∞m-S-I≥ a-°bn¬ a-cn-®p. \n-d-a-cp-Xq¿ ]-Ø-ºm-Sv A-c-¶-Øn¬ Ip-™-l-Ω-Zv ap-kv -eym¿ (72) B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. `m-cy: Ip-™o-cn-b. a°ƒ: A-–p-k-emw -k-Jm^n, A-–p¬ P-eo¬ ap-kv-eym¿, A-–p¬- K-^q¿, A-–p¬- d-jo-Zv k-Jm-^n, ap-l-Ω-Zv d-^o-Jv \n-kman, i-co-^, l-∂-Øv, l-^v-k-Øv. a-cp-a-°ƒ: A-–p -emw A-lv-k-\n sN-√q¿, A-–p- -emw A-lv-k\n, A-–p-¬ d-low Im-an¬ k-Jm-^n, B-bn-i, \ko-a, ssJ-dp-∂o-k, D-Ωp¬-ssJ¿, ssa-aq-\.

ImÂ-\-S-bm-{X-¡m-c³ Im-dn-Sn-¨p- a-cn-¨p

F-S-h-Æ: tIm-gn-h-≠n-°v F-kv-tIm¿-´v t]m-b Im-dnSn-®v Im¬-\-S-bm-{X-°mc≥ a-cn-®p. Ip-≠p-tXm-Sv Ip-cn-ipw-]-Sn-bn-se sh-≈®m-en ap-l-Ω-Zv (sN-dn-˛75) B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. C-∂-se cm-hn-se-bm-bn-cp-∂p A-]I-Sw. \n-e-ºq¿ `m-K-Øp\n-∂p tIm-gn- I-b-‰n-h-cp∂ hm-l-\-Øn-\v F-kv-tIm¿-´v t]m-hp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂ Im-dm-Wv C-Sn-®-Xv. s]-c-n-¥¬-a-Æ kz-Im-cy B-ip-]{Xn-bn-se-Øn-s®-¶n-epw c-£n-°m-\m-bn-√. am-Xm-hv: J-Zo-P. `m-cy-am¿: B-bn-ip-Ω, ]-tc-Xbm-b Xm-ln-b. a-°ƒ: ssl-{Zp, P-ao-e, A-–p¬ aPo-Zv (ku-Zn), ^-Po-jv, _p-jv-d. a-cp-a-°ƒ: k-°o-\, ap-kv-X-^, \-ko-d, kw-km¿ _o-Kw, G-\n. k-tlm-Zc≥: A-e-hn. F-S-h-Æ t{K-Uv F-kv.sF sI kn kp-tc-{μ≥ C≥-Iz-kv-‰v \-S-Øn-b ar-X-tZ-lw s]-cn-¥¬-a-Æ Xmeq-°v B-ip-]-{Xn-bn-se t]m-kv-‰v-tam-¿-´-Øn-\p tijw Ip-≠p-tXm-Sv Pp-am-a-kv-Pn-Zv J-_¿-ÿm-\n¬ a-dhp-sN-bv-Xp.

hn-jw A-I-¯p-sN-¶v a-cn-¨p

F-S-h-Æ: hn-jw A-I-Øp-sN-∂v ho-´-Ω a-cn-®p. HXm-bn ]-Sn-™m-sd Nm-Ø-√q¿ Hm-S-≠-∏m-d- ]-´o-cn Znt\-i-s‚ `m-cy tIm-´-bn¬ im-¥(32)bm-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. I-gn-™ Zn-h-kw D-®-bv-°v c-t≠m-sS-bm-Wv im-¥sb ho-´n¬ hn-jw A-I-Øp-sN-∂v A-h-i-\n-e-bn¬ I-≠-Xv. a-t©-cn P-\. B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ F-Øn-s®¶n-epw c-£n-°m-\m-bn-√. `¿-Xr-]o-U-\-w-aq-ew Bfl-l-Xy sN-bv-X-Xm-sW-∂v kq-N-\-bp-≈-Xm-bn t]m-en-kv ]-d-™p. sh-‰n-e-∏m-d-bn-se ]-tc-X-\m-b tIm-´-bn¬ tI-e≥-˛-am-X Z-º-Xn-I-fp-sS a-I-fm-Wv. a°ƒ: B-Xn-c, B-Zn-Xy, A-iz≥, A-`n-tj-Iv. k-tlmZ-c-߃: cm-Pp, cm-a-Ir-jv-W≥, i-¶-c≥, X-¶. F-S-h-Æ F-kv.sF hn P-b-{]-Im-iv C≥-Iz-Ãv \S-Øn-b ar-X-tZ-lw a-t©-cn P-\-d¬ B-ip-]-{Xnbn¬ t]m-kv-‰v-tam¿-´w sN-bv-Xp.

Sm-¦À-tem-dn Hm-t«m-bn-en-Sn-¨v kv-{Xo a-cn-¨p-

C-cn-ºn-fn-bw: h-en-b-Ip-∂v A-ßm-Sn-°p k-ao-]w Sm¶¿-tem-dn Hm-t´m-dn-£-bn-en-Sn-®v kv-{Xo a-cn-®p. B-Xh- -\m-Sv-]m-td-°-fw Im-b¬-aT-Øn¬ Ir-jv-W≥ Fgp-Ø-®-s‚ `m-cy Pm-\-In (61) B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. Rm-bdm-gv-N cm-hn-se 11\m-Wv A-]-I-Sw. sIm-∏w Np-≠w-]‰-bn¬ a-c-W-ho-Sv k-μ¿-in-®v B-X-h-\m-t´-°v a-S-ßnb-h¿ k-©-cn-® Hm-t´m-bn¬ tN-fm-cn-bn¬ \n-∂v ]me-°m-t´-°v ]m-N-I-hm-X-I-hp-am-bn t]m-hp-I-bm-bncp-∂ tem-dn C-Sn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. ssh-Zyp-Xn-t]mkv-‰pw ho-´p-a-Xn-epw X-I¿-Øm-Wv tem-dn \n-∂-Xv. Pm-\-In-bp-sS a-°ƒ: P-b-Ir-jv-W≥, A-Pn-X, kp-\nX. a-cp-a-°ƒ: {]n-b, c-ta-jv-_m-_p, P-b≥.

In-W-än a-cn-¨-\n-e-bnÂ

Xm-a-c-t»-cn: \n¿-am-W-sØm-gn-em-fn-sb Zp-cq-l-kml-N-cy-Øn¬ Xm-a-k-ÿesØ In-W-‰n¬ a-cn-®-\ne-bn¬ I-s≠-Øn. ap-Δm-‰p-]p-g kz-tZ-in t_m-kv F∂ k-eo-w(40) B-Wv a-cn-®Xv. ]p-Xp-∏m-Sn ssI-X-s∏mbn-en-se hm-S-I-ap-dn-bn¬ Xm-a-kn-°p-∂ k-eo-an-s\ Rm-b-dm-gv-N ap-X¬ Im-Wm-Xm-b-n-cp-∂p. k-eo-apw A-Sp-Ø ap-dn-bn-se Xm-a-k-°m-c-\pw XΩn¬ a-Zy-]n-®p hm-t°-‰-hpw A-Sn-]n-Sn-bpw \-S-∂-Xmbn t]m-en-kn-\p hn-h-cw e-`n-®n-´p-≠v. C-Xn-s‚ A-Snÿm-\-Øn¬ a-t\m-Pv F-∂-bm-sf t]m-en-kv I-kv-‰Un-bn-se-Sp-Øp. 12 h¿-jw-- ap-ºm-Wv k-eow ap-Δm-‰p]p-g-bn¬ \n-∂v C-hn-sS-sb-Øn-b-Xv. C-bm-tfm-sSm∏w Nm-e-°p-Sn kz-tZ-in-bm-b kv-{Xo-bpw \m-ep- Ip-´nI-fpw H-∂n-®p-Xm-a-kn-®p-h-cn-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂pw c-≠p-am-kw ap-ºv C-h¿ ]n-W-ßn th-dn-´p Xm-a-kn°p-I-bm-bn-cp-s∂-∂pw \m-´p-Im¿ ]-d-™p. {In-kvXy≥ a-X-hn-izm-kn-bm-bn-cp-∂ C-bmƒ a-Xw am-dn-bXm-bpw t]m-en-kv ]-d-bp-∂p. Xm-a-c-t»-cn F-kv.sF i-in-[-c≥ C≥-Iz-Ãv \-S-Øn. t]m-kv-‰p-tam¿-´-Øn\p ti-jw ar-X-tZ-lw `m-cy-°p hn-´p-sIm-Sp-Øp.

an-\-bn \n-cym-X-\m-bn

sIm-Sp-h-≈n: \-S-Ω¬-s]m-bn¬ cm-b-cp-I-≠n B¿ sI A-_q-_-°¿ ap-kv-eym¿ (73) an-\-bn¬ \n-cym-X\m-bn. `m-cy: B-bn-i. a-°ƒ: A-–p¿-d-lv-am≥ kJm-^n (Ip-ssh-Øv), J-Zo-P, a-dn-bw, ^m-Øn-a-Øv kp-l-d, ap-l-Ω-Zv k-Jm-^n, A-–p-√, A-–p¬ eØo-^v (C-cp-h-cpw Ip-ssh-Øv), \-^o-k, ssk-\_, ssd-lm-\, Pm-^¿. a-cp-a-°ƒ: A-–p-v¿-d-lv-am≥ B-en≥-X-d, I-cow I-cp-‰n-]-d-ºv, in-lm-_v B-t°mSv, ap-l-Ω-Zv kp-ssh-Zn, _-jo¿ k-Jm-^n, _p-j-d, ssd-lm-\-Øv d-io-Z.

]m-¼p-I-Sn-tb-äp a-cn-¨p

h-S-I-c: ]p-√-cn-bp-∂-Xn-\n-sS ]m-ºp-I-Sn-tb-‰v kv-{Xo a-cn-®p. B-b-t©-cn aw-K-em-Sv I-tÆm-Øv Ip-™man(60) B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. ho-Sn-\v k-ao-]-sØ h-b-en¬ h-®v I-gn-™ Zn-h-k-am-Wv C-h-sc ]m-ºp-I-Sn-®-Xv. tIm-gn-t°m-Sv sa-Un-°¬ tIm-f-Pv B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ {]-th-in-∏n-s®-¶n-epw a-cn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. `¿-Ømhv: A-Ω-Xv. a-°ƒ: A-ao¿, ap-l-Ω-Z-en, kn-dm-Pv (Ccp-h-cpw _-lv-d-bv≥), Ip-™-bn-i, km-ln-d, k-^nb, k-ao-d, ap-\o-d. a-cp-a-°ƒ: a-Po-Zv ap-bn-t∏m-Øv, apl-Ω-Zv I-t√m-Sv, ap-kv-X-^ tIm-S-cn-®m¬, A-ko-kv Iq-cm-®p-≠v, \u-jm-Zv Iq-cm-®p-≠v.

hm-l-\m-]-I-S-¯n a-cn-¨p

tIm-´-°¬: N-¶p-sh-´n kz-tZ-in ]-tc-X-\m-b ap-Xphm-S≥ _o-cm-s‚ `m-cy ap-Xp-hm-S≥ _n-øq-´n (65) hml-\m-]-I-S-Øn¬ a-cn-®p. I-gn-™-Zn-h-kw ho-Sn-\-SpØ ^v-tfm¿ an-√n¬ \n-∂p Xn-cn-®p-h-cp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂ C-h-sc N-¶p-sh-´n-bn¬-h-®v Im-dn-Sn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp∂p. a-°ƒ: ap-l-Ω-Zv-Ip-´n, A-e-hn-°p-´n, Ip-™nsam-bv-Xp, ^m-Øn-a.


6

thÀ-]mSv

THIRUVANANTHAPURAM

16 H-IvtSm-_¿ 2013 _p[≥

ku-Zn-bn hm-l-\m-]-I-S-¯n a-cn-¨p tZ-h-In-b½

e-£v-an-¡p-«n-b½

cm-Po-h³

kckzXn

tIi-h³

tacn-tPmk^v

Pm\In

A-Pn-Xv-Ip-amÀ

im-kv-Xmw-tIm-´: ssa\m-K∏-≈n th-ß s\Snb-Øv ]-Sn-™m-‰-Xn¬ tZ-h-In-b-Ω(75). a-°ƒ: in-h≥-]n-≈, cm-[m-Ir-jvW-]n-≈. a-cp-a°ƒ: c-aWnb-Ω, P-b-{io.

im-kv-Xmw-tIm-´: ]-Sn™m-sdI√-S \-Sp-hne°-c ]p-Xp-ho-´n¬ ]-tcX\m-b hm-kp-tZ-h≥-]n≈-bp-sS `m-cy e-£v-an°p-´n-b-Ω (77).

tPmk^v

I-f-a-t»cn: sIm-®n k¿h-I-emim-e dn-´.Po-h-\°m-cnbpw ]-tc-X\mb ssh-em-t»-cn h¿-Ko-kns‚ `m-cy-bpam-b tacn(78). aI≥: sIm-®n k¿-h-Iem-im-e-bn¬-\n∂pw hn-can-® G-W-Ãv. a-cp-aIƒ: tI-c-f a-ln-fmkw-Lw Pn√m I-Ω-‰n-bwKw F-en-k-_Øv.

]p-\-eq¿: tI-c-fm tIm¨-{K-kv(Fw) kwÿm-\-I-Ωn-‰n-bw-K-hpw hn-f-°p-Sn {Km-a-]-©m-bØv ap≥-{]-kn-U‚p-am-b hn-f-°p-Sn ]q-t¥m-´Øn¬ F-kv cm-Poh≥(57). bq-Øv {^-≠v kw-ÿm-\ P-\-d¬ sk{I-´-dn, Pn-√m sk-{I-´-dn, Pn-√m {]-kn-U‚ v, sI.F-kv.kn Pn-√m P-\d¬ sk-{I-´-dn F-∂o \ne-I-fn¬ {]-h¿-Øn-®n-´p≠v. kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v D-®-bv°v c-≠n-\v ho-´p-h-f∏n¬. `m-cy: {io-hn-Zy. a-°ƒ: ta-L, A-c-hn-μv.

Im-´m°S: HmWw-tIm-Sv kp-\n¬ `-h-\n¬ ]-tcX\m-b Irjv-W ]n-≈bp-sS `m-cy k-c-kz-Xn A-Ω (76). a°ƒ: tim-`-\-Ip-amcn, kp-[m-Ip-amcn, ap-c-fo-[c≥ \-mb¿. a-cp-a°ƒ: tam-l\≥, kp-an-X-Ip-amcn.

tIm-hfw: I-´-®¬-°p-gn πmhn-f ho´n¬ tIi-h≥ (78). `mcy: {io-aXn. a°ƒ: hm-k¥n, c-ho{μ≥, kp-KX≥, tim-`. a-cp-a-°ƒ: ]-tc-X\m-b cm-tP-{μ≥, X-¶-aWn, _nμp, Pb≥.

hÀ-Ko-kv a-¯m-bn

aq-hm-‰p-]pg: hm-g-°p-fw sX-\w-Im-em-bn¬(]n-W°m-´v)]-tc-X\m-b a-Ømbn-bp-sS `m-cy G-en-°p´n(84). kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v D-®-Ign™v 3\v hm-g-°p-fw sk‚ v tPm¿-Pv s^m-tdm\ ]-≈n sk-an-tØ-cnbn¬. a-°ƒ: ta-cn, A-∂-°p´n, A-K-Ãn≥, A-{_mlw, {^m≥-knkv, ]-bkv, Imtcm-fn≥. a-cp-a°ƒ: tPm-kv(tIm°-≠-Øn¬), Nm-t°m®≥(C-S-Ø-t´¬), tacn(]-≈n-Ømg-Øv), ]-tc-Xbm-b Pm≥-kn (am-S-t»-cn¬), em-en (C-S-∏m-´v), jn-Pn (N-ßm-en-°m-hn¬).

B-e-ßmSv: Xn-cp-hm-eq¿ I-f-∏-dº-Øv ho-´n¬ ]tc-X\mb tPm-k-^n-s‚ `m-cy ta-cn(74). kw-kv-Imcw \-SØn. a°ƒ: emen(C‰-en), Um-en, jmen, en-Pn, kPp(sa-t{Sm hm¿-Ø). a-cp-a-°ƒ: ]tc-X\m-b _nPp, s_∂n, tPm_n, _m_p, tPm-bvkn.

tIm-X-aw-Kew: C-c-a√q¿ tX-h-cp-Ip-Sn ]-tc-X\m-b Ir-jvW-s‚ `m-cy Pm-\In(82). kw-kv-Im-cw C∂p-cm-hnse 9\v ho-´p-h-f∏n¬. ]tc-X \m-K-t©-cn ]p-‰n-\m-°p-Sn Ip-Spw-_mwK-am-Wv. a°ƒ: hn-emkn\n, h¬-k-e, P-\m¿±\≥, ]-tc-X\m-b {io[c≥. a-cp-a-°ƒ: cm-P≥ sX-t°¬- ap-S-hq¿, Hm-a\, im-¥, ]-tc-X\m-b kp-{_-“-Wy≥ ]m-≠hØv A-¶-amen.

{io-aq-e-\K-cw: ]p-Xn-tbSw X-´m≥]-Sn ]-cn-bm-°c ho-´n¬ A-Pn-Xv-Ipam¿(51). kw-kv-Im-cw C∂p-cm-hn-se 10\v ho-´p-hf-∏n¬. am-Wn-Iy-awK-ew ]-\-bmen iw-t{Im-Øv Ip-Spw_mw-K-amWv. `mcy: ]-cn-bm-°-c D-j. a-°ƒ: A-tP-jv(_m-ep, jm¿-P), A-Jn-e. a-cp-a-I≥:cm-a-`-{Z≥.

ap-l-½-Zv

s]-cn-tßmw: s]-tS-\ kn.F-®v \-K-dn¬ aq-∏‚I-Øv l-k-bv-\m¿ (60).

cm-a-]p-cw: B-\-√q¿ sXt°-S-Øv a-\-bn¬ hmkp-tZ-h≥ \-ºq-Xn-cn (dn-´. -{]-[m-\m-[ym-]I≥). cm-a-]p-cw {io-cm-at£-{Xw, i-{Xp-Lv-\t£-{Xw {S-Ãn-bpw ap≥ sN-b¿-am-\p-am-Wv. `m-cy: ]-tc-X-bm-b Ku-cn A-¥¿-÷-\w (B-cy-ºn≈na-\). a-°ƒ: e-Xn-I, {]-Zo-]v, hn-jv-Wp. a-cp-a-°ƒ: kp-Ip-am-c≥ \-ºq-Xn-cn (Nq-c-t°m-Sv ta-bv-°m-´v a-\), Zo-] (]-∂n-t°m-´n-√w), Zo-] (D-∏n-em-∏-‰ a-\).

tIm-X-aw-K-ew: a-e-bn≥Io-gv Iq´me tPm-k^v(79). kw-kv-Im-cw C∂v D-®-I-gn™v 3\v tImX-awK-ew sk‚ v tPm¿Pv I-Øo-{U¬ skan-tØ-cn-bn¬. `m-cy: \mK∏p-g aq-∂p-am-bv-°¬ Ip-Spw-_mw-Kw G-en°p´n. a°ƒ: tacn, B\n, X¶®≥, Pm≥-kn, ssj\n, jn_p, jn-Pp, tPm_n. a-cp-a°ƒ: ]m∏®≥, t]mƒ, dmWn, B‚Wn, tPmWn, do-\.

ta-cn

G-en-¡p-«n

Jm-ZÀ

^m¯n-a

tN¿Øe: IWn-®p-Ip-fßc CS-®n-em-´p-ssXøn¬ ]tc-X-\mb `mkpc-∏-Wn-°-cpsS `mcy aocm-`mbv (79). kwkvImcw \S-Øn.

aqhm-‰p-]p-g: k-°o¿ lpssk≥ \-K-dn¬ Hm-e-∏pc-bn¬ ]-tc-X\m-b _°-dn-s‚ `m-cy dm-hnb(65). kw-kv-Im-cw \-SØn. a-°ƒ: ]-tc-Xbmb ssj-e, A-ao¿ k-_n, _o-\, jo-_, jo-\. a-cp-a°ƒ: A-\kv, \nk, k-enw, ap-l-Ω-Zmen(ku-Zn), ]-co-Xv.

Xmbn-°m-´pI-c: ]-t´-cn∏p-dw _w-•m-hp-]-d-ºn¬ ]-tc-X\m-b ]-co-Xv `m-cy ^m-Øn-a(75). J-_-dS-°w \-SØn. a°ƒ: dw-e, sF-jm_ohn, s\-Pp-a, \m-k¿, \u-jmZv, \m-Zn¿-j. a-cp-a°ƒ: k-emw, kenw, A-_q-_°¿, J-ZoP, k-an-X, jm-^n-b.

Im™n-c-∏≈n: ta-°-cti-cn¬ h¿-Ko-kv aØmbn (h¿-°n-®m-bn-˛ 79). `m-cy: a-dn-bm-Ω Im-™nc∏-≈n Im-∏n¬ Ip-Spw_mwKw. a°ƒ: tSman (Im-™nc∏-≈n k¿-ho-kv klI-c-W _m-¶v), hn¬k¨ (sk‚ v sUman-\n-Iv-kv tIm-fPv, Im™n-c∏-≈n), eq-kn (Fkv- _n Sn, Im-™n-c∏≈n), enkn, B≥kn, _o-\. a-cp-a°ƒ: tPm¨-k¨ ]p-Xp-th-en-°pgn (Im™n-c∏-≈n), _m-_p tXm-Wn-°pgn , jm-Pn Ip∂-°m´v , sPkn, an\n (ap-≠°-bw).

ap-l-½-Zv-

_o-hm-¯p

D-½m-¨p

sIm-¨-½p-A-½

cm-P³

\m-cm-b-W³

ImÀ-¯ym-b-\n

J-Zo-P

Nm-h-°m-Sv-: sX-t° a-{Z -°v ]-Sn-™m-dv Ip-∂Øv- tXm-∏n¬ ap-l-Ω-Zv(78). J-_-d-S-°w \-SØn. `m-cy: dw-e-Øv. a°ƒ: \-ko-a, \-ko¿, \hm-kv- (C-cp-h-cpw JØ¿). a-cp-a-°ƒ: A-Iv_¿, ^-ko-e.

]p-∂-bq¿-°p-fw: A-≠tØm-Sv A-d-∏ tdm-Un¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b sI-c‚-IØv sam-bv-Xp-Æn a-Iƒ _o-hm-Øp (71). I-_-d-S°w \-S-Øn. k-tlm-Z-c߃: kn-≤o-Jv, J-Zo-P, ^m-Øn-a.

]p-∂-bq¿-°p-fw: A-≠tØm-Sv X-Jv-h b-Xow-Jm\ tdm-Un¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b I¿-Øm-c-bn¬ A-_q-_°-dn-s‚ `m-cy sX-°≥ DΩm-®p (70). I-_-d-S-°w \-S-Øn. a-Iƒ: ^m-Øn-a. a-cp-a-I≥: lw-k.

sIm-Sp-ß√q¿: ]p√q-‰v ]gw-]≈-Øv sh-fp-tØSØv sIm-®-Ωp-A-Ω(93). a°ƒ: B-\-μ-h√n, Iaew. a-cp-a°ƒ: \m-cm-bW≥ \mb¿, Ip-am-c≥ \mb¿.

Kp-cp-hm-bq¿: ]m-ep-hmbv sIm-Sn-b-°m-bn¬ ]tc-X-\m-b i-¶p-Æn BNm-cn-bp-sS a-I≥ cmP≥(48). k-tlm-Z-cn: koX.

sIm-Sp-ß-√q¿: ta-Ø-e \-Sp-ap-dn \m-cm-b-W≥(86). a-°ƒ: F≥ F≥ {]-Zo-]v, A-\n-X. a-cp-a-°ƒ: kp-te-J, _m-_p.

^-k X-§Ä-

cm-[m-a-Wn

a-[p

Xp-Δq¿: dn-´. A-[ym-]I≥ Xp-Δq¿ N-°m-e-∏-dºn¬ D-Z-b-{io hn-em-kØn¬ tKm-]n-\m-Y-s‚ `m-cy Ip-™n-s∏-Æv (AΩ-®n ˛70). e-£-Zzo-]n¬ \-gv-km-bn-cp-∂p. a-°ƒ: {io-tZ-hn, D-Z-b-i-¶¿ (sI.-F-kv.-C.-_n k-_v F≥-Pn-\o-b¿, I-cp-hm-c°p-≠v). a-cp-a-°ƒ: kp-tc-{μ≥ (F¬.-sF.-kn, tIm-gnt°m-Sv Nm-e-∏p-dw), _nμp (Xp-Δq¿ hn-Zym-\n-tIX≥ kv-Iqƒ A-[ym-]nI).

sh-™m-d-aq-Sv: s\-√-\mSv D-S-b≥-]m-d lu-kn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b tkm-a-s‚ `m-cy cm-[m-a-Wn (74).

A-_q-_-¡À

sIm-Sp-ß-√q¿: ta-Ø-e ]-d-ºn-Ip-f-ß-c N-°-Ωm´n¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b \m-cmb-W-s‚ `m-cy Im¿-Øymb-\n(52). a-°ƒ: k-Xn, im-¥, ]p-cp-j≥, th-WptKm-]m-e≥, Aw-_p-Pm£≥, ]-tc-X-\m-b cm-[mIr-jv-W≥. a-cp-a-°ƒ: ]tc-X-\m-b N-{μ≥, hn-Pb≥, kp-te-N-\, c-a-Wn, i-_v-\, t_-_n.

s]-cp-ºm-hq¿: Im-™n-c°m-Sv a-Zvd-km tdm-Un¬ aq-°-S ]-co-Xn-s‚ `m-cy JZo-P(sIm-®-ø˛75). ku-Øv h√w {km-ºn°¬(aq-°-S)Ip-Spw-_mwK-amWv. a-°ƒ: Ip-™o≥-Ip´n, A-en-bm¿, Ip-™p-ap-lΩZv, _-jo¿, A-_q-_°¿. a-cp-a°ƒ: B-_n-Z, km_n-d, A-\n-X, sd-Po-\. J-_-dS-°w \-S-Øn.

ao-cm-`mbv

Xr-°-cn-∏q¿: Sm-Iv-kv I¨-kƒ-´‚ v X-¶-bw I-°p-∂-sØ hn sI a[p (55). ]-g-b-Im-e kn.]n.-Fw {]-h¿-Ø-I-\mWv. ]n-Xm-hv: Ip-™-ºp s]m-Xp-hmƒ.

dmhn-b

Ip-ªn-s¸-®v-

B-bn-i ImÀ-Xymb-\n ]-\-ßm-Sv: \-μn-Im-´v-]tc-X\m-b ]-c-ta-izcs‚(]c-ap) `m-cy Im¿Xym-b-\n(87). a-°ƒ: ]tc-X\m-b `-c-X≥, e-£van-°p´n, tIma-f, b-timZ, Hma-\. a-cp-a-°ƒ: _mlp-teb≥, ]-tc-X\m-b s]m∂≥, c-ho-{μ-\mYv(F.C.H. Xr-∏q-WnØpd). kw-kv-Im-cw C∂v cm-hn-se 11\v s\-´q¿ im-¥nh-\w iv-a-im-\Øn¬.

am-\¥ - h - m-Sn: ]-tc-X\ - mb _o-cm-fn sam-bvX - p-hns‚ `m-cy ]-≈n-°¬ Bbn-i (70). a-°ƒ: C-{_m-low, Aeo-a, a-dn-bw, A-–p-√, Pao-e, A-{¥p, dw-e, \ujm-Zv, A-jvd - ^ - v, k-°o\, j¿-an-\. a-cp-a° - ƒ: _o-]m-Øp, Dkva - m≥, A-–p-√, ku-Z, A-ba - q-´n, k-^n-b, C{_m-low, ko-\Ø - v, Dssa-aØ - v, lm-cn-kv, kn±o-Jv.

lp-k-bv³ lm-Pn th-ßm-Sv: th-ßm-Sv sa-´ \-^o-km a≥-kn-en¬ kn ]n lp-k-bv-≥ lm-Pn (73). `m-cy: \-^o-k. a-°ƒ: ap-l-Ω-Zv, A-–p√, C-{_m-low, A–p¿d-lvam≥, A-–p-¬ Jm-Zn¿, ap-kv-X-^, _o^m-Øp, B-an-\. a-cp-a-°ƒ: B-_q-´n, aΩq-´n, kp-l-d, jm-ln-\, \-ko-d, j-_m-\, Xm-lnd, jm-ln-e. J-_-d-S-°w cm-hn-se 10\v th-ßm-Sv \-Sp-°≠n J-_¿-ÿm-\n¬.

A-½p-A-½ sN¿-∏p-f-t»-cn: B-\-μ∏-Sn {]-`m-e-bw h-en-b-]d-ºn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b \mcm-b-W≥ sN-´n-bm-cp-sS `m-cy A-Ωp-A-Ω (84). a-°ƒ: D-Æn-Ir-jv-W≥ (ku-Zn), cm-Pv-tam-l≥ , I-em-a-fi-ew kp-io-e, hn-P-b-e-£v-an. a-cp-a-°ƒ: cp-‹n-Wn, Pb-{in, kp-{_lva-Wy≥, kp-μ-c≥.

Im-cp-Wy--¯n\p Im¯p\n¡msX X¦½ bm{Xbmbn F-cp-ta-en: Im-en-se apdn-hn-\p-≈n¬ Iq-´-tØmsS ]p-gp-°-f-cn-®v ]-cn-Ncn-°m-\m-cp-an-√m-sX Ah-i-\n-e-bn-em-b hr-≤sb \m-´p-Im¿ A-\m-Yme-b-Øn-se-Øn-®v c-≠v Zn-h-kw I-gn-™-t∏mƒ a-cn-®p. F-cp-ta-en ]m°m-\pw C-©-°p-gn `m-KØv ]p-t∂m-en ho-´n¬ ]tc-X-\m-b Ip-am-c-s‚ `mcy X-¶-Ω (80) B-Wv a-cn®-Xv. Im-™n-c-∏-≈n X-ºe-°m-Sv \-√ k-a-dm-b≥ B-{i-a-Øn-em-Wv I-gn™ 10 \v Pm-{K-Xm k-anXn-bp-sS t\-Xr-Xz-Øn¬ F-cp-ta-en t]m-en-kn-s‚ k-lm-b-tØm-sS hr-≤sb F-Øn-®-Xv. F∂m¬ Xn-¶-fm-gv-N D-®tbm-sS hr-≤-bp-sS B-

tcm-Ky \n-e h-j-fm-hp-Ibm-bn-cp-∂p. Xp-S¿-∂v _‘p-°-tf-bpw a-I-sfbpw A-[n-Ir-X¿ hn-fn-®ph-cp-Øn. C-h¿ hr-≤-sb s]m≥-Ip-∂-sØ kz-Im-cy B--ip-{Xn-bn-se-Øn-s®¶n-epw Po-h≥ c-£n-°m\m-bn-√. kz-Øpw ho-Spw a-Iƒ-°v \¬-In X-\nsb Xm-a-kn-®p-h-cn-I-bmbn-cp-∂p. C-h-sc c-≠pam-kw ap-ºv hm¿-Uv Aw-

Kw sI F-kv am-b-bp-sS t\-Xr-Xz-Øn¬ B-ip-]{Xn-bn-se-Øn-s®-¶n-epw H-∏w \n-∂v ip-{iq-jn°m≥ B-fn-√m-Ø-Xn-\m¬ Xn-cn-sI hn-´n-se-Øn°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p.--ho-´n--¬ ]- c n- N - c - W - Ø n- \ m- c p- a n√m-sX Im-en-se ap-dnhn¬ ]p-gp-°-f-cn-®v a-eaq-{X- hn-k¿-Py-Øn¬ InS-∂ hr-≤-sb A-h-i-\ne-bn-em-b-t∏m-gm-Wv Pm{K-Xm k-an-Xn C-S-s]-´v A- \ m- Y m- e m- b - Ø n- s eØn-®-Xv. C-∂-se D-®bv°v c-t≠m-sS ar-X-tZlw ho-´p-h-f-∏n¬ kw-kvI- c n- ® p-- . _- ‘ p- ° - f pw hm¿-Uv Aw-K-hpw Pm-{KXv k-an-Xn {]-h¿-Ø-Icpw \m-´p-Im-cpw Dƒ-s∏-´ \n-c-h-[n-t]¿ kw-kv-ImcN-S-ßn-¬ ]-s¶-Sp-Øp.

\m«n-te-¡p a-S§n-b a-e-bm-fn hn-am-\-¯n a-cn¨p I-cn-∏q¿: s]-cp-∂m-ƒ B-tLmj-n°m\m-bn \m-´n-te-°p a-Sßn-b a-e-bm-fn- hn-am-\-Øn¬- acn-®p. Xn-cq¿ Iq-´m-bn _-Z¿ ]≈n-°p k-ao-]-sØ ssl-{Zp-hns‚-]p-c-°¬ ssk-Xv ap-l-Ω-Zns‚ ap-l-Ω-Zv k-øn-Zv (44) B-Wp a-cn-®-Xv. C-∂-se ]p-e¿-s® 4.50\v F-b¿-C-¥y F-Iv-kv-{] n-s‚ 354 hn-am-\-Øn-em-Wv køn-Zv I-cn-∏q-cn-se-Øn-b-Xv. hn-am\-Øn¬ \n-∂n-d-ßm-Xm-b-tXmsS -Po-h-\-°m-sc-Øn t\m°nbt∏m-gm-Wv a-cn-®-\n-e-bn¬ I≠Xv. Xp-S¿-∂v tUm-Œ¿ F-Øn a-c-Ww ÿn-co-I-cn-°p-I-bm-bncp-∂p. ar-X-tZ-lw C-t±-l-sØ kzo-I-cn-°m≥ hn-am-\-Øm-h-fØn-seØnb _-‘p-°ƒ-°p

ssI-am-dn. 23 h¿-j-am-bn jm¿P-bn-se A¬-P-ko-d In-®¨ Iº-\n-bn-se Po-h-\-°m-c-\m-bncp-∂p k-øn-Zv. am-Xm-hv: _o-]mØp-tamƒ. `m-cy: k¬-a. a-°-fn√. k-tlm-Z-c-߃: k-°o¿, _jo¿, Iu-e-Øv.

]-≈n-°¬-_-km¿: I-Sep-≠n ]p-fn-°-e-I-Øv ^-k¬ X-߃ (65) F∂ sI.]n.F-kv.F-^v X-߃. ap-kvenw- bq-Øveo-Kv kw-ÿ-m-\ I-Ωn-‰nAwKw, N-{µn-I {]m-tZin-I te-J-I-≥, ]≈n°¬ k¿-ho-kv k-l-Ic-W _m-¶v {]-kn-U‚ v ]-Z-hn-Iƒ h-ln-®n-cp∂p. `m-cy-am¿: Ip-™oam-_o-hn, kp-lv-d. a°ƒ: kn-±o-Jv X-߃, in-lm-_v X-߃, ssJdp-∂n-k _o-hn, ku-Zm_o-hn, _p-jv-dm _o-hn, k-do-\m _o-hn, jw-e _o-hn, k-^-dp _o-hn, ^¿-l-Øv _o-hn, ^m-anZm _o-hn, k-^m X߃. Ip-™m-h X߃ k-tlm-Z-c-\m-Wv.

]-Xvam-h-Xn]m-e-°m-Sv-: s]-cp-sh-ºvtNm-d-t°m-´n¬- -]-flm-eb-Øn¬- ]-Xvam-h-Xn (80)-.- `¿-Øm-hv-:- ]-tc-X\m-b- ]-Xva-tem-N-\-≥.- a°ƒ-:- P-b-\m-cm-b-W-≥,P-b-cm-Pv,- Kn-cn-P, ]-tc-X\m-b P-b-Ir-jv-W-≥.- acp-a-°ƒ-:- jo-e,- t_-_nsN-º-Iw,- Ko-X,- P-bn-\nZm-kv.]n-W-dm-bn- hn-P-b-≥,sk-{I-t´dn-b-‰v- Aw-KwF- sI- _m-e-≥ Fw.F¬.-F,- Pn-√m- sk-{I-´dn- kn- sI- cm-tP-{μ-≥,Fw- _n- cm-tP-jv- Fw-.]n Xp-S-ßn-b-h¿- ho-´n-seØn- A-t¥ym-]-Nm-c-a¿∏n-®p.-

]m-∏n-\n-t»-cn: ]p-Xn-bIm-hv ^m-Øn-am a≥-knen¬ C-{_m-loan-s‚ aI≥ ]n hn Jm-Z¿ (43). `mcy: X-kveo-a. a-°ƒ: a-jvlq-Zv, a≥-l¿, an¿-jm≥. k-tlm-ZK - ß - ƒ: A-\k - v, ap-kX v- ^ - , J-Zo-P, ap-lΩ - ZvIp-™n.

d-^o-Jv F-S° - m-Sv: G-gc - a-©° - ≠n lu-kn¬ d-^o-Jv (51). `m-cy: i-co-^. a-°ƒ: A¿-jn-X, \q-do\, \p-Pq-Z, \n-kmw, A-kvl-Zv. a-cp-aI - ≥: j-ci - o-Zv. ktlm-Zc - ≥: a-lv_ - q-_v.

F-S-°-c: a-cp-X th-ßm∏m-Sw s]-cp-ºn-em-hv A_q-_-°-¿ (49) Ipg™p-hoWv acn-®p. kz-¥w ho-Sv s]-bn‚ v sN-øp-∂-Xn-\n-sS Rm-bdm-gv-N D-®bv-°v H-∂-ctbm-sS Ip-g-™phoW Ct±-lsØ ]m-em-s´ Bip-]-{Xn-bn-te°p sIm-≠p-t]m-sb-¶n-epw h-gn-a-t[y a-cn-®p. `m-c-y: ^m-Øn-a-. a-°ƒ: jm-^n, k-^o\, k-ao-\. a-cp-a-I≥: d^o-Jv.

P-\-In-b-½ C-cn-ßq¿: C-cn-ßq-cn-se Io-gv-∏-≈n a-W-ßm-S≥ Xn-cp-aw-K-e-Øv P-\-In-bΩ (87). ]-tc-X-\m-b hn kn Ip-´n-Ir-jv-W≥ \ºym-cp-sS `m-cy-bm-Wv.

Im-k¿-tIm-Uv: t^m¿-´v tdm-Uv \m-kn-am a≥-knen-se ap-lΩ - Z- v (-60). `mcy: ssZ-\_ - n. a-°ƒ: ^u-kn-b, \-^ok, k-^n-b, lm-cn-kv, aPo-Zv, X-kv\ - n, \m-kn-a. acp-a° - ƒ: A-–p¬ JmZ¿, ap-lΩ - Z- vI - p-™n, Ajvd - ^ - v, k-eow, dn-bm-kv, \-ko-a, A-kva - .-

l-k-bv-\mÀ

D-½À dn-∏¨: ]-tc-X\ - m-b \-SØ≥-I≠ - n C-{_m-loans‚ a-I≥ \-SØ - ≥-I≠ - n D-Ω¿ (29). am-Xm-hv: J-Zo-P. k-tlmZ-cß - ƒ: sj-do-\, ap-_»n¿.

_m-_p Ip-‰ym-Sn: G-‰n-tem-´pΩ¬ _m-_p(48)hn-s\ acp-Xm-¶c - in-ht- £-{X- ap‰-sØ B¬-ac - Ø - n¬ Xq-ßn-ac - n-® \n-eb - n¬ Is≠-Øn. `m-cy: kp-io-e. a-°ƒ: A-\q-]v, A-RvP - \ - .

hm-kp-tZ-h³ \-¼q-Xn-cn-

a-dn-bw-_n tIm-gn-t°m-Sv: ]-tc-X\ - mb kn F A-–p-√t- °mb-bp-sS `m-cy ]-em-°n¬ am-fn-tb-°¬ a-dn-bw-_n (90). a-°ƒ: A-–p-¿d-lvam≥, aq-kt- °m-b, D-ka v- m≥tIm-b, C-ºn-®m-an-\_ - n, Ip-™n-_n. a-cp-a° - ƒ: J-ad - p-∂o-k, ^m-Øn-aØ - v kp-ld - , Imfn-tb-cI - Øv Ip-™p, ]-tc-Xc - m-b kn F≥ A-lΩ - Z- tv- Imb, ]n hn A-–p-¬ d-kmJv.

I-cp-\m-K-∏-≈n: ku-Znbn¬ hm-l-\m-]-I-SØn¬ a-cn-®p. X-g-h h-S°pw-ap-dn ]-Sn-™m-dv X≠m‚ø-Øv Ip-´n-Ir-jvW≥ (47) B-Wv a-cn-®Xv. ku-Zn-bn-se Xm-aÿe-Øv \n-∂v tPm-enÿ-e-tØ-°v t]m-I-shhml-\w a-dn-™m-bn-cp∂p A-]-ISw. kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v D-®-bv-°v c-≠n-\v ho-´p-h-f-∏n¬ \-S-°pw. `mcy: e-X. aI≥: A-a¬.

sXm-gn-em-fn-bp-sS ar-X-tZ-lw In-W-än I-s−-¯n

]p-\-eq¿: d-_¿ tXm-´-Øn-se D-]-tbm-K iq-\y-am-b In-W-‰n-¬ Sm-∏n-Mv sXm-gn-em-fn-bm-b a-[y-h-b-kv-Is\ a-cn-® \n-e-bn¬ I-s≠-Øn. ]p-\-eq¿ h-´-a¨ IWn-bmw-Ip-gn ta-e-Xn¬ tPm-kn-(48) s\-bm-Wv a-cn-® \n-e-bn¬ I-s≠-Øn-b-Xv. I-gn-™ Zn-h-kw Zp¿-K-‘w h-an-®-Xn-s\ Xp-S¿∂v \-S-Øn-b ]-cn-tim-[-\-bn-em-Wv In-W-‰n¬- ar-XtZ-lw I-≠-Xv. Xp-S¿-∂v hn-h-cw t]m-en-kn-t\-bpw ^-b¿ t^m-gv-kn-t\-bpw A-dn-bn-®p. ]p-\-eq¿-\n-∂p≈ ^-b¿ t^m-gv-kv kw-Lw I-gn-™ Zn-h-kw cm-hnse-bm-Wv ar-X-tZ-lw ]p-d-sØ-Sp-Ø-Xv. t^m-d≥-knIv hn-`m-K-hpw kw-`-h-ÿ-e-Ø-Øn ]-cn-tim-[-\ \-SØn. tPm-kn-s‚ `m-cy {io-tZ-hn I-gn-™ c-≠p h¿j-am-bn hn-tZ-i-Øm-Wv. Xn-cp-h-\-¥-]p-cw sa-Un°¬ tIm-tf-Pn¬ t]m-kv-‰p-am¿-´w \-S-Øn-b ar-X-tZlw C-∂-se ho-´p-h-f-∏n¬ kw-kv-I-cn-®p.

`À-¯m-hn-sâ A-Sn-tb-äv ho-«-½ a-cn-¨p

s\-øm-‰n≥-I-c: `¿-Øm-hn-s‚ A-Sn-tb-‰v sa-Un-°¬ tIm-f-Pn¬ Nn-In¬-k-bn-em-bn-cp-∂ bp-h-Xn a-cn-®p. s\-ø-m-‰n≥-I-c A-Xn-b-∂q¿- -C-©nhn-f ho-´n¬- kq-cP-bm-(38)a-cn-®-Xv. kw-`-h-hp-am-bn _-‘-s∏-´v hn-gn-™w kz-tZ-in jm-Pn-sb s\-ø-m‰n≥-I-c s]m-eo-kv I-Ã-Un-bn-seSp-Ø-Xm-bmWv kq-N-\. B-Zy `¿-Øm-hp-am-bn _‘w th¿-s]-Sp-Øn-b kq-c-P- -A-Sp-∏w ÿm-]n-s®Øn-b jm-Pn-bp-sam-Øv Xm-a-kn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. sI-´n-S \n¿-am-W-sØm-gn-√m-fn-bm-b C-bmƒ F-´ph¿-j-am-bn kq-c-P-s°m-∏-ap-≠v. ]-e-t∏m-gpw kq-c-P°v ]-c-]p-cp-j _-‘-am-tcm-]n-®v ho-´n¬ h-g-°v -\-S°m-dp-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. C-°-gn-™ F-´n-\p h-g-°v \-S°-sh jm-Pn X-Sn-sb-Sp-Øv X-e-°-Sn-®-Xv. X-e-°v Kpcp-X-c-am-bn ]-cn-t°-‰ C-h-sc _-‘p-°-sf-Øn-bmWv B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ F-Øn-®-Xv. C-∂-se a-cn-®p.

s]m-Å-te-ä bp-h-Xn a-cn-¨p

s\-ø-‰n≥-I-c: a-sÆ-Æ tZ-l-Øp ho-Wv s]m-≈-te‰ \n-e-bn¬ sa-Un-°¬ tIm-tf-Pn¬ Nn-In¬-k-bnem-bn-cp-∂ ho-´-Ω a-cn-®p. ]d-»m-e C-©n-hn-f s\-Sphm-en πm-hn-f ho-´n¬ i-in-I-e (43) B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. C-°-gn-™ 13\v D-®-°m-bn-cp-∂p kw-`-hw. Xos]m-≈-te-‰-Xn¬ Zp-cq-l-X-bp-≈-Xn-\m¬ `¿-Ømhm-b Nm-°≥ _m-_p-hn-s\ s]m-eo-kv- -I-Ã-Un-bnse-Sp-Øn-´p-≠v. `¿-Øm-hv tZ-l-Øv a-sÆ-Æsbm-gn®v I-Øn-®-sX-∂m-Wv I-cp-Xp-∂-Xv. t]m-eo-kv tIsk-Sp-Øv A-t\z-j-W-am-cw-`n®p.

A-]-I-S-¯n ]-cn-t¡-ä hn-ZymÀ-Yn a-cn¨p

Nm-h-°mSv: I-S-∏p-dw shfn-s®-Æ-∏-Sn-bn¬ Im¿ ssk-°n-fn¬ C-Sn-®p ]-cnt°-‰p Nn-In¬-k-bn-em-bncp-∂ hn-Zym¿-Yn a-cn®p. sh-fn-s®-Æ∏-Sn t]mWØv sk-bv-Xv ap-l-Ω-Zn-s‚ a-Iƒ km-Pn-X-bp-sS aI≥ Pp-ssd-Pv(12) B-Wp a-cn-®Xv. hm-Sm-\∏-≈n aZm¿ Cw-•n-jv ao-Un-bw kv-Iqƒ A©mw ¢m-kv hnZym¿-Yn-bmWv. I-gn-™ Znh-kw ho-Sn-\p k-ao-]Øp≠m-b A-]-I-S-Øn¬ ]-cn-t°-‰p Xr-iq¿ lm¿-´v B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ Nn-In¬-k-bn-em-cp∂p. cm-{Xn 11\mbn-cp-∂p a-cWw. ]m-e-°m-Sv s\∑m-d kz-tZ-in ap-kvX-^-bp-sS a-I-\mWv.

Po-¸v a-dn-ªv ho-«-½ a-cn-¨p ]u-tem-kv

hÀ-Kokv

G-e-½

_m-e-Ir-jv-W³

hn-P-b³

aq-hm-‰p-]p-g: Ip-∂-bv°m¬ Im-t°m-t´m-en-bv°¬ ]u-tem-kv(80). kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v D®bv°v 1\v Ip-∂-bv-°m¬ sk‚ v tPm¿Pv Hm¿-ØtUm-Iv-kv ]-≈n sk-antØ-cn-bn¬. `m-cy: Ip-∂bv-°m¬ A-cn-am-cn¬ IpSpw-_mw-Kw G-en-bm-Ω. a°ƒ: {]o-\, F¬tZmkv. a-cp-a°ƒ: t_m_n, A\p.

tIm-X-aw-Kew: tIm-gn-∏n≈n sIm-S-ap-≠ s]m-∂me-°p-Sn-bn¬ h¿-Kokv(Ip-™-∏≥˛77). kw-kv-Im-cw C-∂v D®bv°v 1\v am-c-awK-ew Im-tZ-iv am¿ Ko-h¿-Ko-kv k-l-Z ]-≈n sk-an-tØcn-bn¬. `m-cy: tIm-gn-∏n≈n H-d-h-e-°p-Sn Ip-Spw_mw-Kw Gen. a°ƒ: tacn, Ip™-Ω, tUmfn, tPmbn, _n-Pp, _nμp. a-cp-a-°ƒ: F-{_mlw, kp-c, hn¬-k¨, Nn-∂Ω, a-Rv-Pp, _nPp.

\m-b-tØm-Sv: ]-S-bm´n¬ tZh-kn `m-cy G-eΩ(53). kw-kv-Im-cw \SØn. th-ßq¿ ta-\m-t®cn Ip-Spw-_mw-K-amWv. a°ƒ: tPm-k^v, tPmjn.

cma-¶cn: th-g-{] h-ft©-cn¬ hn sI _m-eIr-jv-W≥ (A-ø∏≥˛62). kw-kv-Im-cw \-SØn. `mcy: tacn. a°ƒ: tam-l≥-Zmkv, \n¿a-e, hnae.

tN¿Øe: tN¿Øe \K-c-k` 17˛mw hm¿Uv hm¬®n-d-bn¬ tUm.- Sn F≥ hnP-b≥ (75). kwkvImcw \S-Øn. `mcy: kc-k. a°ƒ: hn[p (-F-Pyq-t°-j≥ Un∏m¿´vsa‚ v Fd-WmIp-fw),- hn`p hnP-b≥. acp-a-Iƒ: kqcy.

I-e-´³-tIm-b A-co-°m-Sv: I-e-¥≥-kv lu-kv C ]n I-e-¥≥tIm-b (85). (I-e-¥≥-kv Iqƒ-_m¿, am-\m-©n-d). `m-cy: C-ºn-®n ^m-Øn-am_n (_o-hn). a-°ƒ: D-kvam≥tIm-b, ap-kv-X-^, A-j-d-^v, jm^n, jm-lp¬ l-ao-Zv, kpl-dm-_n (_n-®p), sse-e, D-ssa-_, ssl-dp-∂n-k, l-ko-\. a-cp-a-°ƒ: A- ≥-tImb, e-Øo-^v, _-jo¿, \ko¿, d-lv-a-Øp-√, k-°o\, km-ln-Z, k-Pn, k-Pv\, ^m-kn-e.

am-[-h³ am-ln: ]p-t∂m¬ C-øØpw-Im-Sv Im-´n¬ am-[h≥ (65). ]-≈q¿ ]m-cmau-≠v Sn-º¿ I-º\ - n-bnse tPm-en-°m-c\ - m-bn-cp∂p. `m-cy: I-ae - . a-°ƒ: Zn-hy, [-\y. a-cp-a° - ƒ: cm-tP-jv, iymw. k-tlm-Zc - ß - ƒ: cm-P≥, \-fn-\n, c-aW - n, jo-\n, {]-Zo-]≥, ]-tc-X\m-b D-Øa - ≥.

th-Wp-tKm-]m-e³ ]-ø-∂q¿: sh-≈q¿ P-hl¿ hm-b-\-im-e-bv-°p k-ao-]w Fw ]n th-WptKm-]m¬ (51). an-I-® Im-bn-I kw-Lm-S-I-\mbn-cp-∂p. sN-dp-h-Øq-cnse a-Wn-b-d d-Iv-kn≥ F‚¿-ss{]-k-kv D-S-abm-Wv. ]-tc-X-cm-b ssX-h-f-∏n¬ Ir-jv-Ws‚-bpw ta-se]p-c-bn¬ \m-cm-b-Wn-bp-sS-bpw aI-\m-Wv. `m-cy: D-j. aIƒ: h¿-j.

sam-b-vXp ]-\-a-cw: hm-tSm-®m¬ IZ-fn-°m-´n¬ (sI.Sn) sambv-Xp (64). ]-\-a-cw kn.Fw tIm-f-Pv sF.Sn.knbp-sS {]n≥kn-∏-em-bn-cp-∂p. Zo¿-LIm-ew _mw-•q-cn-se kzIm-cy I-º-\n-bn-epw tkh-\-a-\p-jvTn-®n-´p-≠v. `mcy: kp-ss_-Z. a-°ƒ: ssk-\p¬ B_n-Zv, s^-_o-\. a-cp-a-°ƒ: \n-jm-Zv, k-Pv\

k-t´m-jv

B-bn-i-¡p-«n-

C-cn-´n: hn-f-a-\-bn-se Xp≠-°m-´n¬ k-t¥m-jv (34). `m-cy: Pn-jv-\. a°ƒ: B-Xn-c. k-tlm-Zc-߃: k-tP-jv, k-‘y.

F-S-h-Æ: Im-c-°p-∂v 34 H- m≥-I-≠n-bn-se ]-tcX-\m-b \-Ø-e t]m-°dn-s‚ `m-cy X-Sn-b-ºp-dØv B-bn-i-°p-´n (73).

iym-a-fm-`mbn Xn-cph√: s]-cn-ß-c C-fa¨-a-\-bn¬ `m-cy F sI iym-a-fm-`m-bn (83). a°ƒ: e-fn-Xm-`mbn, im¥m-`m-bn,e-Xm-`mbn, P-b{io-h¿a. a-cp-a°ƒ: P-b-io-e-h¿a, cm-P-cm-P-h¿-a, Pn-X≥, \-μ-Ip-am¿ h¿a.

l-ao-Zv _m-¯ sIm-bn-em-≠n: A¬-k_-bn¬ l-ao-Zv _m-Ø (76). `m-cy: Ip¬-kp. a°ƒ: jm-\-hm-kv _mØ, jm-Zv _m-Ø, k¬h _m-Ø, km-Pn-_ _mØ. a-cp-a-°ƒ: lm-jnw _¿-K-bv-h, km-en-lv _mØ, \n-Z.

hr-² ho-«n-\p-Ån sIm-Ã-s¸-« \n-e-bn tIm-´-°¬: X-\n-®p-Xm-a-kn-°p-∂ hr-≤s - b ho-´n-\p-≈n¬ sIm-√s - ∏-´ \n-eb - n¬ I-s≠-Øn. F-Sc - n-t°m-Sv Np-S-e-∏m-d I-√p-sh-´n sIm-´w-]-dºn¬ ]-tc-X-\m-b I-d-∏w-Ip-´n-bpsS `m-cy ko-XΩ - (83)bm-Wp sIm-√s∏-´X - v. sXm-´S- p-Øp Xm-ak - n-°p-∂ a-I-\pw `m-cy-bpw sNm-Δm-gv-N cm-hnse G-tgm-sS- ho-´n-se-Øn-bt- ∏m-gmWp I-tk-c-bn¬ sI-´n-bn-´ \n-ebn¬ ar-Xt- Z-lw I-≠X - v. I-gp-Øn¬ D-Sp-ap-≠v Np-‰n ap-dp°n-bn-cp-∂p. hr-≤-bp-sS Im-Xn-se kz¿-Ww ]q-in-b tXm-S \-„s - ∏-´X - n\m¬ tam-„m-°-fm-Wn-Xn-\p ]n-∂nse-∂m-Wv t]m-en-kn-s‚ {]m-Ya - n-I \n-K-a-\w. ]n≥-h-i-sØ P-\-en-s‚ a-c A-gn-Iƒ ap-dn-®m-Wv Lm-XI - ≥

A-IØ - p-Ib - d - n-bs - X-∂p t]m-en-kv kw-i-bn-°p-∂p. A-e-am-c-bn-se hkv-Xp-°ƒ hm-cn-h-en-®n-Sp-I-bpw apdn-bn¬ ap-f-Ip-s]m-Sn hn-X-dp-I-bpw sN-bvX - n-´p-≠v.

X-S-hm-´p-ho-´n-\p-Sp-Øp X-s∂bm-Wv ko-XΩ - b - p-sS a-I\ - pw Ip-Spw_w I-gn-™n-cp-∂-Xv. C-h¿-°p-≈ `-£W - w F-Øn-®p-sIm-Sp-°p-Ib - mbn-cp-∂p ]-Xn-hv. sIm-√-s∏-´-Xn-\p X-te Zn-h-khpw X-s‚ a-I≥ sj-_n≥ `-£W - w F-Øn-®n-cp-s∂-∂pw A-Ω hm-Xn¬ A-IØ - p-\n-∂p ]q-´n D-dß - m≥-t]mhp-I-bm-Wp-≠m-b-sX-∂pw a-I≥ _m-e≥ ]-d-™p. t\-c-sØ F-gpt∂¬-°p-am-bn-cp-∂ A-Ω-sb ImWm-Øn-\m¬ ho-´n-seØn t\m-°nb-t∏m-gm-Wp sIm-√s - ∏-´ \n-eb - n¬ I-≠-Xv. D-S≥ tIm-´-°¬ t]m-enkn¬ A-dn-bn-°p-Ib - m-bn-cp-∂p. am-k-߃-°p ap-ºpw C-tX hoSn-s‚ P-\¬ X-I¿-Øv tam-jW - {- i-

aw \-S-∂-Xm-bn kv-t‰-j-\n¬ ]-cmXn \¬-In-bn-cp-∂p. Xn-cq¿ Un-ssh.F-kv.]n sI Fw ssk-Xm-en, h-fm-t©-cn kn.sF Fw kn-±o-Jv, Xn-cq¿ kn.sF B¿ dm^n, tIm-´-°¬ F-kv.sF sI ]n s_-∂n, I¬-∏I - t- ©-cn F-kv.sF F≥ _n ssj-Pp kw-`-h-ÿ-esØ-Øn. tUm-Kv kvI - zm-Upw hn-ce - S-bm-f hn-ZK - v[ - c - pw ]-cn-tim-[\ - \-SØn. Xm-\q¿ kn.sF Fw ]n kt¥m-jn-\m-Wv A-t\z-j-WNp-a-Xe. ar-X-tZ-lw tIm-gn-t°m-Sv sa-Un°¬ tIm-f-Pn¬ t]m-kv-‰v-tam¿-´w \-SØ - n. ko-X-Ω-bp-sS a-Iƒ: k-tcm-Pn\n. a-cp-a° - ƒ: cm-P≥, {io-P.

l-cn-∏m-Sv: _-‘p-ho-Sp-Iƒ k-μ¿-in-® ti-jw a-Sßp-I-bm-bn-cp-∂ kw-Lw k-©-cn-® Po-∏v a-dn-™v ho-´-Ω a-cn-®p. sIm-√w A-©¬ ]-S-a¨ tIm-am-´p ho-´n¬ k-Xo-jv _m-_p-hn-s‚ `m-cy hn-P-b-{io(37)B-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. tZ-io-b-]m-X-bn¬ am-[-h P-Mv-j-\v k-ao-]w C-∂se ]p-e¿-s®-bm-Wv kw-`-hw. B-e-∏p-g-bn-se _‘p-ho-´n¬ \n-∂pw a-S-ßp-tºmƒ F-Xn-sc h-∂ hml-\-Øn-\v ssk-Uv sIm-Sp-°p-∂-Xn-\n-sS \n-b-{¥Ww sX-‰n a-dn-™ Po-∏n¬ \n-∂pw hn-P-b-{io sX-dn®v ho-gp-I-bpw Po-∏n-s‚ N-{I-߃ i-co-c-Øn-eq-sS I-b-dn-bn-d-ßp-I-bp-am-bn-cp-∂p. D-S≥ X-s∂ B-ip-]{Xn-bn¬ {]-th-in-∏n-s®-¶n-epw Po-h≥-c-£n-°m-\mbn-√. H-∏-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂ `¿-Øm-hv k-Xo-jv _m-_p, ss{U-h¿ D-Z-b≥ F-∂n-h¿-°v ]-cn-t°-‰p. l-cn-∏m-Sv t]m-en-kv ta¬-\-S-]-Sn-Iƒ kzo-I-cn-®p.--

I-S-¶Â-Ip-t¯-äv a-cn-¨p

Im-bw-Ip-fw: I-S-∂¬-Ip-tØ-‰v Kp-cp-X-cm-b-h-ÿbn¬ Nn-In-¬-k-bn¬ I-gn-™n-cp-∂ a¬-ky-hym-]-cn a-cn-®p. \q-d-\m-Sv ap-Xp-Im-´p-I-c-°p-gn-bn¬ sX-t°Xn¬ kn-±o-Jv dm-hp-Ø-dm(52)Wv a-cn-®-Xv. ho-Sn-\v k-ao-]-sØ I-S-∂¬ Iq-´n¬ \n-∂p I-gn™ Zn-h-k-am-Wv C-bmƒ-°v Ip-tØ-‰-Xv. Im-bw-Ipfw k¿-°m¿ B-ip-]-{Xn-bn¬ {]-th-in-∏n-®n-cp-∂ Ct±-lw C-∂-se ]p-e¿-®-tbm-sS-bm-Wv a-cn-®-Xv. J-_d-S-°w \q-d-\m-Sv Pp-ama-kv-Pn-Zn¬ \-S-∂p. `mcy: \q¿P-lm≥. a-°ƒ:jnPn, sj-an.

A-Úm-X ar-X-tZ-lw I-s−-¯n

Xncph√: sd-bn¬-th {Sm-°n¬ A-⁄m-X ar-X-tZlw I-s≠-Øn.C∂-se cm-hnse B-tdm-sS ]p-jv-]Kn-cn sd-bn¬-th tK-‰n-\p k-ao-]-am-Wv ]p-cp-j-s‚ PUw I-s≠-Øn-bXv. Xn-cp-h√ t]m-en-kv ta¬-\-S-]Sn-Iƒ kzo-I-cn®p. ar-X-tZ-lw Xm-eq-°m-ip-]{Xn tam¿-®-dn-bn¬.

]n-©p-_m-e³ ]m-¼p-I-Sn-tb-äv a-cn-¨p Nn-‰q¿: ]m-ºp-I-Sn-tb-‰v c≠-c h-b- p-Im-c≥ a-cn®p. I-∂n-am-cn ]-\n-b-Snb≥-N-≈ k-t¥m-jn-s‚ a-I-≥ i-c-Xv B-Wv a-cn-®Xv. ho-´p-h-f-∏n¬ I-fn-®psIm-≠n-cn-s° ]m-ºp-I-Sntb-‰- _m-e-s\ tIm-b-ºØq-cn-se kz-Im-cy B-ip]-{Xn-bn¬ F-Øn-s®-¶nepw c-£n-°m-\m-bn-√. am-Xm-hv: cm-[n-I.

hml-\m-]-I-S-¯n kv-{Xo a-cn-¨p-

C-cn-ºn-fn-bw: h-en-b-Ip-∂v A-ßm-Sn-°p k-ao-]w Sm¶¿-tem-dn Hm-t´m-dn-£-bn-en-Sn-®v kv-{Xo a-cn-®p. B-X-h- -\m-Sv-]m-td-°-fw Im-b¬-aT-Øn¬ Ir-jvW≥ F-gp-Ø-®-s‚ `m-cy Pm-\-In (61) B-Wv a-cn-®Xv. Pm-\-In-bp-sS a-°ƒ: P-b-Ir-jv-W≥, A-Pn-X, kp-\n-X. a-cp-a-°ƒ: {]n-b, c-ta-jv-_m-_p, P-b≥.


Thejas Epaper obit Edition 2013-10-16